This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Malloc fixes and docs
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
CommitLineData
a0d0e21e
LW
1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
68dc0745
PP
19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
4438c4b7 21
748a9306 22Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
4438c4b7
JH
23L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
24disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
25See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e
LW
26
27Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 28just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
10f9c03d
CK
29Since the messages are listed in alphabetical order, the symbols
30C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
a0d0e21e
LW
31
32=over 4
33
09bef843
SB
34=item "my sub" not yet implemented
35
36(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try that
37yet.
38
a0d0e21e
LW
39=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
40
41(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
42to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
43if you want to localize a package variable.
44
9fbbe825 45=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
2ba9eb46 46
9fbbe825
GS
47(W) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the current scope or statement,
48effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost
49always a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
2ba9eb46
PP
50until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
51destroyed.
52
a0d0e21e
LW
53=item "no" not allowed in expression
54
55(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
56no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
57
58=item "use" not allowed in expression
59
60(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
61no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
62
f61d411c 63=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 64
f61d411c
JH
65(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
66See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 67
17f4a12d 68=item / cannot take a count
43192e07
IP
69
70(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
71but you have also specified an explicit size for the string.
72See L<perlfunc/pack>.
73
17f4a12d 74=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
43192e07
IP
75
76(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
77which must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z
78to indicate what sort of string is to be unpacked.
79See L<perlfunc/pack>.
80
17f4a12d 81=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
43192e07
IP
82
83(F) You had an pack template indicating a counted-length string,
84Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A* or Z*.
85See L<perlfunc/pack>.
86
17f4a12d 87=item / must follow a numeric type
43192e07
IP
88
89(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#',
90but this did not follow some numeric unpack specification.
91See L<perlfunc/pack>.
92
a0d0e21e
LW
93=item % may only be used in unpack
94
5f05dabc 95(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
a0d0e21e
LW
96checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
97way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
98
06387354
NT
99=item Repeat count in pack overflows
100
101(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
102your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
103
104=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
105
106(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
107your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
108
c9f97d15
IZ
109=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
110
111(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
112by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a
113C<'>-delimited regular expression.
114
eb6e2d6f
GS
115=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
116
117(W) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
118like in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true
119or false result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string,
120which is probably not what you had in mind.
121
a0d0e21e
LW
122=item %s (...) interpreted as function
123
124(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 125by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 126found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
a0d0e21e 127
76cd736e
GS
128=item %s() called too early to check prototype
129
130(W) You've called a function that has a prototype before the parser saw a
131definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check that the call
132conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an early prototype
133declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the subroutine
134definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype checking. Alternatively,
135if you are certain that you're calling the function correctly, you may put
136an ampersand before the name to avoid the warning. See L<perlsub>.
137
a0d0e21e
LW
138=item %s argument is not a HASH element
139
5f05dabc 140(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
141
142 $foo{$bar}
143 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
144
5f05dabc
PP
145=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
146
147(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
148
149 $foo{$bar}
150 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
151
152or a hash slice, such as
153
154 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
155 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
156
a0d0e21e
LW
157=item %s did not return a true value
158
159(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
160it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
161traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
162do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
163
164=item %s found where operator expected
165
166(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
167sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
168it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
169delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
170
f86702cc 171=item %s had compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
172
173(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
174
f86702cc 175=item %s has too many errors
a0d0e21e
LW
176
177(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
178Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
179
180=item %s matches null string many times
181
182(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
183regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
184
185=item %s never introduced
186
187(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
188before it could possibly have been used.
189
09bef843
SB
190=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
191
192(W) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a package-specific handler.
193That name might have a meaning to Perl itself some day, even though it
194doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a mixed-case attribute name, instead.
195See L<attributes>.
196
a0d0e21e
LW
197=item %s syntax OK
198
199(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
200
f86702cc 201=item %s: Command not found
cb1a09d0
AD
202
203(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
204of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
205Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 206
f86702cc 207=item %s: Expression syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
208
209(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
210of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
211Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 212
f86702cc 213=item %s: Undefined variable
cb1a09d0
AD
214
215(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
216of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
217Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0
AD
218
219=item %s: not found
220
8b1a09fc 221(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 222instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
223into Perl yourself.
224
a99e4ac2
GS
225=item (in cleanup) %s
226
227(W) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
228the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by
229the system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
230number of times, the warning is issued only once for any number
231of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
232repeated.
233
234Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag
235could also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
236
702d120d
G
237=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
238
239(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
240found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
241the previous line just because you saw this message.
242
a0d0e21e
LW
243=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
244
245(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
246which provides a race condition that breaks security.
247
248=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
249
250(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
251know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
252
08e9d68e
DD
253=item C<-p> destination: %s
254
255(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
256command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
257redirected it with select().)
258
a5f75d66
AD
259=item 500 Server error
260
261See Server error.
262
a0d0e21e
LW
263=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
264
265(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
266if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
267
268=item @ outside of string
269
2ba9eb46 270(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
a0d0e21e
LW
271the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
272
742c16d1
MJD
273=item <> should be quotes
274
275(F) You wrote C<require E<lt>fileE<gt>> when you should have written
276C<require 'file'>.
277
a0d0e21e
LW
278=item accept() on closed fd
279
280(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
281the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
282
283=item Allocation too large: %lx
284
54310121 285(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 286
2ae324a7
PP
287=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
288
2c268ad5 289(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
2ae324a7
PP
290operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
291or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
292length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
293that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
294L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
295
a0d0e21e
LW
296=item Arg too short for msgsnd
297
298(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
299
748a9306
LW
300=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
301
302(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
303you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 304a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 305
5315574d
GS
306=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
307
308(W) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
309and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
310other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
311not imported.
312
313To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
314before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
315Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
316imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
317
318To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
319on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
09bef843
SB
320to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">
321or L<attributes>).
