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1package File::Spec;
2
270d1e39 3use strict;
07824bd1 4use vars qw(@ISA $VERSION);
270d1e39 5
c47834cd 6$VERSION = '3.19';
5b287435 7$VERSION = eval $VERSION;
270d1e39 8
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9my %module = (MacOS => 'Mac',
10 MSWin32 => 'Win32',
11 os2 => 'OS2',
fa6a1c44 12 VMS => 'VMS',
ecf68df6 13 epoc => 'Epoc',
ffa8448b 14 NetWare => 'Win32', # Yes, File::Spec::Win32 works on NetWare.
27da23d5 15 symbian => 'Win32', # Yes, File::Spec::Win32 works on symbian.
60598624 16 dos => 'OS2', # Yes, File::Spec::OS2 works on DJGPP.
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17 cygwin => 'Cygwin');
18
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19
20my $module = $module{$^O} || 'Unix';
ecf68df6 21
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22require "File/Spec/$module.pm";
23@ISA = ("File::Spec::$module");
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24
251;
ae1c33a1 26
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27__END__
28
29=head1 NAME
30
31File::Spec - portably perform operations on file names
32
33=head1 SYNOPSIS
34
5c609535 35 use File::Spec;
270d1e39 36
5c609535 37 $x=File::Spec->catfile('a', 'b', 'c');
270d1e39 38
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39which returns 'a/b/c' under Unix. Or:
40
41 use File::Spec::Functions;
42
43 $x = catfile('a', 'b', 'c');
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44
45=head1 DESCRIPTION
46
47This module is designed to support operations commonly performed on file
48specifications (usually called "file names", but not to be confused with the
49contents of a file, or Perl's file handles), such as concatenating several
50directory and file names into a single path, or determining whether a path
51is rooted. It is based on code directly taken from MakeMaker 5.17, code
52written by Andreas KE<ouml>nig, Andy Dougherty, Charles Bailey, Ilya
53Zakharevich, Paul Schinder, and others.
54
55Since these functions are different for most operating systems, each set of
56OS specific routines is available in a separate module, including:
57
58 File::Spec::Unix
59 File::Spec::Mac
60 File::Spec::OS2
61 File::Spec::Win32
62 File::Spec::VMS
63
64The module appropriate for the current OS is automatically loaded by
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65File::Spec. Since some modules (like VMS) make use of facilities available
66only under that OS, it may not be possible to load all modules under all
67operating systems.
270d1e39 68
2586ba89 69Since File::Spec is object oriented, subroutines should not be called directly,
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70as in:
71
72 File::Spec::catfile('a','b');
5c609535 73
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74but rather as class methods:
75
76 File::Spec->catfile('a','b');
77
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78For simple uses, L<File::Spec::Functions> provides convenient functional
79forms of these methods.
80
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81=head1 METHODS
82
83=over 2
84
5813de03 85=item canonpath
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86
87No physical check on the filesystem, but a logical cleanup of a
88path.
89
90 $cpath = File::Spec->canonpath( $path ) ;
91
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92Note that this does *not* collapse F<x/../y> sections into F<y>. This
93is by design. If F</foo> on your system is a symlink to F</bar/baz>,
94then F</foo/../quux> is actually F</bar/quux>, not F</quux> as a naive
95F<../>-removal would give you. If you want to do this kind of
96processing, you probably want C<Cwd>'s C<realpath()> function to
97actually traverse the filesystem cleaning up paths like this.
98
5813de03 99=item catdir
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100
101Concatenate two or more directory names to form a complete path ending
102with a directory. But remove the trailing slash from the resulting
103string, because it doesn't look good, isn't necessary and confuses
5b287435 104OS/2. Of course, if this is the root directory, don't cut off the
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105trailing slash :-)
106
107 $path = File::Spec->catdir( @directories );
108
109=item catfile
110
111Concatenate one or more directory names and a filename to form a
112complete path ending with a filename
113
114 $path = File::Spec->catfile( @directories, $filename );
115
116=item curdir
117
118Returns a string representation of the current directory.
