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1=head1 NAME
2
3Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
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7First, make sure you are installing an up-to-date version of Perl. If
8you didn't get your Perl source from CPAN, check the latest version at
16dc217a 9<URL:http://www.cpan.org/src/>.
3ce0d271 10
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11The basic steps to build and install perl5 on a Unix system
12with all the defaults are:
8e07c86e 13
dc45a647 14 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
491517e0 15 sh Configure -de
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16 make
17 make test
18 make install
36477c24 19
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20 # You may also wish to add these:
21 (cd /usr/include && h2ph *.h sys/*.h)
3e3baf6d 22 (installhtml --help)
aa689395 23 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
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24
25Each of these is explained in further detail below.
26
cc65bb49 27B<NOTE>: starting from the release 5.6.0, Perl uses a version
fe23a901 28scheme where even-numbered subreleases (like 5.6 and 5.8) are stable
9a664500 29maintenance releases and odd-numbered subreleases (like 5.7 and 5.9) are
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30unstable development releases. Development releases should not be
31used in production environments. Fixes and new features are first
32carefully tested in development releases and only if they prove
33themselves to be worthy will they be migrated to the maintenance
34releases.
35
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36The above commands will install Perl to /usr/local (or some other
37platform-specific directory -- see the appropriate file in hints/.)
38If that's not okay with you, use
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39
40 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
41 sh Configure
42 make
43 make test
44 make install
45
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46For information on non-Unix systems, see the section on L<"Porting
47information"> below.
48
49If "make install" just says "`install' is up to date" or something
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50similar, you may be on a case-insensitive filesystems such as Mac's HFS+,
51and you should say "make install-all". (This confusion is brought to you
adbebc0b 52by the Perl distribution having a file called INSTALL.)
7f678428 53
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54If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
55L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
56
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57For information on what's new in this release, see the
58pod/perldelta.pod file. For more detailed information about specific
59changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 60
1ec51d55 61=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 62
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63This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
64structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
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65read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
66by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
67
68 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
69 C<code> literal code
70 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
71
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72Although most of the defaults are probably fine for most users,
73you should probably at least skim through this entire document before
1ec51d55 74proceeding.
c3edaffb 75
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76If you're building Perl on a non-Unix system, you should also read
77the README file specific to your operating system, since this may
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78provide additional or different instructions for building Perl. There
79are also README files for several flavors of Unix systems, such as
80Solaris, HP-UX, and AIX; if you have one of those systems, you should
81also read the README file specific to that system.
eed2e782 82
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83If there is a hint file for your system (in the hints/ directory) you
84should also read that hint file for specific information for your
2ab493b8 85system. (Unixware users should use the svr4.sh or the svr5.sh hint file.)
cc65bb49 86Additional information is in the Porting/ directory.
203c3eec 87
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88=head1 WARNING: This version requires an extra step to build old extensions.
89
905.005_53 and later releases do not export unadorned
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91global symbols anymore. This means you may need to build rather old
92extensions that have not been updated for the current naming convention
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93with:
94
95 perl Makefile.PL POLLUTE=1
d56c5707 96
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97Alternatively, you can enable CPP symbol pollution wholesale by
98building perl itself with:
99
100 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_POLLUTE
101
5cda700b 102pod/perl56delta.pod contains more details about this.
c42e3e15 103
64fa5b0b 104=head1 WARNING: This version is not binary compatible with releases of
9a664500 105Perl prior to 5.9.0.
1b1c1ae2 106
cc65bb49 107If you have built extensions (i.e. modules that include C code)
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108using an earlier version of Perl, you will need to rebuild and reinstall
109those extensions.
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110
111Pure perl modules without XS or C code should continue to work fine
112without reinstallation. See the discussions below on
113L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> and
fe23a901 114L<"Upgrading from 5.005 or 5.6 to 5.8.0"> for more details.
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115
116The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
117
1b1c1ae2 118On a related issue, old modules may possibly be affected by the
693762b4 119changes in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
5cda700b 120pod/perldelta.pod (and the earlier pod/perl5Xdelta.pod) for a description of
c42e3e15 121what's changed. See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod
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122file for a (possibly incomplete) list of locally installed modules.
123Also see CPAN::autobundle for one way to make a "bundle" of your
124currently installed modules.
693762b4 125
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126=head1 WARNING: This version requires a compiler that supports ANSI C.
127
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128Most C compilers are now ANSI-compliant. However, a few current
129computers are delivered with an older C compiler expressly for
130rebuilding the system kernel, or for some other historical reason.
131Alternatively, you may have an old machine which was shipped before
132ANSI compliance became widespread. Such compilers are not suitable
133for building Perl.
134
135If you find that your default C compiler is not ANSI-capable, but you
136know that an ANSI-capable compiler is installed on your system, you
137can tell F<Configure> to use the correct compiler by means of the
138C<-Dcc=> command-line option -- see L<"gcc">.
139
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140If do not have an ANSI-capable compiler there are a couple of avenues
141open to you:
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142
143=over 4
144
145=item *
146
147You may try obtaining GCC, available from GNU mirrors worldwide,
148listed at <URL:http://www.gnu.org/order/ftp.html>. If, rather than
149building gcc from source code, you locate a binary version configured
150for your platform, be sure that it is compiled for the version of the
151operating system that you are using.
152
153=item *
154
155You may purchase a commercial ANSI C compiler from your system
156supplier or elsewhere. (Or your organization may already have
157licensed such software -- ask your colleagues to find out how to
158access it.) If there is a README file for your system in the Perl
159distribution (for example, F<README.hpux>), it may contain advice on
160suitable compilers.
161
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162=back
163
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164Although Perl can be compiled using a C++ compiler, the Configure script
165does not work with some C++ compilers.
166
aa689395 167=head1 Space Requirements
eed2e782 168
9a664500 169The complete perl5 source tree takes up about 60 MB of disk space.
8756f06c 170After completing make, it takes up roughly 100 MB, though the actual
d6baa268 171total is likely to be quite system-dependent. The installation
8756f06c 172directories need something on the order of 45 MB, though again that
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173value is system-dependent. A perl build with debug symbols and
174-DDEBUGGING will require something on the order of 10 MB extra.
8e07c86e 175
aa689395 176=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution
8e07c86e 177
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178If you have built perl before, you should clean out the build directory
179with the command
180
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181 make distclean
182
183or
184
edb1cbcb 185 make realclean
c3edaffb 186
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187The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
188your old config.sh and Policy.sh files.
189
190The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
191files. If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
192change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
193you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably
d6baa268 194not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it
8e07c86e 195
d6baa268 196 rm -f config.sh
4633a7c4 197
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198If you wish to use your old config.sh, be especially attentive to the
199version and architecture-specific questions and answers. For example,
200the default directory for architecture-dependent library modules
201includes the version name. By default, Configure will reuse your old
202name (e.g. /opt/perl/lib/i86pc-solaris/5.003) even if you're running
203Configure for a different version, e.g. 5.004. Yes, Configure should
5cda700b 204probably check and correct for this, but it doesn't.
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205Similarly, if you used a shared libperl.so (see below) with version
206numbers, you will probably want to adjust them as well.
207
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208Also, be careful to check your architecture name. For example, some
209Linux distributions use i386, while others may use i486. If you build
210it yourself, Configure uses the output of the arch command, which
211might be i586 or i686 instead. If you pick up a precompiled binary, or
212compile extensions on different systems, they might not all agree on
213the architecture name.
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214
215In short, if you wish to use your old config.sh, I recommend running
216Configure interactively rather than blindly accepting the defaults.
8e07c86e 217
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218If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your particular
219installation choices, then you can probably achieve the same effect by
220using the Policy.sh file. See the section on L<"Site-wide Policy
221settings"> below. If you wish to start with a fresh distribution, you
222also need to remove any old Policy.sh files you may have with
223
224 rm -f Policy.sh
dc45a647 225
aa689395 226=head1 Run Configure
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227
228Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
229things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
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230you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default is
231almost always okay. It is normal for some things to be "NOT found",
232since Configure often searches for many different ways of performing
233the same function.
234
235At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d and Configure will use the
236defaults from then on.
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237
238After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 239*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 240
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241=head2 Disabling older versions of Perl
242
243Configure will search for binary compatible versions of previously
244installed perl binaries in the tree that is specified as target tree
245and these will be used by the perl being built.
246
247To disable use of older perl modules, even completely valid pure perl
248modules, you can specify to not include the pathes found:
249
250 sh Configure -Dinc_version_list=none ...
251
252When using the newer perl, you can add these pathes again in the
253$PERL5LIB environment variable or with perl's -I runtime option.
254
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255=head2 Altering config.sh variables for C compiler switches etc.
256
257For most users, all of the Configure defaults are fine. Configure
cc65bb49 258also has several convenient options which are described below.
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259However, if Configure doesn't have an option to do what you want,
260you can change Configure variables after the platform hints have been
261run, by using Configure's -A switch. For example, here's how to add
262a couple of extra flags to C compiler invocations:
263
264 sh Configure -Accflags="-DPERL_Y2KWARN -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC"
265
266For more help on Configure switches, run:
267
268 sh Configure -h
269
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270=head2 Building Perl outside of the source directory
271
272Sometimes it is desirable to build Perl in a directory different from
273where the sources are, for example if you want to keep your sources
274read-only, or if you want to share the sources between different binary
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275architectures. You can do this (if your file system supports symbolic
276links) by
5cda700b 277
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278 mkdir /tmp/perl/build/directory
279 cd /tmp/perl/build/directory
280 sh /path/to/perl/source/Configure -Dmksymlinks ...
281
282This will create in /tmp/perl/build/directory a tree of symbolic links
283pointing to files in /path/to/perl/source. The original files are left
284unaffected. After Configure has finished you can just say
285
286 make all test
287
288and Perl will be built and tested, all in /tmp/perl/build/directory.
289
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290=head2 Common Configure options
291
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292Configure supports a number of useful options. Run B<Configure -h> to
293get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
294Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
295
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296=over 4
297
298=item gcc
299
300To compile with gcc you should run
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301
302 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
303
304This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
305compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
306
d6baa268 307=item Installation prefix
4633a7c4 308
8e07c86e 309By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
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310/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. (See L<"Installation Directories">
311and L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for
312further details.)
313
314You can specify a different 'prefix' for the default installation
315directory, when Configure prompts you or by using the Configure command
316line option -Dprefix='/some/directory', e.g.
8e07c86e 317
25f94b33 318 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
4633a7c4 319
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320If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the suggested
321directory structure is simplified. For example, if you use
322prefix=/opt/perl, then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
323/opt/perl/lib/perl5/. Again, see L<"Installation Directories"> below
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324for more details. Do not include a trailing slash, (i.e. /opt/perl/)
325or you may experience odd test failures.
8e07c86e 326
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327NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is the same
328as or below your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will
329attempt infinite recursion.