5315574d 322
a0d0e21e
LW
323=item Args must match #! line
324
325(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
3a52c276
CS
326with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
327impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
328for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 329
f86702cc 330=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e
LW
331
332(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
333expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
334will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
335
336=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
337
338(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
339is now heavily deprecated.
340
341=item assertion botched: %s
342
343(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
344
345=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
346
347(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
348
349=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
350
351(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
352must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
353know which context to supply to the right side.
354
355=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
356
357(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
358be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
359of those arenas.
360
54310121 361=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69
PP
362
363(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
364optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
365indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
366that can no longer be found in the table.
367
a0d0e21e
LW
368=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
369
370(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
371routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
372the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
373routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
374it.
375
376=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
377
378(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
379
380=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
381
382(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
383would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
384and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
385could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
386SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
387when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
388
dcdda58d
GS
389=item Attempt to join self
390
391(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
392impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may
393need to move the join() to some other thread.
394
84902520
TB
395=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
396
397(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
398function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
399means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
400invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
401literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
402avoid this warning.
403
b7a902f4
PP
404=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
405
406(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 407as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
b7a902f4
PP
408dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
409
a0d0e21e
LW
410=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
411
412(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 413shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 414S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
a0d0e21e
LW
415S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
416
a0d0e21e
LW
417=item Bad filehandle: %s
418
419(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
420has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
421did it in another package.
422
423=item Bad free() ignored
424
425(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
33c8a3fe
IZ
426malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
427setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
428
429This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
430"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
431C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
432system malloc().
a0d0e21e 433
aa689395
PP
434=item Bad hash
435
436(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
437
f1192cee
GA
438=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
439
6f54a448
GS
440(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
441pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
442See L<perlref>.
57079c46 443
a0d0e21e
LW
444=item Bad name after %s::
445
446(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
447finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
448so
449
450 $var = 'myvar';
451 $sym = mypack::$var;
452
453is not the same as
454
455 $var = 'myvar';
456 $sym = "mypack::$var";
457
4ad56ec9
IZ
458=item Bad realloc() ignored
459
460(S) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had never been
461malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
462setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
463
a0d0e21e
LW
464=item Bad symbol for array
465
466(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
467wasn't a symbol table entry.
468
469=item Bad symbol for filehandle
470
471(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
472wasn't a symbol table entry.
473
474=item Bad symbol for hash
475
476(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
477wasn't a symbol table entry.
478
8b1a09fc 479=item Badly placed ()'s
cb1a09d0
AD
480
481(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
482of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
483Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 484
3fe9a6f1
PP
485=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
486
487(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
d98d5fff 488subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 489Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 490
c3e0f903
GS
491=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
492
493(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
494the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
495Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
496
a0d0e21e
LW
497=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
498
499(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
500Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
501
68dc0745
PP
502=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
503
504(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
505implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
506already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
507could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
508likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
509
252aa082
JH
510=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
511
9e24b6e2
JH
512(W) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
513(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
514L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 515
a0d0e21e
LW
516=item bind() on closed fd
517
518(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
519the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
520
c5a0f51a
JH
521=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
522
523(W) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
524
4633a7c4
LW
525=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
526
527(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
528
f675dbe5
CB
529=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
530
531(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to iterate over
532%ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
533so it was truncated to the string shown.
534
a0d0e21e
LW
535=item Callback called exit
536
537(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
538exited by calling exit.
539
0a753a76
PP
540=item Can't "goto" outside a block
541
542(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
543like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
544occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
545is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
546
84902520
TB
547=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
548
549(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
550foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
551
a0d0e21e
LW
552=item Can't "last" outside a block
553
554(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
555except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
556current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
0a753a76
PP
557"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can usually double
558the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies
559will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
560
561=item Can't "next" outside a block
562
563(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
564there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
0a753a76
PP
565count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
566usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 567curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
a0d0e21e 568
f675dbe5
CB
569=item Can't read CRTL environ
570
571(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
572from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
573missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
574or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not searched.
575
a0d0e21e
LW
576=item Can't "redo" outside a block
577
578(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
579there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
0a753a76
PP
580count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
581usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 582curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
a0d0e21e
LW
583
584=item Can't bless non-reference value
585
586(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
587encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
588
589=item Can't break at that line
590
54310121 591(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
a0d0e21e
LW
592the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
593be stopped at.
594
595=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
596
597(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
598functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
599in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
600
601=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
602
54310121 603(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
a0d0e21e
LW
604ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
605you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
606an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
607
608=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
609
610(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
611object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
72b5445b
GS
612a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
613Something like this will reproduce the error:
614
615 $BADREF = 42;
616 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
617 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
618
619=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
620
621(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
622object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
a0d0e21e
LW
623Something like this will reproduce the error:
624
625 $BADREF = undef;
626 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
627 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
628
629=item Can't chdir to %s
630
631(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
632that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
633
104d25b7
JH
634=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s"
635
636(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.
637
a0d0e21e
LW
638=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
639
640(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 641(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
642say things like:
643
644 *foo += 1;
645
646You CAN say
647
648 $foo = *foo;
649 $foo += 1;
650
651but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
652
653=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
654
655(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 656(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
657
658=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
659
660(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 661(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 662
57079c46
GA
663=item Can't coerce array into hash
664
665(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
666information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
667only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
668
a0d0e21e
LW
669=item Can't create pipe mailbox
670
748a9306
LW
671(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
672or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e
LW
673
674=item Can't declare %s in my
675
5f05dabc 676(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
a0d0e21e
LW
677They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
678
679=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
680
681(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
682
54310121 683=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 684
54310121 685(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 686from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
a0d0e21e
LW
687such.
688
10f9c03d 689=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 690
10f9c03d
CK
691(S) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
692characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
693inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e
LW
694
695=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
696
697(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
698/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
699
700=item Can't do setegid!
701
702(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
703of suidperl.
