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Magic flags harmonization.
[perl5.git] / pp.c
CommitLineData
a0d0e21e 1/* pp.c
79072805 2 *
1129b882
NC
3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
4 * 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 by Larry Wall and others
79072805 5 *
a0d0e21e
LW
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
79072805 8 *
a0d0e21e
LW
9 */
10
11/*
4ac71550
TC
12 * 'It's a big house this, and very peculiar. Always a bit more
13 * to discover, and no knowing what you'll find round a corner.
14 * And Elves, sir!' --Samwise Gamgee
15 *
16 * [p.225 of _The Lord of the Rings_, II/i: "Many Meetings"]
a0d0e21e 17 */
79072805 18
166f8a29
DM
19/* This file contains general pp ("push/pop") functions that execute the
20 * opcodes that make up a perl program. A typical pp function expects to
21 * find its arguments on the stack, and usually pushes its results onto
22 * the stack, hence the 'pp' terminology. Each OP structure contains
23 * a pointer to the relevant pp_foo() function.
24 */
25
79072805 26#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 27#define PERL_IN_PP_C
79072805 28#include "perl.h"
77bc9082 29#include "keywords.h"
79072805 30
a4af207c
JH
31#include "reentr.h"
32
dfe9444c
AD
33/* XXX I can't imagine anyone who doesn't have this actually _needs_
34 it, since pid_t is an integral type.
35 --AD 2/20/1998
36*/
37#ifdef NEED_GETPID_PROTO
38extern Pid_t getpid (void);
8ac85365
NIS
39#endif
40
0630166f
SP
41/*
42 * Some BSDs and Cygwin default to POSIX math instead of IEEE.
43 * This switches them over to IEEE.
44 */
45#if defined(LIBM_LIB_VERSION)
46 _LIB_VERSION_TYPE _LIB_VERSION = _IEEE_;
47#endif
48
13017935
SM
49/* variations on pp_null */
50
93a17b20
LW
51PP(pp_stub)
52{
97aff369 53 dVAR;
39644a26 54 dSP;
54310121 55 if (GIMME_V == G_SCALAR)
3280af22 56 XPUSHs(&PL_sv_undef);
93a17b20
LW
57 RETURN;
58}
59
79072805
LW
60/* Pushy stuff. */
61
93a17b20
LW
62PP(pp_padav)
63{
97aff369 64 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
13017935 65 I32 gimme;
e190e9b4 66 assert(SvTYPE(TARG) == SVt_PVAV);
533c011a 67 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
a5911867
RGS
68 if (!(PL_op->op_private & OPpPAD_STATE))
69 SAVECLEARSV(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
85e6fe83 70 EXTEND(SP, 1);
533c011a 71 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
85e6fe83 72 PUSHs(TARG);
93a17b20 73 RETURN;
40c94d11
FC
74 } else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_LVSUB) {
75 const I32 flags = is_lvalue_sub();
76 if (flags && !(flags & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS)) {
78f9721b 77 if (GIMME == G_SCALAR)
a84828f3 78 /* diag_listed_as: Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context */
78f9721b
SM
79 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return array to lvalue scalar context");
80 PUSHs(TARG);
81 RETURN;
40c94d11 82 }
85e6fe83 83 }
13017935
SM
84 gimme = GIMME_V;
85 if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
502c6561 86 const I32 maxarg = AvFILL(MUTABLE_AV(TARG)) + 1;
85e6fe83 87 EXTEND(SP, maxarg);
93965878
NIS
88 if (SvMAGICAL(TARG)) {
89 U32 i;
eb160463 90 for (i=0; i < (U32)maxarg; i++) {
502c6561 91 SV * const * const svp = av_fetch(MUTABLE_AV(TARG), i, FALSE);
3280af22 92 SP[i+1] = (svp) ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef;
93965878
NIS
93 }
94 }
95 else {
502c6561 96 Copy(AvARRAY((const AV *)TARG), SP+1, maxarg, SV*);
93965878 97 }
85e6fe83
LW
98 SP += maxarg;
99 }
13017935 100 else if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
1b6737cc 101 SV* const sv = sv_newmortal();
502c6561 102 const I32 maxarg = AvFILL(MUTABLE_AV(TARG)) + 1;
85e6fe83
LW
103 sv_setiv(sv, maxarg);
104 PUSHs(sv);
105 }
106 RETURN;
93a17b20
LW
107}
108
109PP(pp_padhv)
110{
97aff369 111 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
54310121
PP
112 I32 gimme;
113
e190e9b4 114 assert(SvTYPE(TARG) == SVt_PVHV);
93a17b20 115 XPUSHs(TARG);
533c011a 116 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
a5911867
RGS
117 if (!(PL_op->op_private & OPpPAD_STATE))
118 SAVECLEARSV(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
533c011a 119 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF)
93a17b20 120 RETURN;
40c94d11
FC
121 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_LVSUB) {
122 const I32 flags = is_lvalue_sub();
123 if (flags && !(flags & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS)) {
78f9721b 124 if (GIMME == G_SCALAR)
a84828f3 125 /* diag_listed_as: Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context */
78f9721b
SM
126 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return hash to lvalue scalar context");
127 RETURN;
40c94d11 128 }
78f9721b 129 }
54310121
PP
130 gimme = GIMME_V;
131 if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
981b7185 132 RETURNOP(Perl_do_kv(aTHX));
85e6fe83 133 }
54310121 134 else if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
85fbaab2 135 SV* const sv = Perl_hv_scalar(aTHX_ MUTABLE_HV(TARG));
85e6fe83 136 SETs(sv);
85e6fe83 137 }
54310121 138 RETURN;
93a17b20
LW
139}
140
79072805
LW
141/* Translations. */
142
4bdf8368 143static const char S_no_symref_sv[] =
def89bff
NC
144 "Can't use string (\"%" SVf32 "\"%s) as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use";
145
6f7909da
FC
146/* In some cases this function inspects PL_op. If this function is called
147 for new op types, more bool parameters may need to be added in place of
148 the checks.
149
150 When noinit is true, the absence of a gv will cause a retval of undef.
151 This is unrelated to the cv-to-gv assignment case.
6f7909da
FC
152*/
153
154static SV *
155S_rv2gv(pTHX_ SV *sv, const bool vivify_sv, const bool strict,
156 const bool noinit)
157{
14f0f125 158 dVAR;
f64c9ac5 159 if (!isGV(sv) || SvFAKE(sv)) SvGETMAGIC(sv);
ed6116ce 160 if (SvROK(sv)) {
93d7320b
DM
161 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
162 sv = amagic_deref_call(sv, to_gv_amg);
93d7320b 163 }
e4a1664f 164 wasref:
ed6116ce 165 sv = SvRV(sv);
b1dadf13 166 if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVIO) {
159b6efe 167 GV * const gv = MUTABLE_GV(sv_newmortal());
885f468a 168 gv_init(gv, 0, "__ANONIO__", 10, 0);
a45c7426 169 GvIOp(gv) = MUTABLE_IO(sv);
b37c2d43 170 SvREFCNT_inc_void_NN(sv);
ad64d0ec 171 sv = MUTABLE_SV(gv);
ef54e1a4 172 }
6e592b3a 173 else if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
6f7909da 174 return (SV *)Perl_die(aTHX_ "Not a GLOB reference");
79072805
LW
175 }
176 else {
6e592b3a 177 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
f132ae69 178 if (!SvOK(sv)) {
b13b2135 179 /* If this is a 'my' scalar and flag is set then vivify
853846ea 180 * NI-S 1999/05/07
b13b2135 181 */
f132ae69 182 if (vivify_sv && sv != &PL_sv_undef) {
2c8ac474 183 GV *gv;
ce74145d
FC
184 if (SvREADONLY(sv))
185 Perl_croak_no_modify(aTHX);
2c8ac474 186 if (cUNOP->op_targ) {
0bd48802 187 SV * const namesv = PAD_SV(cUNOP->op_targ);
159b6efe 188 gv = MUTABLE_GV(newSV(0));
6b10071b 189 gv_init_sv(gv, CopSTASH(PL_curcop), namesv, 0);
2c8ac474
GS
190 }
191 else {
0bd48802 192 const char * const name = CopSTASHPV(PL_curcop);
6b10071b
BF
193 gv = newGVgen_flags(name,
194 HvNAMEUTF8(CopSTASH(PL_curcop)) ? SVf_UTF8 : 0 );
1d8d4d2a 195 }
43230e26 196 prepare_SV_for_RV(sv);
ad64d0ec 197 SvRV_set(sv, MUTABLE_SV(gv));
853846ea 198 SvROK_on(sv);
1d8d4d2a 199 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
853846ea 200 goto wasref;
2c8ac474 201 }
6f7909da
FC
202 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF || strict)
203 return (SV *)Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, "a symbol");
599cee73 204 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 205 report_uninit(sv);
6f7909da 206 return &PL_sv_undef;
a0d0e21e 207 }
6f7909da 208 if (noinit)
35cd451c 209 {
77cb3b01
FC
210 if (!(sv = MUTABLE_SV(gv_fetchsv_nomg(
211 sv, GV_ADDMG, SVt_PVGV
23496c6e 212 ))))
6f7909da 213 return &PL_sv_undef;
35cd451c
GS
214 }
215 else {
6f7909da
FC
216 if (strict)
217 return
218 (SV *)Perl_die(aTHX_
219 S_no_symref_sv,
220 sv,
bf3d870f 221 (SvPOKp(sv) && SvCUR(sv)>32 ? "..." : ""),
6f7909da
FC
222 "a symbol"
223 );
e26df76a
NC
224 if ((PL_op->op_private & (OPpLVAL_INTRO|OPpDONT_INIT_GV))
225 == OPpDONT_INIT_GV) {
226 /* We are the target of a coderef assignment. Return
227 the scalar unchanged, and let pp_sasssign deal with
228 things. */
6f7909da 229 return sv;
e26df76a 230 }
77cb3b01 231 sv = MUTABLE_SV(gv_fetchsv_nomg(sv, GV_ADD, SVt_PVGV));
35cd451c 232 }
2acc3314 233 /* FAKE globs in the symbol table cause weird bugs (#77810) */
96293f45 234 SvFAKE_off(sv);
93a17b20 235 }
79072805 236 }
8dc99089 237 if (SvFAKE(sv) && !(PL_op->op_private & OPpALLOW_FAKE)) {
2acc3314 238 SV *newsv = sv_newmortal();
5cf4b255 239 sv_setsv_flags(newsv, sv, 0);
2acc3314 240 SvFAKE_off(newsv);
d8906c05 241 sv = newsv;
2acc3314 242 }
6f7909da
FC
243 return sv;
244}
245
246PP(pp_rv2gv)
247{
248 dVAR; dSP; dTOPss;
249
250 sv = S_rv2gv(aTHX_
251 sv, PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF,
252 PL_op->op_private & HINT_STRICT_REFS,
253 ((PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) && !(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD))
254 || PL_op->op_type == OP_READLINE
255 );
d8906c05
FC
256 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
257 save_gp(MUTABLE_GV(sv), !(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL));
258 SETs(sv);
79072805
LW
259 RETURN;
260}
261
dc3c76f8
NC
262/* Helper function for pp_rv2sv and pp_rv2av */
263GV *
fe9845cc
RB
264Perl_softref2xv(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const char *const what,
265 const svtype type, SV ***spp)
dc3c76f8
NC
266{
267 dVAR;
268 GV *gv;
269
7918f24d
NC
270 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SOFTREF2XV;
271
dc3c76f8
NC
272 if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_STRICT_REFS) {
273 if (SvOK(sv))
bf3d870f
FC
274 Perl_die(aTHX_ S_no_symref_sv, sv,
275 (SvPOKp(sv) && SvCUR(sv)>32 ? "..." : ""), what);
dc3c76f8
NC
276 else
277 Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, what);
278 }
279 if (!SvOK(sv)) {
fd1d9b5c
FC
280 if (
281 PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF &&
282 PL_op->op_next->op_type != OP_BOOLKEYS
283 )
dc3c76f8
NC
284 Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, what);
285 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
286 report_uninit(sv);
287 if (type != SVt_PV && GIMME_V == G_ARRAY) {
288 (*spp)--;
289 return NULL;
290 }
291 **spp = &PL_sv_undef;
292 return NULL;
293 }
294 if ((PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) &&
295 !(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD))
296 {
77cb3b01 297 if (!(gv = gv_fetchsv_nomg(sv, GV_ADDMG, type)))
dc3c76f8
NC
298 {
299 **spp = &PL_sv_undef;
300 return NULL;
301 }
302 }
303 else {
77cb3b01 304 gv = gv_fetchsv_nomg(sv, GV_ADD, type);
dc3c76f8
NC
305 }
306 return gv;
307}
308
79072805
LW
309PP(pp_rv2sv)
310{
97aff369 311 dVAR; dSP; dTOPss;
c445ea15 312 GV *gv = NULL;
79072805 313
9026059d 314 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
ed6116ce 315 if (SvROK(sv)) {
93d7320b
DM
316 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
317 sv = amagic_deref_call(sv, to_sv_amg);
93d7320b 318 }
f5284f61 319
ed6116ce 320 sv = SvRV(sv);
79072805
LW
321 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
322 case SVt_PVAV:
323 case SVt_PVHV:
324 case SVt_PVCV:
cbae9b9f
YST
325 case SVt_PVFM:
326 case SVt_PVIO:
cea2e8a9 327 DIE(aTHX_ "Not a SCALAR reference");
42d0e0b7 328 default: NOOP;
79072805
LW
329 }
330 }
331 else {
159b6efe 332 gv = MUTABLE_GV(sv);
748a9306 333
6e592b3a 334 if (!isGV_with_GP(gv)) {
dc3c76f8
NC
335 gv = Perl_softref2xv(aTHX_ sv, "a SCALAR", SVt_PV, &sp);
336 if (!gv)
337 RETURN;
463ee0b2 338 }
29c711a3 339 sv = GvSVn(gv);
a0d0e21e 340 }
533c011a 341 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD) {
82d03984
RGS
342 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
343 if (cUNOP->op_first->op_type == OP_NULL)
159b6efe 344 sv = save_scalar(MUTABLE_GV(TOPs));
82d03984
RGS
345 else if (gv)
346 sv = save_scalar(gv);
347 else
f1f66076 348 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s", PL_no_localize_ref);
82d03984 349 }
533c011a 350 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF)
9026059d 351 sv = vivify_ref(sv, PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF);
79072805 352 }
a0d0e21e 353 SETs(sv);
79072805
LW
354 RETURN;
355}
356
357PP(pp_av2arylen)
358{
97aff369 359 dVAR; dSP;
502c6561 360 AV * const av = MUTABLE_AV(TOPs);
02d85cc3
EB
361 const I32 lvalue = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
362 if (lvalue) {
363 SV ** const sv = Perl_av_arylen_p(aTHX_ MUTABLE_AV(av));
364 if (!*sv) {
365 *sv = newSV_type(SVt_PVMG);
366 sv_magic(*sv, MUTABLE_SV(av), PERL_MAGIC_arylen, NULL, 0);
367 }
368 SETs(*sv);
369 } else {
e1dccc0d 370 SETs(sv_2mortal(newSViv(AvFILL(MUTABLE_AV(av)))));
79072805 371 }
79072805
LW
372 RETURN;
373}
374
a0d0e21e
LW
375PP(pp_pos)
376{
2154eca7 377 dVAR; dSP; dPOPss;
8ec5e241 378
78f9721b 379 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET) {
16eb5365
FC
380 SV * const ret = sv_2mortal(newSV_type(SVt_PVLV)); /* Not TARG RT#67838 */
381 sv_magic(ret, NULL, PERL_MAGIC_pos, NULL, 0);
382 LvTYPE(ret) = '.';
383 LvTARG(ret) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple(sv);
2154eca7 384 PUSHs(ret); /* no SvSETMAGIC */
a0d0e21e
LW
385 RETURN;
386 }
387 else {
a0d0e21e 388 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
1b6737cc 389 const MAGIC * const mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
565764a8 390 if (mg && mg->mg_len >= 0) {
2154eca7 391 dTARGET;
a0ed51b3 392 I32 i = mg->mg_len;
7e2040f0 393 if (DO_UTF8(sv))
a0ed51b3 394 sv_pos_b2u(sv, &i);
e1dccc0d 395 PUSHi(i);
a0d0e21e
LW
396 RETURN;
397 }
398 }
399 RETPUSHUNDEF;
400 }
401}
402
79072805
LW
403PP(pp_rv2cv)
404{
97aff369 405 dVAR; dSP;
79072805 406 GV *gv;
1eced8f8 407 HV *stash_unused;
c445ea15 408 const I32 flags = (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL)
9da346da 409 ? GV_ADDMG
c445ea15
AL
410 : ((PL_op->op_private & (OPpLVAL_INTRO|OPpMAY_RETURN_CONSTANT)) == OPpMAY_RETURN_CONSTANT)
411 ? GV_ADD|GV_NOEXPAND
412 : GV_ADD;
4633a7c4
LW
413 /* We usually try to add a non-existent subroutine in case of AUTOLOAD. */
414 /* (But not in defined().) */
e26df76a 415
1eced8f8 416 CV *cv = sv_2cv(TOPs, &stash_unused, &gv, flags);
5a20ba3d 417 if (cv) NOOP;
e26df76a 418 else if ((flags == (GV_ADD|GV_NOEXPAND)) && gv && SvROK(gv)) {
ea726b52 419 cv = MUTABLE_CV(gv);
e26df76a 420 }
07055b4c 421 else
ea726b52 422 cv = MUTABLE_CV(&PL_sv_undef);
ad64d0ec 423 SETs(MUTABLE_SV(cv));
79072805
LW
424 RETURN;
425}
426
c07a80fd
PP
427PP(pp_prototype)
428{
97aff369 429 dVAR; dSP;
c07a80fd
PP
430 CV *cv;
431 HV *stash;
432 GV *gv;
fabdb6c0 433 SV *ret = &PL_sv_undef;
c07a80fd 434
6954f42f 435 if (SvGMAGICAL(TOPs)) SETs(sv_mortalcopy(TOPs));
b6c543e3 436 if (SvPOK(TOPs) && SvCUR(TOPs) >= 7) {
e3f73d4e 437 const char * s = SvPVX_const(TOPs);
b6c543e3 438 if (strnEQ(s, "CORE::", 6)) {
be1b855b 439 const int code = keyword(s + 6, SvCUR(TOPs) - 6, 1);
b66130dd 440 if (!code || code == -KEY_CORE)
1b08e051
FC
441 DIE(aTHX_ "Can't find an opnumber for \"%"SVf"\"",
442 SVfARG(newSVpvn_flags(
443 s+6, SvCUR(TOPs)-6, SvFLAGS(TOPs) & SVf_UTF8
444 )));
4e338c21 445 {
b66130dd
FC
446 SV * const sv = core_prototype(NULL, s + 6, code, NULL);
447 if (sv) ret = sv;
448 }
b8c38f0a 449 goto set;
b6c543e3
IZ
450 }
451 }
f2c0649b 452 cv = sv_2cv(TOPs, &stash, &gv, 0);
5f05dabc 453 if (cv && SvPOK(cv))
8fa6a409
FC
454 ret = newSVpvn_flags(
455 CvPROTO(cv), CvPROTOLEN(cv), SVs_TEMP | SvUTF8(cv)
456 );
b6c543e3 457 set:
c07a80fd
PP
458 SETs(ret);
459 RETURN;
460}
461
a0d0e21e
LW
462PP(pp_anoncode)
463{
97aff369 464 dVAR; dSP;
ea726b52 465 CV *cv = MUTABLE_CV(PAD_SV(PL_op->op_targ));
a5f75d66 466 if (CvCLONE(cv))
ad64d0ec 467 cv = MUTABLE_CV(sv_2mortal(MUTABLE_SV(cv_clone(cv))));
5f05dabc 468 EXTEND(SP,1);
ad64d0ec 469 PUSHs(MUTABLE_SV(cv));
a0d0e21e
LW
470 RETURN;
471}
472
473PP(pp_srefgen)
79072805 474{
97aff369 475 dVAR; dSP;
71be2cbc 476 *SP = refto(*SP);
79072805 477 RETURN;
8ec5e241 478}
a0d0e21e
LW
479
480PP(pp_refgen)
481{
97aff369 482 dVAR; dSP; dMARK;
a0d0e21e 483 if (GIMME != G_ARRAY) {
5f0b1d4e
GS
484 if (++MARK <= SP)
485 *MARK = *SP;
486 else
3280af22 487 *MARK = &PL_sv_undef;
5f0b1d4e
GS
488 *MARK = refto(*MARK);
489 SP = MARK;
490 RETURN;
a0d0e21e 491 }
bbce6d69 492 EXTEND_MORTAL(SP - MARK);
71be2cbc
PP
493 while (++MARK <= SP)
494 *MARK = refto(*MARK);
a0d0e21e 495 RETURN;
79072805
LW
496}
497
76e3520e 498STATIC SV*
cea2e8a9 499S_refto(pTHX_ SV *sv)