119
120 $curdir = File::Spec->curdir();
121
122=item devnull
123
124Returns a string representation of the null device.
125
126 $devnull = File::Spec->devnull();
127
128=item rootdir
129
130Returns a string representation of the root directory.
131
132 $rootdir = File::Spec->rootdir();
133
134=item tmpdir
135
136Returns a string representation of the first writable directory from a
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137list of possible temporary directories. Returns the current directory
138if no writable temporary directories are found. The list of directories
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139checked depends on the platform; e.g. File::Spec::Unix checks C<$ENV{TMPDIR}>
140(unless taint is on) and F</tmp>.
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141
142 $tmpdir = File::Spec->tmpdir();
143
144=item updir
145
146Returns a string representation of the parent directory.
147
148 $updir = File::Spec->updir();
149
150=item no_upwards
151
152Given a list of file names, strip out those that refer to a parent
153directory. (Does not strip symlinks, only '.', '..', and equivalents.)
154
155 @paths = File::Spec->no_upwards( @paths );
156
157=item case_tolerant
158
159Returns a true or false value indicating, respectively, that alphabetic
5b287435 160case is not or is significant when comparing file specifications.
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161
162 $is_case_tolerant = File::Spec->case_tolerant();
163
164=item file_name_is_absolute
165
5b287435 166Takes as its argument a path, and returns true if it is an absolute path.
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167
168 $is_absolute = File::Spec->file_name_is_absolute( $path );
169
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170This does not consult the local filesystem on Unix, Win32, OS/2, or
171Mac OS (Classic). It does consult the working environment for VMS
172(see L<File::Spec::VMS/file_name_is_absolute>).
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173
174=item path
175
5b287435 176Takes no argument. Returns the environment variable C<PATH> (or the local
638113eb 177platform's equivalent) as a list.
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178
179 @PATH = File::Spec->path();
180
181=item join
182
183join is the same as catfile.
184
185=item splitpath
186
187Splits a path in to volume, directory, and filename portions. On systems
40d020d9 188with no concept of volume, returns '' for volume.
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189
190 ($volume,$directories,$file) = File::Spec->splitpath( $path );
191 ($volume,$directories,$file) = File::Spec->splitpath( $path, $no_file );
192
193For systems with no syntax differentiating filenames from directories,
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194assumes that the last file is a path unless C<$no_file> is true or a
195trailing separator or F</.> or F</..> is present. On Unix, this means that C<$no_file>
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196true makes this return ( '', $path, '' ).
197
198The directory portion may or may not be returned with a trailing '/'.
199
200The results can be passed to L</catpath()> to get back a path equivalent to
201(usually identical to) the original path.
202
203=item splitdir
204
205The opposite of L</catdir()>.
206
207 @dirs = File::Spec->splitdir( $directories );
208
5b287435 209C<$directories> must be only the directory portion of the path on systems
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210that have the concept of a volume or that have path syntax that differentiates
211files from directories.
212
213Unlike just splitting the directories on the separator, empty
214directory names (C<''>) can be returned, because these are significant
5b287435 215on some OSes.
ae1c33a1 216
59605c55 217=item catpath()
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218
219Takes volume, directory and file portions and returns an entire path. Under
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220Unix, C<$volume> is ignored, and directory and file are concatenated. A '/' is
221inserted if need be. On other OSes, C<$volume> is significant.
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222
223 $full_path = File::Spec->catpath( $volume, $directory, $file );
224
225=item abs2rel
226
227Takes a destination path and an optional base path returns a relative path
228from the base path to the destination path:
229
230 $rel_path = File::Spec->abs2rel( $path ) ;
231 $rel_path = File::Spec->abs2rel( $path, $base ) ;
232
23bb49fa 233If C<$base> is not present or '', then L<Cwd::cwd()|Cwd> is used. If C<$base> is
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234relative, then it is converted to absolute form using
235L</rel2abs()>. This means that it is taken to be relative to
23bb49fa 236L<Cwd::cwd()|Cwd>.