84902520 330
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331=item /usr/bin/perl
332
333It may seem obvious, but Perl is useful only when users can easily
334find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
dd64f1c3 335/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
d6baa268 336careful, however, not to overwrite a version of perl supplied by your
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337vendor unless you are sure you know what you are doing. If you insist
338on replacing your vendor's perl, useful information on how it was
339configured may be found with
340
341 perl -V:config_args
342
343(Check the output carefully, however, since this doesn't preserve
344spaces in arguments to Configure. For that, you have to look
345carefully at config_arg1, config_arg2, etc.)
d6baa268 346
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347By default, Configure will not try to link /usr/bin/perl to
348the current version of perl. You can turn on that behavior by running
d6baa268 349
7d56c962 350 Configure -Dinstallusrbinperl
d6baa268 351
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352or by answering 'yes' to the appropriate Configure prompt.
353(Note that before perl 5.8.1, the default behavior was to create
354or overwrite /usr/bin/perl even if it already existed.)
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355
356In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to
dd64f1c3 357put (symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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358into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
359obvious and convenient place.
360
d6baa268 361=item Overriding an old config.sh
04d420f9 362
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363If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
364with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
365
366=back
8e07c86e 367
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368If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
369output, you can run
370
371 sh Configure -des
372
cc65bb49 373Note: for development releases (odd subreleases, like 5.9, as opposed
fe23a901 374to maintenance releases which have even subreleases, like 5.6 and 5.8)
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375if you want to use Configure -d, you will also need to supply -Dusedevel
376to Configure, because the default answer to the question "do you really
377want to Configure a development version?" is "no". The -Dusedevel
378skips that sanity check.
379
380For example for my Solaris system, I usually use
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381
382 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -Doptimize='-xpentium -xO4' -des
383
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384=head2 GNU-style configure
385
1ec51d55 386If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
dc45a647 387use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
46bb10fb 388
693762b4 389 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
46bb10fb 390
dc45a647 391The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
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392options. Try
393
693762b4 394 ./configure.gnu --help
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395
396for a listing.
397
dc45a647 398(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
693762b4 399that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
46bb10fb 400
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401See L<Cross-compilation> below for information on cross-compiling.
402
aa689395 403=head2 Installation Directories
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404
405The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
406appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
407installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
cc65bb49 408Do not include trailing slashes on directory names.
4633a7c4 409
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410I highly recommend running Configure interactively to be sure it puts
411everything where you want it. At any point during the Configure
d6baa268 412process, you can answer a question with &-d and Configure will use
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413the defaults from then on. Alternatively, you can
414
415 grep '^install' config.sh
416
417after Configure has run to verify the installation paths.
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418
419The defaults are intended to be reasonable and sensible for most
420people building from sources. Those who build and distribute binary
421distributions or who export perl to a range of systems will probably
422need to alter them. If you are content to just accept the defaults,
423you can safely skip the next section.
424
425The directories set up by Configure fall into three broad categories.
426
427=over 4
428
429=item Directories for the perl distribution
430
9a664500 431By default, Configure will use the following directories for 5.9.0.
d6baa268 432$version is the full perl version number, including subversion, e.g.
9a664500 4335.9.0 or 5.9.1, and $archname is a string like sun4-sunos,
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434determined by Configure. The full definitions of all Configure
435variables are in the file Porting/Glossary.
436
437 Configure variable Default value
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438 $prefixexp /usr/local
439 $binexp $prefixexp/bin
440 $scriptdirexp $prefixexp/bin
441 $privlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version
442 $archlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
443 $man1direxp $prefixexp/man/man1
444 $man3direxp $prefixexp/man/man3
445 $html1direxp (none)
446 $html3direxp (none)
447
448$prefixexp is generated from $prefix, with ~ expansion done to convert home
449directories into absolute paths. Similarly for the other variables listed. As
450file system calls do not do this, you should always reference the ...exp
451variables, to support users who build perl in their home directory.
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452
453Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
454/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
455instead. Also, if $prefix contains the string "perl", the library
456directories are simplified as described below. For simplicity, only
457the common style is shown here.
458
459=item Directories for site-specific add-on files
460
461After perl is installed, you may later wish to add modules (e.g. from
462CPAN) or scripts. Configure will set up the following directories to
c42e3e15 463be used for installing those add-on modules and scripts.
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464
465 Configure variable Default value
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466 $siteprefixexp $prefixexp
467 $sitebinexp $siteprefixexp/bin
468 $sitescriptexp $siteprefixexp/bin
469 $sitelibexp $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
470 $sitearchexp $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
471 $siteman1direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man1
472 $siteman3direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man3
473 $sitehtml1direxp (none)
474 $sitehtml3direxp (none)
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475
476By default, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will install architecture-independent
273cf8d1 477modules into $sitelib and architecture-dependent modules into $sitearch.
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478
479=item Directories for vendor-supplied add-on files
480
481Lastly, if you are building a binary distribution of perl for
482distribution, Configure can optionally set up the following directories
483for you to use to distribute add-on modules.
484
485 Configure variable Default value
b367e8b0 486 $vendorprefixexp (none)
d6baa268 487 (The next ones are set only if vendorprefix is set.)
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488 $vendorbinexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
489 $vendorscriptexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
490 $vendorlibexp
491 $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
492 $vendorarchexp
493 $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
494 $vendorman1direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man1
495 $vendorman3direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man3
496 $vendorhtml1direxp (none)
497 $vendorhtml3direxp (none)
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498
499These are normally empty, but may be set as needed. For example,
500a vendor might choose the following settings:
501
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502 $prefix /usr
503 $siteprefix /usr/local
504 $vendorprefix /usr
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505
506This would have the effect of setting the following:
507
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508 $binexp /usr/bin
509 $scriptdirexp /usr/bin
510 $privlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version
511 $archlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
512 $man1direxp /usr/man/man1
513 $man3direxp /usr/man/man3
514
515 $sitebinexp /usr/local/bin
516 $sitescriptexp /usr/local/bin
517 $sitelibexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
518 $sitearchexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
519 $siteman1direxp /usr/local/man/man1
520 $siteman3direxp /usr/local/man/man3
521
522 $vendorbinexp /usr/bin
523 $vendorscriptexp /usr/bin
524 $vendorlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
525 $vendorarchexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
526 $vendorman1direxp /usr/man/man1
527 $vendorman3direxp /usr/man/man3
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528
529Note how in this example, the vendor-supplied directories are in the
530/usr hierarchy, while the directories reserved for the end-user are in
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531the /usr/local hierarchy.
532
533The entire installed library hierarchy is installed in locations with
534version numbers, keeping the installations of different versions distinct.
535However, later installations of Perl can still be configured to search the
536installed libraries corresponding to compatible earlier versions.
537See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for more details
538on how Perl can be made to search older version directories.
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539
540Of course you may use these directories however you see fit. For
541example, you may wish to use $siteprefix for site-specific files that
542are stored locally on your own disk and use $vendorprefix for
543site-specific files that are stored elsewhere on your organization's
544network. One way to do that would be something like
545
546 sh Configure -Dsiteprefix=/usr/local -Dvendorprefix=/usr/share/perl
547
548=item otherlibdirs
549
550As a final catch-all, Configure also offers an $otherlibdirs
551variable. This variable contains a colon-separated list of additional
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552directories to add to @INC. By default, it will be empty.
553Perl will search these directories (including architecture and
554version-specific subdirectories) for add-on modules and extensions.
d6baa268 555
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556For example, if you have a bundle of perl libraries from a previous
557installation, perhaps in a strange place:
558
9a664500 559 Configure -Dotherlibdirs=/usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.1
fe23a901 560
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561=item APPLLIB_EXP
562
563There is one other way of adding paths to @INC at perl build time, and
564that is by setting the APPLLIB_EXP C pre-processor token to a colon-
565separated list of directories, like this
566
567 sh Configure -Accflags='-DAPPLLIB_EXP=\"/usr/libperl\"'
568
569The directories defined by APPLLIB_EXP get added to @INC I<first>,
570ahead of any others, and so provide a way to override the standard perl
571modules should you, for example, want to distribute fixes without
572touching the perl distribution proper. And, like otherlib dirs,
573version and architecture specific subdirectories are also searched, if
574present, at run time. Of course, you can still search other @INC
575directories ahead of those in APPLLIB_EXP by using any of the standard
576run-time methods: $PERLLIB, $PERL5LIB, -I, use lib, etc.
577
d6baa268 578=item Man Pages
1ec51d55 579
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580In versions 5.005_57 and earlier, the default was to store module man
581pages in a version-specific directory, such as
582/usr/local/lib/perl5/$version/man/man3. The default for 5.005_58 and
583after is /usr/local/man/man3 so that most users can find the man pages
584without resetting MANPATH.
4633a7c4 585
d6baa268 586You can continue to use the old default from the command line with
4633a7c4 587
9a664500 588 sh Configure -Dman3dir=/usr/local/lib/perl5/5.9.0/man/man3
8d74ce1c 589
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590Some users also prefer to use a .3pm suffix. You can do that with
591
592 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
593
594Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
595Configure.
596
597=item HTML pages
598
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599Currently, the standard perl installation does not do anything with
600HTML documentation, but that may change in the future. Further, some
601add-on modules may wish to install HTML documents. The html Configure
602variables listed above are provided if you wish to specify where such
603documents should be placed. The default is "none", but will likely
604eventually change to something useful based on user feedback.
8d74ce1c 605
d6baa268 606=back
8d74ce1c 607
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608Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
609to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
610architectures.
4633a7c4 611
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612Note that these are just the defaults. You can actually structure the
613directories any way you like. They don't even have to be on the same
614filesystem.
615
616Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
617development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
618discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below.
619
620If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
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621library directory structure is slightly simplified. Instead of
622suggesting $prefix/lib/perl5/, Configure will suggest $prefix/lib.
8d74ce1c 623
d6baa268 624Thus, for example, if you Configure with
9a664500 625-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the default library directories for 5.9.0 are
3a6175e1 626
d6baa268 627 Configure variable Default value
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628 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0
629 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0/$archname
630 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0
631 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0/$archname
4633a7c4 632
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633=head2 Changing the installation directory
634
635Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
636associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
637will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
638sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
1ec51d55 639However, sites that use software such as depot to manage software
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640packages, or users building binary packages for distribution may also
641wish to install perl into a different directory and use that
642management software to move perl to its final destination. This
643section describes how to do that.
aa689395 644
0dcb58f4 645Suppose you want to install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory. You
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646could edit config.sh and change all the install* variables to point to
647/tmp/perl5 instead of /usr/local, or you could simply use the
648following command line:
649
650 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5
651
652(replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice).
aa689395 653
693762b4 654Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
d6baa268 655modules, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
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656follow this example. The next section shows one way of dealing with
657that problem.
658
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659=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
660
661If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is
662convenient to compile it once and create an archive that can be
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663installed on multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to
664create an archive that can be installed in /opt/perl.
665Here's one way to do that:
aa689395 666
d6baa268 667 # Set up to install perl into a different directory,
aa689395 668 # e.g. /tmp/perl5 (see previous part).
d6baa268 669 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5 -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
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670 make
671 make test
d6c1b5d3 672 make install # This will install everything into /tmp/perl5.
aa689395 673 cd /tmp/perl5
d6c1b5d3 674 # Edit $archlib/Config.pm and $archlib/.packlist to change all the
fb73857a 675 # install* variables back to reflect where everything will
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676 # really be installed. (That is, change /tmp/perl5 to /opt/perl
677 # everywhere in those files.)