71be2cbc 500{
97aff369 501 dVAR;
71be2cbc
PP
502 SV* rv;
503
7918f24d
NC
504 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_REFTO;
505
71be2cbc
PP
506 if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVLV && LvTYPE(sv) == 'y') {
507 if (LvTARGLEN(sv))
68dc0745
PP
508 vivify_defelem(sv);
509 if (!(sv = LvTARG(sv)))
3280af22 510 sv = &PL_sv_undef;
0dd88869 511 else
b37c2d43 512 SvREFCNT_inc_void_NN(sv);
71be2cbc 513 }
d8b46c1b 514 else if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVAV) {
502c6561
NC
515 if (!AvREAL((const AV *)sv) && AvREIFY((const AV *)sv))
516 av_reify(MUTABLE_AV(sv));
d8b46c1b 517 SvTEMP_off(sv);
b37c2d43 518 SvREFCNT_inc_void_NN(sv);
d8b46c1b 519 }
f2933f5f
DM
520 else if (SvPADTMP(sv) && !IS_PADGV(sv))
521 sv = newSVsv(sv);
71be2cbc
PP
522 else {
523 SvTEMP_off(sv);
b37c2d43 524 SvREFCNT_inc_void_NN(sv);
71be2cbc
PP
525 }
526 rv = sv_newmortal();
4df7f6af 527 sv_upgrade(rv, SVt_IV);
b162af07 528 SvRV_set(rv, sv);
71be2cbc
PP
529 SvROK_on(rv);
530 return rv;
531}
532
79072805
LW
533PP(pp_ref)
534{
97aff369 535 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
1b6737cc 536 SV * const sv = POPs;
f12c7020 537
5b295bef
RD
538 if (sv)
539 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
f12c7020 540
a0d0e21e 541 if (!sv || !SvROK(sv))
4633a7c4 542 RETPUSHNO;
79072805 543
a15456de
BF
544 (void)sv_ref(TARG,SvRV(sv),TRUE);
545 PUSHTARG;
79072805
LW
546 RETURN;
547}
548
549PP(pp_bless)
550{
97aff369 551 dVAR; dSP;
463ee0b2 552 HV *stash;
79072805 553
463ee0b2 554 if (MAXARG == 1)
c2f922f1 555 curstash:
11faa288 556 stash = CopSTASH(PL_curcop);
7b8d334a 557 else {
1b6737cc 558 SV * const ssv = POPs;
7b8d334a 559 STRLEN len;
e1ec3a88 560 const char *ptr;
81689caa 561
c2f922f1
FC
562 if (!ssv) goto curstash;
563 if (!SvGMAGICAL(ssv) && !SvAMAGIC(ssv) && SvROK(ssv))
81689caa 564 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Attempt to bless into a reference");
5c144d81 565 ptr = SvPV_const(ssv,len);
a2a5de95
NC
566 if (len == 0)
567 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC),
568 "Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)");
e69c50fe 569 stash = gv_stashpvn(ptr, len, GV_ADD|SvUTF8(ssv));
7b8d334a 570 }
a0d0e21e 571
5d3fdfeb 572 (void)sv_bless(TOPs, stash);
79072805
LW
573 RETURN;
574}
575
fb73857a
PP
576PP(pp_gelem)
577{
97aff369 578 dVAR; dSP;
b13b2135 579
1b6737cc 580 SV *sv = POPs;
a180b31a
BF
581 STRLEN len;
582 const char * const elem = SvPV_const(sv, len);
159b6efe 583 GV * const gv = MUTABLE_GV(POPs);
c445ea15 584 SV * tmpRef = NULL;
1b6737cc 585
c445ea15 586 sv = NULL;
c4ba80c3
NC
587 if (elem) {
588 /* elem will always be NUL terminated. */
1b6737cc 589 const char * const second_letter = elem + 1;
c4ba80c3
NC
590 switch (*elem) {
591 case 'A':
a180b31a 592 if (len == 5 && strEQ(second_letter, "RRAY"))
ad64d0ec 593 tmpRef = MUTABLE_SV(GvAV(gv));
c4ba80c3
NC
594 break;
595 case 'C':
a180b31a 596 if (len == 4 && strEQ(second_letter, "ODE"))
ad64d0ec 597 tmpRef = MUTABLE_SV(GvCVu(gv));
c4ba80c3
NC
598 break;
599 case 'F':
a180b31a 600 if (len == 10 && strEQ(second_letter, "ILEHANDLE")) {
c4ba80c3
NC
601 /* finally deprecated in 5.8.0 */
602 deprecate("*glob{FILEHANDLE}");
ad64d0ec 603 tmpRef = MUTABLE_SV(GvIOp(gv));
c4ba80c3
NC
604 }
605 else
a180b31a 606 if (len == 6 && strEQ(second_letter, "ORMAT"))
ad64d0ec 607 tmpRef = MUTABLE_SV(GvFORM(gv));
c4ba80c3
NC
608 break;
609 case 'G':
a180b31a 610 if (len == 4 && strEQ(second_letter, "LOB"))
ad64d0ec 611 tmpRef = MUTABLE_SV(gv);
c4ba80c3
NC
612 break;
613 case 'H':
a180b31a 614 if (len == 4 && strEQ(second_letter, "ASH"))
ad64d0ec 615 tmpRef = MUTABLE_SV(GvHV(gv));
c4ba80c3
NC
616 break;
617 case 'I':
a180b31a 618 if (*second_letter == 'O' && !elem[2] && len == 2)
ad64d0ec 619 tmpRef = MUTABLE_SV(GvIOp(gv));
c4ba80c3
NC
620 break;
621 case 'N':
a180b31a 622 if (len == 4 && strEQ(second_letter, "AME"))
a663657d 623 sv = newSVhek(GvNAME_HEK(gv));
c4ba80c3
NC
624 break;
625 case 'P':
a180b31a 626 if (len == 7 && strEQ(second_letter, "ACKAGE")) {
7fa3a4ab
NC
627 const HV * const stash = GvSTASH(gv);
628 const HEK * const hek = stash ? HvNAME_HEK(stash) : NULL;
396482e1 629 sv = hek ? newSVhek(hek) : newSVpvs("__ANON__");
c4ba80c3
NC
630 }
631 break;
632 case 'S':
a180b31a 633 if (len == 6 && strEQ(second_letter, "CALAR"))
f9d52e31 634 tmpRef = GvSVn(gv);
c4ba80c3 635 break;
39b99f21 636 }
fb73857a 637 }
76e3520e
GS
638 if (tmpRef)
639 sv = newRV(tmpRef);
fb73857a
PP
640 if (sv)
641 sv_2mortal(sv);
642 else
3280af22 643 sv = &PL_sv_undef;
fb73857a
PP
644 XPUSHs(sv);
645 RETURN;
646}
647
a0d0e21e 648/* Pattern matching */
79072805 649
a0d0e21e 650PP(pp_study)
79072805 651{
97aff369 652 dVAR; dSP; dPOPss;
a0d0e21e
LW
653 STRLEN len;
654
1fa930f2 655 (void)SvPV(sv, len);
bc9a5256 656 if (len == 0 || len > I32_MAX || !SvPOK(sv) || SvUTF8(sv) || SvVALID(sv)) {
32f0ea87 657 /* Historically, study was skipped in these cases. */
a4f4e906
NC
658 RETPUSHNO;
659 }
660
a58a85fa 661 /* Make study a no-op. It's no longer useful and its existence
32f0ea87 662 complicates matters elsewhere. */
1e422769 663 RETPUSHYES;
79072805
LW
664}
665
a0d0e21e 666PP(pp_trans)
79072805 667{
97aff369 668 dVAR; dSP; dTARG;
a0d0e21e
LW
669 SV *sv;
670
533c011a 671 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED)
a0d0e21e 672 sv = POPs;
59f00321
RGS
673 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY)
674 sv = GETTARGET;
79072805 675 else {
54b9620d 676 sv = DEFSV;
a0d0e21e 677 EXTEND(SP,1);
79072805 678 }
adbc6bb1 679 TARG = sv_newmortal();
bb16bae8 680 if(PL_op->op_type == OP_TRANSR) {
290797f7
FC
681 STRLEN len;
682 const char * const pv = SvPV(sv,len);
683 SV * const newsv = newSVpvn_flags(pv, len, SVs_TEMP|SvUTF8(sv));
bb16bae8 684 do_trans(newsv);
290797f7 685 PUSHs(newsv);
bb16bae8
FC
686 }
687 else PUSHi(do_trans(sv));
a0d0e21e 688 RETURN;
79072805
LW
689}
690
a0d0e21e 691/* Lvalue operators. */
79072805 692
81745e4e
NC
693static void
694S_do_chomp(pTHX_ SV *retval, SV *sv, bool chomping)
695{
696 dVAR;
697 STRLEN len;
698 char *s;
699
700 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DO_CHOMP;
701
702 if (chomping && (RsSNARF(PL_rs) || RsRECORD(PL_rs)))
703 return;
704 if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVAV) {
705 I32 i;
706 AV *const av = MUTABLE_AV(sv);
707 const I32 max = AvFILL(av);
708
709 for (i = 0; i <= max; i++) {
710 sv = MUTABLE_SV(av_fetch(av, i, FALSE));
711 if (sv && ((sv = *(SV**)sv), sv != &PL_sv_undef))
712 do_chomp(retval, sv, chomping);
713 }
714 return;
715 }
716 else if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVHV) {
717 HV* const hv = MUTABLE_HV(sv);
718 HE* entry;
719 (void)hv_iterinit(hv);
720 while ((entry = hv_iternext(hv)))
721 do_chomp(retval, hv_iterval(hv,entry), chomping);
722 return;
723 }
724 else if (SvREADONLY(sv)) {
725 if (SvFAKE(sv)) {
726 /* SV is copy-on-write */
727 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
728 }
a5f4b619 729 else
81745e4e
NC
730 Perl_croak_no_modify(aTHX);
731 }
732
733 if (PL_encoding) {
734 if (!SvUTF8(sv)) {
735 /* XXX, here sv is utf8-ized as a side-effect!
736 If encoding.pm is used properly, almost string-generating
737 operations, including literal strings, chr(), input data, etc.
738 should have been utf8-ized already, right?
739 */
740 sv_recode_to_utf8(sv, PL_encoding);
741 }
742 }
743
744 s = SvPV(sv, len);
745 if (chomping) {
746 char *temp_buffer = NULL;
747 SV *svrecode = NULL;
748
749 if (s && len) {
750 s += --len;
751 if (RsPARA(PL_rs)) {
752 if (*s != '\n')
753 goto nope;
754 ++SvIVX(retval);
755 while (len && s[-1] == '\n') {
756 --len;
757 --s;
758 ++SvIVX(retval);
759 }
760 }
761 else {
762 STRLEN rslen, rs_charlen;
763 const char *rsptr = SvPV_const(PL_rs, rslen);
764
765 rs_charlen = SvUTF8(PL_rs)
766 ? sv_len_utf8(PL_rs)
767 : rslen;
768
769 if (SvUTF8(PL_rs) != SvUTF8(sv)) {
770 /* Assumption is that rs is shorter than the scalar. */
771 if (SvUTF8(PL_rs)) {
772 /* RS is utf8, scalar is 8 bit. */
773 bool is_utf8 = TRUE;
774 temp_buffer = (char*)bytes_from_utf8((U8*)rsptr,
775 &rslen, &is_utf8);
776 if (is_utf8) {
777 /* Cannot downgrade, therefore cannot possibly match
778 */
779 assert (temp_buffer == rsptr);
780 temp_buffer = NULL;
781 goto nope;
782 }
783 rsptr = temp_buffer;
784 }
785 else if (PL_encoding) {
786 /* RS is 8 bit, encoding.pm is used.
787 * Do not recode PL_rs as a side-effect. */
788 svrecode = newSVpvn(rsptr, rslen);
789 sv_recode_to_utf8(svrecode, PL_encoding);
790 rsptr = SvPV_const(svrecode, rslen);
791 rs_charlen = sv_len_utf8(svrecode);
792 }
793 else {
794 /* RS is 8 bit, scalar is utf8. */
795 temp_buffer = (char*)bytes_to_utf8((U8*)rsptr, &rslen);
796 rsptr = temp_buffer;
797 }
798 }
799 if (rslen == 1) {
800 if (*s != *rsptr)
801 goto nope;
802 ++SvIVX(retval);
803 }
804 else {
805 if (len < rslen - 1)
806 goto nope;
807 len -= rslen - 1;
808 s -= rslen - 1;
809 if (memNE(s, rsptr, rslen))
810 goto nope;
811 SvIVX(retval) += rs_charlen;
812 }
813 }
fbac7ddf 814 s = SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(sv);
81745e4e
NC
815 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
816 *SvEND(sv) = '\0';
817 SvNIOK_off(sv);
818 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
819 }
820 nope:
821
822 SvREFCNT_dec(svrecode);
823
824 Safefree(temp_buffer);
825 } else {
826 if (len && !SvPOK(sv))
827 s = SvPV_force_nomg(sv, len);
828 if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
829 if (s && len) {
830 char * const send = s + len;
831 char * const start = s;
832 s = send - 1;
833 while (s > start && UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))
834 s--;
835 if (is_utf8_string((U8*)s, send - s)) {
836 sv_setpvn(retval, s, send - s);
837 *s = '\0';
838 SvCUR_set(sv, s - start);
839 SvNIOK_off(sv);
840 SvUTF8_on(retval);
841 }
842 }
843 else
844 sv_setpvs(retval, "");
845 }
846 else if (s && len) {
847 s += --len;
848 sv_setpvn(retval, s, 1);
849 *s = '\0';
850 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
851 SvUTF8_off(sv);
852 SvNIOK_off(sv);
853 }
854 else
855 sv_setpvs(retval, "");
856 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
857 }
858}
859
a0d0e21e
LW
860PP(pp_schop)
861{
97aff369 862 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
fa54efae
NC
863 const bool chomping = PL_op->op_type == OP_SCHOMP;
864
865 if (chomping)
866 sv_setiv(TARG, 0);
867 do_chomp(TARG, TOPs, chomping);
a0d0e21e
LW
868 SETTARG;
869 RETURN;
79072805
LW
870}
871
a0d0e21e 872PP(pp_chop)
79072805 873{
97aff369 874 dVAR; dSP; dMARK; dTARGET; dORIGMARK;
fa54efae 875 const bool chomping = PL_op->op_type == OP_CHOMP;
8ec5e241 876
fa54efae
NC
877 if (chomping)
878 sv_setiv(TARG, 0);
20cf1f79 879 while (MARK < SP)
fa54efae 880 do_chomp(TARG, *++MARK, chomping);
20cf1f79
NC
881 SP = ORIGMARK;
882 XPUSHTARG;
a0d0e21e 883 RETURN;
79072805
LW
884}
885
a0d0e21e
LW
886PP(pp_undef)
887{
97aff369 888 dVAR; dSP;
a0d0e21e
LW
889 SV *sv;
890
533c011a 891 if (!PL_op->op_private) {
774d564b 892 EXTEND(SP, 1);
a0d0e21e 893 RETPUSHUNDEF;
774d564b 894 }
79072805 895
a0d0e21e
LW
896 sv = POPs;
897 if (!sv)
898 RETPUSHUNDEF;
85e6fe83 899
765f542d 900 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
85e6fe83 901
a0d0e21e
LW
902 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
903 case SVt_NULL:
904 break;
905 case SVt_PVAV:
60edcf09 906 av_undef(MUTABLE_AV(sv));
a0d0e21e
LW
907 break;
908 case SVt_PVHV:
60edcf09 909 hv_undef(MUTABLE_HV(sv));
a0d0e21e
LW
910 break;
911 case SVt_PVCV:
a2a5de95 912 if (cv_const_sv((const CV *)sv))
714cd18f
BF
913 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC),
914 "Constant subroutine %"SVf" undefined",
915 SVfARG(CvANON((const CV *)sv)
916 ? newSVpvs_flags("(anonymous)", SVs_TEMP)
917 : sv_2mortal(newSVhek(GvENAME_HEK(CvGV((const CV *)sv))))));
5f66b61c 918 /* FALLTHROUGH */
9607fc9c 919 case SVt_PVFM:
6fc92669
GS
920 {
921 /* let user-undef'd sub keep its identity */
ea726b52
NC
922 GV* const gv = CvGV((const CV *)sv);
923 cv_undef(MUTABLE_CV(sv));
b3f91e91 924 CvGV_set(MUTABLE_CV(sv), gv);
6fc92669 925 }
a0d0e21e 926 break;
8e07c86e 927 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a 928 if (SvFAKE(sv)) {
3280af22 929 SvSetMagicSV(sv, &PL_sv_undef);
6e592b3a
BM
930 break;
931 }
932 else if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
20408e3c 933 GP *gp;
dd69841b
BB
934 HV *stash;
935
dd69841b 936 /* undef *Pkg::meth_name ... */
e530fb81
FC
937 bool method_changed
938 = GvCVu((const GV *)sv) && (stash = GvSTASH((const GV *)sv))
939 && HvENAME_get(stash);
940 /* undef *Foo:: */
941 if((stash = GvHV((const GV *)sv))) {
942 if(HvENAME_get(stash))
943 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(sv_2mortal((SV *)stash));
944 else stash = NULL;
945 }
dd69841b 946
159b6efe 947 gp_free(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
a02a5408 948 Newxz(gp, 1, GP);
c43ae56f 949 GvGP_set(sv, gp_ref(gp));
561b68a9 950 GvSV(sv) = newSV(0);
57843af0 951 GvLINE(sv) = CopLINE(PL_curcop);
159b6efe 952 GvEGV(sv) = MUTABLE_GV(sv);
20408e3c 953 GvMULTI_on(sv);
e530fb81
FC
954
955 if(stash)
afdbe55d 956 mro_package_moved(NULL, stash, (const GV *)sv, 0);
e530fb81
FC
957 stash = NULL;
958 /* undef *Foo::ISA */
959 if( strEQ(GvNAME((const GV *)sv), "ISA")
960 && (stash = GvSTASH((const GV *)sv))
961 && (method_changed || HvENAME(stash)) )
962 mro_isa_changed_in(stash);
963 else if(method_changed)
964 mro_method_changed_in(
da9043f5 965 GvSTASH((const GV *)sv)
e530fb81
FC
966 );
967
6e592b3a 968 break;
20408e3c 969 }
6e592b3a 970 /* FALL THROUGH */
a0d0e21e 971 default:
b15aece3 972 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PV && SvPVX_const(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
8bd4d4c5 973 SvPV_free(sv);
c445ea15 974 SvPV_set(sv, NULL);
4633a7c4 975 SvLEN_set(sv, 0);
a0d0e21e 976 }
0c34ef67 977 SvOK_off(sv);
4633a7c4 978 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
79072805 979 }
a0d0e21e
LW
980
981 RETPUSHUNDEF;
79072805
LW
982}
983
a0d0e21e
LW
984PP(pp_postinc)
985{
97aff369 986 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
c22c99bc
FC
987 const bool inc =
988 PL_op->op_type == OP_POSTINC || PL_op->op_type == OP_I_POSTINC;
60092ce4 989 if (SvTYPE(TOPs) >= SVt_PVAV || (isGV_with_GP(TOPs) && !SvFAKE(TOPs)))
6ad8f254 990 Perl_croak_no_modify(aTHX);
7dcb9b98
DM
991 if (SvROK(TOPs))
992 TARG = sv_newmortal();
a0d0e21e 993 sv_setsv(TARG, TOPs);
4bac9ae4 994 if (!SvREADONLY(TOPs) && !SvGMAGICAL(TOPs) && SvIOK_notUV(TOPs) && !SvNOK(TOPs) && !SvPOK(TOPs)
c22c99bc 995 && SvIVX(TOPs) != (inc ? IV_MAX : IV_MIN))
55497cff 996 {
c22c99bc 997 SvIV_set(TOPs, SvIVX(TOPs) + (inc ? 1 : -1));
55497cff 998 SvFLAGS(TOPs) &= ~(SVp_NOK|SVp_POK);
748a9306 999 }
c22c99bc 1000 else if (inc)
6f1401dc 1001 sv_inc_nomg(TOPs);
c22c99bc 1002 else sv_dec_nomg(TOPs);
a0d0e21e 1003 SvSETMAGIC(TOPs);
1e54a23f 1004 /* special case for undef: see thread at 2003-03/msg00536.html in archive */
c22c99bc 1005 if (inc && !SvOK(TARG))
a0d0e21e
LW
1006 sv_setiv(TARG, 0);
1007 SETs(TARG);
1008 return NORMAL;
1009}
79072805 1010
a0d0e21e
LW
1011/* Ordinary operators. */
1012
1013PP(pp_pow)
1014{
800401ee 1015 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET; SV *svl, *svr;
58d76dfd 1016#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
52a96ae6
HS
1017 bool is_int = 0;
1018#endif
6f1401dc
DM
1019 tryAMAGICbin_MG(pow_amg, AMGf_assign|AMGf_numeric);
1020 svr = TOPs;
1021 svl = TOPm1s;
52a96ae6
HS
1022#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
1023 /* For integer to integer power, we do the calculation by hand wherever
1024 we're sure it is safe; otherwise we call pow() and try to convert to
1025 integer afterwards. */
01f91bf2 1026 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svr) && SvIV_please_nomg(svl)) {
900658e3
PF
1027 UV power;
1028 bool baseuok;
1029 UV baseuv;
1030
800401ee
JH
1031 if (SvUOK(svr)) {
1032 power = SvUVX(svr);
900658e3 1033 } else {
800401ee 1034 const IV iv = SvIVX(svr);
900658e3
PF
1035 if (iv >= 0) {
1036 power = iv;
1037 } else {
1038 goto float_it; /* Can't do negative powers this way. */
1039 }
1040 }
1041
800401ee 1042 baseuok = SvUOK(svl);
900658e3 1043 if (baseuok) {
800401ee 1044 baseuv = SvUVX(svl);
900658e3 1045 } else {
800401ee 1046 const IV iv = SvIVX(svl);
900658e3
PF
1047 if (iv >= 0) {
1048 baseuv = iv;
1049 baseuok = TRUE; /* effectively it's a UV now */
1050 } else {
1051 baseuv = -iv; /* abs, baseuok == false records sign */
1052 }
1053 }
52a96ae6
HS
1054 /* now we have integer ** positive integer. */
1055 is_int = 1;
1056
1057 /* foo & (foo - 1) is zero only for a power of 2. */
58d76dfd 1058 if (!(baseuv & (baseuv - 1))) {
52a96ae6 1059 /* We are raising power-of-2 to a positive integer.