704
705=item Can't do seteuid!
706
707(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
708
709=item Can't do setuid
710
711(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
712do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
713form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
714under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
715If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
716your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
717
718=item Can't do waitpid with flags
719
720(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
721without flags is emulated.
722
8b1a09fc 723=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
a0d0e21e
LW
724
725(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
726your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
727
728=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
729
730(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
731For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
732
733=item Can't exec "%s": %s
734
5f05dabc 735(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
736program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
737were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
738executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
739#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
740similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
741
742=item Can't exec %s
743
744(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
745what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
746mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
747
748=item Can't execute %s
749
2a92aaa0
GS
750(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
751in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
752
753=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
754
755(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
756in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
757exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
758
759=item Can't find %s on PATH
760
a0d0e21e 761(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 762in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
763
764=item Can't find label %s
765
766(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
767for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
768
769=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
770
771(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 772the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
773levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
774
fb73857a
PP
775 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
776
777If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
778included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
779programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
780
781=item Can't fork
782
783(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
784
748a9306
LW
785=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
786
787(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
788access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
789access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
790that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
791assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
792it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
793retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
794but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 795routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
796appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
797returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
798knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
799see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
800code takes stat buffers lightly.)
801
a0d0e21e
LW
802=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
803
748a9306
LW
804(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
805can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
806
807=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
808
748a9306
LW
809(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
810mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
811
812=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
813
814(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
815call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 816you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
817L<perlfunc/goto>.
818
b150fb22
RH
819=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
820
821(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
822(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
823
706a304b 824=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 825
706a304b
SM
826(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
827handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
828pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
829sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 830
748a9306
LW
831=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
832
2ba9eb46 833(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
834lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
835localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
836package name.
837
0ebe0038
SM
838=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
839
840(F) You said something like C<local $ar-E<gt>{'key'}>, where $ar is
841a reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but
842you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
843element directly -- C<local $ar-E<gt>[$ar-E<gt>[0]{'key'}]>.
844
4727527e
IZ
845=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
846
847(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
848but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
849in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
850doing C<make install>.
851
ec889f3a
GS
852=item Can't locate %s
853
854(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
855found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
856unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
857to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra
858library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or
859maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>
860and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e
LW
861
862=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
863
864(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
865functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 866method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
867
868=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
869
870(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
871to exist.
872
3e3baf6d
TB
873=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
874
875(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
876
a0d0e21e
LW
877=item Can't modify %s in %s
878
879(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 880change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 881
cd06dffe
GS
882=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
883
884(F) Subroutines used in lvalue context should be marked as such, see
885L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
886
54310121 887=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
888
889(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
890a NULL.
891
5f05dabc 892=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 893
5f05dabc 894(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
895buffer.
896
897=item Can't open %s: %s
898
08e9d68e
DD
899(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
900filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
901switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
902is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
903on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
904
905=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
906
907(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
908try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 909IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
910and then read it in under a different file handle.
911
748a9306
LW
912=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
913
914(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
915couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
916command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
917
918=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
919
920(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 921couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
922
923=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
924
925(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
926couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
927line for writing.
748a9306
LW
928
929=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
930
931(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
932couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
933
a0d0e21e
LW
934=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
935
936(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
937
7bac28a0
PP
938=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
939
940(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
941pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
942was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
943this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
944
10f9c03d
CK
945=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
946
947(S) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup file. Perl
948was unable to remove the original file to replace it with the modified
949file. The file was left unmodified.
950
a0d0e21e
LW
951=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
952
10f9c03d
CK
953(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
954probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 955
748a9306
LW
956=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
957
958(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
959reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
960
a0d0e21e
LW
961=item Can't reswap uid and euid
962
963(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
964of suidperl.
965
966=item Can't return outside a subroutine
967
968(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
969there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
970
cd06dffe
GS
971=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
972
973(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such
974as temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue.
975This is not allowed.
976
a0d0e21e
LW
977=item Can't stat script "%s"
978
979(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
980it open already. Bizarre.
981
982=item Can't swap uid and euid
983
984(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
985of suidperl.
986
987=item Can't take log of %g
988
fb73857a
PP
989(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
990negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
991standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
992the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
993
994=item Can't take sqrt of %g
995
996(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
997negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
998with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
999
1000=item Can't undef active subroutine
1001
1002(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1003however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1004redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1005
1006=item Can't unshift
1007
1008(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1009as the main Perl stack.
1010
1011=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
1012
1013(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
1014it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
1015so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
1016message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
1017
1018=item Can't upgrade to undef
1019
1020(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
1021of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
1022code calling sv_upgrade.
1023
1d2dff63
GS
1024=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
1025
1026(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1027Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1028provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1029
c07a80fd
PP
1030=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1031
1032(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 1033You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1034and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1035Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1036lexical variable.
1037
e9fa98b2
HS
1038=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
1039
1040(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
1041substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
1042most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
1043
a0d0e21e
LW
1044=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1045
1046(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
1047
1048=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1049
1050(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1051reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1052test the type of the reference, if need be.
1053
748a9306
LW
1054=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
1055
1056(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
1057a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 1058to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
1059Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
1060out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
1061
44a8e56a
PP
1062=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
1063
1064(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1065are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1066
748a9306 1067=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
1068
1069(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1070are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1071
1072=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1073
1074(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 1075be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 1076
a0d0e21e
LW
1077=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1078
1079(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 1080not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
1081the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
1082variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
1083weren't.
1084
748a9306
LW
1085=item Can't use subscript on %s
1086
1087(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1088subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1089didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1090
810b8aa5
GS
1091=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1092
1093(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1094references can be weakened.