678 # Check the scripts in $scriptdir to make sure they have the correct
bfb7748a 679 # #!/wherever/perl line.
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680 tar cvf ../perl5-archive.tar .
681 # Then, on each machine where you want to install perl,
d6c1b5d3 682 cd /opt/perl # Or wherever you specified as $prefix
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683 tar xvf perl5-archive.tar
684
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685Alternatively, the DESTDIR variable is honored during C<make install>.
686The DESTDIR is automatically prepended to all the installation paths
687(and there is no need to edit anything). With DESTDIR, the above
688example can we written as:
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689
690 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
691 make
692 make test
693 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
694 cd /tmp/perl5/opt/perl
695 tar cvf /tmp/perl5-archive.tar .
696
dc45a647 697=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
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698
699After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
700answers (such as installation directories and the local perl contact
701person) in the Policy.sh file. If you want to build perl on another
702system using the same policy defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file
703to the new system and Configure will use it along with the appropriate
704hint file for your system.
705
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706Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
707answers, you should
708
709 rm -f Policy.sh
710
711to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
712
713Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
714
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715If the generated Policy.sh file is unsuitable, you may freely edit it
716to contain any valid shell commands. It will be run just after the
717platform-specific hints files.
718
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719=head2 Configure-time Options
720
721There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
722system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
723Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
724some of the main things you can change.
725
693762b4 726=head2 Threads
aa689395 727
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728On some platforms, perl can be compiled with
729support for threads. To enable this, run
f7542a9d 730
693762b4 731 sh Configure -Dusethreads
aa689395 732
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733Currently, you need to specify -Dusethreads on the Configure command
734line so that the hint files can make appropriate adjustments.
735
736The default is to compile without thread support.
3fe9a6f1 737
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738Perl has two different internal threads implementations. The current
739model (available internally since 5.6, and as a user-level module
740since 5.8) is called interpreter-based implementation (ithreads),
741with one interpreter per thread, and explicit sharing of data.
aaacdc8b 742
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743The 5.005 version (5005threads) is considered obsolete, buggy, and
744unmaintained.
745
746By default, Configure selects ithreads if -Dusethreads is specified.
aaacdc8b 747
cc65bb49 748(You need to also use the PerlIO layer, explained later, if you decide
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749to use ithreads, to guarantee the good interworking of threads and I/O.)
750
cc65bb49 751However, if you wish, you can select the unsupported old 5005threads behavior
aaacdc8b 752
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753 sh Configure -Dusethreads -Duse5005threads
754
755If you decide to use ithreads, the 'threads' module allows their use,
756and the 'Thread' module offers an interface to both 5005threads and
757ithreads (whichever has been configured).
aaacdc8b 758
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759When building threaded for certain library calls like the getgr*() and
760the getpw*() there is a dynamically sized result buffer: the buffer
761starts small but Perl will keep growing the buffer until the result fits.
762To get a fixed upper limit you will have to recompile Perl with
763PERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE defined to be the number of bytes you want.
764One way to do this is to run Configure with
765C<-Accflags=-DPERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE=65536>
766
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767=head2 Large file support.
768
5cda700b 769Since Perl 5.6.0, Perl has supported large files (files larger than
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7702 gigabytes), and in many common platforms like Linux or Solaris this
771support is on by default.
772
773This is both good and bad. It is good in that you can use large files,
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774seek(), stat(), and -s them. It is bad in that if you are interfacing Perl
775using some extension, the components you are connecting to must also
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776be large file aware: if Perl thinks files can be large but the other
777parts of the software puzzle do not understand the concept, bad things
778will happen. One popular extension suffering from this ailment is the
779Apache extension mod_perl.
780
781There's also one known limitation with the current large files
782implementation: unless you also have 64-bit integers (see the next
783section), you cannot use the printf/sprintf non-decimal integer
784formats like C<%x> to print filesizes. You can use C<%d>, though.
785
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786=head2 64 bit support.
787
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788If your platform does not have 64 bits natively, but can simulate them
789with compiler flags and/or C<long long> or C<int64_t>, you can build a
790perl that uses 64 bits.
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791
792There are actually two modes of 64-bitness: the first one is achieved
793using Configure -Duse64bitint and the second one using Configure
794-Duse64bitall. The difference is that the first one is minimal and
795the second one maximal. The first works in more places than the second.
796
797The C<use64bitint> does only as much as is required to get 64-bit
798integers into Perl (this may mean, for example, using "long longs")
799while your memory may still be limited to 2 gigabytes (because your
800pointers could still be 32-bit). Note that the name C<64bitint> does
801not imply that your C compiler will be using 64-bit C<int>s (it might,
802but it doesn't have to): the C<use64bitint> means that you will be
803able to have 64 bits wide scalar values.
804
805The C<use64bitall> goes all the way by attempting to switch also
806integers (if it can), longs (and pointers) to being 64-bit. This may
807create an even more binary incompatible Perl than -Duse64bitint: the
808resulting executable may not run at all in a 32-bit box, or you may
809have to reboot/reconfigure/rebuild your operating system to be 64-bit
810aware.
811
812Natively 64-bit systems like Alpha and Cray need neither -Duse64bitint
813nor -Duse64bitall.
814
815 NOTE: 64-bit support is still experimental on most platforms.
816 Existing support only covers the LP64 data model. In particular, the
817 LLP64 data model is not yet supported. 64-bit libraries and system
818 APIs on many platforms have not stabilized--your mileage may vary.
819
820=head2 Long doubles
821
822In some systems you may be able to use long doubles to enhance the
823range and precision of your double precision floating point numbers
824(that is, Perl's numbers). Use Configure -Duselongdouble to enable
825this support (if it is available).
826
827=head2 "more bits"
828
829You can "Configure -Dusemorebits" to turn on both the 64-bit support
830and the long double support.
831
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832=head2 Selecting File IO mechanisms
833
9a664500 834Executive summary: as of Perl 5.8, you should use the default "PerlIO"
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835as the IO mechanism unless you have a good reason not to.
836
837In more detail: previous versions of perl used the standard IO
838mechanisms as defined in stdio.h. Versions 5.003_02 and later of perl
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PN
839introduced alternate IO mechanisms via a "PerlIO" abstraction, but up
840until and including Perl 5.6, the stdio mechanism was still the default
841and the only supported mechanism.
46bb10fb 842
365d6a78 843Starting from Perl 5.8, the default mechanism is to use the PerlIO
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844abstraction, because it allows better control of I/O mechanisms,
845instead of having to work with (often, work around) vendors' I/O
846implementations.
46bb10fb 847
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848This PerlIO abstraction can be (but again, unless you know what you
849are doing, should not be) disabled either on the Configure command
850line with
46bb10fb 851
6d5328bc 852 sh Configure -Uuseperlio
46bb10fb 853
6d5328bc 854or interactively at the appropriate Configure prompt.
46bb10fb 855
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856With the PerlIO abstraction layer, there is another possibility for
857the underlying IO calls, AT&T's "sfio". This has superior performance
858to stdio.h in many cases, and is extensible by the use of "discipline"
859modules ("Native" PerlIO has them too). Sfio currently only builds on
860a subset of the UNIX platforms perl supports. Because the data
861structures are completely different from stdio, perl extension modules
862or external libraries may not work. This configuration exists to
863allow these issues to be worked on.
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864
865This option requires the 'sfio' package to have been built and installed.
1b9c9cf5 866The latest sfio is available from http://www.research.att.com/sw/tools/sfio/
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867
868You select this option by
869
870 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Dusesfio
871
872If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure detects
873that you have sfio, then sfio will be the default suggested by
874Configure.
875
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876Note: On some systems, sfio's iffe configuration script fails to
877detect that you have an atexit function (or equivalent). Apparently,
878this is a problem at least for some versions of Linux and SunOS 4.
879Configure should detect this problem and warn you about problems with
880_exit vs. exit. If you have this problem, the fix is to go back to
881your sfio sources and correct iffe's guess about atexit.
33e6ee5f 882
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883=head2 Algorithmic Complexity Attacks on Hashes
884
885In Perls 5.8.0 and earlier it was easy to create degenerate hashes.
886Processing such hashes would consume large amounts of CPU time,
3debabd9 887enabling a "Denial of Service" attack against Perl. Such hashes may be
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888a problem for example for mod_perl sites, sites with Perl CGI scripts
889and web services, that process data originating from external sources.
890
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891In Perl 5.8.1 a security feature was introduced to make it harder to
892create such degenerate hashes. A visible side effect of this was that
893the keys(), values(), and each() functions may return the hash elements
894in different order between different runs of Perl even with the same
895data. It also had unintended binary incompatibility issues with
896certain modules compiled against Perl 5.8.0.
897
898In Perl 5.8.2 an improved scheme was introduced. Hashes will return
899elements in the same order as Perl 5.8.0 by default. On a hash by hash
900basis, if pathological data is detected during a hash key insertion,
901then that hash will switch to an alternative random hash seed. As
902adding keys can always dramatically change returned hash element order,
903existing programs will not be affected by this, unless they
904specifically test for pre-recorded hash return order for contrived
905data. (eg the list of keys generated by C<map {"\0"x$_} 0..15> trigger
906randomisation) In effect the new implementation means that 5.8.1 scheme
907is only being used on hashes which are under attack.
908
909One can still revert to the old guaranteed repeatable order (and be
910vulnerable to attack by wily crackers) by setting the environment
911variable PERL_HASH_SEED, see L<perlrun/PERL_HASH_SEED>. Another option
912is to add -DUSE_HASH_SEED_EXPLICIT to the compilation flags (for
913example by using C<Configure -Accflags=-DUSE_HAS_SEED_EXPLICIT>), in
914which case one has to explicitly set the PERL_HASH_SEED environment
915variable to enable the security feature, or by adding -DNO_HASH_SEED to
916the compilation flags to completely disable the randomisation feature.
504f80c1 917
3debabd9 918B<Perl has never guaranteed any ordering of the hash keys>, and the
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919ordering has already changed several times during the lifetime of Perl
9205. Also, the ordering of hash keys has always been, and continues to
921be, affected by the insertion order. It is likely that Perl 5.10 and
922Perl 6 will randomise all hashes. Note that because of this
923randomisation for example the Data::Dumper results will be different
924between different runs of Perl since Data::Dumper by default dumps
925hashes "unordered". The use of the Data::Dumper C<Sortkeys> option is
926recommended.
504f80c1 927
1b9c9cf5
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928=head2 SOCKS
929
930Perl can be configured to be 'socksified', that is, to use the SOCKS
931TCP/IP proxy protocol library. SOCKS is used to give applications
932access to transport layer network proxies. Perl supports only SOCKS
933Version 5. You can find more about SOCKS from http://www.socks.nec.com/
934
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935=head2 Dynamic Loading
936
937By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading if
938your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
939statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
940you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
941
10c7e831 942=head2 Building a shared Perl library
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943
944Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
945linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
946extensions (usually just DynaLoader.a) and various extra libraries,
947such as -lm.