58d76dfd
JH
1060 The logic here will work for any base (even non-integer
1061 bases) but it can be less accurate than
1062 pow (base,power) or exp (power * log (base)) when the
1063 intermediate values start to spill out of the mantissa.
1064 With powers of 2 we know this can't happen.
1065 And powers of 2 are the favourite thing for perl
1066 programmers to notice ** not doing what they mean. */
1067 NV result = 1.0;
1068 NV base = baseuok ? baseuv : -(NV)baseuv;
900658e3
PF
1069
1070 if (power & 1) {
1071 result *= base;
1072 }
1073 while (power >>= 1) {
1074 base *= base;
1075 if (power & 1) {
1076 result *= base;
1077 }
1078 }
58d76dfd
JH
1079 SP--;
1080 SETn( result );
6f1401dc 1081 SvIV_please_nomg(svr);
58d76dfd 1082 RETURN;
52a96ae6
HS
1083 } else {
1084 register unsigned int highbit = 8 * sizeof(UV);
900658e3
PF
1085 register unsigned int diff = 8 * sizeof(UV);
1086 while (diff >>= 1) {
1087 highbit -= diff;
1088 if (baseuv >> highbit) {
1089 highbit += diff;
1090 }
52a96ae6
HS
1091 }
1092 /* we now have baseuv < 2 ** highbit */
1093 if (power * highbit <= 8 * sizeof(UV)) {
1094 /* result will definitely fit in UV, so use UV math
1095 on same algorithm as above */
1096 register UV result = 1;
1097 register UV base = baseuv;
f2338a2e 1098 const bool odd_power = cBOOL(power & 1);
900658e3
PF
1099 if (odd_power) {
1100 result *= base;
1101 }
1102 while (power >>= 1) {
1103 base *= base;
1104 if (power & 1) {
52a96ae6 1105 result *= base;
52a96ae6
HS
1106 }
1107 }
1108 SP--;
0615a994 1109 if (baseuok || !odd_power)
52a96ae6
HS
1110 /* answer is positive */
1111 SETu( result );
1112 else if (result <= (UV)IV_MAX)
1113 /* answer negative, fits in IV */
1114 SETi( -(IV)result );
1115 else if (result == (UV)IV_MIN)
1116 /* 2's complement assumption: special case IV_MIN */
1117 SETi( IV_MIN );
1118 else
1119 /* answer negative, doesn't fit */
1120 SETn( -(NV)result );
1121 RETURN;
1122 }
1123 }
58d76dfd 1124 }
52a96ae6 1125 float_it:
58d76dfd 1126#endif
a0d0e21e 1127 {
6f1401dc
DM
1128 NV right = SvNV_nomg(svr);
1129 NV left = SvNV_nomg(svl);
4efa5a16 1130 (void)POPs;
3aaeb624
JA
1131
1132#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE) && defined(HAS_AIX_POWL_NEG_BASE_BUG)
1133 /*
1134 We are building perl with long double support and are on an AIX OS
1135 afflicted with a powl() function that wrongly returns NaNQ for any
1136 negative base. This was reported to IBM as PMR #23047-379 on
1137 03/06/2006. The problem exists in at least the following versions
1138 of AIX and the libm fileset, and no doubt others as well:
1139
1140 AIX 4.3.3-ML10 bos.adt.libm 4.3.3.50
1141 AIX 5.1.0-ML04 bos.adt.libm 5.1.0.29
1142 AIX 5.2.0 bos.adt.libm 5.2.0.85
1143
1144 So, until IBM fixes powl(), we provide the following workaround to
1145 handle the problem ourselves. Our logic is as follows: for
1146 negative bases (left), we use fmod(right, 2) to check if the
1147 exponent is an odd or even integer:
1148
1149 - if odd, powl(left, right) == -powl(-left, right)
1150 - if even, powl(left, right) == powl(-left, right)
1151
1152 If the exponent is not an integer, the result is rightly NaNQ, so
1153 we just return that (as NV_NAN).
1154 */
1155
1156 if (left < 0.0) {
1157 NV mod2 = Perl_fmod( right, 2.0 );
1158 if (mod2 == 1.0 || mod2 == -1.0) { /* odd integer */
1159 SETn( -Perl_pow( -left, right) );
1160 } else if (mod2 == 0.0) { /* even integer */
1161 SETn( Perl_pow( -left, right) );
1162 } else { /* fractional power */
1163 SETn( NV_NAN );
1164 }
1165 } else {
1166 SETn( Perl_pow( left, right) );
1167 }
1168#else
52a96ae6 1169 SETn( Perl_pow( left, right) );
3aaeb624
JA
1170#endif /* HAS_AIX_POWL_NEG_BASE_BUG */
1171
52a96ae6
HS
1172#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
1173 if (is_int)
6f1401dc 1174 SvIV_please_nomg(svr);
52a96ae6
HS
1175#endif
1176 RETURN;
93a17b20 1177 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1178}
1179
1180PP(pp_multiply)
1181{
800401ee 1182 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET; SV *svl, *svr;
6f1401dc
DM
1183 tryAMAGICbin_MG(mult_amg, AMGf_assign|AMGf_numeric);
1184 svr = TOPs;
1185 svl = TOPm1s;
28e5dec8 1186#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
01f91bf2 1187 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svr)) {
28e5dec8
JH
1188 /* Unless the left argument is integer in range we are going to have to
1189 use NV maths. Hence only attempt to coerce the right argument if
1190 we know the left is integer. */
1191 /* Left operand is defined, so is it IV? */
01f91bf2 1192 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svl)) {
800401ee
JH
1193 bool auvok = SvUOK(svl);
1194 bool buvok = SvUOK(svr);
28e5dec8
JH
1195 const UV topmask = (~ (UV)0) << (4 * sizeof (UV));
1196 const UV botmask = ~((~ (UV)0) << (4 * sizeof (UV)));
1197 UV alow;
1198 UV ahigh;
1199 UV blow;
1200 UV bhigh;
1201
1202 if (auvok) {
800401ee 1203 alow = SvUVX(svl);
28e5dec8 1204 } else {
800401ee 1205 const IV aiv = SvIVX(svl);
28e5dec8
JH
1206 if (aiv >= 0) {
1207 alow = aiv;
1208 auvok = TRUE; /* effectively it's a UV now */
1209 } else {
1210 alow = -aiv; /* abs, auvok == false records sign */
1211 }
1212 }
1213 if (buvok) {
800401ee 1214 blow = SvUVX(svr);
28e5dec8 1215 } else {
800401ee 1216 const IV biv = SvIVX(svr);
28e5dec8
JH
1217 if (biv >= 0) {
1218 blow = biv;
1219 buvok = TRUE; /* effectively it's a UV now */
1220 } else {
1221 blow = -biv; /* abs, buvok == false records sign */
1222 }
1223 }
1224
1225 /* If this does sign extension on unsigned it's time for plan B */
1226 ahigh = alow >> (4 * sizeof (UV));
1227 alow &= botmask;
1228 bhigh = blow >> (4 * sizeof (UV));
1229 blow &= botmask;
1230 if (ahigh && bhigh) {
6f207bd3 1231 NOOP;
28e5dec8
JH
1232 /* eg 32 bit is at least 0x10000 * 0x10000 == 0x100000000
1233 which is overflow. Drop to NVs below. */
1234 } else if (!ahigh && !bhigh) {
1235 /* eg 32 bit is at most 0xFFFF * 0xFFFF == 0xFFFE0001
1236 so the unsigned multiply cannot overflow. */
c445ea15 1237 const UV product = alow * blow;
28e5dec8
JH
1238 if (auvok == buvok) {
1239 /* -ve * -ve or +ve * +ve gives a +ve result. */
1240 SP--;
1241 SETu( product );
1242 RETURN;
1243 } else if (product <= (UV)IV_MIN) {
1244 /* 2s complement assumption that (UV)-IV_MIN is correct. */
1245 /* -ve result, which could overflow an IV */
1246 SP--;
25716404 1247 SETi( -(IV)product );
28e5dec8
JH
1248 RETURN;
1249 } /* else drop to NVs below. */
1250 } else {
1251 /* One operand is large, 1 small */
1252 UV product_middle;
1253 if (bhigh) {
1254 /* swap the operands */
1255 ahigh = bhigh;
1256 bhigh = blow; /* bhigh now the temp var for the swap */
1257 blow = alow;
1258 alow = bhigh;
1259 }
1260 /* now, ((ahigh * blow) << half_UV_len) + (alow * blow)
1261 multiplies can't overflow. shift can, add can, -ve can. */
1262 product_middle = ahigh * blow;
1263 if (!(product_middle & topmask)) {
1264 /* OK, (ahigh * blow) won't lose bits when we shift it. */
1265 UV product_low;
1266 product_middle <<= (4 * sizeof (UV));
1267 product_low = alow * blow;
1268
1269 /* as for pp_add, UV + something mustn't get smaller.
1270 IIRC ANSI mandates this wrapping *behaviour* for
1271 unsigned whatever the actual representation*/
1272 product_low += product_middle;
1273 if (product_low >= product_middle) {
1274 /* didn't overflow */
1275 if (auvok == buvok) {
1276 /* -ve * -ve or +ve * +ve gives a +ve result. */
1277 SP--;
1278 SETu( product_low );
1279 RETURN;
1280 } else if (product_low <= (UV)IV_MIN) {
1281 /* 2s complement assumption again */
1282 /* -ve result, which could overflow an IV */
1283 SP--;
25716404 1284 SETi( -(IV)product_low );
28e5dec8
JH
1285 RETURN;
1286 } /* else drop to NVs below. */
1287 }
1288 } /* product_middle too large */
1289 } /* ahigh && bhigh */
800401ee
JH
1290 } /* SvIOK(svl) */
1291 } /* SvIOK(svr) */
28e5dec8 1292#endif
a0d0e21e 1293 {
6f1401dc
DM
1294 NV right = SvNV_nomg(svr);
1295 NV left = SvNV_nomg(svl);
4efa5a16 1296 (void)POPs;
a0d0e21e
LW
1297 SETn( left * right );
1298 RETURN;
79072805 1299 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1300}
1301
1302PP(pp_divide)
1303{
800401ee 1304 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET; SV *svl, *svr;
6f1401dc
DM
1305 tryAMAGICbin_MG(div_amg, AMGf_assign|AMGf_numeric);
1306 svr = TOPs;
1307 svl = TOPm1s;
5479d192 1308 /* Only try to do UV divide first
68795e93 1309 if ((SLOPPYDIVIDE is true) or
5479d192
NC
1310 (PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV is true and one or both SV is a UV too large
1311 to preserve))
1312 The assumption is that it is better to use floating point divide
1313 whenever possible, only doing integer divide first if we can't be sure.
1314 If NV_PRESERVES_UV is true then we know at compile time that no UV
1315 can be too large to preserve, so don't need to compile the code to
1316 test the size of UVs. */
1317
a0d0e21e 1318#ifdef SLOPPYDIVIDE
5479d192
NC
1319# define PERL_TRY_UV_DIVIDE
1320 /* ensure that 20./5. == 4. */
a0d0e21e 1321#else
5479d192
NC
1322# ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
1323# ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
1324# define PERL_TRY_UV_DIVIDE
1325# endif
1326# endif
a0d0e21e 1327#endif
5479d192
NC
1328
1329#ifdef PERL_TRY_UV_DIVIDE
01f91bf2 1330 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svr) && SvIV_please_nomg(svl)) {
800401ee
JH
1331 bool left_non_neg = SvUOK(svl);
1332 bool right_non_neg = SvUOK(svr);
5479d192
NC
1333 UV left;
1334 UV right;
1335
1336 if (right_non_neg) {
800401ee 1337 right = SvUVX(svr);
5479d192
NC
1338 }
1339 else {
800401ee 1340 const IV biv = SvIVX(svr);
5479d192
NC
1341 if (biv >= 0) {
1342 right = biv;
1343 right_non_neg = TRUE; /* effectively it's a UV now */
1344 }
1345 else {
1346 right = -biv;
1347 }
1348 }
1349 /* historically undef()/0 gives a "Use of uninitialized value"
1350 warning before dieing, hence this test goes here.
