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[perl5.git] / pod / perldelta.pod
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1=encoding utf8
2
3=head1 NAME
4
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5[ this is a template for a new perldelta file. Any text flagged as XXX needs
6to be processed before release. ]
7
8perldelta - what is new for perl v5.21.4
c68523cb 9
238894db 10=head1 DESCRIPTION
c68523cb 11
39c4a6cf 12This document describes differences between the 5.21.3 release and the 5.21.4
238894db 13release.
c68523cb 14
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15If you are upgrading from an earlier release such as 5.21.2, first read
16L<perl5213delta>, which describes differences between 5.21.2 and 5.21.3.
7065301c 17
39c4a6cf 18=head1 Notice
7e957246 19
39c4a6cf 20XXX Any important notices here
7e957246 21
39c4a6cf 22=head1 Core Enhancements
f88f10f5 23
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24XXX New core language features go here. Summarize user-visible core language
25enhancements. Particularly prominent performance optimisations could go
26here, but most should go in the L</Performance Enhancements> section.
21f3b41e 27
39c4a6cf 28[ List each enhancement as a =head2 entry ]
f88f10f5 29
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30=head2 Infinity and NaN (not-a-number) handling improved
31
32Floating point values are able to hold the special values infinity
33(also -infinity), and NaN (not-a-number). Now we more robustly recognize
34and propagate the value in computations, and on output normalize them
35to C<Inf> and C<NaN>.
36
019bf663 37See also the L<POSIX> enhancements.
5b319db8 38
0346c3a9 39=head1 Security
7e957246 40
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41XXX Any security-related notices go here. In particular, any security
42vulnerabilities closed should be noted here rather than in the
43L</Selected Bug Fixes> section.
13900f93 44
39c4a6cf 45[ List each security issue as a =head2 entry ]
8bdb3f93 46
13900f93 47=head1 Incompatible Changes
8bdb3f93 48
39c4a6cf 49XXX For a release on a stable branch, this section aspires to be:
1178d2cf 50
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51 There are no changes intentionally incompatible with 5.XXX.XXX
52 If any exist, they are bugs, and we request that you submit a
53 report. See L</Reporting Bugs> below.
1178d2cf 54
39c4a6cf 55[ List each incompatible change as a =head2 entry ]
f6f3144e 56
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57=head2 Changes to the C<*> prototype
58
59The C<*> character in a subroutine's prototype used to allow barewords
60to take precedence over most, but not all subroutines. It was never
61consistent and exhibited buggy behaviour.
62
63Now it has been changed, so subroutines always take precedence over
64barewords, which brings it into conformity with similarly prototyped
65built-in functions:
66
67 sub splat($) { ... }
68 sub foo { ... }
69 splat(foo); # now always splat(foo())
70 splat(bar); # still splat('bar') as before
71 close(foo); # close(foo())
72 close(bar); # close('bar')
73
39c4a6cf 74=head1 Deprecations
7065301c 75
39c4a6cf 76XXX Any deprecated features, syntax, modules etc. should be listed here.
7065301c 77
39c4a6cf 78=head2 Module removals
b3e82ed1 79
39c4a6cf 80XXX Remove this section if inapplicable.
ca58223b 81
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82The following modules will be removed from the core distribution in a
83future release, and will at that time need to be installed from CPAN.
84Distributions on CPAN which require these modules will need to list them as
85prerequisites.
ca58223b 86
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87The core versions of these modules will now issue C<"deprecated">-category
88warnings to alert you to this fact. To silence these deprecation warnings,
89install the modules in question from CPAN.
23b03637 90
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91Note that these are (with rare exceptions) fine modules that you are encouraged
92to continue to use. Their disinclusion from core primarily hinges on their
93necessity to bootstrapping a fully functional, CPAN-capable Perl installation,
94not usually on concerns over their design.
23b03637 95
39c4a6cf 96=over
85e8fb10 97
39c4a6cf 98=item XXX
85e8fb10 99
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100XXX Note that deprecated modules should be listed here even if they are listed
101as an updated module in the L</Modules and Pragmata> section.