948
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949On some systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
950replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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951several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
952different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 953you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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954can share the same library.
955
956The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 957penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 958mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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959and upgrades.
960
961In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 962test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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963Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
964results.
965
966The default name for the shared library is typically something like
a6006777 967libperl.so.3.2 (for Perl 5.003_02) or libperl.so.302 or simply
9d67150a 968libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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969based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
970version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
971isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
972
973For some systems (mostly SVR4), building a shared libperl is required
974for dynamic loading to work, and hence is already the default.
975
976You can elect to build a shared libperl by
977
978 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
979
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980To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
981library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
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982NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP/Darwin, LIBRARY_PATH for BeOS, LD_LIBRARY_PATH/SHLIB_PATH
983for HP-UX, LIBPATH for AIX, PATH for Cygwin) must be set up to include
2bf2710f 984the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
d6baa268 985be created. Configure arranges makefile to have the correct shared
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986library search settings. You can find the name of the environment
987variable Perl thinks works in your your system by
988
989 grep ldlibpthname config.sh
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990
991However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
992shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
993something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
994./perl:
995
996 cd t; ./perl misc/failing_test.t
997or
998 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
999
1000then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
1001You can do this with
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1002
1003 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
1004
1005for Bourne-style shells, or
1006
1007 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
1008
2bf2710f 1009for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
10c7e831 1010unexpected reason Configure fails to set up makefile correctly.) (And
5cda700b 1011again, it may be something other than LD_LIBRARY_PATH for you, see above.)
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1012
1013You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
1014messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
1015for example:
101618126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
c3edaffb 1017
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1018There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
1019want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
1020with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
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1021install a standard Perl 5.8.0 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
1022try to build Perl 5.8.0 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
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1023the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
1024ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
cc65bb49 1025libperl.so.8 rather with the installed libperl.so.8? The answer is
9d67150a 1026that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
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1027in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
1028equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
1ff4263c
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1029with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux, you can only override at runtime via
1030LD_PRELOAD, specifying the exact filename you wish to be used; and on
1031Digital Unix, you can override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the
1032_RLD_ROOT environment variable to point to the perl build directory.
9d67150a 1033
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1034In other words, it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl
1035with a shared library if $archlib/CORE/$libperl already exists from a
1036previous build.
1037
1038A good workaround is to specify a different directory for the
1039architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING version of perl.
1040You can do this by changing all the *archlib* variables in config.sh to
1041point to your new architecture-dependent library.
9d67150a 1042
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1043=head2 Malloc Issues
1044
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1045Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed,
1046so perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
1047the malloc function on your system. The perl source is shipped with a
1048version of malloc that has been optimized for the typical requests from
1049perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and use less memory
1050than your system malloc.
55479bb6 1051
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1052However, if your system already has an excellent malloc, or if you are
1053experiencing difficulties with extensions that use third-party libraries
1054that call malloc, then you should probably use your system's malloc.
1055(Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags discussed below.)
c3edaffb 1056
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1057=over 4
1058
d6baa268 1059=item Using the system malloc
2ae324a7 1060
d6baa268 1061To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
aa689395 1062
d6baa268 1063 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
aa689395 1064
d6baa268 1065or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
aa689395 1066
86058a2d
GS
1067=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
1068
d953f698
JH
1069NOTE: This flag is enabled automatically on some platforms if you just
1070run Configure to accept all the defaults on those platforms.
b2a6d19e 1071
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1072Perl's malloc family of functions are normally called Perl_malloc(),
1073Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree().
1074These names do not clash with the system versions of these functions.
d6baa268 1075
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1076If this flag is enabled, however, Perl's malloc family of functions
1077will have the same names as the system versions. This may be required
1078sometimes if you have libraries that like to free() data that may have
1079been allocated by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
86058a2d 1080
d6baa268
JH
1081Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols
1082from the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably
1083does not allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom
1084versions.
86058a2d 1085
06c896bb
SH
1086=item -DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS
1087
1088This flag enables debugging mstats, which is required to use the
1089Devel::Peek::mstat() function. You cannot enable this unless you are
1090using Perl's malloc, so a typical Configure command would be
1091
8267c262 1092 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS -Dusemymalloc='y'
06c896bb
SH
1093
1094to enable this option.
1095
aa689395
PP
1096=back
1097
3bf462b8
CS
1098=head2 Building a debugging perl
1099
1100You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 1101B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
3bf462b8
CS
1102you probably want to do
1103
1104 sh Configure -Doptimize='-g'
1105
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1106This will do two independent things: First, it will force compilation
1107to use cc -g so that you can use your system's debugger on the
1108executable. (Note: Your system may actually require something like
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1109cc -g2. Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for
1110your system.) Second, it will add -DDEBUGGING to your ccflags
1111variable in config.sh so that you can use B<perl -D> to access perl's
1112internal state. (Note: Configure will only add -DDEBUGGING by default
1113if you are not reusing your old config.sh. If you want to reuse your
1114old config.sh, then you can just edit it and change the optimize and
1115ccflags variables by hand and then propagate your changes as shown in
1116L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below.)
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1117
1118You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently, but usually
1119it's convenient to have both.
3bf462b8
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1120
1121If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
a522f097 1122versions of perl under L<Building a shared Perl library>.
3bf462b8 1123
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1124=head2 Extensions
1125
80c1f5de
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1126Perl ships with a number of standard extensions. These are contained
1127in the ext/ subdirectory.
1128
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1129By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
1130to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
1131only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples below.)
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1132Configure does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX
1133is always built by default as well. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can
1134set the Configure variable useposix=false either in a hint file or from
80c1f5de 1135the Configure command line.
8d74ce1c 1136
c42e3e15
GS
1137If you unpack any additional extensions in the ext/ directory before
1138running Configure, then Configure will offer to build those additional
1139extensions as well. Most users probably shouldn't have to do this --
1140it is usually easier to build additional extensions later after perl
1141has been installed. However, if you wish to have those additional
1142extensions statically linked into the perl binary, then this offers a
1143convenient way to do that in one step. (It is not necessary, however;
1144you can build and install extensions just fine even if you don't have
1145dynamic loading. See lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm for more details.)
1146
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1147If you have dynamic loading, another way of specifying extra modules
1148is described in L<"Adding extra modules to the build"> below.
1149
c42e3e15 1150You can learn more about each of the supplied extensions by consulting the
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1151documentation in the individual .pm modules, located under the
1152ext/ subdirectory.
1153
1154Even if you do not have dynamic loading, you must still build the
1155DynaLoader extension; you should just build the stub dl_none.xs
1156version. (Configure will suggest this as the default.)
1157
7a8675bc
JH
1158To disable certain extensions so that they are not built, use
1159the -Dnoextensions=... and -Donlyextensions=... options. They both
1160accept a space-separated list of extensions. The extensions listed
1161in C<noextensions> are removed from the list of extensions to build,
1162while the C<onlyextensions> is rather more severe and builds only
1163the listed extensions. The latter should be used with extreme caution
1164since certain extensions are used by many other extensions and modules:
1165such modules include Fcntl and IO. The order of processing these
1166options is first C<only> (if present), then C<no> (if present).
1167
1168Another, older way to turn off various extensions (which is still good
1169to know if you have to work with older Perl) exists. Here are the
1170Configure command-line variables you can set to turn off various
1171extensions. All others are included by default.
8d74ce1c 1172
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1173 DB_File i_db
1174 DynaLoader (Must always be included as a static extension)
8d74ce1c 1175 GDBM_File i_gdbm
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1176 NDBM_File i_ndbm
1177 ODBM_File i_dbm
1178 POSIX useposix
8d74ce1c
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1179 Opcode useopcode
1180 Socket d_socket
a2dab6bc 1181 Threads use5005threads
8d74ce1c
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1182
1183Thus to skip the NDBM_File extension, you can use
1184
1185 sh Configure -Ui_ndbm
1186
1187Again, this is taken care of automatically if you don't have the ndbm
1188library.
1189
1190Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
1191the extensions you want.
1192
1193Note: The DB_File module will only work with version 1.x of Berkeley
1194DB or newer releases of version 2. Configure will automatically detect
1195this for you and refuse to try to build DB_File with earlier
1196releases of version 2.
1197
1198If you re-use your old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
1199adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
1200for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
1201you.
1202
80c1f5de 1203Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern systems do)
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1204remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
1205executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
1206well build all the ones that will work on your system.
1207
1208=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
1209
1210Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
1211dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
1212Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
1213automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
1214are not included with perl. See the library documentation for
1215how to obtain the libraries.
1216
d6baa268
JH
1217If your database header (.h) files are not in a directory normally
1218searched by your C compiler, then you will need to include the
1219appropriate -I/your/directory option when prompted by Configure. If
1220your database library (.a) files are not in a directory normally
1221searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to include
1222the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted by Configure.
1223See the examples below.
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1224
1225=head2 Examples
1226
1227=over 4
1228
1229=item gdbm in /usr/local
1230
1231Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
d6baa268 1232GDBM_File extension. This example assumes you have gdbm.h
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1233installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
1234/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
1235necessary steps out automatically.
1236
1237Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
1238your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include.
1239
1240When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
1241-L/usr/local/lib.
1242
1243If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
1244linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1245-L/usr/local/lib.
1246
d6baa268
JH
1247Again, this should all happen automatically. This should also work if
1248you have gdbm installed in any of (/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu,
1249/opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
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1250
1251=item gdbm in /usr/you
1252
1253Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
1254but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
1255have /usr/you/include/gdbm.h and /usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a. You
1256still have to add -I/usr/you/include to cc flags, but you have to take
1257an extra step to help Configure find libgdbm.a. Specifically, when
1258Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
1259/usr/you/lib to the list.
1260
1261It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
1262line):
1263
d6baa268 1264 sh Configure -de \
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AD
1265 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
1266 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
1267
1268locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
1269Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
1270
1271loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
1272Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives. If
1273you have some libraries under /usr/local/ and others under
1274/usr/you, then you have to include both, namely
1275
d6baa268 1276 sh Configure -de \
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AD
1277 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
1278 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
1279
1280=back
1281
bb636fa4
JH
1282=head2 Building DB, NDBM, and ODBM interfaces with Berkeley DB 3
1283
1284Perl interface for DB3 is part of Berkeley DB, but if you want to
1285compile standard Perl DB/ODBM/NDBM interfaces, you must follow
1286following instructions.