1351 If it were immediately before the second SvIV_please, then
1352 DIE() would be invoked before left was even inspected, so
486ec47a 1353 no inspection would give no warning. */
5479d192
NC
1354 if (right == 0)
1355 DIE(aTHX_ "Illegal division by zero");
1356
1357 if (left_non_neg) {
800401ee 1358 left = SvUVX(svl);
5479d192
NC
1359 }
1360 else {
800401ee 1361 const IV aiv = SvIVX(svl);
5479d192
NC
1362 if (aiv >= 0) {
1363 left = aiv;
1364 left_non_neg = TRUE; /* effectively it's a UV now */
1365 }
1366 else {
1367 left = -aiv;
1368 }
1369 }
1370
1371 if (left >= right
1372#ifdef SLOPPYDIVIDE
1373 /* For sloppy divide we always attempt integer division. */
1374#else
1375 /* Otherwise we only attempt it if either or both operands
1376 would not be preserved by an NV. If both fit in NVs
0c2ee62a
NC
1377 we fall through to the NV divide code below. However,
1378 as left >= right to ensure integer result here, we know that
1379 we can skip the test on the right operand - right big
1380 enough not to be preserved can't get here unless left is
1381 also too big. */
1382
1383 && (left > ((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS))
5479d192
NC
1384#endif
1385 ) {
1386 /* Integer division can't overflow, but it can be imprecise. */
1b6737cc 1387 const UV result = left / right;
5479d192
NC
1388 if (result * right == left) {
1389 SP--; /* result is valid */
1390 if (left_non_neg == right_non_neg) {
1391 /* signs identical, result is positive. */
1392 SETu( result );
1393 RETURN;
1394 }
1395 /* 2s complement assumption */
1396 if (result <= (UV)IV_MIN)
91f3b821 1397 SETi( -(IV)result );
5479d192
NC
1398 else {
1399 /* It's exact but too negative for IV. */
1400 SETn( -(NV)result );
1401 }
1402 RETURN;
1403 } /* tried integer divide but it was not an integer result */
32fdb065 1404 } /* else (PERL_ABS(result) < 1.0) or (both UVs in range for NV) */
01f91bf2 1405 } /* one operand wasn't SvIOK */
5479d192
NC
1406#endif /* PERL_TRY_UV_DIVIDE */
1407 {
6f1401dc
DM
1408 NV right = SvNV_nomg(svr);
1409 NV left = SvNV_nomg(svl);
4efa5a16 1410 (void)POPs;(void)POPs;
ebc6a117
PD
1411#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
1412 if (! Perl_isnan(right) && right == 0.0)
1413#else
5479d192 1414 if (right == 0.0)
ebc6a117 1415#endif
5479d192
NC
1416 DIE(aTHX_ "Illegal division by zero");
1417 PUSHn( left / right );
1418 RETURN;
79072805 1419 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1420}
1421
1422PP(pp_modulo)
1423{
6f1401dc
DM
1424 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET;
1425 tryAMAGICbin_MG(modulo_amg, AMGf_assign|AMGf_numeric);
a0d0e21e 1426 {
9c5ffd7c
JH
1427 UV left = 0;
1428 UV right = 0;
dc656993
JH
1429 bool left_neg = FALSE;
1430 bool right_neg = FALSE;
e2c88acc
NC
1431 bool use_double = FALSE;
1432 bool dright_valid = FALSE;
9c5ffd7c
JH
1433 NV dright = 0.0;
1434 NV dleft = 0.0;
6f1401dc
DM
1435 SV * const svr = TOPs;
1436 SV * const svl = TOPm1s;
01f91bf2 1437 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svr)) {
800401ee 1438 right_neg = !SvUOK(svr);
e2c88acc 1439 if (!right_neg) {
800401ee 1440 right = SvUVX(svr);
e2c88acc 1441 } else {
800401ee 1442 const IV biv = SvIVX(svr);
e2c88acc
NC
1443 if (biv >= 0) {
1444 right = biv;
1445 right_neg = FALSE; /* effectively it's a UV now */
1446 } else {
1447 right = -biv;
1448 }
1449 }
1450 }
1451 else {
6f1401dc 1452 dright = SvNV_nomg(svr);
787eafbd
IZ
1453 right_neg = dright < 0;
1454 if (right_neg)
1455 dright = -dright;
e2c88acc
NC
1456 if (dright < UV_MAX_P1) {
1457 right = U_V(dright);
1458 dright_valid = TRUE; /* In case we need to use double below. */
1459 } else {
1460 use_double = TRUE;
1461 }
787eafbd 1462 }
a0d0e21e 1463
e2c88acc
NC
1464 /* At this point use_double is only true if right is out of range for
1465 a UV. In range NV has been rounded down to nearest UV and
1466 use_double false. */
01f91bf2 1467 if (!use_double && SvIV_please_nomg(svl)) {
800401ee 1468 left_neg = !SvUOK(svl);
e2c88acc 1469 if (!left_neg) {
800401ee 1470 left = SvUVX(svl);
e2c88acc 1471 } else {
800401ee 1472 const IV aiv = SvIVX(svl);
e2c88acc
NC
1473 if (aiv >= 0) {
1474 left = aiv;
1475 left_neg = FALSE; /* effectively it's a UV now */
1476 } else {
1477 left = -aiv;
1478 }
1479 }
e2c88acc 1480 }
787eafbd 1481 else {
6f1401dc 1482 dleft = SvNV_nomg(svl);
787eafbd
IZ
1483 left_neg = dleft < 0;
1484 if (left_neg)
1485 dleft = -dleft;
68dc0745 1486
e2c88acc
NC
1487 /* This should be exactly the 5.6 behaviour - if left and right are
1488 both in range for UV then use U_V() rather than floor. */
1489 if (!use_double) {
1490 if (dleft < UV_MAX_P1) {
1491 /* right was in range, so is dleft, so use UVs not double.
1492 */
1493 left = U_V(dleft);
1494 }
1495 /* left is out of range for UV, right was in range, so promote
1496 right (back) to double. */
1497 else {
1498 /* The +0.5 is used in 5.6 even though it is not strictly
1499 consistent with the implicit +0 floor in the U_V()
1500 inside the #if 1. */
1501 dleft = Perl_floor(dleft + 0.5);
1502 use_double = TRUE;
1503 if (dright_valid)
1504 dright = Perl_floor(dright + 0.5);
1505 else
1506 dright = right;
1507 }
1508 }
1509 }
6f1401dc 1510 sp -= 2;
787eafbd 1511 if (use_double) {
65202027 1512 NV dans;
787eafbd 1513
787eafbd 1514 if (!dright)
cea2e8a9 1515 DIE(aTHX_ "Illegal modulus zero");
787eafbd 1516
65202027 1517 dans = Perl_fmod(dleft, dright);
787eafbd
IZ
1518 if ((left_neg != right_neg) && dans)
1519 dans = dright - dans;
1520 if (right_neg)
1521 dans = -dans;
1522 sv_setnv(TARG, dans);
1523 }
1524 else {
1525 UV ans;
1526
787eafbd 1527 if (!right)
cea2e8a9 1528 DIE(aTHX_ "Illegal modulus zero");
787eafbd
IZ
1529
1530 ans = left % right;
1531 if ((left_neg != right_neg) && ans)
1532 ans = right - ans;
1533 if (right_neg) {
1534 /* XXX may warn: unary minus operator applied to unsigned type */
1535 /* could change -foo to be (~foo)+1 instead */
1536 if (ans <= ~((UV)IV_MAX)+1)
1537 sv_setiv(TARG, ~ans+1);
1538 else
65202027 1539 sv_setnv(TARG, -(NV)ans);
787eafbd
IZ
1540 }
1541 else
1542 sv_setuv(TARG, ans);
1543 }
1544 PUSHTARG;
1545 RETURN;
79072805 1546 }
a0d0e21e 1547}
79072805 1548
a0d0e21e
LW
1549PP(pp_repeat)
1550{
6f1401dc 1551 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET;
2b573ace 1552 register IV count;
6f1401dc
DM
1553 SV *sv;
1554
1555 if (GIMME == G_ARRAY && PL_op->op_private & OPpREPEAT_DOLIST) {
1556 /* TODO: think of some way of doing list-repeat overloading ??? */
1557 sv = POPs;
1558 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
1559 }
1560 else {
1561 tryAMAGICbin_MG(repeat_amg, AMGf_assign);
1562 sv = POPs;
1563 }
1564
2b573ace
JH
1565 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
1566 if (SvUOK(sv)) {
6f1401dc 1567 const UV uv = SvUV_nomg(sv);
2b573ace
JH
1568 if (uv > IV_MAX)
1569 count = IV_MAX; /* The best we can do? */
1570 else
1571 count = uv;
1572 } else {
6f1401dc 1573 const IV iv = SvIV_nomg(sv);
2b573ace
JH
1574 if (iv < 0)
1575 count = 0;
1576 else
1577 count = iv;
1578 }
1579 }
1580 else if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
6f1401dc 1581 const NV nv = SvNV_nomg(sv);
2b573ace
JH
1582 if (nv < 0.0)
1583 count = 0;
1584 else
1585 count = (IV)nv;
1586 }
1587 else
6f1401dc
DM
1588 count = SvIV_nomg(sv);
1589
533c011a 1590 if (GIMME == G_ARRAY && PL_op->op_private & OPpREPEAT_DOLIST) {
a0d0e21e 1591 dMARK;
0bd48802
AL
1592 static const char oom_list_extend[] = "Out of memory during list extend";
1593 const I32 items = SP - MARK;
1594 const I32 max = items * count;
79072805 1595
2b573ace
JH
1596 MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(max, SV*, oom_list_extend);
1597 /* Did the max computation overflow? */
27d5b266 1598 if (items > 0 && max > 0 && (max < items || max < count))
2b573ace 1599 Perl_croak(aTHX_ oom_list_extend);
a0d0e21e
LW
1600 MEXTEND(MARK, max);
1601 if (count > 1) {
1602 while (SP > MARK) {
976c8a39
JH
1603#if 0
1604 /* This code was intended to fix 20010809.028:
1605
1606 $x = 'abcd';
1607 for (($x =~ /./g) x 2) {
1608 print chop; # "abcdabcd" expected as output.
1609 }
1610
1611 * but that change (#11635) broke this code:
1612
1613 $x = [("foo")x2]; # only one "foo" ended up in the anonlist.
1614
1615 * I can't think of a better fix that doesn't introduce
1616 * an efficiency hit by copying the SVs. The stack isn't
1617 * refcounted, and mortalisation obviously doesn't
1618 * Do The Right Thing when the stack has more than
1619 * one pointer to the same mortal value.
1620 * .robin.
1621 */
e30acc16
RH
1622 if (*SP) {
1623 *SP = sv_2mortal(newSVsv(*SP));
1624 SvREADONLY_on(*SP);
1625 }
976c8a39
JH
1626#else
1627 if (*SP)
1628 SvTEMP_off((*SP));
1629#endif
a0d0e21e 1630 SP--;
79072805 1631 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1632 MARK++;
1633 repeatcpy((char*)(MARK + items), (char*)MARK,
ad64d0ec 1634 items * sizeof(const SV *), count - 1);
a0d0e21e 1635 SP += max;
79072805 1636 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1637 else if (count <= 0)
1638 SP -= items;
79072805 1639 }
a0d0e21e 1640 else { /* Note: mark already snarfed by pp_list */
0bd48802 1641 SV * const tmpstr = POPs;
a0d0e21e 1642 STRLEN len;
9b877dbb 1643 bool isutf;
2b573ace
JH
1644 static const char oom_string_extend[] =
1645 "Out of memory during string extend";
a0d0e21e 1646
6f1401dc
DM
1647 if (TARG != tmpstr)
1648 sv_setsv_nomg(TARG, tmpstr);
1649 SvPV_force_nomg(TARG, len);
9b877dbb 1650 isutf = DO_UTF8(TARG);
8ebc5c01
PP
1651 if (count != 1) {
1652 if (count < 1)
1653 SvCUR_set(TARG, 0);
1654 else {
c445ea15 1655 const STRLEN max = (UV)count * len;
19a94d75 1656 if (len > MEM_SIZE_MAX / count)
2b573ace
JH
1657 Perl_croak(aTHX_ oom_string_extend);
1658 MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(max, char, oom_string_extend);
8569b9dc 1659 SvGROW(TARG, max + 1);
a0d0e21e 1660 repeatcpy(SvPVX(TARG) + len, SvPVX(TARG), len, count - 1);
b162af07 1661 SvCUR_set(TARG, SvCUR(TARG) * count);
7a4c00b4 1662 }
a0d0e21e 1663 *SvEND(TARG) = '\0';
a0d0e21e 1664 }
dfcb284a
GS
1665 if (isutf)
1666 (void)SvPOK_only_UTF8(TARG);
1667 else
1668 (void)SvPOK_only(TARG);
b80b6069
RH
1669
1670 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpREPEAT_DOLIST) {
1671 /* The parser saw this as a list repeat, and there
1672 are probably several items on the stack. But we're
1673 in scalar context, and there's no pp_list to save us
1674 now. So drop the rest of the items -- robin@kitsite.com
1675 */
1676 dMARK;
1677 SP = MARK;
1678 }
a0d0e21e 1679 PUSHTARG;
79072805 1680 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1681 RETURN;
1682}
79072805 1683
a0d0e21e
LW
1684PP(pp_subtract)
1685{
800401ee 1686 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET; bool useleft; SV *svl, *svr;
6f1401dc
DM
1687 tryAMAGICbin_MG(subtr_amg, AMGf_assign|AMGf_numeric);
1688 svr = TOPs;
1689 svl = TOPm1s;
800401ee 1690 useleft = USE_LEFT(svl);
28e5dec8 1691#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
7dca457a
NC
1692 /* See comments in pp_add (in pp_hot.c) about Overflow, and how
1693 "bad things" happen if you rely on signed integers wrapping. */
01f91bf2 1694 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svr)) {
28e5dec8
JH
1695 /* Unless the left argument is integer in range we are going to have to
1696 use NV maths. Hence only attempt to coerce the right argument if
1697 we know the left is integer. */
9c5ffd7c
JH
1698 register UV auv = 0;
1699 bool auvok = FALSE;
7dca457a
NC
1700 bool a_valid = 0;
1701
28e5dec8 1702 if (!useleft) {
7dca457a
NC
1703 auv = 0;
1704 a_valid = auvok = 1;
1705 /* left operand is undef, treat as zero. */
28e5dec8
JH
1706 } else {
1707 /* Left operand is defined, so is it IV? */
01f91bf2 1708 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svl)) {
800401ee
JH
1709 if ((auvok = SvUOK(svl)))
1710 auv = SvUVX(svl);
7dca457a 1711 else {
800401ee 1712 register const IV aiv = SvIVX(svl);
7dca457a
NC
1713 if (aiv >= 0) {
1714 auv = aiv;
1715 auvok = 1; /* Now acting as a sign flag. */
1716 } else { /* 2s complement assumption for IV_MIN */
1717 auv = (UV)-aiv;
28e5dec8 1718 }
7dca457a
NC
1719 }
1720 a_valid = 1;
1721 }
1722 }
1723 if (a_valid) {
1724 bool result_good = 0;
1725 UV result;
1726 register UV buv;
800401ee 1727 bool buvok = SvUOK(svr);
9041c2e3 1728
7dca457a 1729 if (buvok)
800401ee 1730 buv = SvUVX(svr);
7dca457a 1731 else {
800401ee 1732 register const IV biv = SvIVX(svr);
7dca457a
NC
1733 if (biv >= 0) {
1734 buv = biv;
1735 buvok = 1;
1736 } else
1737 buv = (UV)-biv;
1738 }
1739 /* ?uvok if value is >= 0. basically, flagged as UV if it's +ve,
602f51c4 1740 else "IV" now, independent of how it came in.
7dca457a
NC
1741 if a, b represents positive, A, B negative, a maps to -A etc
1742 a - b => (a - b)
1743 A - b => -(a + b)
1744 a - B => (a + b)
1745 A - B => -(a - b)
1746 all UV maths. negate result if A negative.