1095
5f05dabc 1096=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
1097
1098(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
1099an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
1100Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1101
3f4520fe 1102=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
b6c543e3
IZ
1103
1104(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
1105there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
1106
3f4520fe 1107=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
e7ea3e70
IZ
1108
1109(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1110opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1111package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
1112
b8c5462f 1113=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
4599a1de 1114
b8c5462f 1115(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.
4599a1de 1116
b8c5462f
JH
1117=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1118
1119(W) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
644a2880
JH
1120I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct,
1121for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that the last two constructs
1122are not currently implemented, they are placeholders for future extensions.
b8c5462f 1123
644a2880 1124=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de
JH
1125
1126(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
b8c5462f 1127with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
4599a1de
JH
1128If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1129expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
b8c5462f 1130backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1131
1132=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1133
1134(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
1135beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
1136If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1137expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1138backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
1139
a0d0e21e
LW
1140=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
1141
1142(W) A novice will sometimes say
1143
1144 chmod 777, $filename
1145
1146not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
1147to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
1148
8b1a09fc 1149=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1150
1151(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1152
7a2e2cd6
PP
1153=item Compilation failed in require
1154
1155(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
1156Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
1157were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
1158
c3464db5
DD
1159=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1160
1161(W) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations
1162where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited to 32766,
1163or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1164arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1165recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1166under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather
1167than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular
1168expression so that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook>
1169for information on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
1170
a0d0e21e
LW
1171=item connect() on closed fd
1172
1173(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1174the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
1175
779c5bc9
GS
1176=item Constant is not %s reference
1177
1178(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
1179is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference. The
1180message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This usually
1181indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
1182See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1183
4cee8e80
CS
1184=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1185
1186(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1187inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1188workarounds.
1189
9607fc9c
PP
1190=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1191
1192(S) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1193inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1194workarounds.
1195
423cee85
JH
1196=item constant(%s): %%^H is not localized
1197
1198(F) When setting compile-time-lexicalized hash %^H one should set the
1199corresponding bit of $^H as well.
1200
1201=item constant(%s): %s
1202
1203(F) Compile-time-substitutions (such as overloaded constants and
1204character names) were not correctly set up.
1205
e7ea3e70
IZ
1206=item Copy method did not return a reference
1207
1208(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1209
a0d0e21e
LW
1210=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1211
1212(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1213
1214=item corrupted regexp pointers
1215
1216(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1217expression compiler gave it.
1218
1219=item corrupted regexp program
1220
1221(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1222a valid magic number.
1223
1224=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1225
1226(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1227times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1228recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1229case it indicates something else.
1230
f10b0346 1231=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1232
1233(D) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
1234undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the array is empty,
1235just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1236
f10b0346 1237=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1238
1239(D) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it checks for an
1240undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash is empty,
1241just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
1242
fc36a67e
PP
1243=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1244
1245(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1246C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1247twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1248
3cdd684c
TP
1249=item Did not produce a valid header
1250
1251See Server error.
1252
4633a7c4
LW
1253=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1254
1255(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1256
748a9306 1257=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1258
748a9306
LW
1259(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1260On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1261
7e1af8bc 1262=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1263
1264(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1265you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1266
54310121 1267=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1268
1269(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1270found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1271name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1272because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1273"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1274referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1275to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1276can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1277declaration.
a0d0e21e 1278
3cdd684c
TP
1279=item Document contains no data
1280
1281See Server error.
1282
a0d0e21e
LW
1283=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1284
1285(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1286
1287=item do_study: out of memory
1288
1289(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1290
1291=item Duplicate free() ignored
1292
1293(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1294been freed.
1295
4633a7c4
LW
1296=item elseif should be elsif
1297
1298(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1299ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1300named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1301unlikely to be what you want.
1302
a0d0e21e
LW
1303=item END failed--cleanup aborted
1304
1305(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
1306The interpreter is immediately exited.
1307
85ab1d1d 1308=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1309
85ab1d1d 1310(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1311effective uids or gids failed.
1312
748a9306
LW
1313=item Error converting file specification %s
1314
5f05dabc 1315(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1316specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1317single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1318passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1319case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1320
e4d48cc9
GS
1321=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1322
1323(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1324that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1325See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1326
1327=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1328
1329(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1330but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1331in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1332
1333=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1334
1335(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1336zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1337interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1338If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1339from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1340See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1341
fc36a67e
PP
1342=item Excessively long <> operator
1343
1344(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1345Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1346filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1347variable and glob that.
1348
f86702cc 1349=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1350
1351(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1352
1353=item Exiting eval via %s
1354
8b1a09fc 1355(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1356a goto, or a loop control statement.
1357
0a753a76
PP
1358=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1359
1360(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1361subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1362statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1363
a0d0e21e
LW
1364=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1365
8b1a09fc 1366(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1367a goto, or a loop control statement.
1368
1369=item Exiting substitution via %s
1370
8b1a09fc 1371(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1372a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1373
7b8d334a
GS
1374=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1375
1376(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1377the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1378usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
ae6c4aac 1379package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1380
748a9306 1381=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1382
748a9306
LW
1383(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1384service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1385filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1386the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1387
1388=item fcntl is not implemented
1389
1390(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1391PDP-11 or something?
1392
1393=item Filehandle %s never opened
1394
1395(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1396You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1397the FileHandle package.
1398
af8c498a 1399=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e
LW
1400
1401(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1402intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1403"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1404you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1405L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1406
af8c498a 1407=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1408
af8c498a 1409(W) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If you
a0d0e21e 1410intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1411"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
af8c498a 1412you intended only to read from the file, use "E<lt>". See
8b1a09fc 1413L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1414
1415=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1416
1417(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1418a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1419that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1420the name.
1421
1422=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1423
1424(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1425a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1426that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1427the name.
1428
1429=item Format %s redefined
1430
1431(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1432
1433 {
4438c4b7 1434 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1435 eval "format NAME =...";
1436 }
1437
1438=item Format not terminated
1439
1440(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1441to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1442
1443=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1444
1445(W) You said
1446
1447 if ($foo = 123)
1448
1449when you meant
1450
1451 if ($foo == 123)
1452
1453(or something like that).