1287
1288Berkeley DB3 from Sleepycat Software is by default installed without
1289DB1 compatibility code (needed for DB_File interface) and without
1290links to compatibility files. So if you want to use packages written
1291for DB/ODBM/NDBM interfaces, you need to configure DB3 with
1292--enable-compat185 (and optionally with --enable-dump185) and create
1293additional references (suppose you are installing DB3 with
1294--prefix=/usr):
1295
1296 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libdbm.so
1297 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libndbm.so
1298 echo '#define DB_DBM_HSEARCH 1' >dbm.h
1299 echo '#include <db.h>' >>dbm.h
1300 install -m 0644 dbm.h /usr/include/dbm.h
1301 install -m 0644 dbm.h /usr/include/ndbm.h
1302
1303Optionally, if you have compiled with --enable-compat185 (not needed
1304for ODBM/NDBM):
1305
1306 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libdb1.so
1307 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libdb.so
1308
1309ODBM emulation seems not to be perfect, but is quite usable,
1310using DB 3.1.17:
1311
1312 lib/odbm.............FAILED at test 9
1313 Failed 1/64 tests, 98.44% okay
1314
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1315=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1316
8d74ce1c
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1317If you run into problems, try some of the following ideas.
1318If none of them help, then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
1319
8e07c86e
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1320=over 4
1321
25f94b33
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1322=item Running Configure Interactively
1323
1324If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
1325Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
1326guesses.
1327
1328All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 1329have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 1330flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
25f94b33
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1331will use the defaults from then on.
1332
1333If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
1334config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
1335instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
1336
aa689395 1337=item Hint files
8e07c86e
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1338
1339The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
1340in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
1341will offer to use that hint file.
1342
1343Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
f5b3b617
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1344If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint file
1345for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive example.
1346More information about writing good hints is in the hints/README.hints
1347file.
8e07c86e 1348
edb1cbcb
PP
1349=item *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1350
1351Occasionally, Configure makes a wrong guess. For example, on SunOS
13524.1.3, Configure incorrectly concludes that tzname[] is in the
1353standard C library. The hint file is set up to correct for this. You
1354will see a message:
1355
1356 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1357 The recommended value for $d_tzname on this machine was "undef"!
1358 Keep the recommended value? [y]
1359
1360You should always keep the recommended value unless, after reading the
1361relevant section of the hint file, you are sure you want to try
1362overriding it.
1363
1364If you are re-using an old config.sh, the word "previous" will be
1365used instead of "recommended". Again, you will almost always want
1366to keep the previous value, unless you have changed something on your
1367system.
1368
1369For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
1370and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
1371Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
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1372Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
1373issue a message:
edb1cbcb
PP
1374
1375 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1376 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
1377 Keep the previous value? [y]
1378
1ec51d55 1379In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 1380should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
edb1cbcb
PP
1381the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
1382
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1383=item Changing Compilers
1384
1385If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 1386probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
8e07c86e
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1387rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
1388with the options you want to use.
1389
1ec51d55
CS
1390This is a common source of problems. If you change from cc to
1391gcc, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
8e07c86e 1392
c3edaffb 1393=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 1394
1ec51d55
CS
1395If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
1396them to all the .SH files by running
1397
1398 sh Configure -S
1399
1400You will then have to rebuild by running
9d67150a
PP
1401
1402 make depend
1403 make
8e07c86e 1404
48370efc
JH
1405=item config.over and config.arch
1406
1407You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride
1408Configure's guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just
1409before config.sh is created. You have to be careful with this,
1410however, as Configure does no checking that your changes make sense.
1411This file is usually good for site-specific customizations.
1412
1413There is also another file that, if it exists, is loaded before the
1414config.over, called config.arch. This file is intended to be per
1415architecture, not per site, and usually it's the architecture-specific
1416hints file that creates the config.arch.
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1417
1418=item config.h
1419
1ec51d55
CS
1420Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
1421Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
1422The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 1423
1ec51d55
CS
1424If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
1425though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
8e07c86e
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1426lost.
1427
1428=item cflags
1429
1430If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
1ec51d55
CS
1431line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
1432optimizer on toke.c, find the line in the switch structure for
1433toke.c and put the command optimize='-g' before the ;; . You
1434can also edit cflags directly, but beware that your changes will be
1435lost the next time you run Configure.
8e07c86e 1436
f5b3b617
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1437To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
1438see the file hints/README.hints.
1439
1440To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
1441$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
1ec51d55
CS
1442
1443 sh Configure -S
1444 make depend
8e07c86e 1445
aa689395 1446=item No sh
8e07c86e 1447
c42e3e15
GS
1448If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file
1449Porting/config.sh to config.sh and edit your config.sh to reflect your
1450system's peculiarities. See Porting/pumpkin.pod for more information.
8e07c86e
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1451You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
1452mechanism.
1453
d6baa268
JH
1454=item Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX and BIN_SH
1455
1456In Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX, Configure might abort with
1457
1458Build a threading Perl? [n]
1459Configure[2437]: Syntax error at line 1 : `config.sh' is not expected.
1460
1461This indicates that Configure is being run with a broken Korn shell
1462(even though you think you are using a Bourne shell by using
1463"sh Configure" or "./Configure"). The Korn shell bug has been reported
1464to Compaq as of February 1999 but in the meanwhile, the reason ksh is
1465being used is that you have the environment variable BIN_SH set to
1466'xpg4'. This causes /bin/sh to delegate its duties to /bin/posix/sh
1467(a ksh). Unset the environment variable and rerun Configure.
1468
1469=item HP-UX 11, pthreads, and libgdbm
1470
1471If you are running Configure with -Dusethreads in HP-UX 11, be warned
1472that POSIX threads and libgdbm (the GNU dbm library) compiled before
1473HP-UX 11 do not mix. This will cause a basic test run by Configure to
1474fail
1475
1476Pthread internal error: message: __libc_reinit() failed, file: ../pthreads/pthread.c, line: 1096
1477Return Pointer is 0xc082bf33
1478sh: 5345 Quit(coredump)
1479
1480and Configure will give up. The cure is to recompile and install
1481libgdbm under HP-UX 11.
1482
c3edaffb
PP
1483=item Porting information
1484
e6f03d26 1485Specific information for the OS/2, Plan 9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
1486corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
1487including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
c42e3e15 1488subdirectory. Especially Porting/Glossary should come in handy.
c3edaffb 1489
7f678428 1490Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
468f45d5 1491http://www.cpan.org/ports for current information on ports to
7f678428
PP
1492various other operating systems.
1493
491517e0
JA
1494If you plan to port Perl to a new architecture study carefully the
1495section titled "Philosophical Issues in Patching and Porting Perl"
1496in the file Porting/pumpkin.pod and the file Porting/patching.pod.
1497Study also how other non-UNIX ports have solved problems.
1498
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1499=back
1500
fadf0ef5
JH
1501=head1 Adding extra modules to the build
1502
1503You can specify extra modules or module bundles to be fetched from the
1504CPAN and installed as part of the Perl build. Either use the -Dextras=...
1505command line parameter to Configure, for example like this:
1506
1507 Configure -Dextras="Compress::Zlib Bundle::LWP DBI"
1508
1509or answer first 'y' to the question 'Install any extra modules?' and
1510then answer "Compress::Zlib Bundle::LWP DBI" to the 'Extras?' question.
1511The module or the bundle names are as for the CPAN module 'install' command.
a522f097
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1512This will only work if those modules are to be built as dynamic
1513extensions. If you wish to include those extra modules as static
1514extensions, see L<"Extensions"> above.
fadf0ef5
JH
1515
1516Notice that because the CPAN module will be used to fetch the extra
1517modules, you will need access to the CPAN, either via the Internet,
1518or via a local copy such as a CD-ROM or a local CPAN mirror. If you
1519do not, using the extra modules option will die horribly.
1520
1521Also notice that you yourself are responsible for satisfying any extra
1522dependencies such as external headers or libraries BEFORE trying the build.
1523For example: you will need to have the zlib.h header and the libz
1524library installed for the Compress::Zlib, or the Foo database specific
1525headers and libraries installed for the DBD::Foo module. The Configure
1526process or the Perl build process will not help you with these.
1527
03739d21
JH
1528=head1 suidperl
1529
c80c8d62 1530suidperl is an optional component, which is built or installed by default.
03739d21
JH
1531From perlfaq1:
1532
1533 On some systems, setuid and setgid scripts (scripts written
1534 in the C shell, Bourne shell, or Perl, for example, with the
1535 set user or group ID permissions enabled) are insecure due to
1536 a race condition in the kernel. For those systems, Perl versions
1537 5 and 4 attempt to work around this vulnerability with an optional
1538 component, a special program named suidperl, also known as sperl.
1539 This program attempts to emulate the set-user-ID and set-group-ID
1540 features of the kernel.
1541
1542Because of the buggy history of suidperl, and the difficulty
1543of properly security auditing as large and complex piece of
1544software as Perl, we cannot recommend using suidperl and the feature
1545should be considered deprecated.
1546Instead use for example 'sudo': http://www.courtesan.com/sudo/
1547
8e07c86e
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1548=head1 make depend
1549
bfb7748a
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1550This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1551The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1552the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
1553makefile, not Makefile since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
1554(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1555Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
8e07c86e
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1556
1557Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1558explicitly above.
1559
1560=head1 make
1561
1562This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1563
8d410bc4
YST
1564=head2 Expected errors
1565
1566These errors are normal, and can be ignored:
1567
1568 ...
1569 make: [extra.pods] Error 1 (ignored)
1570 ...
1571 make: [extras.make] Error 1 (ignored)
1572
8d74ce1c
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1573=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1574
8e07c86e 1575If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
7f678428 1576If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
8d74ce1c
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1577the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help,
1578then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8e07c86e
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1579
1580=over 4
1581
1ec51d55 1582=item hints
8e07c86e
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1583
1584If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1585for further tips and information.
1586
1ec51d55 1587=item extensions
8e07c86e 1588
1ec51d55 1589If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
c3edaffb
PP
1590during the building of extensions, you should run
1591
3a6175e1 1592 make minitest
c3edaffb
PP
1593
1594to test your version of miniperl.
1595
e57fd563
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1596=item locale
1597
bfb7748a
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1598If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1599them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1600running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1601See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
1602whole L<"Locale problems"> section in the file pod/perllocale.pod.
3e6e419a
JH
1603The latter is especially useful if you see something like this
1604
1605 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1606 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1607 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1608 LANG = (unset)
1609 are supported and installed on your system.
1610 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1611
1612at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1613
7f678428 1614=item varargs
c3edaffb
PP
1615
1616If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
bfb7748a
AD
1617correctly and that you are not passing -I/usr/include to gcc. When using
1618gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define' and i_varargs='undef'
1619in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by running fixincludes
1620correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't forget to propagate
1621your changes (see L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
7f678428 1622See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1623
bfb7748a 1624=item util.c
c3edaffb
PP
1625
1626If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
bfb7748a 1627numbers and function name may vary in different versions of perl):
c3edaffb 1628
bfb7748a
AD
1629 util.c: In function `Perl_form':
1630 util.c:1107: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1631 proto.h:125: prototype declaration
c3edaffb
PP
1632
1633it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1634previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1635
1ec51d55 1636=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
PP
1637
1638If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395
PP
1639the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1640Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
c3edaffb
PP
1641fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
1642of your local set-up.
1643
aa689395 1644=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
PP
1645
1646If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1647try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1648with
1649
1650 sh Configure -Uusenm
1651
1652or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1653If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
PP
1654config.sh.