1747 subtract if signs same, add if signs differ. */
1748
1749 if (auvok ^ buvok) {
1750 /* Signs differ. */
1751 result = auv + buv;
1752 if (result >= auv)
1753 result_good = 1;
1754 } else {
1755 /* Signs same */
1756 if (auv >= buv) {
1757 result = auv - buv;
1758 /* Must get smaller */
1759 if (result <= auv)
1760 result_good = 1;
1761 } else {
1762 result = buv - auv;
1763 if (result <= buv) {
1764 /* result really should be -(auv-buv). as its negation
1765 of true value, need to swap our result flag */
1766 auvok = !auvok;
1767 result_good = 1;
28e5dec8 1768 }
28e5dec8
JH
1769 }
1770 }
7dca457a
NC
1771 if (result_good) {
1772 SP--;
1773 if (auvok)
1774 SETu( result );
1775 else {
1776 /* Negate result */
1777 if (result <= (UV)IV_MIN)
1778 SETi( -(IV)result );
1779 else {
1780 /* result valid, but out of range for IV. */
1781 SETn( -(NV)result );
1782 }
1783 }
1784 RETURN;
1785 } /* Overflow, drop through to NVs. */
28e5dec8
JH
1786 }
1787 }
1788#endif
a0d0e21e 1789 {
6f1401dc 1790 NV value = SvNV_nomg(svr);
4efa5a16
RD
1791 (void)POPs;
1792
28e5dec8
JH
1793 if (!useleft) {
1794 /* left operand is undef, treat as zero - value */
1795 SETn(-value);
1796 RETURN;
1797 }
6f1401dc 1798 SETn( SvNV_nomg(svl) - value );
28e5dec8 1799 RETURN;
79072805 1800 }
a0d0e21e 1801}
79072805 1802
a0d0e21e
LW
1803PP(pp_left_shift)
1804{
6f1401dc 1805 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET; SV *svl, *svr;
a42d0242 1806 tryAMAGICbin_MG(lshift_amg, AMGf_assign|AMGf_numeric);
6f1401dc
DM
1807 svr = POPs;
1808 svl = TOPs;
a0d0e21e 1809 {
6f1401dc 1810 const IV shift = SvIV_nomg(svr);
d0ba1bd2 1811 if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_INTEGER) {
6f1401dc 1812 const IV i = SvIV_nomg(svl);
972b05a9 1813 SETi(i << shift);
d0ba1bd2
JH
1814 }
1815 else {
6f1401dc 1816 const UV u = SvUV_nomg(svl);
972b05a9 1817 SETu(u << shift);
d0ba1bd2 1818 }
55497cff 1819 RETURN;
79072805 1820 }
a0d0e21e 1821}
79072805 1822
a0d0e21e
LW
1823PP(pp_right_shift)
1824{
6f1401dc 1825 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET; SV *svl, *svr;
a42d0242 1826 tryAMAGICbin_MG(rshift_amg, AMGf_assign|AMGf_numeric);
6f1401dc
DM
1827 svr = POPs;
1828 svl = TOPs;
a0d0e21e 1829 {
6f1401dc 1830 const IV shift = SvIV_nomg(svr);
d0ba1bd2 1831 if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_INTEGER) {
6f1401dc 1832 const IV i = SvIV_nomg(svl);
972b05a9 1833 SETi(i >> shift);
d0ba1bd2
JH
1834 }
1835 else {
6f1401dc 1836 const UV u = SvUV_nomg(svl);
972b05a9 1837 SETu(u >> shift);
d0ba1bd2 1838 }
a0d0e21e 1839 RETURN;
93a17b20 1840 }
79072805
LW
1841}
1842
a0d0e21e 1843PP(pp_lt)
79072805 1844{
6f1401dc 1845 dVAR; dSP;
33efebe6
DM
1846 SV *left, *right;
1847
a42d0242 1848 tryAMAGICbin_MG(lt_amg, AMGf_set|AMGf_numeric);
33efebe6
DM
1849 right = POPs;
1850 left = TOPs;
1851 SETs(boolSV(
1852 (SvIOK_notUV(left) && SvIOK_notUV(right))
1853 ? (SvIVX(left) < SvIVX(right))
1854 : (do_ncmp(left, right) == -1)
1855 ));
1856 RETURN;
a0d0e21e 1857}
79072805 1858
a0d0e21e
LW
1859PP(pp_gt)
1860{
6f1401dc 1861 dVAR; dSP;
33efebe6 1862 SV *left, *right;
1b6737cc 1863
33efebe6
DM
1864 tryAMAGICbin_MG(gt_amg, AMGf_set|AMGf_numeric);
1865 right = POPs;
1866 left = TOPs;
1867 SETs(boolSV(
1868 (SvIOK_notUV(left) && SvIOK_notUV(right))
1869 ? (SvIVX(left) > SvIVX(right))
1870 : (do_ncmp(left, right) == 1)
1871 ));
1872 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
1873}
1874
1875PP(pp_le)
1876{
6f1401dc 1877 dVAR; dSP;
33efebe6 1878 SV *left, *right;
1b6737cc 1879
33efebe6
DM
1880 tryAMAGICbin_MG(le_amg, AMGf_set|AMGf_numeric);
1881 right = POPs;
1882 left = TOPs;
1883 SETs(boolSV(
1884 (SvIOK_notUV(left) && SvIOK_notUV(right))
1885 ? (SvIVX(left) <= SvIVX(right))
1886 : (do_ncmp(left, right) <= 0)
1887 ));
1888 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
1889}
1890
1891PP(pp_ge)
1892{
6f1401dc 1893 dVAR; dSP;
33efebe6
DM
1894 SV *left, *right;
1895
1896 tryAMAGICbin_MG(ge_amg, AMGf_set|AMGf_numeric);
1897 right = POPs;
1898 left = TOPs;
1899 SETs(boolSV(
1900 (SvIOK_notUV(left) && SvIOK_notUV(right))
1901 ? (SvIVX(left) >= SvIVX(right))
1902 : ( (do_ncmp(left, right) & 2) == 0)
1903 ));
1904 RETURN;
1905}
1b6737cc 1906
33efebe6
DM
1907PP(pp_ne)
1908{
1909 dVAR; dSP;
1910 SV *left, *right;
1911
1912 tryAMAGICbin_MG(ne_amg, AMGf_set|AMGf_numeric);
1913 right = POPs;
1914 left = TOPs;
1915 SETs(boolSV(
1916 (SvIOK_notUV(left) && SvIOK_notUV(right))
1917 ? (SvIVX(left) != SvIVX(right))
1918 : (do_ncmp(left, right) != 0)
1919 ));
1920 RETURN;
1921}
1b6737cc 1922
33efebe6
DM
1923/* compare left and right SVs. Returns:
1924 * -1: <
1925 * 0: ==
1926 * 1: >
1927 * 2: left or right was a NaN
1928 */
1929I32
1930Perl_do_ncmp(pTHX_ SV* const left, SV * const right)
1931{
1932 dVAR;
1b6737cc 1933
33efebe6
DM
1934 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DO_NCMP;
1935#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
33efebe6 1936 /* Fortunately it seems NaN isn't IOK */
01f91bf2 1937 if (SvIV_please_nomg(right) && SvIV_please_nomg(left)) {
33efebe6
DM
1938 if (!SvUOK(left)) {
1939 const IV leftiv = SvIVX(left);
1940 if (!SvUOK(right)) {
1941 /* ## IV <=> IV ## */
1942 const IV rightiv = SvIVX(right);
1943 return (leftiv > rightiv) - (leftiv < rightiv);
28e5dec8 1944 }
33efebe6
DM
1945 /* ## IV <=> UV ## */
1946 if (leftiv < 0)
1947 /* As (b) is a UV, it's >=0, so it must be < */
1948 return -1;
1949 {
1950 const UV rightuv = SvUVX(right);
1951 return ((UV)leftiv > rightuv) - ((UV)leftiv < rightuv);
28e5dec8 1952 }
28e5dec8 1953 }
79072805 1954
33efebe6
DM
1955 if (SvUOK(right)) {
1956 /* ## UV <=> UV ## */
1957 const UV leftuv = SvUVX(left);
1958 const UV rightuv = SvUVX(right);
1959 return (leftuv > rightuv) - (leftuv < rightuv);
28e5dec8 1960 }
33efebe6
DM
1961 /* ## UV <=> IV ## */
1962 {
1963 const IV rightiv = SvIVX(right);
1964 if (rightiv < 0)
1965 /* As (a) is a UV, it's >=0, so it cannot be < */
1966 return 1;
1967 {
1968 const UV leftuv = SvUVX(left);
1969 return (leftuv > (UV)rightiv) - (leftuv < (UV)rightiv);
28e5dec8 1970 }
28e5dec8 1971 }
118e2215 1972 assert(0); /* NOTREACHED */
28e5dec8
JH
1973 }
1974#endif
a0d0e21e 1975 {
33efebe6
DM
1976 NV const rnv = SvNV_nomg(right);
1977 NV const lnv = SvNV_nomg(left);
1978
cab190d4 1979#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
33efebe6
DM
1980 if (Perl_isnan(lnv) || Perl_isnan(rnv)) {
1981 return 2;
1982 }
1983 return (lnv > rnv) - (lnv < rnv);
cab190d4 1984#else
33efebe6
DM
1985 if (lnv < rnv)
1986 return -1;
1987 if (lnv > rnv)
1988 return 1;
1989 if (lnv == rnv)
1990 return 0;
1991 return 2;
cab190d4 1992#endif
a0d0e21e 1993 }
79072805
LW
1994}
1995
33efebe6 1996
a0d0e21e 1997PP(pp_ncmp)
79072805 1998{
33efebe6
DM
1999 dVAR; dSP;
2000 SV *left, *right;
2001 I32 value;
a42d0242 2002 tryAMAGICbin_MG(ncmp_amg, AMGf_numeric);
33efebe6
DM
2003 right = POPs;
2004 left = TOPs;
2005 value = do_ncmp(left, right);
2006 if (value == 2) {
3280af22 2007 SETs(&PL_sv_undef);
79072805 2008 }
33efebe6
DM
2009 else {
2010 dTARGET;
2011 SETi(value);
2012 }
2013 RETURN;
a0d0e21e 2014}
79072805 2015
afd9910b 2016PP(pp_sle)
a0d0e21e 2017{
97aff369 2018 dVAR; dSP;
79072805 2019
afd9910b
NC
2020 int amg_type = sle_amg;
2021 int multiplier = 1;
2022 int rhs = 1;
79072805 2023
afd9910b
NC
2024 switch (PL_op->op_type) {
2025 case OP_SLT:
2026 amg_type = slt_amg;
2027 /* cmp < 0 */
2028 rhs = 0;
2029 break;
2030 case OP_SGT:
2031 amg_type = sgt_amg;
2032 /* cmp > 0 */
2033 multiplier = -1;
2034 rhs = 0;
2035 break;
2036 case OP_SGE:
2037 amg_type = sge_amg;
2038 /* cmp >= 0 */
2039 multiplier = -1;
2040 break;
79072805 2041 }
79072805 2042
6f1401dc 2043 tryAMAGICbin_MG(amg_type, AMGf_set);
a0d0e21e
LW
2044 {
2045 dPOPTOPssrl;
1b6737cc 2046 const int cmp = (IN_LOCALE_RUNTIME
078504b2
FC
2047 ? sv_cmp_locale_flags(left, right, 0)
2048 : sv_cmp_flags(left, right, 0));
afd9910b 2049 SETs(boolSV(cmp * multiplier < rhs));
a0d0e21e
LW
2050 RETURN;
2051 }
2052}
79072805 2053
36477c24
PP
2054PP(pp_seq)
2055{
6f1401dc
DM
2056 dVAR; dSP;
2057 tryAMAGICbin_MG(seq_amg, AMGf_set);
36477c24
PP
2058 {
2059 dPOPTOPssrl;
078504b2 2060 SETs(boolSV(sv_eq_flags(left, right, 0)));
a0d0e21e
LW
2061 RETURN;
2062 }
2063}
79072805 2064
a0d0e21e 2065PP(pp_sne)
79072805 2066{
6f1401dc
DM
2067 dVAR; dSP;
2068 tryAMAGICbin_MG(sne_amg, AMGf_set);
a0d0e21e
LW
2069 {
2070 dPOPTOPssrl;
078504b2 2071 SETs(boolSV(!sv_eq_flags(left, right, 0)));
a0d0e21e 2072 RETURN;
463ee0b2 2073 }
79072805
LW
2074}
2075
a0d0e21e 2076PP(pp_scmp)
79072805 2077{
6f1401dc
DM
2078 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
2079 tryAMAGICbin_MG(scmp_amg, 0);
a0d0e21e
LW
2080 {
2081 dPOPTOPssrl;
1b6737cc 2082 const int cmp = (IN_LOCALE_RUNTIME
078504b2
FC
2083 ? sv_cmp_locale_flags(left, right, 0)
2084 : sv_cmp_flags(left, right, 0));
bbce6d69 2085 SETi( cmp );
a0d0e21e
LW
2086 RETURN;
2087 }
2088}
79072805 2089
55497cff
PP
2090PP(pp_bit_and)
2091{
6f1401dc
DM
2092 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET;
2093 tryAMAGICbin_MG(band_amg, AMGf_assign);
a0d0e21e
LW
2094 {
2095 dPOPTOPssrl;
4633a7c4 2096 if (SvNIOKp(left) || SvNIOKp(right)) {
b20c4ee1
FC
2097 const bool left_ro_nonnum = !SvNIOKp(left) && SvREADONLY(left);
2098 const bool right_ro_nonnum = !SvNIOKp(right) && SvREADONLY(right);
d0ba1bd2 2099 if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_INTEGER) {
1b6737cc 2100 const IV i = SvIV_nomg(left) & SvIV_nomg(right);
972b05a9 2101 SETi(i);
d0ba1bd2
JH
2102 }
2103 else {
1b6737cc 2104 const UV u = SvUV_nomg(left) & SvUV_nomg(right);
972b05a9 2105 SETu(u);
d0ba1bd2 2106 }
5ee80e13 2107 if (left_ro_nonnum && left != TARG) SvNIOK_off(left);
b20c4ee1 2108 if (right_ro_nonnum) SvNIOK_off(right);
a0d0e21e
LW
2109 }
2110 else {
533c011a 2111 do_vop(PL_op->op_type, TARG, left, right);
a0d0e21e
LW
2112 SETTARG;
2113 }
2114 RETURN;
2115 }
2116}
79072805 2117
a0d0e21e
LW
2118PP(pp_bit_or)
2119{
3658c1f1
NC
2120 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET;
2121 const int op_type = PL_op->op_type;
2122
6f1401dc 2123 tryAMAGICbin_MG((op_type == OP_BIT_OR ? bor_amg : bxor_amg), AMGf_assign);
a0d0e21e
LW
2124 {
2125 dPOPTOPssrl;
4633a7c4 2126 if (SvNIOKp(left) || SvNIOKp(right)) {
b20c4ee1
FC
2127 const bool left_ro_nonnum = !SvNIOKp(left) && SvREADONLY(left);
2128 const bool right_ro_nonnum = !SvNIOKp(right) && SvREADONLY(right);
d0ba1bd2 2129 if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_INTEGER) {
3658c1f1
NC
2130 const IV l = (USE_LEFT(left) ? SvIV_nomg(left) : 0);
2131 const IV r = SvIV_nomg(right);
2132 const IV result = op_type == OP_BIT_OR ? (l | r) : (l ^ r);
2133 SETi(result);
d0ba1bd2
JH
2134 }
2135 else {
3658c1f1
NC
2136 const UV l = (USE_LEFT(left) ? SvUV_nomg(left) : 0);
2137 const UV r = SvUV_nomg(right);
2138 const UV result = op_type == OP_BIT_OR ? (l | r) : (l ^ r);
2139 SETu(result);
d0ba1bd2 2140 }
5ee80e13 2141 if (left_ro_nonnum && left != TARG) SvNIOK_off(left);
b20c4ee1 2142 if (right_ro_nonnum) SvNIOK_off(right);
a0d0e21e
LW
2143 }
2144 else {
3658c1f1 2145 do_vop(op_type, TARG, left, right);
a0d0e21e
LW
2146 SETTARG;
2147 }
2148 RETURN;
79072805 2149 }
a0d0e21e 2150}
79072805 2151
1c2b3fd6
FC
2152PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
2153S_negate_string(pTHX)
2154{
2155 dTARGET; dSP;
2156 STRLEN len;
2157 const char *s;
2158 SV * const sv = TOPs;
2159 if (!SvPOKp(sv) || SvNIOK(sv) || (!SvPOK(sv) && SvNIOKp(sv)))
2160 return FALSE;
2161 s = SvPV_nomg_const(sv, len);
2162 if (isIDFIRST(*s)) {
2163 sv_setpvs(TARG, "-");
2164 sv_catsv(TARG, sv);
2165 }
2166 else if (*s == '+' || (*s == '-' && !looks_like_number(sv))) {
2167 sv_setsv_nomg(TARG, sv);
2168 *SvPV_force_nomg(TARG, len) = *s == '-' ? '+' : '-';
2169 }
2170 else return FALSE;
2171 SETTARG; PUTBACK;
2172 return TRUE;
2173}
2174
a0d0e21e
LW
2175PP(pp_negate)
2176{
6f1401dc
DM
2177 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
2178 tryAMAGICun_MG(neg_amg, AMGf_numeric);
1c2b3fd6 2179 if (S_negate_string(aTHX)) return NORMAL;
a0d0e21e 2180 {
6f1401dc 2181 SV * const sv = TOPs;
a5b92898 2182
7dbe3150
FC
2183 if (SvIOK(sv) || (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && SvIOKp(sv))) {
2184 /* It's publicly an integer */
28e5dec8 2185 oops_its_an_int:
9b0e499b
GS
2186 if (SvIsUV(sv)) {
2187 if (SvIVX(sv) == IV_MIN) {
28e5dec8 2188 /* 2s complement assumption. */
9b0e499b
GS
2189 SETi(SvIVX(sv)); /* special case: -((UV)IV_MAX+1) == IV_MIN */
2190 RETURN;
2191 }
2192 else if (SvUVX(sv) <= IV_MAX) {
beccb14c 2193 SETi(-SvIVX(sv));
9b0e499b
GS
2194 RETURN;
2195 }
2196 }
2197 else if (SvIVX(sv) != IV_MIN) {
2198 SETi(-SvIVX(sv));
2199 RETURN;
2200 }
28e5dec8
JH
2201#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
2202 else {
2203 SETu((UV)IV_MIN);
2204 RETURN;
2205 }
2206#endif
9b0e499b 2207 }
8a5decd8 2208 if (SvNIOKp(sv) && (SvNIOK(sv) || !SvPOK(sv)))
6f1401dc 2209 SETn(-SvNV_nomg(sv));
1c2b3fd6 2210 else if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvIV_please_nomg(sv))
8eb28a70 2211 goto oops_its_an_int;
4633a7c4 2212 else
6f1401dc 2213 SETn(-SvNV_nomg(sv));
79072805 2214 }
a0d0e21e 2215 RETURN;
79072805
LW
2216}
2217
a0d0e21e 2218PP(pp_not)
79072805 2219{
6f1401dc
DM
2220 dVAR; dSP;
2221 tryAMAGICun_MG(not_amg, AMGf_set);
06c841cf 2222 *PL_stack_sp = boolSV(!SvTRUE_nomg(*PL_stack_sp));
a0d0e21e 2223 return NORMAL;
79072805
LW
2224}
2225
a0d0e21e 2226PP(pp_complement)
79072805 2227{
6f1401dc 2228 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
a42d0242 2229 tryAMAGICun_MG(compl_amg, AMGf_numeric);
a0d0e21e
LW
2230 {
2231 dTOPss;
4633a7c4 2232 if (SvNIOKp(sv)) {
d0ba1bd2 2233 if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_INTEGER) {
1b6737cc 2234 const IV i = ~SvIV_nomg(sv);
972b05a9 2235 SETi(i);
d0ba1bd2
JH
2236 }
2237 else {
1b6737cc 2238 const UV u = ~SvUV_nomg(sv);
972b05a9 2239 SETu(u);
d0ba1bd2 2240 }
a0d0e21e
LW
2241 }
2242 else {
51723571 2243 register U8 *tmps;
55497cff 2244 register I32 anum;
a0d0e21e
LW
2245 STRLEN len;
2246
10516c54 2247 (void)SvPV_nomg_const(sv,len); /* force check for uninit var */
891f9566 2248 sv_setsv_nomg(TARG, sv);
6f1401dc 2249 tmps = (U8*)SvPV_force_nomg(TARG, len);
a0d0e21e 2250 anum = len;
1d68d6cd 2251 if (SvUTF8(TARG)) {
a1ca4561 2252 /* Calculate exact length, let's not estimate. */
1d68d6cd 2253 STRLEN targlen = 0;
ba210ebe 2254 STRLEN l;
a1ca4561
YST
2255 UV nchar = 0;
2256 UV nwide = 0;
01f6e806 2257 U8 * const send = tmps + len;
74d49cd0
ST
2258 U8 * const origtmps = tmps;
2259 const UV utf8flags = UTF8_ALLOW_ANYUV;
1d68d6cd 2260
1d68d6cd 2261 while (tmps < send) {
74d49cd0
ST
2262 const UV c = utf8n_to_uvchr(tmps, send-tmps, &l, utf8flags);
2263 tmps += l;
5bbb0b5a 2264 targlen += UNISKIP(~c);
a1ca4561
YST
2265 nchar++;
2266 if (c > 0xff)
2267 nwide++;
1d68d6cd
SC
2268 }
2269
2270 /* Now rewind strings and write them. */
74d49cd0 2271 tmps = origtmps;
a1ca4561
YST
2272
2273 if (nwide) {
01f6e806
AL
2274 U8 *result;
2275 U8 *p;
2276
74d49cd0 2277 Newx(result, targlen + 1, U8);
01f6e806 2278 p = result;
a1ca4561 2279 while (tmps < send) {
74d49cd0
ST
2280 const UV c = utf8n_to_uvchr(tmps, send-tmps, &l, utf8flags);
2281 tmps += l;
01f6e806 2282 p = uvchr_to_utf8_flags(p, ~c, UNICODE_ALLOW_ANY);
a1ca4561 2283 }
01f6e806 2284 *p = '\0';
c1c21316
NC
2285 sv_usepvn_flags(TARG, (char*)result, targlen,
2286 SV_HAS_TRAILING_NUL);
a1ca4561
YST
2287 SvUTF8_on(TARG);
2288 }
2289 else {
01f6e806
AL
2290 U8 *result;
2291 U8 *p;
2292
74d49cd0 2293 Newx(result, nchar + 1, U8);
01f6e806 2294 p = result;
a1ca4561 2295 while (tmps < send) {
74d49cd0
ST
2296 const U8 c = (U8)utf8n_to_uvchr(tmps, send-tmps, &l, utf8flags);
2297 tmps += l;
01f6e806 2298 *p++ = ~c;
a1ca4561 2299 }
01f6e806 2300 *p = '\0';
c1c21316 2301 sv_usepvn_flags(TARG, (char*)result, nchar, SV_HAS_TRAILING_NUL);
d0a21e00 2302 SvUTF8_off(TARG);
1d68d6cd 2303 }
ec93b65f 2304 SETTARG;
1d68d6cd
SC
2305 RETURN;
2306 }
a0d0e21e 2307#ifdef LIBERAL
51723571
JH
2308 {
2309 register long *tmpl;
2310 for ( ; anum && (unsigned long)tmps % sizeof(long); anum--, tmps++)
2311 *tmps = ~*tmps;
2312 tmpl = (long*)tmps;
bb7a0f54 2313 for ( ; anum >= (I32)sizeof(long); anum -= (I32)sizeof(long), tmpl++)
51723571
JH
2314 *tmpl = ~*tmpl;
2315 tmps = (U8*)tmpl;
2316 }
a0d0e21e
LW
2317#endif
2318 for ( ; anum > 0; anum--, tmps++)
2319 *tmps = ~*tmps;
ec93b65f 2320 SETTARG;
a0d0e21e
LW
2321 }
2322 RETURN;
2323 }
79072805
LW
2324}
2325
a0d0e21e
LW
2326/* integer versions of some of the above */
2327
a0d0e21e 2328PP(pp_i_multiply)
79072805 2329{
6f1401dc
DM
2330 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET;
2331 tryAMAGICbin_MG(mult_amg, AMGf_assign);
a0d0e21e 2332 {
6f1401dc 2333 dPOPTOPiirl_nomg;
a0d0e21e
LW
2334 SETi( left * right );
2335 RETURN;
2336 }
79072805
LW
2337}
2338
a0d0e21e 2339PP(pp_i_divide)
79072805 2340{
85935d8e 2341 IV num;
6f1401dc
DM
2342 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET;
2343 tryAMAGICbin_MG(div_amg, AMGf_assign);
a0d0e21e 2344 {
6f1401dc 2345 dPOPTOPssrl;
85935d8e 2346 IV value = SvIV_nomg(right);
a0d0e21e 2347 if (value == 0)
ece1bcef 2348 DIE(aTHX_ "Illegal division by zero");
85935d8e 2349 num = SvIV_nomg(left);
a0cec769
YST
2350
2351 /* avoid FPE_INTOVF on some platforms when num is IV_MIN */
2352 if (value == -1)
2353 value = - num;
2354 else
2355 value = num / value;
6f1401dc 2356 SETi(value);
a0d0e21e
LW
2357 RETURN;
2358 }
79072805
LW
2359}
2360
befad5d1 2361#if defined(__GLIBC__) && IVSIZE == 8
224ec323
JH
2362STATIC
2363PP(pp_i_modulo_0)
befad5d1
NC
2364#else
2365PP(pp_i_modulo)
2366#endif
224ec323
JH
2367{
2368 /* This is the vanilla old i_modulo. */
6f1401dc
DM
2369 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET;
2370 tryAMAGICbin_MG(modulo_amg, AMGf_assign);
224ec323 2371 {
6f1401dc 2372 dPOPTOPiirl_nomg;
224ec323
JH
2373 if (!right)
2374 DIE(aTHX_ "Illegal modulus zero");
a0cec769
YST
2375 /* avoid FPE_INTOVF on some platforms when left is IV_MIN */
2376 if (right == -1)
2377 SETi( 0 );
2378 else
2379 SETi( left % right );
224ec323
JH
2380 RETURN;
2381 }
2382}
2383
11010fa3 2384#if defined(__GLIBC__) && IVSIZE == 8
224ec323
JH
2385STATIC
2386PP(pp_i_modulo_1)
befad5d1 2387
224ec323 2388{
224ec323 2389 /* This is the i_modulo with the workaround for the _moddi3 bug
fce2b89e 2390 * in (at least) glibc 2.2.5 (the PERL_ABS() the workaround).