1454
1455=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1456
1457(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1458
1459=item gethostent not implemented
1460
1461(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1462because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1463on the Internet.
1464
1465=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1466
1467(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1468Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1469
748a9306
LW
1470=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1471
1472(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1473C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1474
a0d0e21e
LW
1475=item Glob not terminated
1476
1477(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1478a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1479finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1480the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1481
1482=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1483
68dc0745
PP
1484(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1485must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
a0d0e21e
LW
1486say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1487
1488=item goto must have label
1489
1490(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1491unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1492
1493=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1494
1495(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1496existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1497an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1498
1499=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1500
1501(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1502is now heavily deprecated.
1503
252aa082
JH
1504=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1505
9e24b6e2
JH
1506(W) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
1507(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1508L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1509
8903cb82
PP
1510=item Identifier too long
1511
1512(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1513about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1514names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1515versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1516
f675dbe5
CB
1517=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
1518
1519(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
1520environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=> delimiter
1521used to spearate keys from values. The element is ignored.
1522
1523=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
a0d0e21e 1524
f675dbe5
CB
1525(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical name
1526or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1527didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the
1528line was ignored.
a0d0e21e 1529
4fdae800
PP
1530=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1531
1532(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1533error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121
PP
1534multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1535
1536Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1537either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1538transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745
PP
1539properly converting the text file format.
1540
1541Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1542text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1543handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1544
1545In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1546converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1547executed.
4fdae800 1548
a0d0e21e
LW
1549=item Illegal division by zero
1550
1551(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1552logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1553
1554=item Illegal modulus zero
1555
1556(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1557don't take to this kindly.
1558
399388f4
GS
1559=item Illegal binary digit %s
1560
1561(F) You used a digit other than 0 and 1 in a binary number.
1562
1563=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1564
1565(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1566
399388f4
GS
1567=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
1568
1569(W) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
1570Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.
1571
1572=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306
LW
1573
1574(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1575of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1576
651978e7 1577=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
6ff81951 1578
252aa082
JH
1579(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f
1580in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
6ff81951
GS
1581before the illegal character.
1582
81e118e0
JH
1583=item Illegal number of bits in vec
1584
0a1cd687 1585(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
c5a0f51a 1586two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
09bef843 1587
54310121
PP
1588=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1589
1590(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1591following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1592
9607fc9c
PP
1593=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1594
1595(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1596array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1597used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1598instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1599indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1600program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1601that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1602
a0d0e21e
LW
1603=item Insecure dependency in %s
1604
8b1a09fc 1605(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1606The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1607or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1608labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1609who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1610used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1611for more information.
1612
1613=item Insecure directory in %s
1614
1615(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1616script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1617See L<perlsec>.
1618
62f468fc 1619=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1620
1621(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1622setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1623C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1624potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1625known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1626
a7ae9550
GS
1627=item Integer overflow in %s number
1628
9e24b6e2
JH
1629(W) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified either
1630as a literal in your code or as a scalar is too big for your
1631architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number. On a
163232-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
1633representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
16340b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1635transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1636internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1637operations.
bbce6d69 1638
748a9306
LW
1639=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1640
1641(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1642of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1643whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
b687b08b 1644script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count
748a9306
LW
1645has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1646this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1647and execute the specified command.
1648
a0d0e21e
LW
1649=item internal disaster in regexp
1650
1651(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1652
4eb79ab5
GS
1653=item glob failed (%s)
1654
1655(W) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1656and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
1657pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
1658status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit resulted in a
1659coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is broken. If so,
1660you should change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh: If you
1661have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
1662C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all empty (except that
1663C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will think csh is missing.
1664In either case, after editing config.sh, run C<./Configure -S> and
1665rebuild Perl.
5cd24f17 1666
a0d0e21e
LW
1667=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1668
1669(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1670
09bef843
SB
1671=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1672
1673The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1674by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1675
1676=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1677
1678The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not recognized
1679by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1680
a0d0e21e
LW
1681=item invalid [] range in regexp
1682
1683(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
93733859
JH
1684greater than the maximum character, or the range didn't start/end with
1685a literal character. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 1686
c635e13b
PP
1687=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1688
878e08df 1689(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1690See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1691
09bef843
SB
1692=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1693
1694(F) Something other than a comma or whitespace was seen between the
1695elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute
1696had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated
1697too soon. See L<attributes>.
1698
96e4d5b1
PP
1699=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1700
8903cb82 1701(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1702(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1703ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1704
1705=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1706
8903cb82 1707(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1708(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1709ignored.
96e4d5b1 1710
a0d0e21e
LW
1711=item ioctl is not implemented
1712
1713(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1714strange for a machine that supports C.
1715
1716=item junk on end of regexp
1717
1718(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1719
1720=item Label not found for "last %s"
1721
1722(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1723loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1724See L<perlfunc/last>.
1725
1726=item Label not found for "next %s"
1727
1728(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1729that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1730L<perlfunc/last>.
1731
1732=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1733
1734(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1735that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1736L<perlfunc/last>.
1737
85ab1d1d 1738=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1739
85ab1d1d 1740(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1741effective uids or gids failed.
1742
a0d0e21e
LW
1743=item listen() on closed fd
1744
1745(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1746the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1747
cd06dffe
GS
1748=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1749
1750(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
1751values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context.
1752See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
1753
a0d0e21e
LW
1754=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1755
1756(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1757doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1758
3cdd684c
TP
1759=item Method %s not permitted
1760
1761See Server error.
1762
a0d0e21e
LW
1763=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1764
1765(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1766by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1767ended earlier on the current line.
