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1=head1 NAME
2
3Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
7The basic steps to build and install perl5 are:
8
9 rm -f config.sh
10 sh Configure
11 make
12 make test
13 make install
14
15Each of these is explained in further detail below.
16
17=head1 BUILDING PERL5
18
19=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution.
20
21The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh file. If
22you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you change
23systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if you are
24experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably I<not>
25re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or rename it, e.g.
26
27 mv config.sh config.sh.old
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29Then run Configure.
30
31=head1 Run Configure.
32
33Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
34things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
35you about. To accept the default, just press C<RETURN>. The default
36is almost always ok.
37
38After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
39F<*.SH> files and offer to run B<make depend>.
40
41Configure supports a number of useful options. Run B<Configure -h>
42to get a listing. To compile with gcc, for example, you can run
43
44 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
45
46This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
47compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
48
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49If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
50with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
51
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52If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
53output, you can run
54
55 sh Configure -des
56
57By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
58/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. You can specify a different 'prefix' for
59the default installation directory, when Configure prompts you or by
60using the Configure command line option -Dprefix='/some/directory',
61e.g.
62
25f94b33 63 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
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64
65If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the directories
66are simplified. For example, if you use prefix=/opt/perl,
67then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
68/usr/local/lib/perl5/.
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69
70By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading, if
71your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
72statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or by
73using the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
74
24b3df7f 75=head2 Extensions
76
77By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which
78appears to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build
79GDBM_File only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples
80below.) DynaLoader and Fcntl are always built by default. Configure
81does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX is always
82built by default as well. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can set the
83Configure variable useposix=false either in a hint file or from the
84Configure command line. Similarly, the Safe extension is always built
85by default, but you can skip it by setting the Configure variable
86usesafe=false either in a hint file for from the command line.
87
88In summary, here are the Configure command-line variables you can set
89to turn off each extension:
90
91 DB_File i_db
92 DynaLoader (Must always be included)
93 Fcntl (Always included by default)
94 GDBM_File i_gdbm
95 NDBM_File i_ndbm
96 ODBM_File i_dbm
97 POSIX useposix
98 SDBM_File (Always included by default)
99 Safe usesafe
100 Socket d_socket
101
102Thus to skip the NDBM_File extension, you can use
103
104 sh Configure -Ui_ndbm
105
106Again, this is taken care of automatically if you don't have the ndbm
107library.
108
109Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
110the Extensions you want.
111
112Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern Unix systems do)
113remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
114executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
115well build all the ones that will work on your system.
116
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117=head2 GNU-style configure
118
119If you prefer the GNU-style B<configure> command line interface, you can
120use the supplied B<configure> command, e.g.
121
122 CC=gcc ./configure
123
124The B<configure> script emulates several of the more common configure
125options. Try
126
127 ./configure --help
128
129for a listing.
130
131Cross compiling is currently not supported.
132
133=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
134
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135Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
136dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
137Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
138automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
139are B<not> included with perl. See the library documentation for
140how to obtain the libraries.
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141
142I<Note:> If your database header (.h) files are not in a
143directory normally searched by your C compiler, then you will need to
144include the appropriate B<-I/your/directory> option when prompted by
145Configure. If your database library (.a) files are not in a directory
146normally searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to
147include the appropriate B<-L/your/directory> option when prompted by
148Configure. See the examples below.
149
150=head2 Examples
151
152=over 4
153
154=item gdbm in /usr/local.
155
156Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
157GDBM_File extension. This examples assumes you have F<gdbm.h>
158installed in F</usr/local/include/gdbm.h> and F<libgdbm.a> installed in
159F</usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a>. Configure should figure all the
160necessary steps out automatically.
161
162Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
163your C compiler, you should include C<-I/usr/local/include>.
164
165When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
166C<-L/usr/local/lib>.
167
168If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
169linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
170C<-L/usr/local/lib>.
171
172Again, this should all happen automatically. If you want to accept the
173defaults for all the questions and have Configure print out only terse
174messages, then you can just run
175
176 sh Configure -des
177
178and Configure should include the GDBM_File extension automatically.
179
180This should actually work if you have gdbm installed in any of
181(/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu, /opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
182
183=item gdbm in /usr/you
184
185Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
186but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
187have F</usr/you/include/gdbm.h> and F</usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a>. You
188still have to add B<-I/usr/you/include> to cc flags, but you have to take
189an extra step to help Configure find F<libgdbm.a>. Specifically, when
190Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
191F</usr/you/lib> to the list.
192
193It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
194line):
195
196 sh Configure -des \
197 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
198 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
199
200C<locincpth> is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
201Configure will automatically add the appropriate B<-I> directives.