224ec323 2391 * See below for pp_i_modulo. */
6f1401dc
DM
2392 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET;
2393 tryAMAGICbin_MG(modulo_amg, AMGf_assign);
224ec323 2394 {
6f1401dc 2395 dPOPTOPiirl_nomg;
224ec323
JH
2396 if (!right)
2397 DIE(aTHX_ "Illegal modulus zero");
a0cec769
YST
2398 /* avoid FPE_INTOVF on some platforms when left is IV_MIN */
2399 if (right == -1)
2400 SETi( 0 );
2401 else
2402 SETi( left % PERL_ABS(right) );
224ec323
JH
2403 RETURN;
2404 }
224ec323
JH
2405}
2406
a0d0e21e 2407PP(pp_i_modulo)
79072805 2408{
6f1401dc
DM
2409 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET;
2410 tryAMAGICbin_MG(modulo_amg, AMGf_assign);
224ec323 2411 {
6f1401dc 2412 dPOPTOPiirl_nomg;
224ec323
JH
2413 if (!right)
2414 DIE(aTHX_ "Illegal modulus zero");
2415 /* The assumption is to use hereafter the old vanilla version... */
2416 PL_op->op_ppaddr =
2417 PL_ppaddr[OP_I_MODULO] =
1c127fab 2418 Perl_pp_i_modulo_0;
224ec323
JH
2419 /* .. but if we have glibc, we might have a buggy _moddi3
2420 * (at least glicb 2.2.5 is known to have this bug), in other
2421 * words our integer modulus with negative quad as the second
2422 * argument might be broken. Test for this and re-patch the
2423 * opcode dispatch table if that is the case, remembering to
2424 * also apply the workaround so that this first round works
2425 * right, too. See [perl #9402] for more information. */
224ec323
JH
2426 {
2427 IV l = 3;
2428 IV r = -10;
2429 /* Cannot do this check with inlined IV constants since
2430 * that seems to work correctly even with the buggy glibc. */
2431 if (l % r == -3) {
2432 /* Yikes, we have the bug.
2433 * Patch in the workaround version. */
2434 PL_op->op_ppaddr =
2435 PL_ppaddr[OP_I_MODULO] =
2436 &Perl_pp_i_modulo_1;
2437 /* Make certain we work right this time, too. */
32fdb065 2438 right = PERL_ABS(right);
224ec323
JH
2439 }
2440 }
a0cec769
YST
2441 /* avoid FPE_INTOVF on some platforms when left is IV_MIN */
2442 if (right == -1)
2443 SETi( 0 );
2444 else
2445 SETi( left % right );
224ec323
JH
2446 RETURN;
2447 }
79072805 2448}
befad5d1 2449#endif
79072805 2450
a0d0e21e 2451PP(pp_i_add)
79072805 2452{
6f1401dc
DM
2453 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET;
2454 tryAMAGICbin_MG(add_amg, AMGf_assign);
a0d0e21e 2455 {
6f1401dc 2456 dPOPTOPiirl_ul_nomg;
a0d0e21e
LW
2457 SETi( left + right );
2458 RETURN;
79072805 2459 }
79072805
LW
2460}
2461
a0d0e21e 2462PP(pp_i_subtract)
79072805 2463{
6f1401dc
DM
2464 dVAR; dSP; dATARGET;
2465 tryAMAGICbin_MG(subtr_amg, AMGf_assign);
a0d0e21e 2466 {
6f1401dc 2467 dPOPTOPiirl_ul_nomg;
a0d0e21e
LW
2468 SETi( left - right );
2469 RETURN;
79072805 2470 }
79072805
LW
2471}
2472
a0d0e21e 2473PP(pp_i_lt)
79072805 2474{
6f1401dc
DM
2475 dVAR; dSP;
2476 tryAMAGICbin_MG(lt_amg, AMGf_set);
a0d0e21e 2477 {
96b6b87f 2478 dPOPTOPiirl_nomg;
54310121 2479 SETs(boolSV(left < right));
a0d0e21e
LW
2480 RETURN;
2481 }
79072805
LW
2482}
2483
a0d0e21e 2484PP(pp_i_gt)
79072805 2485{
6f1401dc
DM
2486 dVAR; dSP;
2487 tryAMAGICbin_MG(gt_amg, AMGf_set);
a0d0e21e 2488 {
96b6b87f 2489 dPOPTOPiirl_nomg;
54310121 2490 SETs(boolSV(left > right));
a0d0e21e
LW
2491 RETURN;
2492 }
79072805
LW
2493}
2494
a0d0e21e 2495PP(pp_i_le)
79072805 2496{
6f1401dc
DM
2497 dVAR; dSP;
2498 tryAMAGICbin_MG(le_amg, AMGf_set);
a0d0e21e 2499 {
96b6b87f 2500 dPOPTOPiirl_nomg;
54310121 2501 SETs(boolSV(left <= right));
a0d0e21e 2502 RETURN;
85e6fe83 2503 }
79072805
LW
2504}
2505
a0d0e21e 2506PP(pp_i_ge)
79072805 2507{
6f1401dc
DM
2508 dVAR; dSP;
2509 tryAMAGICbin_MG(ge_amg, AMGf_set);
a0d0e21e 2510 {
96b6b87f 2511 dPOPTOPiirl_nomg;
54310121 2512 SETs(boolSV(left >= right));
a0d0e21e
LW
2513 RETURN;
2514 }
79072805
LW
2515}
2516
a0d0e21e 2517PP(pp_i_eq)
79072805 2518{
6f1401dc
DM
2519 dVAR; dSP;
2520 tryAMAGICbin_MG(eq_amg, AMGf_set);
a0d0e21e 2521 {
96b6b87f 2522 dPOPTOPiirl_nomg;
54310121 2523 SETs(boolSV(left == right));
a0d0e21e
LW
2524 RETURN;
2525 }
79072805
LW
2526}
2527
a0d0e21e 2528PP(pp_i_ne)
79072805 2529{
6f1401dc
DM
2530 dVAR; dSP;
2531 tryAMAGICbin_MG(ne_amg, AMGf_set);
a0d0e21e 2532 {
96b6b87f 2533 dPOPTOPiirl_nomg;
54310121 2534 SETs(boolSV(left != right));
a0d0e21e
LW
2535 RETURN;
2536 }
79072805
LW
2537}
2538
a0d0e21e 2539PP(pp_i_ncmp)
79072805 2540{
6f1401dc
DM
2541 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
2542 tryAMAGICbin_MG(ncmp_amg, 0);
a0d0e21e 2543 {
96b6b87f 2544 dPOPTOPiirl_nomg;
a0d0e21e 2545 I32 value;
79072805 2546
a0d0e21e 2547 if (left > right)
79072805 2548 value = 1;
a0d0e21e 2549 else if (left < right)
79072805 2550 value = -1;
a0d0e21e 2551 else
79072805 2552 value = 0;
a0d0e21e
LW
2553 SETi(value);
2554 RETURN;
79072805 2555 }
85e6fe83
LW
2556}
2557
2558PP(pp_i_negate)
2559{
6f1401dc
DM
2560 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
2561 tryAMAGICun_MG(neg_amg, 0);
1c2b3fd6 2562 if (S_negate_string(aTHX)) return NORMAL;
6f1401dc
DM
2563 {
2564 SV * const sv = TOPs;
2565 IV const i = SvIV_nomg(sv);
2566 SETi(-i);
2567 RETURN;
2568 }
85e6fe83
LW
2569}
2570
79072805
LW
2571/* High falutin' math. */
2572
2573PP(pp_atan2)
2574{
6f1401dc
DM
2575 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
2576 tryAMAGICbin_MG(atan2_amg, 0);
a0d0e21e 2577 {
096c060c 2578 dPOPTOPnnrl_nomg;
a1021d57 2579 SETn(Perl_atan2(left, right));
a0d0e21e
LW
2580 RETURN;
2581 }
79072805
LW
2582}
2583
2584PP(pp_sin)
2585{
71302fe3
NC
2586 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
2587 int amg_type = sin_amg;
2588 const char *neg_report = NULL;
bc81784a 2589 NV (*func)(NV) = Perl_sin;
71302fe3
NC
2590 const int op_type = PL_op->op_type;
2591
2592 switch (op_type) {
2593 case OP_COS:
2594 amg_type = cos_amg;
bc81784a 2595 func = Perl_cos;
71302fe3
NC
2596 break;
2597 case OP_EXP:
2598 amg_type = exp_amg;
bc81784a 2599 func = Perl_exp;
71302fe3
NC
2600 break;
2601 case OP_LOG:
2602 amg_type = log_amg;
bc81784a 2603 func = Perl_log;
71302fe3
NC
2604 neg_report = "log";
2605 break;
2606 case OP_SQRT:
2607 amg_type = sqrt_amg;
bc81784a 2608 func = Perl_sqrt;
71302fe3
NC
2609 neg_report = "sqrt";
2610 break;
a0d0e21e 2611 }
79072805 2612
6f1401dc
DM
2613
2614 tryAMAGICun_MG(amg_type, 0);
a0d0e21e 2615 {
6f1401dc
DM
2616 SV * const arg = POPs;
2617 const NV value = SvNV_nomg(arg);
71302fe3
NC
2618 if (neg_report) {
2619 if (op_type == OP_LOG ? (value <= 0.0) : (value < 0.0)) {
2620 SET_NUMERIC_STANDARD();
dcbac5bb 2621 /* diag_listed_as: Can't take log of %g */
71302fe3
NC
2622 DIE(aTHX_ "Can't take %s of %"NVgf, neg_report, value);
2623 }
2624 }
2625 XPUSHn(func(value));
a0d0e21e
LW
2626 RETURN;
2627 }
79072805
LW
2628}
2629
56cb0a1c
AD
2630/* Support Configure command-line overrides for rand() functions.
2631 After 5.005, perhaps we should replace this by Configure support
2632 for drand48(), random(), or rand(). For 5.005, though, maintain
2633 compatibility by calling rand() but allow the user to override it.
2634 See INSTALL for details. --Andy Dougherty 15 July 1998
2635*/
85ab1d1d
JH
2636/* Now it's after 5.005, and Configure supports drand48() and random(),
2637 in addition to rand(). So the overrides should not be needed any more.
2638 --Jarkko Hietaniemi 27 September 1998
2639 */
2640
2641#ifndef HAS_DRAND48_PROTO
20ce7b12 2642extern double drand48 (void);
56cb0a1c
AD
2643#endif
2644
79072805
LW
2645PP(pp_rand)
2646{
97aff369 2647 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
65202027 2648 NV value;
79072805
LW
2649 if (MAXARG < 1)
2650 value = 1.0;
94ec06bc
FC
2651 else if (!TOPs) {
2652 value = 1.0; (void)POPs;
2653 }
79072805
LW
2654 else
2655 value = POPn;
2656 if (value == 0.0)
2657 value = 1.0;
80252599 2658 if (!PL_srand_called) {
85ab1d1d 2659 (void)seedDrand01((Rand_seed_t)seed());
80252599 2660 PL_srand_called = TRUE;
93dc8474 2661 }
85ab1d1d 2662 value *= Drand01();
79072805
LW
2663 XPUSHn(value);
2664 RETURN;
2665}
2666
2667PP(pp_srand)
2668{
83832992 2669 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
f914a682
JL
2670 UV anum;
2671
0a5f3363 2672 if (MAXARG >= 1 && (TOPs || POPs)) {
f914a682
JL
2673 SV *top;
2674 char *pv;
2675 STRLEN len;
2676 int flags;
2677
2678 top = POPs;
2679 pv = SvPV(top, len);
2680 flags = grok_number(pv, len, &anum);
2681
2682 if (!(flags & IS_NUMBER_IN_UV)) {
2683 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_OVERFLOW),
2684 "Integer overflow in srand");
2685 anum = UV_MAX;
2686 }
2687 }
2688 else {
2689 anum = seed();
2690 }
2691
85ab1d1d 2692 (void)seedDrand01((Rand_seed_t)anum);
80252599 2693 PL_srand_called = TRUE;
da1010ec
NC
2694 if (anum)
2695 XPUSHu(anum);
2696 else {
2697 /* Historically srand always returned true. We can avoid breaking
2698 that like this: */
2699 sv_setpvs(TARG, "0 but true");
2700 XPUSHTARG;
2701 }
83832992 2702 RETURN;
79072805
LW
2703}
2704
79072805
LW
2705PP(pp_int)
2706{
6f1401dc
DM
2707 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
2708 tryAMAGICun_MG(int_amg, AMGf_numeric);
774d564b 2709 {
6f1401dc
DM
2710 SV * const sv = TOPs;
2711 const IV iv = SvIV_nomg(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2712 /* XXX it's arguable that compiler casting to IV might be subtly
2713 different from modf (for numbers inside (IV_MIN,UV_MAX)) in which
2714 else preferring IV has introduced a subtle behaviour change bug. OTOH
2715 relying on floating point to be accurate is a bug. */
2716
c781a409 2717 if (!SvOK(sv)) {
922c4365 2718 SETu(0);
c781a409
RD
2719 }
2720 else if (SvIOK(sv)) {
2721 if (SvIsUV(sv))
6f1401dc 2722 SETu(SvUV_nomg(sv));
c781a409 2723 else
28e5dec8 2724 SETi(iv);
c781a409 2725 }
c781a409 2726 else {
6f1401dc 2727 const NV value = SvNV_nomg(sv);
1048ea30 2728 if (value >= 0.0) {
28e5dec8
JH
2729 if (value < (NV)UV_MAX + 0.5) {
2730 SETu(U_V(value));
2731 } else {
059a1014 2732 SETn(Perl_floor(value));
28e5dec8 2733 }
1048ea30 2734 }
28e5dec8
JH
2735 else {
2736 if (value > (NV)IV_MIN - 0.5) {
2737 SETi(I_V(value));
2738 } else {
1bbae031 2739 SETn(Perl_ceil(value));
28e5dec8
JH
2740 }
2741 }
774d564b 2742 }
79072805 2743 }
79072805
LW
2744 RETURN;
2745}
2746
463ee0b2
LW
2747PP(pp_abs)
2748{
6f1401dc
DM
2749 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
2750 tryAMAGICun_MG(abs_amg, AMGf_numeric);
a0d0e21e 2751 {
6f1401dc 2752 SV * const sv = TOPs;
28e5dec8 2753 /* This will cache the NV value if string isn't actually integer */
6f1401dc 2754 const IV iv = SvIV_nomg(sv);
a227d84d 2755
800401ee 2756 if (!SvOK(sv)) {
922c4365 2757 SETu(0);
800401ee
JH
2758 }
2759 else if (SvIOK(sv)) {
28e5dec8 2760 /* IVX is precise */
800401ee 2761 if (SvIsUV(sv)) {
6f1401dc 2762 SETu(SvUV_nomg(sv)); /* force it to be numeric only */
28e5dec8
JH
2763 } else {
2764 if (iv >= 0) {
2765 SETi(iv);
2766 } else {
2767 if (iv != IV_MIN) {
2768 SETi(-iv);
2769 } else {
2770 /* 2s complement assumption. Also, not really needed as
2771 IV_MIN and -IV_MIN should both be %100...00 and NV-able */
2772 SETu(IV_MIN);
2773 }
a227d84d 2774 }
28e5dec8
JH
2775 }
2776 } else{
6f1401dc 2777 const NV value = SvNV_nomg(sv);
774d564b 2778 if (value < 0.0)
1b6737cc 2779 SETn(-value);
a4474c9e
DD
2780 else
2781 SETn(value);
774d564b 2782 }
a0d0e21e 2783 }
774d564b 2784 RETURN;
463ee0b2
LW
2785}
2786
79072805
LW
2787PP(pp_oct)
2788{
97aff369 2789 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
5c144d81 2790 const char *tmps;
53305cf1 2791 I32 flags = PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES;
6f894ead 2792 STRLEN len;
53305cf1
NC
2793 NV result_nv;
2794 UV result_uv;
1b6737cc 2795 SV* const sv = POPs;
79072805 2796
349d4f2f 2797 tmps = (SvPV_const(sv, len));
2bc69dc4
NIS
2798 if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
2799 /* If Unicode, try to downgrade
2800 * If not possible, croak. */
1b6737cc 2801 SV* const tsv = sv_2mortal(newSVsv(sv));
2bc69dc4
NIS
2802
2803 SvUTF8_on(tsv);
2804 sv_utf8_downgrade(tsv, FALSE);
349d4f2f 2805 tmps = SvPV_const(tsv, len);
2bc69dc4 2806 }
daa2adfd
NC
2807 if (PL_op->op_type == OP_HEX)
2808 goto hex;
2809
6f894ead 2810 while (*tmps && len && isSPACE(*tmps))
53305cf1 2811 tmps++, len--;
9e24b6e2 2812 if (*tmps == '0')
53305cf1 2813 tmps++, len--;
a674e8db 2814 if (*tmps == 'x' || *tmps == 'X') {
daa2adfd 2815 hex:
53305cf1 2816 result_uv = grok_hex (tmps, &len, &flags, &result_nv);
daa2adfd 2817 }
a674e8db 2818 else if (*tmps == 'b' || *tmps == 'B')
53305cf1 2819 result_uv = grok_bin (tmps, &len, &flags, &result_nv);
464e2e8a 2820 else
53305cf1
NC
2821 result_uv = grok_oct (tmps, &len, &flags, &result_nv);
2822
2823 if (flags & PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX) {
2824 XPUSHn(result_nv);
2825 }
2826 else {
2827 XPUSHu(result_uv);
2828 }
79072805
LW
2829 RETURN;
2830}
2831
2832/* String stuff. */
2833
2834PP(pp_length)
2835{
97aff369 2836 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
0bd48802 2837 SV * const sv = TOPs;
a0ed51b3 2838
656266fc 2839 if (SvGAMAGIC(sv)) {
9f621bb0
NC
2840 /* For an overloaded or magic scalar, we can't know in advance if
2841 it's going to be UTF-8 or not. Also, we can't call sv_len_utf8 as
2842 it likes to cache the length. Maybe that should be a documented
2843 feature of it.