134f90c2 102
39c4a6cf 103=back
134f90c2 104
39c4a6cf 105[ List each other deprecation as a =head2 entry ]
ff433f2d 106
39c4a6cf 107=head1 Performance Enhancements
ff433f2d 108
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109XXX Changes which enhance performance without changing behaviour go here.
110There may well be none in a stable release.
134f90c2 111
39c4a6cf 112[ List each enhancement as a =item entry ]
134f90c2 113
39c4a6cf 114=over 4
7d19f6a1 115
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116=item *
117
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118Subroutines with an empty prototype and bodies containing just C<undef> are
119now eligible for inlining. [perl #122728]
55e8b286 120
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121=item *
122
123Subroutines in packages no longer need to carry typeglobs around with them.
124Declaring a subroutine will now put a simple sub reference in the stash if
125possible, saving memory. The typeglobs still notionally exist, so
126accessing them will cause the subroutine reference to be upgraded to a
127typeglob. This optimisation does not currently apply to XSUBs or exported
128subroutines, and method calls will undo it, since they cache things in
129typeglobs. [perl #120441]
130
39c4a6cf 131=back
55e8b286 132
39c4a6cf 133=head1 Modules and Pragmata
d99849ae 134
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135XXX All changes to installed files in F<cpan/>, F<dist/>, F<ext/> and F<lib/>
136go here. If Module::CoreList is updated, generate an initial draft of the
137following sections using F<Porting/corelist-perldelta.pl>. A paragraph summary
138for important changes should then be added by hand. In an ideal world,
139dual-life modules would have a F<Changes> file that could be cribbed.
d99849ae 140
39c4a6cf 141[ Within each section, list entries as a =item entry ]
ff433f2d 142
39c4a6cf 143=head2 New Modules and Pragmata
ff433f2d 144
39c4a6cf 145=over 4
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146
147=item *
148
39c4a6cf 149XXX
0bb39c26 150
39c4a6cf 151=back
0bb39c26 152
39c4a6cf 153=head2 Updated Modules and Pragmata
9c97a342 154
39c4a6cf 155=over 4
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156
157=item *
158
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159L<B> has been upgraded from version 1.50 to 1.51.
160
161It provides a new C<B::safename> function, based on the existing
162C<< B::GV->SAFENAME >>, that converts "\cOPEN" to "^OPEN".
6ab3666b 163
233a4069
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164=item *
165
d0ab07ee
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166L<B::Concise> has been upgraded from version 0.992 to 0.993.
167
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168=item *
169
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170L<B::Deparse> has been upgraded from version 1.27 to 1.28.
171
172It now deparses C<our(I<LIST>)> and typed lexical (C<my Dog $spot>)
173correctly.
174
175=item *
176
608e531f 177L<CPAN::Meta::Requirements> has been upgraded from version 2.126 to 2.128.
74d5bfab
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178
179=item *
180
181L<ExtUtils::CBuilder> has been upgraded from version 0.280216 to 0.280219.
182[perl #122675].
183
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184=item *
185
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186L<ExtUtils::Manifest> has been upgraded from version 1.65 to 1.66.
187[perl #122415].
188
189=item *
190
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191L<ExtUtils::ParseXS>: Documentation has been added to
192F<ExtUtils-ParseXS/lib/perlxs.pod> concerning handling of locales when writing
193XS code.
194
195=item *
196
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197L<File::Find> has been upgraded from version 1.27 to 1.28.
198
199C<find()> and C<finddepth()> will now warn if passed inappropriate or
200misspelled options.
201
202=item *
203
204L<Getopt::Std> has been upgraded from version 1.10 to 1.11.
205
206=item *
207
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208L<HTTP::Tiny> has been upgraded from version 0.047 to 0.048.
209
210=item *
211
212L<Module::CoreList> has been upgraded from version 5.021003 to 5.021004.
213
214=item *
215
216L<POSIX> has been upgraded from version 1.42 to 1.43.
217
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218The C99 math functions and constants (for example acosh, round,
219M_E, M_PI) have been added.
220
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221=item *
222
223L<Pod::Perldoc> has been upgraded from version 3.23 to 3.24.