202
203C<loclibpth> is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
204Configure will automatically add the appropriate B<-L> directives. If
205you have some libraries under F</usr/local/> and others under
206F</usr/you>, then you have to include both, namely
207
208 sh Configure -des \
209 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
210 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
211
212=back
213
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214=head2 Installation Directories.
215
216The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
217appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
218installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
219
220By default, Configure uses the following directories for
221library files (archname is a string like sun4-sunos, determined
222by Configure)
223
224 /usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.002
225 /usr/local/lib/perl5/
24b3df7f 226 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/archname
227 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl
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228
229and the following directories for manual pages:
230
231 /usr/local/man/man1
232 /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3
233
234(Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
235/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
236instead.) The module man pages are stuck in that strange spot so that
237they don't collide with other man pages stored in /usr/local/man/man3,
238and so that Perl's man pages don't hide system man pages. On some
239systems, B<man less> would end up calling up Perl's less.pm module man
240page, rather than the B<less> program.
241
242If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
243directory structure is simplified. For example, if you Configure
244with -Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the defaults are
245
246 /opt/perl/lib/archname/5.002
247 /opt/perl/lib
248 /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/archname
249 /opt/perl/lib/site_perl
250
251 /opt/perl/man/man1
252 /opt/perl/man/man3
253
254The perl executable will search the libraries in the order given
255above.
256
257The directories site_perl and site_perl/archname are empty, but are
258intended to be used for installing local or site-wide extensions. Perl
259will automatically look in these directories. Previously, most sites
260just put their local extensions in with the standard distribution.
261
262In order to support using things like #!/usr/local/bin/perl5.002 after
263a later version is released, architecture-dependent libraries are
264stored in a version-specific directory, such as
265/usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.002/. In 5.000 and 5.001, these files
266were just stored in /usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/. If you will not be
267using 5.001 binaries, you can delete the standard extensions from the
268/usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/ directory. Locally-added extensions can
269be moved to the site_perl and site_perl/archname directories.
270
271Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
272Configure.
273
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274=head2 Changing the installation directory
275
276Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
277associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
278will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
279sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
280However, sites that use software such as B<depot> to manage software
281packages may also wish to install perl into a different directory and
282use that management software to move perl to its final destination.
283This section describes how to do this. Someday, Configure may support
284an option C<-Dinstallprefix=/foo> to simplify this.
285
286Suppose you want to install perl under the F</tmp/perl5> directory.
287You can edit F<config.sh> and change all the install* variables to
288point to F</tmp/perl5> instead of F</usr/local/wherever>. You could
289also set them all from the Configure command line. Or, you can
290automate this process by placing the following lines in a file
291F<config.over> B<before> you run Configure (replace /tmp/perl5 by a
292directory of your choice):
293
294 installprefix=/tmp/perl5
295 test -d $installprefix || mkdir $installprefix
296 test -d $installprefix/bin || mkdir $installprefix/bin
297 installarchlib=`echo $installarchlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
298 installbin=`echo $installbin | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
299 installman1dir=`echo $installman1dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
300 installman3dir=`echo $installman3dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
301 installprivlib=`echo $installprivlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
302 installscript=`echo $installscript | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
303 installsitelib=`echo $installsitelib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
4633a7c4 304 installsitearch=`echo $installsitearch | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
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305
306Then, you can Configure and install in the usual way:
307
25f94b33 308 sh Configure -des
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309 make
310 make test
311 make install
312
313=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
314
315If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is
316convenient to compile it once and create an archive that can be
317installed on multiple systems. Here's one way to do that:
318
319 # Set up config.over to install perl into a different directory,
320 # e.g. /tmp/perl5 (see previous part).
25f94b33 321 sh Configure -des
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322 make
323 make test
324 make install
325 cd /tmp/perl5
326 tar cvf ../perl5-archive.tar .
327 # Then, on each machine where you want to install perl,
328 cd /usr/local # Or wherever you specified as $prefix
329 tar xvf perl5-archive.tar
330
331=head2 What if it doesn't work?
332
333=over 4
334
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335=item Running Configure Interactively
336
337If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
338Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
339guesses.
340
341All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
342have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler &
343flags) you can type '&-d' at the next Configure prompt and Configure
344will use the defaults from then on.
345
346If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
347config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
348instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
349
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350=item Hint files.
351
352The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
353in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
354will offer to use that hint file.
355
356Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
357If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint
358file for further information. See F<hints/solaris_2.sh> for an
359extensive example.
360
361=item Changing Compilers
362
363If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
364probably I<not> re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
365rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
366with the options you want to use.