92331800
NC
2844 */
2845 STRLEN len;
9f621bb0
NC
2846 const char *const p
2847 = sv_2pv_flags(sv, &len,
2848 SV_UNDEF_RETURNS_NULL|SV_CONST_RETURN|SV_GMAGIC);
92331800 2849
d88e091f 2850 if (!p) {
9407f9c1
DL
2851 if (!SvPADTMP(TARG)) {
2852 sv_setsv(TARG, &PL_sv_undef);
2853 SETTARG;
2854 }
2855 SETs(&PL_sv_undef);
d88e091f 2856 }
9f621bb0 2857 else if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
899be101 2858 SETi(utf8_length((U8*)p, (U8*)p + len));
92331800
NC
2859 }
2860 else
2861 SETi(len);
656266fc 2862 } else if (SvOK(sv)) {
9f621bb0
NC
2863 /* Neither magic nor overloaded. */
2864 if (DO_UTF8(sv))
2865 SETi(sv_len_utf8(sv));
2866 else
2867 SETi(sv_len(sv));
656266fc 2868 } else {
9407f9c1
DL
2869 if (!SvPADTMP(TARG)) {
2870 sv_setsv_nomg(TARG, &PL_sv_undef);
2871 SETTARG;
2872 }
2873 SETs(&PL_sv_undef);
92331800 2874 }
79072805
LW
2875 RETURN;
2876}
2877
83f78d1a
FC
2878/* Returns false if substring is completely outside original string.
2879 No length is indicated by len_iv = 0 and len_is_uv = 0. len_is_uv must
2880 always be true for an explicit 0.
2881*/
2882bool
2883Perl_translate_substr_offsets(pTHX_ STRLEN curlen, IV pos1_iv,
2884 bool pos1_is_uv, IV len_iv,
2885 bool len_is_uv, STRLEN *posp,
2886 STRLEN *lenp)
2887{
2888 IV pos2_iv;
2889 int pos2_is_uv;
2890
2891 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TRANSLATE_SUBSTR_OFFSETS;
2892
2893 if (!pos1_is_uv && pos1_iv < 0 && curlen) {
2894 pos1_is_uv = curlen-1 > ~(UV)pos1_iv;
2895 pos1_iv += curlen;
2896 }
2897 if ((pos1_is_uv || pos1_iv > 0) && (UV)pos1_iv > curlen)
2898 return FALSE;
2899
2900 if (len_iv || len_is_uv) {
2901 if (!len_is_uv && len_iv < 0) {
2902 pos2_iv = curlen + len_iv;
2903 if (curlen)
2904 pos2_is_uv = curlen-1 > ~(UV)len_iv;
2905 else
2906 pos2_is_uv = 0;
2907 } else { /* len_iv >= 0 */
2908 if (!pos1_is_uv && pos1_iv < 0) {
2909 pos2_iv = pos1_iv + len_iv;
2910 pos2_is_uv = (UV)len_iv > (UV)IV_MAX;
2911 } else {
2912 if ((UV)len_iv > curlen-(UV)pos1_iv)
2913 pos2_iv = curlen;
2914 else
2915 pos2_iv = pos1_iv+len_iv;
2916 pos2_is_uv = 1;
2917 }
2918 }
2919 }
2920 else {
2921 pos2_iv = curlen;
2922 pos2_is_uv = 1;
2923 }
2924
2925 if (!pos2_is_uv && pos2_iv < 0) {
2926 if (!pos1_is_uv && pos1_iv < 0)
2927 return FALSE;
2928 pos2_iv = 0;
2929 }
2930 else if (!pos1_is_uv && pos1_iv < 0)
2931 pos1_iv = 0;
2932
2933 if ((UV)pos2_iv < (UV)pos1_iv)
2934 pos2_iv = pos1_iv;
2935 if ((UV)pos2_iv > curlen)
2936 pos2_iv = curlen;
2937
2938 /* pos1_iv and pos2_iv both in 0..curlen, so the cast is safe */
2939 *posp = (STRLEN)( (UV)pos1_iv );
2940 *lenp = (STRLEN)( (UV)pos2_iv - (UV)pos1_iv );
2941
2942 return TRUE;
2943}
2944
79072805
LW
2945PP(pp_substr)
2946{
97aff369 2947 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
79072805 2948 SV *sv;
463ee0b2 2949 STRLEN curlen;
9402d6ed 2950 STRLEN utf8_curlen;
777f7c56
EB
2951 SV * pos_sv;
2952 IV pos1_iv;
2953 int pos1_is_uv;
777f7c56
EB
2954 SV * len_sv;
2955 IV len_iv = 0;
83f78d1a 2956 int len_is_uv = 0;
24fcb59f 2957 I32 lvalue = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
bbddc9e0 2958 const bool rvalue = (GIMME_V != G_VOID);
e1ec3a88 2959 const char *tmps;
9402d6ed 2960 SV *repl_sv = NULL;
cbbf8932 2961 const char *repl = NULL;
7b8d334a 2962 STRLEN repl_len;
7bc95ae1 2963 int num_args = PL_op->op_private & 7;
13e30c65 2964 bool repl_need_utf8_upgrade = FALSE;
9402d6ed 2965 bool repl_is_utf8 = FALSE;
79072805 2966
78f9721b
SM
2967 if (num_args > 2) {
2968 if (num_args > 3) {
24fcb59f 2969 if(!(repl_sv = POPs)) num_args--;
7bc95ae1
FC
2970 }
2971 if ((len_sv = POPs)) {
2972 len_iv = SvIV(len_sv);
83f78d1a 2973 len_is_uv = len_iv ? SvIOK_UV(len_sv) : 1;
7b8d334a 2974 }
7bc95ae1 2975 else num_args--;
5d82c453 2976 }
777f7c56
EB
2977 pos_sv = POPs;
2978 pos1_iv = SvIV(pos_sv);
2979 pos1_is_uv = SvIOK_UV(pos_sv);
79072805 2980 sv = POPs;
24fcb59f
FC
2981 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpSUBSTR_REPL_FIRST) {
2982 assert(!repl_sv);
2983 repl_sv = POPs;
2984 }
849ca7ee 2985 PUTBACK;
9402d6ed 2986 if (repl_sv) {
24fcb59f
FC
2987 repl = SvPV_const(repl_sv, repl_len);
2988 repl_is_utf8 = DO_UTF8(repl_sv) && repl_len;
9402d6ed
JH
2989 if (repl_is_utf8) {
2990 if (!DO_UTF8(sv))
2991 sv_utf8_upgrade(sv);
2992 }
13e30c65
JH
2993 else if (DO_UTF8(sv))
2994 repl_need_utf8_upgrade = TRUE;
9402d6ed 2995 }
83f78d1a
FC
2996 else if (lvalue) {
2997 SV * ret;
2998 ret = sv_2mortal(newSV_type(SVt_PVLV)); /* Not TARG RT#67838 */
2999 sv_magic(ret, NULL, PERL_MAGIC_substr, NULL, 0);
3000 LvTYPE(ret) = 'x';
3001 LvTARG(ret) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple(sv);
3002 LvTARGOFF(ret) =
3003 pos1_is_uv || pos1_iv >= 0
3004 ? (STRLEN)(UV)pos1_iv
3005 : (LvFLAGS(ret) |= 1, (STRLEN)(UV)-pos1_iv);
3006 LvTARGLEN(ret) =
3007 len_is_uv || len_iv > 0
3008 ? (STRLEN)(UV)len_iv
3009 : (LvFLAGS(ret) |= 2, (STRLEN)(UV)-len_iv);
3010
3011 SPAGAIN;
3012 PUSHs(ret); /* avoid SvSETMAGIC here */
3013 RETURN;
a74fb2cd 3014 }
83f78d1a 3015 tmps = SvPV_const(sv, curlen);
7e2040f0 3016 if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
9402d6ed
JH
3017 utf8_curlen = sv_len_utf8(sv);
3018 if (utf8_curlen == curlen)
3019 utf8_curlen = 0;
a0ed51b3 3020 else
9402d6ed 3021 curlen = utf8_curlen;
a0ed51b3 3022 }
d1c2b58a 3023 else
9402d6ed 3024 utf8_curlen = 0;
a0ed51b3 3025
83f78d1a
FC
3026 {
3027 STRLEN pos, len, byte_len, byte_pos;
777f7c56 3028
83f78d1a
FC
3029 if (!translate_substr_offsets(
3030 curlen, pos1_iv, pos1_is_uv, len_iv, len_is_uv, &pos, &len
3031 )) goto bound_fail;
777f7c56 3032
83f78d1a
FC
3033 byte_len = len;
3034 byte_pos = utf8_curlen
d931b1be
NC
3035 ? sv_pos_u2b_flags(sv, pos, &byte_len, SV_CONST_RETURN) : pos;
3036
2154eca7 3037 tmps += byte_pos;
bbddc9e0
CS
3038
3039 if (rvalue) {
3040 SvTAINTED_off(TARG); /* decontaminate */
3041 SvUTF8_off(TARG); /* decontaminate */
3042 sv_setpvn(TARG, tmps, byte_len);
12aa1545 3043#ifdef USE_LOCALE_COLLATE
bbddc9e0 3044 sv_unmagic(TARG, PERL_MAGIC_collxfrm);
12aa1545 3045#endif
bbddc9e0
CS
3046 if (utf8_curlen)
3047 SvUTF8_on(TARG);
3048 }
2154eca7 3049
f7928d6c 3050 if (repl) {
13e30c65
JH
3051 SV* repl_sv_copy = NULL;
3052
3053 if (repl_need_utf8_upgrade) {
3054 repl_sv_copy = newSVsv(repl_sv);
3055 sv_utf8_upgrade(repl_sv_copy);
349d4f2f 3056 repl = SvPV_const(repl_sv_copy, repl_len);
bf32a30c 3057 repl_is_utf8 = DO_UTF8(repl_sv_copy) && repl_len;
13e30c65 3058 }
24fcb59f
FC
3059 if (SvROK(sv))
3060 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SUBSTR),
3061 "Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr"
3062 );
502d9230
VP
3063 if (!SvOK(sv))
3064 sv_setpvs(sv, "");
777f7c56 3065 sv_insert_flags(sv, byte_pos, byte_len, repl, repl_len, 0);
9402d6ed 3066 if (repl_is_utf8)
f7928d6c 3067 SvUTF8_on(sv);
ef8d46e8 3068 SvREFCNT_dec(repl_sv_copy);
f7928d6c 3069 }
79072805 3070 }
849ca7ee 3071 SPAGAIN;
bbddc9e0
CS
3072 if (rvalue) {
3073 SvSETMAGIC(TARG);
3074 PUSHs(TARG);
3075 }
79072805 3076 RETURN;
777f7c56 3077
1c900557 3078bound_fail:
83f78d1a 3079 if (repl)
777f7c56
EB
3080 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "substr outside of string");
3081 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SUBSTR), "substr outside of string");
3082 RETPUSHUNDEF;
79072805
LW
3083}
3084
3085PP(pp_vec)
3086{
2154eca7 3087 dVAR; dSP;
1b6737cc
AL
3088 register const IV size = POPi;
3089 register const IV offset = POPi;
3090 register SV * const src = POPs;
3091 const I32 lvalue = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
2154eca7 3092 SV * ret;
a0d0e21e 3093
81e118e0 3094 if (lvalue) { /* it's an lvalue! */
2154eca7
EB
3095 ret = sv_2mortal(newSV_type(SVt_PVLV)); /* Not TARG RT#67838 */
3096 sv_magic(ret, NULL, PERL_MAGIC_vec, NULL, 0);
3097 LvTYPE(ret) = 'v';
3098 LvTARG(ret) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple(src);
3099 LvTARGOFF(ret) = offset;
3100 LvTARGLEN(ret) = size;
3101 }
3102 else {
3103 dTARGET;
3104 SvTAINTED_off(TARG); /* decontaminate */
3105 ret = TARG;
79072805
LW
3106 }
3107
2154eca7
EB
3108 sv_setuv(ret, do_vecget(src, offset, size));
3109 PUSHs(ret);
79072805
LW
3110 RETURN;
3111}
3112
3113PP(pp_index)
3114{
97aff369 3115 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
79072805
LW
3116 SV *big;
3117 SV *little;
c445ea15 3118 SV *temp = NULL;
ad66a58c 3119 STRLEN biglen;
2723d216 3120 STRLEN llen = 0;
79072805
LW
3121 I32 offset;
3122 I32 retval;
73ee8be2
NC
3123 const char *big_p;
3124 const char *little_p;
2f040f7f
NC
3125 bool big_utf8;
3126 bool little_utf8;
2723d216 3127 const bool is_index = PL_op->op_type == OP_INDEX;
d3e26383 3128 const bool threeargs = MAXARG >= 3 && (TOPs || ((void)POPs,0));
79072805 3129
e1dccc0d
Z
3130 if (threeargs)
3131 offset = POPi;
79072805
LW
3132 little = POPs;
3133 big = POPs;
73ee8be2
NC
3134 big_p = SvPV_const(big, biglen);
3135 little_p = SvPV_const(little, llen);
3136
e609e586
NC
3137 big_utf8 = DO_UTF8(big);
3138 little_utf8 = DO_UTF8(little);
3139 if (big_utf8 ^ little_utf8) {
3140 /* One needs to be upgraded. */
2f040f7f
NC
3141 if (little_utf8 && !PL_encoding) {
3142 /* Well, maybe instead we might be able to downgrade the small
3143 string? */
1eced8f8 3144 char * const pv = (char*)bytes_from_utf8((U8 *)little_p, &llen,
2f040f7f
NC
3145 &little_utf8);
3146 if (little_utf8) {
3147 /* If the large string is ISO-8859-1, and it's not possible to
3148 convert the small string to ISO-8859-1, then there is no
3149 way that it could be found anywhere by index. */
3150 retval = -1;
3151 goto fail;
3152 }
e609e586 3153
2f040f7f
NC
3154 /* At this point, pv is a malloc()ed string. So donate it to temp
3155 to ensure it will get free()d */
3156 little = temp = newSV(0);
73ee8be2
NC
3157 sv_usepvn(temp, pv, llen);
3158 little_p = SvPVX(little);
e609e586 3159 } else {
73ee8be2
NC
3160 temp = little_utf8
3161 ? newSVpvn(big_p, biglen) : newSVpvn(little_p, llen);
2f040f7f
NC
3162
3163 if (PL_encoding) {
3164 sv_recode_to_utf8(temp, PL_encoding);
3165 } else {
3166 sv_utf8_upgrade(temp);
3167 }
3168 if (little_utf8) {
3169 big = temp;
3170 big_utf8 = TRUE;
73ee8be2 3171 big_p = SvPV_const(big, biglen);
2f040f7f
NC
3172 } else {
3173 little = temp;
73ee8be2 3174 little_p = SvPV_const(little, llen);
2f040f7f 3175 }
e609e586
NC
3176 }
3177 }
73ee8be2
NC
3178 if (SvGAMAGIC(big)) {
3179 /* Life just becomes a lot easier if I use a temporary here.
3180 Otherwise I need to avoid calls to sv_pos_u2b(), which (dangerously)
3181 will trigger magic and overloading again, as will fbm_instr()
3182 */
59cd0e26
NC
3183 big = newSVpvn_flags(big_p, biglen,
3184 SVs_TEMP | (big_utf8 ? SVf_UTF8 : 0));
73ee8be2
NC
3185 big_p = SvPVX(big);
3186 }
e4e44778 3187 if (SvGAMAGIC(little) || (is_index && !SvOK(little))) {
73ee8be2
NC
3188 /* index && SvOK() is a hack. fbm_instr() calls SvPV_const, which will
3189 warn on undef, and we've already triggered a warning with the
3190 SvPV_const some lines above. We can't remove that, as we need to
3191 call some SvPV to trigger overloading early and find out if the
3192 string is UTF-8.
3193 This is all getting to messy. The API isn't quite clean enough,
3194 because data access has side effects.
3195 */
59cd0e26
NC
3196 little = newSVpvn_flags(little_p, llen,
3197 SVs_TEMP | (little_utf8 ? SVf_UTF8 : 0));
73ee8be2
NC
3198 little_p = SvPVX(little);
3199 }
e609e586 3200
d3e26383 3201 if (!threeargs)
2723d216 3202 offset = is_index ? 0 : biglen;
a0ed51b3 3203 else {
ad66a58c 3204 if (big_utf8 && offset > 0)
a0ed51b3 3205 sv_pos_u2b(big, &offset, 0);
73ee8be2
NC
3206 if (!is_index)
3207 offset += llen;
a0ed51b3 3208 }
79072805
LW
3209 if (offset < 0)
3210 offset = 0;
ad66a58c
NC
3211 else if (offset > (I32)biglen)
3212 offset = biglen;
73ee8be2
NC
3213 if (!(little_p = is_index
3214 ? fbm_instr((unsigned char*)big_p + offset,
3215 (unsigned char*)big_p + biglen, little, 0)
3216 : rninstr(big_p, big_p + offset,
3217 little_p, little_p + llen)))
a0ed51b3 3218 retval = -1;
ad66a58c 3219 else {
73ee8be2 3220 retval = little_p - big_p;
ad66a58c
NC
3221 if (retval > 0 && big_utf8)
3222 sv_pos_b2u(big, &retval);
3223 }
ef8d46e8 3224 SvREFCNT_dec(temp);
2723d216 3225 fail:
e1dccc0d 3226 PUSHi(retval);
79072805
LW
3227 RETURN;
3228}
3229
3230PP(pp_sprintf)
3231{
97aff369 3232 dVAR; dSP; dMARK; dORIGMARK; dTARGET;
3e6bd4bf 3233 SvTAINTED_off(TARG);
79072805 3234 do_sprintf(TARG, SP-MARK, MARK+1);
bbce6d69 3235 TAINT_IF(SvTAINTED(TARG));
79072805
LW
3236 SP = ORIGMARK;
3237 PUSHTARG;
3238 RETURN;
3239}
3240
79072805
LW
3241PP(pp_ord)
3242{
97aff369 3243 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
1eced8f8 3244
7df053ec 3245 SV *argsv = POPs;
ba210ebe 3246 STRLEN len;
349d4f2f 3247 const U8 *s = (U8*)SvPV_const(argsv, len);
121910a4 3248
799ef3cb 3249 if (PL_encoding && SvPOK(argsv) && !DO_UTF8(argsv)) {
1eced8f8 3250 SV * const tmpsv = sv_2mortal(newSVsv(argsv));
799ef3cb 3251 s = (U8*)sv_recode_to_utf8(tmpsv, PL_encoding);
121910a4
JH
3252 argsv = tmpsv;
3253 }
79072805 3254
872c91ae 3255 XPUSHu(DO_UTF8(argsv) ?