224
225=item *
226
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227Scalar-List-Utils has been upgraded from version 1.40 to 1.41.
228
229=item *
230
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231L<constant> has been upgraded from version 1.31 to 1.32.
232
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233It now accepts fully-qualified constant names, allowing constants to be
234defined in packages other than the caller.
235
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236=item *
237
238L<threads> has been upgraded from version 1.95 to 1.96.
239
39c4a6cf 240=back
9c97a342 241
39c4a6cf 242=head2 Removed Modules and Pragmata
d99849ae 243
39c4a6cf 244=over 4
d99849ae 245
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246=item *
247
39c4a6cf 248XXX
ff433f2d 249
13900f93 250=back
aac7f82f 251
13900f93 252=head1 Documentation
aac7f82f 253
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254XXX Changes to files in F<pod/> go here. Consider grouping entries by
255file and be sure to link to the appropriate page, e.g. L<perlfunc>.
6d9b7c7c 256
39c4a6cf 257=head2 New Documentation
2a395b86 258
39c4a6cf 259XXX Changes which create B<new> files in F<pod/> go here.
2a395b86 260
39c4a6cf 261=head3 L<XXX>
2a395b86 262
39c4a6cf 263XXX Description of the purpose of the new file here
2a395b86 264
39c4a6cf 265=head2 Changes to Existing Documentation
2a395b86 266
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267XXX Changes which significantly change existing files in F<pod/> go here.
268However, any changes to F<pod/perldiag.pod> should go in the L</Diagnostics>
269section.
270
271=head3 L<XXX>
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272
273=over 4
274
275=item *
276
39c4a6cf 277XXX Description of the change here
2a395b86 278
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279=item *
280
281L<perlsyn>: An ambiguity in the documentation of the Ellipsis statement has
282been corrected. [perl #122661]
283
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284=back
285
39c4a6cf 286=head1 Diagnostics
2a395b86 287
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288The following additions or changes have been made to diagnostic output,
289including warnings and fatal error messages. For the complete list of
290diagnostic messages, see L<perldiag>.
2a395b86 291
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292XXX New or changed warnings emitted by the core's C<C> code go here. Also
293include any changes in L<perldiag> that reconcile it to the C<C> code.
2a395b86 294
39c4a6cf 295=head2 New Diagnostics
0f4a583b 296
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297XXX Newly added diagnostic messages go under here, separated into New Errors
298and New Warnings
2a395b86 299
39c4a6cf 300=head3 New Errors
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301
302=over 4
303
304=item *
305
39c4a6cf 306XXX L<message|perldiag/"message">
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307
308=back
309
39c4a6cf 310=head3 New Warnings
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311
312=over 4
313
314=item *
315
39c4a6cf 316XXX L<message|perldiag/"message">
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317
318=back
6d9b7c7c 319
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320=head2 Changes to Existing Diagnostics
321
322XXX Changes (i.e. rewording) of diagnostic messages go here
7f55cec0 323
13900f93 324=over 4
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325
326=item *
327
39c4a6cf 328XXX Describe change here
aac7f82f 329
13900f93 330=back
aac7f82f 331
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332=head2 Diagnostic Removals
333
334=over 4
335
336=item *
337
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338"Constant is not a FOO reference"
339
340Compile-time checking of constant dereferencing (e.g.,
341C<< my_constant->() >>) has been removed, since it was not taking
342overloading into account. [perl #69456] [perl #122607]
343
344=item *
345
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346The warning "Ambiguous use of -foo resolved as -&foo()" has been removed.
347There is actually no ambiguity here, and this impedes the use of negated
348constants; e.g., C<-Inf>.
349
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350=item *
351
352The little-known C<my Class $var> syntax (see L<fields> and L<attributes>)
353could get confused in the scope of C<use utf8> if C<Class> were a constant
354whose value contained Latin-1 characters.
355
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356=back
357
39c4a6cf 358=head1 Utility Changes
091fed7c 359
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360XXX Changes to installed programs such as F<perlbug> and F<xsubpp> go here.
361Most of these are built within the directory F<utils>.