367
368This is a common source of problems. If you change from B<cc> to
369B<gcc>, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
370
371=item Propagating your changes
372
373If you later make any changes to F<config.sh>, you should propagate
25f94b33 374them to all the .SH files by running B<sh Configure -S>.
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375
376=item config.over
377
378You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride Configure's
379guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just before config.sh
380is created. You have to be careful with this, however, as Configure
d52d4e46 381does no checking that your changes make sense. See the section on
382changing the installation directory for an example.
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383
384=item config.h
385
386Many of the system dependencies are contained in F<config.h>.
387F<Configure> builds F<config.h> by running the F<config_h.SH> script.
388The values for the variables are taken from F<config.sh>.
389
390If there are any problems, you can edit F<config.h> directly. Beware,
391though, that the next time you run B<Configure>, your changes will be
392lost.
393
394=item cflags
395
396If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
397line, they can be made in F<cflags.SH>. For instance, to turn off the
398optimizer on F<toke.c>, find the line in the switch structure for
399F<toke.c> and put the command C<optimize='-g'> before the C<;;>. You
400can also edit F<cflags> directly, but beware that your changes will be
401lost the next time you run B<Configure>.
402
403To change the C flags for all the files, edit F<config.sh>
404and change either C<$ccflags> or C<$optimize>,
25f94b33 405and then re-run B<sh Configure -S ; make depend>.
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406
407=item No sh.
408
409If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file config_H to
410config.h and edit the config.h to reflect your system's peculiarities.
411You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
412mechanism.
413
414=back
415
416=head1 make depend
417
418This will look for all the includes.
419The output is stored in F<makefile>. The only difference between
420F<Makefile> and F<makefile> is the dependencies at the bottom of
421F<makefile>. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
422F<makefile>, not F<Makefile> since the Unix B<make> command reads
4633a7c4 423F<makefile> first.
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424
425Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
426explicitly above.
427
428=head1 make
429
430This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
431
432If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
433
434=over 4
435
436=item *
437
438If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
439for further tips and information.
440
441=item *
442
443If you can't compile successfully, try adding a C<-DCRIPPLED_CC> flag.
444(Just because you get no errors doesn't mean it compiled right!)
445This simplifies some complicated expressions for compilers that
446get indigestion easily. If that has no effect, try turning off
447optimization. If you have missing routines, you probably need to
448add some library or other, or you need to undefine some feature that
449Configure thought was there but is defective or incomplete.
450
451=item *
452
453Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files without
454some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or allocate larger
455internal tables. You can customize the switches for each file in
456F<cflags>. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
457F<makefile> since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
458specific rule.
459
460=item *
461
462If you can successfully build F<miniperl>, but the process crashes
463during the building of extensions, you should run
464
465 make minitest
466
467to test your version of miniperl.
468
469=item *
470
471Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
472
473Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
474
475NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
476
477UTS may need one or more of B<-DCRIPPLED_CC>, B<-K> or B<-g>, and undef LSTAT.
478
479If you get syntax errors on '(', try -DCRIPPLED_CC.
480
481Machines with half-implemented dbm routines will need to #undef I_ODBM
482
483SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
484that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
485
486If you get duplicates upon linking for malloc et al, say -DHIDEMYMALLOC.
487
488If you get duplicate function definitions (a perl function has the
489same name as another function on your system) try -DEMBED.
490
491If you get varags problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
492correctly. When using gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define'
493and i_varags='undef' in config.sh. The problem is usually solved
494by running fixincludes correctly.
495
496If you wish to use dynamic loading on SunOS or Solaris, and you
497have GNU as and GNU ld installed, you may need to add B<-B/bin/> to
498your $ccflags and $ldflags so that the system's versions of as
499and ld are used.
500
501If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
502the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. Perl should build
503fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
504of your local set-up.
505
24b3df7f 506If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
507try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
508with
509
510 sh Configure -Uusenm
511
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512=back
513
514=head1 make test
515
516This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If it
517doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went wrong. See the
518file F<t/README> in the F<t> subdirectory. Note that you can't run it
519in background if this disables opening of /dev/tty. If B<make test>
520bombs out, just B<cd> to the F<t> directory and run B<TEST> by hand
521to see if it makes any difference.
522If individual tests bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
523
524 ./perl op/groups.t
525
c07a80fd 526B<NOTE>: one possible reason for errors is that some external programs
527may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
528C<make test> exercises them. This may happen for example if you have
529one or more of these environment variables set:
530C<LC_ALL LC_CTYPE LANG>. In certain UNIXes especially the non-English
531locales are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
532If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
533C<setenv LC_ALL C> or <LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL>, for C<csh>-style and
534C<Bourne>-style shells, respectively, from the command line and then
535retry C<make test>. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken
536program that is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test
537by hand as shown above and see whether you can locate the program.