1655
bfb7748a
AD
1656=item umask not found
1657
1658If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1659is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1660Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1661this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1662try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1663
7f678428 1664=item vsprintf
c3edaffb
PP
1665
1666If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1667problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1668version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1669(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1670d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1671
1672 d_vprintf='define'
1673
1674If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
bfb7748a
AD
1675on a number of other common functions too. This is probably
1676the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
c3edaffb 1677
3fe9a6f1
PP
1678=item do_aspawn
1679
1680If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1681problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
bfb7748a
AD
1682fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1683on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1684
84902520
TB
1685=item __inet_* errors
1686
1687If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1688referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1689installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1690these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1691in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
6d240721
JH
1692newer version of BIND (and remove the files the old one left behind).
1693If you can't, you can either link with the updated resolver library provided
1694with BIND 8.1 or rename /usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the Perl build and
1695test process to avoid the problem.
1696
1697=item *_r() prototype NOT found
1698
1699On a related note, if you see a bunch of complaints like the above about
1700reentrant functions - specifically networking-related ones - being present
1701but without prototypes available, check to see if BIND 8.1 (or possibly
1702other BIND 8 versions) is (or has been) installed. They install
1703header files such as netdb.h into places such as /usr/local/include (or into
1704another directory as specified at build/install time), at least optionally.
1705Remove them or put them in someplace that isn't in the C preprocessor's
1706header file include search path (determined by -I options plus defaults,
1707normally /usr/include).
84902520 1708
d6baa268
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1709=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
1710
1711This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
1712gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
1713changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
1714rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
1715update your gcc installation.
1716
aa689395 1717=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1718
9d67150a 1719If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1720optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1721
1722 optimize='-O'
1723
bfb7748a 1724to
9d67150a
PP
1725
1726 optimize=' '
1727
1728then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1729with B<make depend; make>.
1730
9d67150a
PP
1731=item Missing functions
1732
1733If you have missing routines, you probably need to add some library or
1734other, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1735there but is defective or incomplete. Look through config.h for
bfb7748a
AD
1736likely suspects. If Configure guessed wrong on a number of functions,
1737you might have the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
8e07c86e 1738
1ec51d55 1739=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1740
1ec51d55
CS
1741Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1742toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1743allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
1744each file in cflags. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
1745makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
AD
1746specific rule.
1747
7f678428 1748=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1749
c3edaffb
PP
1750SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1751that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1752
f3d9a6ba 1753=item Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1754
1755If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1756the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1757then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1758Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1759systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
7f678428
PP
1760For example, a system may have -lcposix or -lposix, but it's
1761unlikely to have both, so most users will see warnings for the one
f3d9a6ba
CS
1762they don't have. The phrase 'probably harmless' is intended to
1763reassure you that nothing unusual is happening, and the build
1764process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1765
1766On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1767message
1768
f3d9a6ba 1769 Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1770
1771then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1772the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1773extension without the -lgdbm library.
1774
1775It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1776this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1777quite that tightly coordinated.
1778
aa689395
PP
1779=item sh: ar: not found
1780
1781This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1782was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1783make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1784is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1785directory.
1786
1787=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1788
1789Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1790with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1791bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1792
6087ac44
JH
1793=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1794
11906ba0 1795If you get this error message from the ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem test, your System
6087ac44
JH
1796V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
1797also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1798to include the System V semaphores.
1799
11906ba0 1800=item ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem........semget: No space left on device
220f3621
GS
1801
1802Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1803both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1804ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1805with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1806system.
1807
d6baa268
JH
1808=item GNU binutils
1809
1810If you mix GNU binutils (nm, ld, ar) with equivalent vendor-supplied
1811tools you may be in for some trouble. For example creating archives
1812with an old GNU 'ar' and then using a new current vendor-supplied 'ld'
1813may lead into linking problems. Either recompile your GNU binutils
1814under your current operating system release, or modify your PATH not
1815to include the GNU utils before running Configure, or specify the
1816vendor-supplied utilities explicitly to Configure, for example by
1817Configure -Dar=/bin/ar.
1818
16dc217a
GS
1819=item THIS PACKAGE SEEMS TO BE INCOMPLETE
1820
1821The F<Configure> program has not been able to find all the files which
1822make up the complete Perl distribution. You may have a damaged source
1823archive file (in which case you may also have seen messages such as
1824C<gzip: stdin: unexpected end of file> and C<tar: Unexpected EOF on
1825archive file>), or you may have obtained a structurally-sound but
1826incomplete archive. In either case, try downloading again from the
1827official site named at the start of this document. If you do find
1828that any site is carrying a corrupted or incomplete source code
1829archive, please report it to the site's maintainer.
1830
16dc217a
GS
1831=item invalid token: ##
1832
1833You are using a non-ANSI-compliant C compiler. See L<WARNING: This
a522f097 1834version requires a compiler that supports ANSI C.>
16dc217a 1835
1ec51d55 1836=item Miscellaneous
8e07c86e
AD
1837
1838Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
1839
1840Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1841
1842NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1843
9ede5bc8 1844UTS may need one or more of -K or -g, and undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1845
11906ba0 1846FreeBSD can fail the ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem.t test if SysV IPC has not been
5cda700b 1847configured in the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
220f3621 1848you will get a message telling what to do.
6087ac44 1849
d6baa268
JH
1850HP-UX 11 Y2K patch "Y2K-1100 B.11.00.B0125 HP-UX Core OS Year 2000
1851Patch Bundle" has been reported to break the io/fs test #18 which
1852tests whether utime() can change timestamps. The Y2K patch seems to
1853break utime() so that over NFS the timestamps do not get changed
1854(on local filesystems utime() still works).
1855
6c8d78fb
HS
1856Building Perl on a system that has also BIND (headers and libraries)
1857installed may run into troubles because BIND installs its own netdb.h
1858and socket.h, which may not agree with the operating system's ideas of
1859the same files. Similarly, including -lbind may conflict with libc's
1860view of the world. You may have to tweak -Dlocincpth and -Dloclibpth
1861to avoid the BIND.
1862
8e07c86e
AD
1863=back
1864
58a21a9b
JH
1865=head2 Cross-compilation
1866
1867Starting from Perl 5.8 Perl has the beginnings of cross-compilation
1868support. What is known to work is running Configure in a
1869cross-compilation environment and building the miniperl executable.
65090350 1870What is known not to work is building the perl executable because
58a21a9b
JH
1871that would require building extensions: Dynaloader statically and
1872File::Glob dynamically, for extensions one needs MakeMaker and
1873MakeMaker is not yet cross-compilation aware, and neither is
1874the main Makefile.
1875
93bc48fa
JH
1876Since the functionality is so lacking, it must be considered
1877highly experimental. It is so experimental that it is not even
c80c8d62 1878mentioned during an interactive Configure session, a direct command
93bc48fa
JH
1879line invocation (detailed shortly) is required to access the
1880functionality.
1881
58a21a9b 1882 NOTE: Perl is routinely built using cross-compilation
6a809565
JH
1883 in the EPOC environment, in the WinCE, and in the OpenZaurus
1884 project, but all those use something slightly different setup
1885 than what described here. For the WinCE setup, read the
1886 wince/README.compile. For the OpenZaurus setup, read the
1887 Cross/README.
1888
1889The one environment where this cross-compilation setup has
1890successfully been used as of this writing is the Compaq iPAQ running
1891ARM Linux. The build host was Intel Linux, the networking setup was
1892PPP + SSH. The exact setup details are beyond the scope of this
1893document, see http://www.handhelds.org/ for more information.
58a21a9b
JH
1894
1895To run Configure in cross-compilation mode the basic switch is
1896C<-Dusecrosscompile>.
1897
1898 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile -D...
1899
1900This will make the cpp symbol USE_CROSS_COMPILE and the %Config
1901symbol C<usecrosscompile> available.
1902
1903During the Configure and build, certain helper scripts will be created
1904into the Cross/ subdirectory. The scripts are used to execute a
1905cross-compiled executable, and to transfer files to and from the
1906target host. The execution scripts are named F<run-*> and the
1907transfer scripts F<to-*> and F<from-*>. The part after the dash is
1908the method to use for remote execution and transfer: by default the
1909methods are B<ssh> and B<scp>, thus making the scripts F<run-ssh>,
1910F<to-scp>, and F<from-scp>.
1911
1912To configure the scripts for a target host and a directory (in which
1913the execution will happen and which is to and from where the transfer
1914happens), supply Configure with
1915
1916 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir
1917
1918The targethost is what e.g. ssh will use as the hostname, the targetdir
93bc48fa
JH
1919must exist (the scripts won't create it), the targetdir defaults to /tmp.
1920You can also specify a username to use for ssh/rsh logins
58a21a9b
JH
1921
1922 -Dtargetuser=luser
1923
1924but in case you don't, "root" will be used.
1925
93bc48fa
JH
1926Because this is a cross-compilation effort, you will also need to specify
1927which target environment and which compilation environment to use.
1928This includes the compiler, the header files, and the libraries.
1929In the below we use the usual settings for the iPAQ cross-compilation
1930environment:
58a21a9b
JH
1931
1932 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux
1933 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc
1934 -Dusrinc=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1935 -Dincpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1936 -Dlibpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/lib
1937
1938If the name of the C<cc> has the usual GNU C semantics for cross
1939compilers, that is, CPU-OS-gcc, the names of the C<ar>, C<nm>, and
1940C<ranlib> will also be automatically chosen to be CPU-OS-ar and so on.
93bc48fa
JH
1941(The C<ld> requires more thought and will be chosen later by Configure
1942as appropriate.) Also, in this case the incpth, libpth, and usrinc
1943will be guessed by Configure (unless explicitly set to something else,
1944in which case Configure's guesses with be appended).
58a21a9b
JH
1945
1946In addition to the default execution/transfer methods you can also
1947choose B<rsh> for execution, and B<rcp> or B<cp> for transfer,
1948for example:
1949
1950 -Dtargetrun=rsh -Dtargetto=rcp -Dtargetfrom=cp
1951
1952Putting it all together:
1953
1954 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
93bc48fa
JH
1955 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1956 -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir \
58a21a9b
JH
1957 -Dtargetuser=root \
1958 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux \
1959 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
1960 -Dusrinc=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include \
1961 -Dincpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include \
1962 -Dlibpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/lib \
1963 -D...
1964
93bc48fa
JH
1965or if you are happy with the defaults
1966
1967 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
1968 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1969 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
1970 -D...
1971
8e07c86e
AD
1972=head1 make test
1973
d6baa268
JH
1974This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If
1975'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went
1976wrong. See the file t/README in the t subdirectory.