902c1f75 362
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363[ List utility changes as a =head2 entry for each utility and =item
364entries for each change
365Use L<XXX> with program names to get proper documentation linking. ]
2901561d 366
39c4a6cf 367=head2 L<XXX>
4594cf53 368
13900f93 369=over 4
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370
371=item *
372
39c4a6cf 373XXX
a1d26ccd 374
39c4a6cf 375=back
a1d26ccd 376
39c4a6cf 377=head1 Configuration and Compilation
7065301c 378
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379XXX Changes to F<Configure>, F<installperl>, F<installman>, and analogous tools
380go here. Any other changes to the Perl build process should be listed here.
381However, any platform-specific changes should be listed in the
382L</Platform Support> section, instead.
58f25ac1 383
39c4a6cf 384[ List changes as a =item entry ].
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385
386=over 4
58f25ac1
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387
388=item *
389
39c4a6cf 390XXX
a5873648 391
39c4a6cf 392=back
a5873648 393
39c4a6cf 394=head1 Testing
a5873648 395
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396XXX Any significant changes to the testing of a freshly built perl should be
397listed here. Changes which create B<new> files in F<t/> go here as do any
398large changes to the testing harness (e.g. when parallel testing was added).
399Changes to existing files in F<t/> aren't worth summarizing, although the bugs
400that they represent may be covered elsewhere.
a5873648 401
39c4a6cf 402[ List each test improvement as a =item entry ]
a5873648 403
39c4a6cf 404=over 4
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405
406=item *
407
39c4a6cf 408XXX
a5873648 409
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410=back
411
39c4a6cf 412=head1 Platform Support
b10906fb 413
39c4a6cf 414XXX Any changes to platform support should be listed in the sections below.
b10906fb 415
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416[ Within the sections, list each platform as a =item entry with specific
417changes as paragraphs below it. ]
b10906fb 418
39c4a6cf 419=head2 New Platforms
b10906fb 420
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421XXX List any platforms that this version of perl compiles on, that previous
422versions did not. These will either be enabled by new files in the F<hints/>
423directories, or new subdirectories and F<README> files at the top level of the
424source tree.
13900f93 425
7065301c 426=over 4
24a38d90 427
39c4a6cf 428=item XXX-some-platform
24a38d90 429
39c4a6cf 430XXX
bb076206 431
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432=back
433
39c4a6cf 434=head2 Discontinued Platforms
097675bf 435
39c4a6cf 436XXX List any platforms that this version of perl no longer compiles on.
b3211734 437
6e97d65d 438=over 4
b3211734 439
39c4a6cf 440=item XXX-some-platform
7065301c 441
39c4a6cf 442XXX
13900f93 443
39c4a6cf 444=back
7d0ccdba 445
39c4a6cf 446=head2 Platform-Specific Notes
7d0ccdba 447
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448XXX List any changes for specific platforms. This could include configuration
449and compilation changes or changes in portability/compatibility. However,
450changes within modules for platforms should generally be listed in the
451L</Modules and Pragmata> section.
6e97d65d 452
39c4a6cf 453=over 4
6e97d65d 454
39c4a6cf 455=item XXX-some-platform
6e97d65d 456
39c4a6cf 457XXX
7d0ccdba 458
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459=back
460
461=head1 Internal Changes
462
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463XXX Changes which affect the interface available to C<XS> code go here. Other
464significant internal changes for future core maintainers should be noted as
465well.
c9fcb674 466
39c4a6cf 467[ List each change as a =item entry ]
a835cd47 468
39c4a6cf 469=over 4
c1284011 470
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471=item *
472
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473C<save_re_context> no longer does anything and has been moved to
474F<mathoms.c>.
1c43698b 475
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476=item *
477
478C<cv_name> is a new API function that can be passed a CV or GV. It returns
479an SV containing the name of the subroutine for use in diagnostics.
480[perl #116735] [perl #120441]
481
482=item *
483
484C<cv_set_call_checker_flags> is a new API function that works like
485C<cv_set_call_checker>, except that it allows the caller to specify whether
486the call checker requires a full GV for reporting the subroutine's name, or
487whether it could be passed a CV instead. Whatever value is passed will be
488acceptable to C<cv_name>. C<cv_set_call_checker> guarantees there will be
489a GV, but it may have to create one on the fly, which is inefficient.