1768
1769=item Misplaced _ in number
1770
1771(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1772
1773=item Missing $ on loop variable
1774
8b1a09fc
PP
1775(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1776mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1777one line to the next.
1778
4a2d328f 1779=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1780
4a2d328f 1781(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1782double-quotish context.
1783
a0d0e21e
LW
1784=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1785
1786(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1787"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1788
06eaf0bc
GS
1789=item Missing command in piped open
1790
1791(W) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or C<open(FH, "command |")>
1792construction, but the command was missing or blank.
1793
748a9306
LW
1794=item Missing operator before %s?
1795
1796(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1797found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1798
d98d5fff 1799=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1800
d98d5fff
GS
1801(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
1802closing ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place
1803you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1804
a0d0e21e
LW
1805=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1806
1807(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1808constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1809catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1810
1811 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1812 mod(2);
1813
1814Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1815
4fe4fdb3 1816=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1817
1818(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1819subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1820backwards.
1821
4fe4fdb3 1822=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1823
19a09eb8 1824(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
a0d0e21e
LW
1825be created for some peculiar reason.
1826
1827=item Module name must be constant
1828
1829(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1830
1831=item msg%s not implemented
1832
1833(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1834
1835=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1836
8b1a09fc
PP
1837(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1838like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1839
09bef843
SB
1840=item Missing name in "my sub"
1841
1842(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that they
1843have a name with which they can be found.
1844
8b1a09fc
PP
1845=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1846
68dc0745
PP
1847(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1848If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
77ca0c92
LW
1849it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
1850provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1851
1852=item Negative length
1853
1854(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1855that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1856
1857=item nested *?+ in regexp
1858
5f05dabc 1859(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1860things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1861
5f05dabc 1862Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1863to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1864
1865=item No #! line
1866
1867(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1868even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1869
1870=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1871
1872(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1873script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1874another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1875See L<perlsec>.
1876
1877=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1878
1879(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1880
1881=item No comma allowed after %s
1882
1883(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1884allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1885Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1886
0a753a76
PP
1887One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1888constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1889importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1890does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1891explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1892L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1893would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1894remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1895constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1896list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1897this error was triggered?
1898
748a9306
LW
1899=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1900
1901(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1902and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1903want to pipe the output from this command.
1904
a0d0e21e
LW
1905=item No DB::DB routine defined
1906
1907(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1908but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1909didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1910statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1911automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1912right.
1913
1914=item No dbm on this machine
1915
1916(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1917supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1918
1919=item No DBsub routine
1920
1921(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1922but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1923didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1924ordinary subroutine call.
1925
8b1a09fc 1926=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1927
1928(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1929and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1930the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1931
8b1a09fc 1932=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1933
1934(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1935and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1936from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1937
8b1a09fc 1938=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1939
1940(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1941and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1942where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1943
8b1a09fc 1944=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1945
1946(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1947and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1948name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1949
a0d0e21e
LW
1950=item No Perl script found in input
1951
1952(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1953with #! and containing the word "perl".
1954
1955=item No setregid available
1956
1957(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1958your system.
1959
1960=item No setreuid available
1961
1962(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1963your system.
1964
1965=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1966
1967(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1968intervening space.
1969
57079c46
GA
1970=item No such array field
1971
1972(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
1973not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
1974array indices for that to work.
1975
f1192cee
GA
1976=item No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
1977
1978(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
1979does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
1980the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
1981is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
1982
748a9306
LW
1983=item No such pipe open
1984
1985(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1986close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1987an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1988
a0d0e21e
LW
1989=item No such signal: SIG%s
1990
1991(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1992Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1993
bd3fa61c
CB
1994=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
1995
db7c17d7 1996(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
f675dbe5
CB
1997timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
1998to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
1999to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
2000get local time.
2001
a0d0e21e
LW
2002=item Not a CODE reference
2003
2004(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2005subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2006use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2007See also L<perlref>.
2008
2009=item Not a format reference
2010
2011(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2012format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2013
2014=item Not a GLOB reference
2015
55497cff 2016(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
2017a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2018something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
2019what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2020
2021=item Not a HASH reference
2022
2023(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
2024found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2025function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2026
2027=item Not a perl script
2028
2029(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2030even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2031mention perl.
2032
2033=item Not a SCALAR reference
2034
2035(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
2036found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2037function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2038
2039=item Not a subroutine reference
2040
2041(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2042subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2043use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2044See also L<perlref>.
2045
e7ea3e70 2046=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2047
2048(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2049doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2050
2051=item Not an ARRAY reference
2052
2053(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
2054found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2055function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2056
2057=item Not enough arguments for %s
2058
2059(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2060
2061=item Not enough format arguments
2062
2063(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
2064See L<perlform>.
2065
2066=item Null filename used
2067
5f05dabc 2068(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
2069that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
2070
55497cff
PP
2071=item Null picture in formline
2072
2073(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2074specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2075supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2076
a0d0e21e
LW
2077=item NULL OP IN RUN
2078
2079(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
2080
2081=item Null realloc
2082
2083(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2084
2085=item NULL regexp argument
2086
5f05dabc 2087(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2088
2089=item NULL regexp parameter
2090
2091(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2092
fc36a67e
PP
2093=item Number too long
2094
2095(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
2096about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
2097Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
2098try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
2099
252aa082
JH
2100=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2101
9e24b6e2
JH
2102(W) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295)
2103and therefore non-portable between systems. See L<perlport> for more
2104on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2105
2106See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2107
1930e939 2108=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2109
1930e939
TP
2110(S) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
2111is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2112
bbce6d69
PP
2113=item Offset outside string
2114
2115(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
2116pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
2117The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
2118will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
2119
a0d0e21e
LW
2120=item oops: oopsAV
2121
2122(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2123
2124=item oops: oopsHV
2125
2126(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2127
56f7f34b 2128=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2129
e7ea3e70
IZ
2130(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
2131no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
2132terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
2133operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
2134true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2135
748a9306
LW
2136=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2137
2138(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
2139expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
2140to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
2141For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
2142if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
2143
a0d0e21e
LW
2144=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2145
2146(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
2147but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
2148
1b979e0a 2149=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2150
55497cff 2151(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 2152remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2153
2154The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2155depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
2156However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
2157an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
2158error is trappable I<once>.