89ebb4a3 3256 utf8n_to_uvchr(s, UTF8_MAXBYTES, 0, UTF8_ALLOW_ANYUV) :
5fc32dea 3257 (UV)(*s & 0xff));
68795e93 3258
79072805
LW
3259 RETURN;
3260}
3261
463ee0b2
LW
3262PP(pp_chr)
3263{
97aff369 3264 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
463ee0b2 3265 char *tmps;
8a064bd6 3266 UV value;
71739502 3267 SV *top = POPs;
8a064bd6 3268
71739502
FC
3269 SvGETMAGIC(top);
3270 if (!IN_BYTES /* under bytes, chr(-1) eq chr(0xff), etc. */
3271 && ((SvIOKp(top) && !SvIsUV(top) && SvIV_nomg(top) < 0)
8a064bd6 3272 ||
71739502
FC
3273 ((SvNOKp(top) || (SvOK(top) && !SvIsUV(top)))
3274 && SvNV_nomg(top) < 0.0))) {
b3fe8680
FC
3275 if (ckWARN(WARN_UTF8)) {
3276 if (SvGMAGICAL(top)) {
3277 SV *top2 = sv_newmortal();
3278 sv_setsv_nomg(top2, top);
3279 top = top2;
3280 }
3281 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
3282 "Invalid negative number (%"SVf") in chr", top);
3283 }
8a064bd6 3284 value = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
8a064bd6 3285 } else {
71739502 3286 value = SvUV_nomg(top);
8a064bd6 3287 }
463ee0b2 3288
862a34c6 3289 SvUPGRADE(TARG,SVt_PV);
a0ed51b3 3290
0064a8a9 3291 if (value > 255 && !IN_BYTES) {
eb160463 3292 SvGROW(TARG, (STRLEN)UNISKIP(value)+1);
62961d2e 3293 tmps = (char*)uvchr_to_utf8_flags((U8*)SvPVX(TARG), value, 0);
349d4f2f 3294 SvCUR_set(TARG, tmps - SvPVX_const(TARG));
a0ed51b3
LW
3295 *tmps = '\0';
3296 (void)SvPOK_only(TARG);
aa6ffa16 3297 SvUTF8_on(TARG);
a0ed51b3
LW
3298 XPUSHs(TARG);
3299 RETURN;
3300 }
3301
748a9306 3302 SvGROW(TARG,2);
463ee0b2
LW
3303 SvCUR_set(TARG, 1);
3304 tmps = SvPVX(TARG);
eb160463 3305 *tmps++ = (char)value;
748a9306 3306 *tmps = '\0';
a0d0e21e 3307 (void)SvPOK_only(TARG);
4c5ed6e2 3308
88632417 3309 if (PL_encoding && !IN_BYTES) {
799ef3cb 3310 sv_recode_to_utf8(TARG, PL_encoding);
88632417 3311 tmps = SvPVX(TARG);
28936164
KW
3312 if (SvCUR(TARG) == 0
3313 || ! is_utf8_string((U8*)tmps, SvCUR(TARG))
3314 || UTF8_IS_REPLACEMENT((U8*) tmps, (U8*) tmps + SvCUR(TARG)))
3315 {
4c5ed6e2 3316 SvGROW(TARG, 2);
d5a15ac2 3317 tmps = SvPVX(TARG);
4c5ed6e2
ST
3318 SvCUR_set(TARG, 1);
3319 *tmps++ = (char)value;
88632417 3320 *tmps = '\0';
4c5ed6e2 3321 SvUTF8_off(TARG);
88632417
JH
3322 }
3323 }
4c5ed6e2 3324
463ee0b2
LW
3325 XPUSHs(TARG);
3326 RETURN;
3327}
3328
79072805
LW
3329PP(pp_crypt)
3330{
79072805 3331#ifdef HAS_CRYPT
97aff369 3332 dVAR; dSP; dTARGET;
5f74f29c 3333 dPOPTOPssrl;
85c16d83 3334 STRLEN len;
10516c54 3335 const char *tmps = SvPV_const(left, len);
2bc69dc4 3336
85c16d83 3337 if (DO_UTF8(left)) {
2bc69dc4 3338 /* If Unicode, try to downgrade.
f2791508
JH
3339 * If not possible, croak.
3340 * Yes, we made this up. */
1b6737cc 3341 SV* const tsv = sv_2mortal(newSVsv(left));
2bc69dc4 3342
f2791508 3343 SvUTF8_on(tsv);
2bc69dc4 3344 sv_utf8_downgrade(tsv, FALSE);
349d4f2f 3345 tmps = SvPV_const(tsv, len);
85c16d83 3346 }
05404ffe
JH
3347# ifdef USE_ITHREADS
3348# ifdef HAS_CRYPT_R
3349 if (!PL_reentrant_buffer->_crypt_struct_buffer) {
3350 /* This should be threadsafe because in ithreads there is only
3351 * one thread per interpreter. If this would not be true,
3352 * we would need a mutex to protect this malloc. */
3353 PL_reentrant_buffer->_crypt_struct_buffer =
3354 (struct crypt_data *)safemalloc(sizeof(struct crypt_data));
3355#if defined(__GLIBC__) || defined(__EMX__)
3356 if (PL_reentrant_buffer->_crypt_struct_buffer) {
3357 PL_reentrant_buffer->_crypt_struct_buffer->initialized = 0;
3358 /* work around glibc-2.2.5 bug */
3359 PL_reentrant_buffer->_crypt_struct_buffer->current_saltbits = 0;
3360 }
05404ffe 3361#endif
6ab58e4d 3362 }
05404ffe
JH
3363# endif /* HAS_CRYPT_R */
3364# endif /* USE_ITHREADS */
5f74f29c 3365# ifdef FCRYPT
83003860 3366 sv_setpv(TARG, fcrypt(tmps, SvPV_nolen_const(right)));
5f74f29c 3367# else
83003860 3368 sv_setpv(TARG, PerlProc_crypt(tmps, SvPV_nolen_const(right)));
5f74f29c 3369# endif
ec93b65f 3370 SETTARG;
4808266b 3371 RETURN;
79072805 3372#else
b13b2135 3373 DIE(aTHX_
79072805
LW
3374 "The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia.");
3375#endif
79072805
LW
3376}
3377
00f254e2
KW
3378/* Generally UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC are indistinguishable at this level. So
3379 * most comments below say UTF-8, when in fact they mean UTF-EBCDIC as well */
3380
00f254e2 3381/* Generates code to store a unicode codepoint c that is known to occupy
12b093a1
KW
3382 * exactly two UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC bytes; it is stored into p and p+1,
3383 * and p is advanced to point to the next available byte after the two bytes */
00f254e2
KW
3384#define CAT_UNI_TO_UTF8_TWO_BYTE(p, c) \
3385 STMT_START { \
3386 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(c); \
3387 *((p)++) = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(c); \
3388 } STMT_END
3389
79072805
LW
3390PP(pp_ucfirst)
3391{
00f254e2
KW
3392 /* Actually is both lcfirst() and ucfirst(). Only the first character
3393 * changes. This means that possibly we can change in-place, ie., just
3394 * take the source and change that one character and store it back, but not
3395 * if read-only etc, or if the length changes */
3396
97aff369 3397 dVAR;
39644a26 3398 dSP;
d54190f6 3399 SV *source = TOPs;
00f254e2 3400 STRLEN slen; /* slen is the byte length of the whole SV. */
d54190f6
NC
3401 STRLEN need;
3402 SV *dest;
00f254e2
KW
3403 bool inplace; /* ? Convert first char only, in-place */
3404 bool doing_utf8 = FALSE; /* ? using utf8 */
3405 bool convert_source_to_utf8 = FALSE; /* ? need to convert */
12e9c124 3406 const int op_type = PL_op->op_type;
d54190f6
NC
3407 const U8 *s;
3408 U8 *d;
3409 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
00f254e2
KW
3410 STRLEN ulen; /* ulen is the byte length of the original Unicode character
3411 * stored as UTF-8 at s. */
3412 STRLEN tculen; /* tculen is the byte length of the freshly titlecased (or
3413 * lowercased) character stored in tmpbuf. May be either
3414 * UTF-8 or not, but in either case is the number of bytes */
094a2f8c 3415 bool tainted = FALSE;
d54190f6
NC
3416
3417 SvGETMAGIC(source);
3418 if (SvOK(source)) {
3419 s = (const U8*)SvPV_nomg_const(source, slen);
3420 } else {
0a0ffbce
RGS
3421 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
3422 report_uninit(source);
1eced8f8 3423 s = (const U8*)"";
d54190f6
NC
3424 slen = 0;
3425 }
a0ed51b3 3426
00f254e2
KW
3427 /* We may be able to get away with changing only the first character, in
3428 * place, but not if read-only, etc. Later we may discover more reasons to
3429 * not convert in-place. */
3430 inplace = SvPADTMP(source) && !SvREADONLY(source) && SvTEMP(source);
3431
3432 /* First calculate what the changed first character should be. This affects
3433 * whether we can just swap it out, leaving the rest of the string unchanged,
3434 * or even if have to convert the dest to UTF-8 when the source isn't */
3435
3436 if (! slen) { /* If empty */
3437 need = 1; /* still need a trailing NUL */
b7576bcb 3438 ulen = 0;
00f254e2
KW
3439 }
3440 else if (DO_UTF8(source)) { /* Is the source utf8? */
d54190f6 3441 doing_utf8 = TRUE;
17e95c9d 3442 ulen = UTF8SKIP(s);
094a2f8c
KW
3443 if (op_type == OP_UCFIRST) {
3444 _to_utf8_title_flags(s, tmpbuf, &tculen,
3445 cBOOL(IN_LOCALE_RUNTIME), &tainted);
3446 }
3447 else {
3448 _to_utf8_lower_flags(s, tmpbuf, &tculen,
3449 cBOOL(IN_LOCALE_RUNTIME), &tainted);
3450 }
00f254e2 3451
17e95c9d
KW
3452 /* we can't do in-place if the length changes. */
3453 if (ulen != tculen) inplace = FALSE;
3454 need = slen + 1 - ulen + tculen;
d54190f6 3455 }
00f254e2
KW
3456 else { /* Non-zero length, non-UTF-8, Need to consider locale and if
3457 * latin1 is treated as caseless. Note that a locale takes
3458 * precedence */
167d19f2 3459 ulen = 1; /* Original character is 1 byte */
00f254e2
KW
3460 tculen = 1; /* Most characters will require one byte, but this will
3461 * need to be overridden for the tricky ones */
3462 need = slen + 1;
3463
3464 if (op_type == OP_LCFIRST) {
d54190f6 3465
00f254e2
KW
3466 /* lower case the first letter: no trickiness for any character */
3467 *tmpbuf = (IN_LOCALE_RUNTIME) ? toLOWER_LC(*s) :
3468 ((IN_UNI_8_BIT) ? toLOWER_LATIN1(*s) : toLOWER(*s));
3469 }
3470 /* is ucfirst() */
3471 else if (IN_LOCALE_RUNTIME) {
3472 *tmpbuf = toUPPER_LC(*s); /* This would be a bug if any locales
3473 * have upper and title case different
3474 */
3475 }
3476 else if (! IN_UNI_8_BIT) {
3477 *tmpbuf = toUPPER(*s); /* Returns caseless for non-ascii, or
3478 * on EBCDIC machines whatever the
3479 * native function does */
3480 }
3481 else { /* is ucfirst non-UTF-8, not in locale, and cased latin1 */
167d19f2
KW
3482 UV title_ord = _to_upper_title_latin1(*s, tmpbuf, &tculen, 's');
3483 if (tculen > 1) {
3484 assert(tculen == 2);
3485
3486 /* If the result is an upper Latin1-range character, it can
3487 * still be represented in one byte, which is its ordinal */
3488 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*tmpbuf)) {
3489 *tmpbuf = (U8) title_ord;
3490 tculen = 1;
00f254e2
KW
3491 }
3492 else {
167d19f2
KW
3493 /* Otherwise it became more than one ASCII character (in
3494 * the case of LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S) or changed to
3495 * beyond Latin1, so the number of bytes changed, so can't
3496 * replace just the first character in place. */
3497 inplace = FALSE;
3498
3499 /* If the result won't fit in a byte, the entire result will
3500 * have to be in UTF-8. Assume worst case sizing in
3501 * conversion. (all latin1 characters occupy at most two bytes
3502 * in utf8) */
3503 if (title_ord > 255) {
3504 doing_utf8 = TRUE;
3505 convert_source_to_utf8 = TRUE;
3506 need = slen * 2 + 1;
3507
3508 /* The (converted) UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC lengths of all
3509 * (both) characters whose title case is above 255 is
3510 * 2. */
3511 ulen = 2;
3512 }
3513 else { /* LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S expands by 1 byte */
3514 need = slen + 1 + 1;
3515 }
00f254e2 3516 }
167d19f2 3517 }
00f254e2
KW
3518 } /* End of use Unicode (Latin1) semantics */
3519 } /* End of changing the case of the first character */
3520
3521 /* Here, have the first character's changed case stored in tmpbuf. Ready to
3522 * generate the result */
3523 if (inplace) {
3524
3525 /* We can convert in place. This means we change just the first
3526 * character without disturbing the rest; no need to grow */
d54190f6
NC
3527 dest = source;
3528 s = d = (U8*)SvPV_force_nomg(source, slen);
3529 } else {
3530 dTARGET;
3531
3532 dest = TARG;
3533
00f254e2
KW
3534 /* Here, we can't convert in place; we earlier calculated how much
3535 * space we will need, so grow to accommodate that */
d54190f6 3536 SvUPGRADE(dest, SVt_PV);
3b416f41 3537 d = (U8*)SvGROW(dest, need);
d54190f6
NC
3538 (void)SvPOK_only(dest);
3539
3540 SETs(dest);
d54190f6 3541 }
44bc797b 3542
d54190f6 3543 if (doing_utf8) {
00f254e2
KW
3544 if (! inplace) {
3545 if (! convert_source_to_utf8) {
3546
3547 /* Here both source and dest are in UTF-8, but have to create
3548 * the entire output. We initialize the result to be the
3549 * title/lower cased first character, and then append the rest
3550 * of the string. */
3551 sv_setpvn(dest, (char*)tmpbuf, tculen);
3552 if (slen > ulen) {
3553 sv_catpvn(dest, (char*)(s + ulen), slen - ulen);
3554 }
3555 }
3556 else {
3557 const U8 *const send = s + slen;
3558
3559 /* Here the dest needs to be in UTF-8, but the source isn't,
3560 * except we earlier UTF-8'd the first character of the source
3561 * into tmpbuf. First put that into dest, and then append the
3562 * rest of the source, converting it to UTF-8 as we go. */
3563
3564 /* Assert tculen is 2 here because the only two characters that
3565 * get to this part of the code have 2-byte UTF-8 equivalents */
3566 *d++ = *tmpbuf;
3567 *d++ = *(tmpbuf + 1);
3568 s++; /* We have just processed the 1st char */
3569
3570 for (; s < send; s++) {
3571 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, *s);
3572 }
3573 *d = '\0';
3574 SvCUR_set(dest, d - (U8*)SvPVX_const(dest));
3575 }
d54190f6 3576 SvUTF8_on(dest);
a0ed51b3 3577 }
00f254e2 3578 else { /* in-place UTF-8. Just overwrite the first character */
d54190f6
NC
3579 Copy(tmpbuf, d, tculen, U8);
3580 SvCUR_set(dest, need - 1);
a0ed51b3 3581 }
094a2f8c
KW
3582
3583 if (tainted) {
3584 TAINT;
3585 SvTAINTED_on(dest);
3586 }
a0ed51b3 3587 }
00f254e2
KW
3588 else { /* Neither source nor dest are in or need to be UTF-8 */
3589 if (slen) {
2de3dbcc 3590 if (IN_LOCALE_RUNTIME) {
31351b04 3591 TAINT;
d54190f6 3592 SvTAINTED_on(dest);
31351b04 3593 }
00f254e2
KW
3594 if (inplace) { /* in-place, only need to change the 1st char */
3595 *d = *tmpbuf;
3596 }
3597 else { /* Not in-place */
3598
3599 /* Copy the case-changed character(s) from tmpbuf */
3600 Copy(tmpbuf, d, tculen, U8);
3601 d += tculen - 1; /* Code below expects d to point to final
3602 * character stored */
3603 }
3604 }
3605 else { /* empty source */
3606 /* See bug #39028: Don't taint if empty */
d54190f6
NC
3607 *d = *s;
3608 }
3609
00f254e2
KW
3610 /* In a "use bytes" we don't treat the source as UTF-8, but, still want
3611 * the destination to retain that flag */
d54190f6
NC
3612 if (SvUTF8(source))
3613 SvUTF8_on(dest);
3614
00f254e2 3615 if (!inplace) { /* Finish the rest of the string, unchanged */
d54190f6
NC
3616 /* This will copy the trailing NUL */
3617 Copy(s + 1, d + 1, slen, U8);
3618 SvCUR_set(dest, need - 1);
bbce6d69 3619 }
bbce6d69 3620 }
539689e7
FC
3621 if (dest != source && SvTAINTED(source))
3622 SvTAINT(dest);
d54190f6 3623 SvSETMAGIC(dest);
79072805
LW
3624 RETURN;
3625}
3626
67306194
NC
3627/* There's so much setup/teardown code common between uc and lc, I wonder if
3628 it would be worth merging the two, and just having a switch outside each
00f254e2 3629 of the three tight loops. There is less and less commonality though */
79072805
LW
3630PP(pp_uc)
3631{
97aff369 3632 dVAR;
39644a26 3633 dSP;
67306194 3634 SV *source = TOPs;
463ee0b2 3635 STRLEN len;
67306194
NC
3636 STRLEN min;
3637 SV *dest;
3638 const U8 *s;
3639 U8 *d;
79072805 3640
67306194
NC
3641 SvGETMAGIC(source);
3642
3643 if (SvPADTMP(source) && !SvREADONLY(source) && !SvAMAGIC(source)
00f254e2
KW
3644 && SvTEMP(source) && !DO_UTF8(source)