490[perl #116735]
491
492=item *
493
494C<CvGV> (which is not part of the API) is now a more complex macro, which
495may call a function and reify a GV. For those cases where is has been used
496as a boolean, C<CvHASGV> has been added, which will return true for CVs
497that notionally have GVs, but without reifying the GV. C<CvGV> also
498returns a GV now for lexical subs. [perl #120441]
499
6d9b7c7c 500=back
c1284011 501
6d9b7c7c 502=head1 Selected Bug Fixes
375f5f06 503
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504XXX Important bug fixes in the core language are summarized here. Bug fixes in
505files in F<ext/> and F<lib/> are best summarized in L</Modules and Pragmata>.
506
507[ List each fix as a =item entry ]
508
0346c3a9 509=over 4
375f5f06 510
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511=item *
512
39c4a6cf 513XXX
2884baee 514
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515=item *
516
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517Constant dereferencing now works correctly for typeglob constants.
518Previously the glob was stringified and its name looked up. Now the glob
519itself is used. [perl #69456]
520
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521=item *
522
523When parsing a funny character ($ @ % &) followed by braces, the parser no
524longer tries to guess whether it is a block or a hash constructor (causing
525a syntax error when it guesses the latter), since it can only be a block.
526
be0006e0
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527=item *
528
529C<undef $reference> now frees the referent immediately, instead of hanging
530on to it until the next statement. [perl #122556]
531
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532=item *
533
534Various cases where the name of a sub is used (autoload, overloading, error
535messages) used to crash for lexical subs, but have been fixed.
536
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537=item *
538
539Bareword lookup now tries to avoid vivifying packages if it turns out the
540bareword is not going to be a subroutine name.
541
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542=item *
543
544Compilation of anonymous constants (e.g., C<sub () { 3 }>) no longer
545deletes any subroutine named C<__ANON__> in the current package. Not only
546was C<*__ANON__{CODE}> cleared, but there was a memory leak, too. This bug
547goes back to perl 5.8.0.
548
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549=item *
550
551Stub declarations like C<sub f;> and C<sub f ();> no longer wipe out
552constants of the same name declared by C<use constant>. This bug was
553introduced in perl 5.10.0.
554
499333dc
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555=item *
556
557Under some conditions a warning raised in compilation of regular
558expression patterns could be displayed multiple times. This is now
559fixed.
560
8f0cd35a
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561=item *
562
563C<qr/[\N{named sequence}]/> now works properly in many instances. Some
564names known to C<\N{...}> refer to a sequence of multiple characters,
565instead of the usual single character. Bracketed character classes
566generally only match single characters, but now special handling has
567been added so that they can match named sequences, but not if the class
568is inverted or the sequence is specified as the beginning or end of a
569range. In these cases, the only behavior change from before is a slight
570rewording of the fatal error message given when this class is part of a
571C<?[...])> construct. When the C<[...]> stands alone, the same
572non-fatal warning as before is raised, and only the first character in
573the sequence is used, again just as before.
574
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575=item *
576
577Tainted constants evaluated at compile time no longer cause unrelated
578statements to become tainted. [perl #122669]
579
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580=item *
581
582C<open $$fh, ...>, which vivifies a handle with a name like "main::_GEN_0",
583was not giving the handle the right reference count, so a double free could
584happen.
585
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586=item *
587
588When deciding that a bareword was a method name, the parser would get
589confused if an "our" sub with the same name existed, and look up the method
590in the package of the "our" sub, instead of the package of the invocant.
591
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592=item *
593
594The parser no longer gets confused by C<\U=> within a double-quoted string.
595It used to roduce a syntax error, but now compiles it correctly.
596[perl #80368]
597
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598=item *
599
600It has always been the intention for the C<-B> and C<-T> file test
601operators to treat UTF-8 encoded files as text.
602(L<perlfunc|perlfunc/-X FILEHANDLE> has been updated to say this.)