84902520 1977
84902520 1978Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
PP
1979opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
1980a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 1981
c4f23d77
AD
1982=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
1983
1ec51d55
CS
1984If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
1985by hand to see if it makes any difference. If individual tests
c3edaffb 1986bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
8e07c86e
AD
1987
1988 ./perl op/groups.t
1989
aa689395 1990Another way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
1ec51d55 1991individual subtests is to cd to the t directory and run
aa689395
PP
1992
1993 ./perl harness
1994
fb73857a 1995(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
10c7e831
JH
1996complicated constructs). For extension and library tests you
1997need a little bit more: you need to setup your environment variable
1998PERL_CORE to a true value (like "1"), and you need to supply the
1999right Perl library path:
2000
2001 setenv PERL_CORE 1
2002 ./perl -I../lib ../ext/Socket/Socket.t
2003 ./perl -I../lib ../lib/less.t
aa689395 2004
5cda700b 2005(For csh-like shells on UNIX; adjust appropriately for other platforms.)
fb73857a 2006You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
10c7e831
JH
2007comments that apply to your system. You may also need to setup your
2008shared library path if you get errors like:
2009
2010 /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
2011
2012See L</"Building a shared Perl library"> earlier in this document.
c3edaffb 2013
c4f23d77
AD
2014=over 4
2015
2016=item locale
2017
1ec51d55 2018Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 2019may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
3fe9a6f1 2020B<make test> exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
2021one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
2022LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
2023are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
2024
2025If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
PP
2026
2027 setenv LC_ALL C
2028
2029(for C shell) or
2030
2031 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
2032
1ec51d55
CS
2033for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
2034make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 2035is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 2036shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
2037things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
2038open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 2039external program.
eed2e782 2040
0740bb5b
AD
2041=item Timing problems
2042
c29923ff
JH
2043Several tests in the test suite check timing functions, such as
2044sleep(), and see if they return in a reasonable amount of time.
9341413f
JH
2045If your system is quite busy and doesn't respond quickly enough,
2046these tests might fail. If possible, try running the tests again
2047with the system under a lighter load. These timing-sensitive
2048and load-sensitive tests include F<t/op/alarm.t>,
2049F<ext/Time/HiRes/HiRes.t>, F<lib/Benchmark.t>,
2050F<lib/Memoize/t/expmod_t.t>, and F<lib/Memoize/t/speed.t>.
0740bb5b 2051
c4f23d77
AD
2052=item Out of memory
2053
2054On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
2055of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
7970f296
GS
2056For example, on my SparcStation IPC with 12 MB of RAM, in perl5.5.670,
2057test 85 will fail if run under either t/TEST or t/harness.
c4f23d77
AD
2058
2059Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
2060
2061 cd t; ./perl op/pat.t
2062
2063to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
2064test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
2065tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
2066and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
2067
4f76e5ba
AD
2068=item Failures from lib/File/Temp/t/security saying "system possibly insecure"
2069
2070First, such warnings are not necessarily serious or indicative of a
2071real security threat. That being said, they bear investigating.
2072
2073Note that each of the tests is run twice. The first time is in the
2074directory returned by File::Spec->tmpdir() (often /tmp on Unix
2075systems), and the second time in the directory from which the test was
2076run (usually the 't' directory, if the test was run as part of 'make
2077test').
2078
2079The tests may fail for the following reasons:
2080
2081(1) If the directory the tests are being run in is owned by somebody
2082other than the user running the tests, or by root (uid 0).
2083
2084This failure can happen if the Perl source code distribution is
2085unpacked in such a way that the user ids in the distribution package
2086are used as-is. Some tar programs do this.
2087
2088(2) If the directory the tests are being run in is writable by group or
2089by others, and there is no sticky bit set for the directory. (With
2090UNIX/POSIX semantics, write access to a directory means the right to
2091add or remove files in that directory. The 'sticky bit' is a feature
2092used in some UNIXes to give extra protection to files: if the bit is
2093set for a directory, no one but the owner (or root) can remove that
2094file even if the permissions would otherwise allow file removal by
2095others.)
2096
2097This failure may or may not be a real problem: it depends on the
2098permissions policy used on this particular system. This failure can
2099also happen if the system either doesn't support the sticky bit (this
2100is the case with many non-UNIX platforms: in principle File::Temp
2101should know about these platforms and skip the tests), or if the system
2102supports the sticky bit but for some reason or reasons it is not being
2103used. This is, for example, the case with HP-UX: as of HP-UX release
210411.00, the sticky bit is very much supported, but HP-UX doesn't use it
2105on its /tmp directory as shipped. Also, as with the permissions, some
2106local policy might dictate that the stickiness is not used.
781948c1 2107
b2b23189
JH
2108(3) If the system supports the POSIX 'chown giveaway' feature and if
2109any of the parent directories of the temporary file back to the root
2110directory are 'unsafe', using the definitions given above in (1) and
4f76e5ba
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2111(2). For Unix systems, this is usually not an issue if you are
2112building on a local disk. See the documentation for the File::Temp
2113module for more information about 'chown giveaway'.
781948c1
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2114
2115See the documentation for the File::Temp module for more information
4f76e5ba 2116about the various security aspects of temporary files.
781948c1 2117
c4f23d77
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2118=back
2119
8e07c86e
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2120=head1 make install
2121
2122This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
1ec51d55 2123Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try
8e07c86e 2124to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
aa689395 2125pages, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
8e07c86e
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2126are not root, you must own the directories in question and you should
2127ignore any messages about chown not working.
2128
dd64f1c3
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2129=head2 Installing perl under different names
2130
2131If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
2132when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
2133indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
2134
2135 make install PERLNAME=myperl
2136
beb13193
RS
2137You can separately change the base used for versioned names (like
2138"perl5.005") by setting PERLNAME_VERBASE, like
2139
2140 make install PERLNAME=perl5 PERLNAME_VERBASE=perl
2141
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2142This can be useful if you have to install perl as "perl5" (e.g. to
2143avoid conflicts with an ancient version in /usr/bin supplied by your vendor).
2144Without this the versioned binary would be called "perl55.005".
beb13193 2145
dd64f1c3
AD
2146=head2 Installed files
2147
8e07c86e
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2148If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
2149anything, you can run
4633a7c4 2150
8e07c86e
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2151 ./perl installperl -n
2152 ./perl installman -n
2153
1ec51d55 2154make install will install the following:
8e07c86e 2155
d56c5707
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2156 binaries
2157
8e07c86e
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2158 perl,
2159 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
2160 will be a link to perl.
2161 suidperl,
2162 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
2163 a2p awk-to-perl translator
d56c5707
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2164
2165 scripts
2166
8e07c86e
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2167 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
2168 read from stdin.
2169 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
2170 s2p sed-to-perl translator
2171 find2perl find-to-perl translator
aa689395 2172 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C headers
8e07c86e 2173 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 2174 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 2175 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
aa689395 2176 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules
8e07c86e 2177 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
aa689395 2178 pod2latex, to other useful formats.
d56c5707
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2179 pod2man,
2180 pod2text,
2181 pod2checker,
2182 pod2select,
2183 pod2usage
aa689395 2184 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors
95667ae4 2185 dprofpp Perl code profile post-processor
8e07c86e 2186
d56c5707
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2187 library files
2188
2189 in $privlib and $archlib specified to
8e07c86e 2190 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
d56c5707
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2191
2192 documentation
2193
d6baa268
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2194 man pages in $man1dir, usually /usr/local/man/man1.
2195 module man
2196 pages in $man3dir, usually /usr/local/man/man3.
8e07c86e
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2197 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
2198
d6baa268
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2199Installperl will also create the directories listed above
2200in L<"Installation Directories">.
4633a7c4 2201
d56c5707 2202Perl's *.h header files and the libperl library are also installed
d6baa268 2203under $archlib so that any user may later build new modules, run the
56c6f531
JH
2204optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
2205program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 2206
d56c5707
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2207Sometimes you only want to install the version-specific parts of the perl
2208installation. For example, you may wish to install a newer version of
2209perl alongside an already installed production version of perl without
2210disabling installation of new modules for the production version.
2211To only install the version-specific parts of the perl installation, run
2212
2213 Configure -Dversiononly
2214
2215or answer 'y' to the appropriate Configure prompt. Alternatively,
2216you can just manually run
2217
2218 ./perl installperl -v
2219
2220and skip installman altogether.
2221See also L<"Maintaining completely separate versions"> for another
2222approach.
2223
aa689395 2224=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5
4633a7c4 2225
9a664500 2226Perl 5.9 is not binary compatible with earlier versions of Perl.
cc65bb49 2227In other words, you will have to recompile your XS modules.
14eee2f1 2228
693762b4 2229In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl (e.g.
9a664500 22305.8.0) to another similar version (e.g. 5.8.2) without re-compiling
693762b4
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2231all of your add-on extensions. You can also safely leave the old version
2232around in case the new version causes you problems for some reason.
2233For example, if you want to be sure that your script continues to run
9a664500 2234with 5.8.2, simply replace the '#!/usr/local/bin/perl' line at the
693762b4 2235top of the script with the particular version you want to run, e.g.
9a664500 2236#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.8.2.
693762b4 2237
e655887d
CB
2238Usually, most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to
2239use with a newer version of Perl (the Perl 5.6 to Perl 5.8 transition
2240being an exception). Here is how it is supposed to work. (These
2241examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
693762b4 2242
d6baa268
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2243Suppose you already have version 5.005_03 installed. The directories
2244searched by 5.005_03 are
2245
2246 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503/$archname
2247 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503
2248 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
2249 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
2250
0a08c020
GS
2251Beginning with 5.6.0 the version number in the site libraries are
2252fully versioned. Now, suppose you install version 5.6.0. The directories
2253searched by version 5.6.0 will be
d6baa268 2254
0a08c020
GS
2255 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0/$archname
2256 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0
2257 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0/$archname
2258 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0
d6baa268
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2259
2260 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
2261 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
c42e3e15 2262 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2263
c42e3e15 2264Notice the last three entries -- Perl understands the default structure
d6baa268
JH
2265of the $sitelib directories and will look back in older, compatible
2266directories. This way, modules installed under 5.005_03 will continue
0a08c020 2267to be usable by 5.005_03 but will also accessible to 5.6.0. Further,
d6baa268 2268suppose that you upgrade a module to one which requires features
0a08c020
GS
2269present only in 5.6.0. That new module will get installed into
2270/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0 and will be available to 5.6.0,
d6baa268 2271but will not interfere with the 5.005_03 version.
bfb7748a 2272
c42e3e15 2273The last entry, /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/, is there so that
fe23a901 22745.6.0 and above will look for 5.004-era pure perl modules.
d6baa268 2275
cc65bb49
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2276Lastly, suppose you now install 5.8.0, which is not binary compatible
2277with 5.6.0. The directories searched by 5.8.0 (if you don't change the
fe23a901
RF
2278Configure defaults) will be:
2279
2280 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.0/$archname
2281 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.0
2282 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.0/$archname
2283 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.0
d6baa268 2284
0a08c020 2285 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0
d6baa268 2286
d6baa268 2287 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
fe23a901 2288
d6baa268 2289 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2290
cc65bb49
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2291Note that the earlier $archname entries are now gone, but pure perl
2292modules from earlier versions will still be found.