2159
1b979e0a 2160=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
2161
2162(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2163remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
2164the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
2165a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
2166
1b979e0a
IZ
2167=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2168
2169(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
2170is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
2171instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
2172
a0d0e21e
LW
2173=item page overflow
2174
2175(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
2176See L<perlform>.
2177
2178=item panic: ck_grep
2179
2180(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2181
2182=item panic: ck_split
2183
2184(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2185
2186=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2187
2188(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
2189are in the savestack.
2190
810b8aa5
GS
2191=item panic: del_backref
2192
2193(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2194reference.
2195
a0d0e21e
LW
2196=item panic: die %s
2197
2198(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2199it wasn't an eval context.
2200
2201=item panic: do_match
2202
2203(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2204
2205=item panic: do_split
2206
2207(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2208
2209=item panic: do_subst
2210
2211(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2212
2213=item panic: do_trans
2214
2215(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2216
c635e13b
PP
2217=item panic: frexp
2218
2219(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2220
a0d0e21e
LW
2221=item panic: goto
2222
2223(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2224and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2225
2226=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2227
2228(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2229
2230=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2231
2232(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2233
e446cec8
IZ
2234=item panic: kid popen errno read
2235
2236(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2237
a0d0e21e
LW
2238=item panic: last
2239
2240(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2241it wasn't a block context.
2242
2243=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2244
5f05dabc 2245(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2246
2247=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2248
2249(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2250invalid enum on the top of it.
2251
2252=item panic: malloc
2253
2254(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2255
810b8aa5
GS
2256=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2257
2258(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2259references to an object.
2260
a0d0e21e
LW
2261=item panic: mapstart
2262
2263(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2264
2265=item panic: null array
2266
2267(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2268
2269=item panic: pad_alloc
2270
2271(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2272and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2273
2274=item panic: pad_free curpad
2275
2276(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2277and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2278
2279=item panic: pad_free po
2280
2281(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2282
2283=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2284
2285(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2286and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2287
2288=item panic: pad_sv po
2289
2290(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2291
2292=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2293
2294(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2295and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2296
2297=item panic: pad_swipe po
2298
2299(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2300
2301=item panic: pp_iter
2302
2303(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2304
2305=item panic: realloc
2306
2307(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2308
2309=item panic: restartop
2310
2311(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2312didn't supply the destination.
2313
2314=item panic: return
2315
2316(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2317then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2318
2319=item panic: scan_num
2320
2321(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2322
2323=item panic: sv_insert
2324
2325(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2326was string.
2327
2328=item panic: top_env
2329
6224f72b 2330(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2331
2332=item panic: yylex
2333
2334(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2335
7b8d334a 2336=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
2337
2338(W) You said something like
2339
2340 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2341
2342when you meant
2343
2344 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2345
2346Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
2347
2348=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2349
2350(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2351than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2352anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2353
2354=item Permission denied
2355
2356(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2357
bd3fa61c 2358=item pid %x not a child
748a9306
LW
2359
2360(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
2361isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2362perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2363
a0d0e21e
LW
2364=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2365
2366(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
2367the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2368
6bc102ca
GS
2369=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2370
2371(W) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
2372could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2373
bbce6d69
PP
2374=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2375
774d564b
PP
2376(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
2377strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2378as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2379parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2380
774d564b
PP
2381You probably wrote something like this:
2382
54310121 2383 @list = qw(
774d564b 2384 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2385 b # another comment
774d564b 2386 );
bbce6d69
PP
2387
2388when you should have written this:
2389
774d564b 2390 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2391 a
2392 b
774d564b
PP
2393 );
2394
2395If you really want comments, build your list the
2396old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2397
2398 @list = (
2399 'a', # a comment
2400 'b', # another comment
2401 );
bbce6d69
PP
2402
2403=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2404
774d564b 2405(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2406aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2407delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2408used.)
bbce6d69 2409
54310121 2410You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2411
774d564b
PP
2412 qw! a, b, c !;
2413
2414which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2415commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2416
774d564b 2417 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2418
a0d0e21e
LW
2419=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2420
2421(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2422Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2423end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2424Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2425
2426=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2427
2428(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2429
a0d0e21e
LW
2430 open FOO || die;
2431
2432is now misinterpreted as
2433
2434 open(FOO || die);
2435
68dc0745
PP
2436because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2437and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2438put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2439instead of "||".
a0d0e21e 2440
3cdd684c
TP
2441=item Premature end of script headers
2442
2443See Server error.
2444
a0d0e21e
LW
2445=item print on closed filehandle %s
2446
2447(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2448Check your logic flow.
2449
2450=item printf on closed filehandle %s
2451
2452(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2453Check your logic flow.
2454
2455=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2456
54310121 2457(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2458which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2459last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2460
2461 open FOO || die;
2462
3fe9a6f1 2463=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2464
3fe9a6f1
PP
2465(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2466or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2467
89ea2908
GA
2468=item Range iterator outside integer range
2469
2470(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2471are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2472One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2473increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2474
af8c498a 2475=item Read on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2476
2477(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2478Check your logic flow.
2479
4ad56ec9
IZ
2480=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2481
2482(S) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had already
2483been freed.
2484
a0d0e21e
LW
2485=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2486
54310121 2487(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2488
2489=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2490
2491(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2492desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2493which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2494
3e0ccd42 2495=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2496
2497(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2498an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2499
3e0ccd42
JP
2500=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2501
2502(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2503method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2504
1930e939
TP
2505=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2506
2507(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2508an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2509usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2510to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2511
2512 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2513 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2514 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2515 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2516
810b8aa5
GS
2517=item Reference is already weak
2518
2519(W) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
2520Doing so has no effect.