8d48b1f5 237
5b287435 238On systems with the concept of volume, if C<$path> and C<$base> appear to be
638113eb 239on two different volumes, we will not attempt to resolve the two
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240paths, and we will instead simply return C<$path>. Note that previous
241versions of this module ignored the volume of C<$base>, which resulted in
638113eb 242garbage results part of the time.
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243
244On systems that have a grammar that indicates filenames, this ignores the
5b287435 245C<$base> filename as well. Otherwise all path components are assumed to be
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246directories.
247
5b287435 248If C<$path> is relative, it is converted to absolute form using L</rel2abs()>.
23bb49fa 249This means that it is taken to be relative to L<Cwd::cwd()|Cwd>.
ae1c33a1 250
2586ba89 251No checks against the filesystem are made. On VMS, there is
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252interaction with the working environment, as logicals and
253macros are expanded.
254
255Based on code written by Shigio Yamaguchi.
256
59605c55 257=item rel2abs()
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258
259Converts a relative path to an absolute path.
260
261 $abs_path = File::Spec->rel2abs( $path ) ;
262 $abs_path = File::Spec->rel2abs( $path, $base ) ;
263
23bb49fa 264If C<$base> is not present or '', then L<Cwd::cwd()|Cwd> is used. If C<$base> is relative,
ae1c33a1 265then it is converted to absolute form using L</rel2abs()>. This means that it
23bb49fa 266is taken to be relative to L<Cwd::cwd()|Cwd>.
ae1c33a1 267
5b287435 268On systems with the concept of volume, if C<$path> and C<$base> appear to be
638113eb 269on two different volumes, we will not attempt to resolve the two
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270paths, and we will instead simply return C<$path>. Note that previous
271versions of this module ignored the volume of C<$base>, which resulted in
638113eb 272garbage results part of the time.
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273
274On systems that have a grammar that indicates filenames, this ignores the
5b287435 275C<$base> filename as well. Otherwise all path components are assumed to be
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276directories.
277
5b287435 278If C<$path> is absolute, it is cleaned up and returned using L</canonpath()>.
ae1c33a1 279
2586ba89 280No checks against the filesystem are made. On VMS, there is
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281interaction with the working environment, as logicals and
282macros are expanded.
283
284Based on code written by Shigio Yamaguchi.
285
286=back
287
288For further information, please see L<File::Spec::Unix>,
289L<File::Spec::Mac>, L<File::Spec::OS2>, L<File::Spec::Win32>, or
290L<File::Spec::VMS>.
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291
292=head1 SEE ALSO
293
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294L<File::Spec::Unix>, L<File::Spec::Mac>, L<File::Spec::OS2>,
295L<File::Spec::Win32>, L<File::Spec::VMS>, L<File::Spec::Functions>,
296L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>
270d1e39 297
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298=head1 AUTHOR
299
300Currently maintained by Ken Williams C<< <KWILLIAMS@cpan.org> >>.
301
302The vast majority of the code was written by
303Kenneth Albanowski C<< <kjahds@kjahds.com> >>,
304Andy Dougherty C<< <doughera@lafayette.edu> >>,
305Andreas KE<ouml>nig C<< <A.Koenig@franz.ww.TU-Berlin.DE> >>,
306Tim Bunce C<< <Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk> >>.
307VMS support by Charles Bailey C<< <bailey@newman.upenn.edu> >>.
308OS/2 support by Ilya Zakharevich C<< <ilya@math.ohio-state.edu> >>.
309Mac support by Paul Schinder C<< <schinder@pobox.com> >>, and
310Thomas Wegner C<< <wegner_thomas@yahoo.com> >>.
311abs2rel() and rel2abs() written by Shigio Yamaguchi C<< <shigio@tamacom.com> >>,
312modified by Barrie Slaymaker C<< <barries@slaysys.com> >>.
313splitpath(), splitdir(), catpath() and catdir() by Barrie Slaymaker.
e021ab8e 314
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315=head1 COPYRIGHT
316
317Copyright (c) 2004 by the Perl 5 Porters. All rights reserved.
318
319This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
320it under the same terms as Perl itself.
321
e021ab8e 322=cut