2293
0a08c020 2294Assuming the users in your site are still actively using perl 5.6.0 and
fe23a901 22955.005 after you installed 5.8.0, you can continue to install add-on
cc65bb49
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2296extensions using any of perl 5.8.0, 5.6.0, or 5.005. The installations
2297of these different versions remain distinct, but remember that the
2298newer versions of perl are automatically set up to search the
2299compatible site libraries of the older ones. This means that
2300installing a new XS extension with 5.005 will make it visible to both
23015.005 and 5.6.0, but not to 5.8.0. Installing a pure perl module with
23025.005 will make it visible to all three versions. Later, if you
2303install the same extension using, say, perl 5.8.0, it will override the
23045.005-installed version, but only for perl 5.8.0.
0a08c020
GS
2305
2306This way, you can choose to share compatible extensions, but also upgrade
2307to a newer version of an extension that may be incompatible with earlier
2308versions, without breaking the earlier versions' installations.
693762b4
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2309
2310=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 2311
1ec51d55 2312Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d6baa268 2313separate directories. This guarantees that an update to one version
0a08c020
GS
2314won't interfere with another version. (The defaults guarantee this for
2315libraries after 5.6.0, but not for executables. TODO?) One convenient
2316way to do this is by using a separate prefix for each version, such as
d52d4e46 2317
9a664500 2318 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.8.2
d52d4e46 2319
9a664500 2320and adding /opt/perl5.8.2/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
PP
2321may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
2322scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
2323
693762b4 2324Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
cc65bb49 2325(e.g. 5.8 for all 5.8.x versions), but change directory with
693762b4
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2326each major version.
2327
6877a1cf
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2328If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
2329seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
2330subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
2331yet.
2332
e655887d 2333=head2 Upgrading from 5.005 or 5.6 to 5.8.0
693762b4 2334
9a664500 2335B<Perl 5.9.0 is binary incompatible with Perl 5.8.x, Perl 5.6.x, 5.005,
e655887d
CB
2336and any earlier Perl release.> Perl modules having binary parts
2337(meaning that a C compiler is used) will have to be recompiled to be
9a664500
AMS
2338used with 5.9.0. If you find you do need to rebuild an extension with
23395.9.0, you may safely do so without disturbing the older
e655887d
CB
2340installations. (See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5">
2341above.)
c42e3e15
GS
2342
2343See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly
2344incomplete) list of locally installed modules. Note that you want
cc65bb49 2345perllocal.pod, not perllocale.pod, for installed module information.
693762b4 2346
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2347=head1 Coexistence with perl4
2348
2349You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
2350
1ec51d55
CS
2351By default, the perl5 libraries go into /usr/local/lib/perl5/, so
2352they don't override the perl4 libraries in /usr/local/lib/perl/.
8e07c86e
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2353
2354In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
1ec51d55 2355perl4.036. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
8e07c86e
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2356process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
2357However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
d6baa268 2358the #! line at the top of them by #!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036 (or
4dc3e0af 2359whatever the appropriate pathname is). See L<perltrap> for
d6baa268 2360possible problems running perl4 scripts under perl5.
8e07c86e 2361
aa689395
PP
2362=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
2363
d6baa268
JH
2364Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from the
2365system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
1ec51d55 2366header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
d6baa268
JH
2367by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent
2368library ($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
aa689395 2369
d6baa268
JH
2370Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the conversion
2371of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have to
2372hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse correctly.
2373For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and certain
2374structures.
aa689395 2375
fb73857a 2376=head1 installhtml --help
aa689395 2377
3e3baf6d
TB
2378Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
2379format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
fb73857a 2380documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
aa689395 2381
d6baa268
JH
2382Currently, the supplied ./installhtml script does not make use of the
2383html Configure variables. This should be fixed in a future release.
2384
fb73857a 2385The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
3e3baf6d 2386perl documentation:
aa689395 2387
3e3baf6d
TB
2388 ./installhtml \
2389 --podroot=. \
2390 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
2391 --recurse \
2392 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
2393 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
2394 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
2395 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
2396 --libpods=perlfunc:perlguts:perlvar:perlrun:perlop \
2397 --verbose
2398
2399See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
2400many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
2401see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
2402resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
2403(and would welcome patches for them).
aa689395 2404
fb73857a
PP
2405You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
2406the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
2407
aa689395
PP
2408=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
2409
2410Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
2411available in TeX format. Type
2412
2413 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
2414
8ebf57cf
JH
2415=head1 Minimizing the Perl installation
2416
2417The following section is meant for people worrying about squeezing the
2418Perl installation into minimal systems (for example when installing
2419operating systems, or in really small filesystems).
2420
c8214fdf 2421Leaving out as many extensions as possible is an obvious way:
5cda700b
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2422Encode, with its big conversion tables, consumes a lot of
2423space. On the other hand, you cannot throw away everything. The
2424Fcntl module is pretty essential. If you need to do network
c8214fdf
JH
2425programming, you'll appreciate the Socket module, and so forth: it all
2426depends on what do you need to do.
2427
8ebf57cf
JH
2428In the following we offer two different slimmed down installation
2429recipes. They are informative, not normative: the choice of files
2430depends on what you need.
2431
2432Firstly, the bare minimum to run this script
2433
2434 use strict;
2435 use warnings;
2436 foreach my $f (</*>) {
2437 print("$f\n");
2438 }
2439
2440in Solaris is as follows (under $Config{prefix}):
2441
2442 ./bin/perl
2443 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/autosplit.ix
2444 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/dl_expandspec.al
2445 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/dl_find_symbol_anywhere.al
2446 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/dl_findfile.al
2447 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
2448 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/File/Glob/autosplit.ix
2449 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/Config.pm
2450 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/XSLoader.pm
2451 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/DynaLoader.pm
2452 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/CORE/libperl.so
2453 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/strict.pm
2454 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/warnings.pm
2455 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Carp.pm
2456 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Exporter.pm
2457 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/File/Glob.pm
2458 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/AutoLoader.pm
2459 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/vars.pm
2460 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/warnings/register.pm
2461 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Carp/Heavy.pm
2462 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Exporter/Heavy.pm
2463
2464Secondly, Debian perl-base package contains the following files,
2465size about 1.2MB in its i386 version:
2466
2467 /usr/share/doc/perl/Documentation
2468 /usr/share/doc/perl/README.Debian
2469 /usr/share/doc/perl/copyright
2470 /usr/share/doc/perl/AUTHORS.gz
2471 /usr/share/doc/perl/changelog.Debian.gz
2472 /usr/share/man/man1/perl.1.gz
2473 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/AutoLoader.pm
2474 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Carp.pm
2475 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Carp/Heavy.pm
2476 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Cwd.pm
2477 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Exporter.pm
2478 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Exporter/Heavy.pm
2479 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/File/Spec.pm
2480 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/File/Spec/Unix.pm
2481 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/FileHandle.pm
2482 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Getopt/Long.pm
2483 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IO/Socket/INET.pm
2484 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IO/Socket/UNIX.pm
2485 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IPC/Open2.pm
2486 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IPC/Open3.pm
2487 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/SelectSaver.pm
2488 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Symbol.pm
2489 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Text/Tabs.pm
2490 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Text/Wrap.pm
2491 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/attributes.pm
2492 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/GetOptions.al
2493 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/FindOption.al
2494 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/Configure.al
2495 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/config.al
2496 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/Croak.al
2497 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/autosplit.ix
2498 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/base.pm
2499 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/constant.pm
2500 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/fields.pm
2501 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/integer.pm
2502 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/lib.pm
2503 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/locale.pm
2504 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/overload.pm
2505 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/strict.pm
2506 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/vars.pm
2507 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/warnings.pm
2508 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/warnings/register.pm
2509 /usr/bin/perl
2510 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Config.pm
2511 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Data/Dumper.pm
2512 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/DynaLoader.pm
2513 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Errno.pm
2514 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Fcntl.pm
2515 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/File/Glob.pm
2516 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO.pm
2517 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/File.pm
2518 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Handle.pm
2519 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Pipe.pm
2520 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Seekable.pm
2521 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Select.pm
2522 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Socket.pm
2523 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/POSIX.pm
2524 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Socket.pm
2525 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/XSLoader.pm
2526 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Data/Dumper/Dumper.so
2527 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Data/Dumper/Dumper.bs
2528 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_findfile.al
2529 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_expandspec.al
2530 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_find_symbol_anywhere.al
2531 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/autosplit.ix
2532 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/DynaLoader.a
2533 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/extralibs.ld
2534 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Fcntl/Fcntl.so
2535 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Fcntl/Fcntl.bs
2536 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/File/Glob/Glob.bs
2537 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
2538 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/File/Glob/autosplit.ix
2539 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/IO/IO.so
2540 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/IO/IO.bs
2541 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/POSIX.bs
2542 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/POSIX.so
2543 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/autosplit.ix
2544 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/load_imports.al
2545 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Socket/Socket.so
2546 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Socket/Socket.bs
2547
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2548=head1 Reporting Problems
2549
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2550If you have difficulty building perl, and none of the advice in this file
2551helps, and careful reading of the error message and the relevant manual
2552pages on your system doesn't help either, then you should send a message
7f2de2d2 2553to either the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup or to perlbug@perl.org with
bfb7748a 2554an accurate description of your problem.
aa689395 2555
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2556Please include the output of the ./myconfig shell script that comes with
2557the distribution. Alternatively, you can use the perlbug program that
2558comes with the perl distribution, but you need to have perl compiled
2559before you can use it. (If you have not installed it yet, you need to
f5b3b617 2560run C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug> instead of a plain C<perlbug>.)
aa689395 2561
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2562Please try to make your message brief but clear. Trim out unnecessary
2563information. Do not include large files (such as config.sh or a complete
2564Configure or make log) unless absolutely necessary. Do not include a
2565complete transcript of your build session. Just include the failing
d6baa268 2566commands, the relevant error messages, and whatever preceding commands
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2567are necessary to give the appropriate context. Plain text should
2568usually be sufficient--fancy attachments or encodings may actually
2569reduce the number of people who read your message. Your message
2570will get relayed to over 400 subscribers around the world so please
2571try to keep it brief but clear.
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2573=head1 DOCUMENTATION
2574
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2575Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
2576is in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 2577build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
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2578can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
2579sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
8e07c86e 2580
1ec51d55 2581Under UNIX, you can produce a documentation book in postscript form,
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2582along with its table of contents, by going to the pod/ subdirectory and
2583running (either):
34a2a22e
RM
2584
2585 ./roffitall -groff # If you have GNU groff installed
aa689395 2586 ./roffitall -psroff # If you have psroff
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RM
2587
2588This will leave you with two postscript files ready to be printed.
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2589(You may need to fix the roffitall command to use your local troff
2590set-up.)
34a2a22e 2591
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2592Note that you must have performed the installation already before running
2593the above, since the script collects the installed files to generate
2594the documentation.
34a2a22e 2595
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2596=head1 AUTHOR
2597
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2598Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
2599heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
2600feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
fb73857a 2601
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2602If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
2603L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
2604
2605=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
2606
2607This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
d6baa268 2608the same terms as perl itself, with the following additional request:
f5b3b617 2609If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
d6baa268
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2610a larger package) please B<do> modify these installation instructions
2611and the contact information to match your distribution.