538Look for things like:
539C<exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...")> or C<open("...|")>.
540All these mean that Perl is trying to run some external program.
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541=head1 INSTALLING PERL5
542
543=head1 make install
544
545This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
546B<Configure>; by default this is F</usr/local/bin>. It will also try
547to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
548page, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
549are not root, you must own the directories in question and you should
550ignore any messages about chown not working.
551
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552B<Note:> In the 5.002 release, you will see some harmless error
553messages and warnings from pod2man. You may safely ignore them. (Yes,
554they should be fixed, but they didn't seem important enough to warrant
555holding up the entire 5.002 release.)
556
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557If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
558anything, you can run
4633a7c4 559
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560 ./perl installperl -n
561 ./perl installman -n
562
563B<make install> will install the following:
564
565 perl,
566 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
567 will be a link to perl.
568 suidperl,
569 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
570 a2p awk-to-perl translator
571 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
572 read from stdin.
573 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
574 s2p sed-to-perl translator
575 find2perl find-to-perl translator
576 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 577 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
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578 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
579 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
580 pod2latex, and to other useful formats.
581 pod2man
582
583 library files in $privlib and $archlib specified to
584 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
585 man pages in the location specified to Configure, usually
586 something like /usr/local/man/man1.
587 module in the location specified to Configure, usually
588 man pages under /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3.
589 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
590
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591Installperl will also create the library directories $siteperl and
592$sitearch listed in config.sh. Usually, these are something like
24b3df7f 593 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
594 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$archname
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595where $archname is something like sun4-sunos. These directories
596will be used for installing extensions.
597
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598Perl's *.h header files and the libperl.a library are also
599installed under $archlib so that any user may later build new
600extensions even if the Perl source is no longer available.
601
602The libperl.a library is only needed for building new
603extensions and linking them statically into a new perl executable.
604If you will not be doing that, then you may safely delete
605$archlib/libperl.a after perl is installed.
606
607make install may also offer to install perl in a "standard" location.
608
609Most of the documentation in the pod/ directory is also available
610in HTML and LaTeX format. Type
611
612 cd pod; make html; cd ..
613
614to generate the html versions, and
615
616 cd pod; make tex; cd ..
617
618to generate the LaTeX versions.
619
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620=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5.
621
622You can safely install the current version of perl5 and still run
623scripts under the old binaries. Instead of starting your script with
624#!/usr/local/bin/perl, just start it with #!/usr/local/bin/perl5.001
625(or whatever version you want to run.)
626
627The architecture-dependent files are stored in a version-specific
628directory (such as F</usr/local/lib/perl5/sun4-sunos/5.002>) so that
629they are still accessible. I<Note:> perl5.000 and perl5.001 did not
630put their architecture-dependent libraries in a version-specific
631directory. They are simply in F</usr/local/lib/perl5/$archname>. If
632you will not be using 5.000 or 5.001, you may safely remove those
633files.
634
635The standard library files in F</usr/local/lib/perl5>
636should be useable by all versions of perl5.
637
d52d4e46 638Most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to use with a newer
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639version of perl. If you do run into problems, and you want to continue
640to use the old version of perl along with your extension, simply move
641those extension files to the appropriate version directory, such as
642F</usr/local/lib/perl/archname/5.002>. Then perl5.002 will find your
643files in the 5.002 directory, and newer versions of perl will find your
644newer extension in the site_perl directory.
645
d52d4e46 646Some users may prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
647separate directories. One convenient way to do this is by
648using a separate prefix for each version, such as
649
650 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.002
651
652and adding /opt/perl5.002/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
653may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
654scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
655
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656=head1 Coexistence with perl4
657
658You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
659
660By default, the perl5 libraries go into F</usr/local/lib/perl5/>, so
661they don't override the perl4 libraries in F</usr/local/lib/perl/>.
662
663In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
664F<perl4.036>. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
665process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
666However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
667the C<#!> line at the top of them by C<#!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036>
668(or whatever the appropriate pathname is).
669
670=head1 DOCUMENTATION
671
672Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation is
673in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
674build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
675can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied B<perldoc> script. This
676is sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
677
678=head1 AUTHOR
679
680Andy Dougherty <doughera@lafcol.lafayette.edu>, borrowing I<very> heavily
681from the original README by Larry Wall.
682
a5f75d66 683=head1 LAST MODIFIED
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68504 January 1996