603Previously, it was possible for some files to be considered UTF-8 that
604actually weren't valid UTF-8. This is now fixed. The operators now
605work on EBCDIC platforms as well.
606
0064f8cc
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607=item *
608
609Under some conditions warning messages raised during regular expression
610pattern compilation were being output more than once. This has now been
611fixed.
612
6ff8f256
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613=item *
614
615A regression has been fixed that was introduced in v5.20.0 (fixed in
616v5.20.1 as well as here) in which a UTF-8 encoded regular expression
617pattern that contains a single ASCII lowercase letter does not match its
618uppercase counterpart. [perl #122655]
619
80cc3290
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620=item *
621
622Constant folding could incorrectly suppress warnings if lexical warnings
623(C<use warnings> or C<no warnings>) were not in effect and C<$^W> were
624false at compile time and true at run time.
625
13dd5671
FC
626=item *
627
628Loading UTF8 tables during a regular expression match could cause assertion
629failures under debugging builds if the previous match used the very same
630regular expression. [perl #122747]
631
bdab7676
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632=item *
633
634Thread cloning used to work incorrectly for lexical subs, possibly causing
635crashes or double frees on exit.
636
3a085d00
FC
637=item *
638
639Since perl 5.14.0, deleting C<$SomePackage::{__ANON__}> and then undefining
640an anonymous subroutine could corrupt things internally, resulting in
641L<Devel::Peek> crashing or L<B.pm|B> giving nonsensical data. This has
642been fixed.
643
39c4a6cf 644=back
b756670b 645
39c4a6cf 646=head1 Known Problems
b756670b 647
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648XXX Descriptions of platform agnostic bugs we know we can't fix go here. Any
649tests that had to be C<TODO>ed for the release would be noted here. Unfixed
650platform specific bugs also go here.
e917e94e 651
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652[ List each fix as a =item entry ]
653
654=over 4
e917e94e 655
26dd5fd6
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656=item *
657
39c4a6cf 658XXX
26dd5fd6 659
13900f93
A
660=back
661
39c4a6cf 662=head1 Errata From Previous Releases
e831f11a 663
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664=over 4
665
666=item *
ff433f2d 667
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668XXX Add anything here that we forgot to add, or were mistaken about, in
669the perldelta of a previous release.
ff433f2d 670
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671=back
672
673=head1 Obituary
ff433f2d 674
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675XXX If any significant core contributor has died, we've added a short obituary
676here.
ff433f2d 677
39c4a6cf 678=head1 Acknowledgements
ff433f2d 679
39c4a6cf 680XXX Generate this with:
e831f11a 681
39c4a6cf 682 perl Porting/acknowledgements.pl v5.21.3..HEAD
f5b73711 683
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684=head1 Reporting Bugs
685
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686If you find what you think is a bug, you might check the articles recently
687posted to the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup and the perl bug database at
238894db 688https://rt.perl.org/ . There may also be information at
7ef8b31d 689http://www.perl.org/ , the Perl Home Page.
44691e6f 690
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691If you believe you have an unreported bug, please run the L<perlbug> program
692included with your release. Be sure to trim your bug down to a tiny but
693sufficient test case. Your bug report, along with the output of C<perl -V>,
694will be sent off to perlbug@perl.org to be analysed by the Perl porting team.
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695
696If the bug you are reporting has security implications, which make it
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697inappropriate to send to a publicly archived mailing list, then please send it
698to perl5-security-report@perl.org. This points to a closed subscription
699unarchived mailing list, which includes all the core committers, who will be
700able to help assess the impact of issues, figure out a resolution, and help
f9001595 701co-ordinate the release of patches to mitigate or fix the problem across all
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702platforms on which Perl is supported. Please only use this address for
703security issues in the Perl core, not for modules independently distributed on
704CPAN.
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705
706=head1 SEE ALSO
707
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708The F<Changes> file for an explanation of how to view exhaustive details on
709what changed.
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710
711The F<INSTALL> file for how to build Perl.
712
713The F<README> file for general stuff.
714
715The F<Artistic> and F<Copying> files for copyright information.
716
717=cut