2521
a0d0e21e
LW
2522=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2523
2524(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2525reference count of other than 1.
2526
fb73857a
PP
2527=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2528
2529(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2530could match an empty string.
2531
a0d0e21e
LW
2532=item regexp memory corruption
2533
2534(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2535expression compiler gave it.
2536
2537=item regexp out of space
2538
2539(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2540
a0d0e21e
LW
2541=item Reversed %s= operator
2542
2543(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2544comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2545
2546=item Runaway format
2547
2548(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2549produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2550199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2551themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2552shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2553
2554=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2555
a6006777 2556(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2557an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2558The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2559assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2560like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2561subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2562
748a9306 2563On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2564element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2565Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2566L<perlref>.
2567
a6006777
PP
2568=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2569
2570(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2571a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2572The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2573assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2574like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2575subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2576
2577On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2578element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2579Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2580L<perlref>.
2581
a0d0e21e
LW
2582=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2583
54310121
PP
2584(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2585or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2586
2587=item Search pattern not terminated
2588
2589(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2590construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2591Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2592
96e4d5b1 2593=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2594
96e4d5b1
PP
2595(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2596was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2597
2598=item select not implemented
2599
2600(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2601
2602=item sem%s not implemented
2603
2604(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2605
2606=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2607
2608(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2609that had previously been marked as free.
2610
2611=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2612
2613(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2614or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2615
2616=item Send on closed socket
2617
2618(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
2619Check your logic flow.
2620
1b1626e4 2621=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2622
1b1626e4
G
2623(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2624See L<perlre>.
2625
a0d0e21e
LW
2626=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2627
2628(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2629parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2630
2631=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2632
2633(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2634but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2635
2636=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2637
2638(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2639See L<perlre>.
2640
a5f75d66
AD
2641=item Server error
2642
3cdd684c
TP
2643This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
2644to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error
2645text varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen
2646variants are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted",
2647"Document contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and
2648"Did not produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
2649
2650B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2651
2652You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2653CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2654tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2655from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2656server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2657for more information:
2658
be94a901
GS
2659 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2660 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2661 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2662 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2663 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2664
be94a901
GS
2665You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2666
a0d0e21e
LW
2667=item setegid() not implemented
2668
8b1a09fc 2669(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2670the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2671think so.
2672
2673=item seteuid() not implemented
2674
8b1a09fc 2675(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2676the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2677think so.
2678
2679=item setrgid() not implemented
2680
8b1a09fc 2681(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2682the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2683think so.
2684
2685=item setruid() not implemented
2686
1f8d2005 2687(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2688the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2689think so.
2690
2691=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2692
2693(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2694because the world might have written on it already.
2695
2696=item shm%s not implemented
2697
2698(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2699
2700=item shutdown() on closed fd
2701
2702(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2703
f86702cc 2704=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2705
2706(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2707put it into the wrong package?
2708
2709=item sort is now a reserved word
2710
2711(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2712But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2713
2714=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2715
2716(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2717it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2718See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2719
2720=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2721
2722(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2723or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2724
2725=item Split loop
2726
2727(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2728more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2729See L<perlfunc/split>.
2730
8b1a09fc 2731=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2732
2733(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2734on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2735
2736=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2737
2738(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2739This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2740there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2741which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2742by itself.
2743
17feb5d5
DD
2744=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2745
2746(W) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it
2747makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.
2748Try putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example,
2749the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three
2750repetitions of "xyz" is C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
2751
e7ea3e70
IZ
2752=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2753
2754(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2755Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2756may break this.
2757
a0d0e21e
LW
2758=item Subroutine %s redefined
2759
2760(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2761
2762 {
4438c4b7 2763 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
2764 eval "sub name { ... }";
2765 }
2766
2767=item Substitution loop
2768
2769(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2770substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2771input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2772L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2773
2774=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2775
2776(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2777construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2778Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2779
2780=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2781
2782(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2783construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2784Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2785
2786=item substr outside of string
2787
3e3baf6d
TB
2788(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2789string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2790length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2791mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2792of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2793
f86702cc 2794=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2795
2796(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2797version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2798
85ab1d1d
JH
2799=item switching effective %s is not implemented
2800
2801(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the
2802real and effective uids or gids.
2803
a0d0e21e
LW
2804=item syntax error
2805
2806(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2807
2808 A keyword is misspelled.
2809 A semicolon is missing.
2810 A comma is missing.
2811 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2812 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2813 A closing quote is missing.
2814
2815Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2816error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2817The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2818it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2819before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2820Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2821the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2822C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2823if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2824
cb1a09d0
AD
2825=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2826
8b1a09fc 2827(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2828instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2829into Perl yourself.
2830
6087ac44 2831=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 2832
6087ac44
JH
2833(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
2834"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
2835machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
2836unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e
LW
2837
2838=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2839
2840(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2841Check your logic flow.
2842
fc36a67e
PP
2843=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2844
2845(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2846nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2847
8903cb82 2848=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2849
8903cb82
PP
2850(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2851never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2852
8b1a09fc 2853=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2854
2855(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2856open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2857
2858=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2859
8b1a09fc 2860(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2861a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2862
2863 $[ = 0;
2864 $[ = 1;
2865 ...
2866 local $[ = 0;
2867 local $[ = 1;
2868 ...
2869
2870This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2871out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2872
2873=item The %s function is unimplemented
2874
2875The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2876to the probings of Configure.
2877
f86702cc 2878=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2879
2880(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2881probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2882think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2883will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2884will deny it.
2885
2886=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2887
2888(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2889if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2890the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2891
f675dbe5
CB
2892=item This Perl can't reset CRTL eviron elements (%s)
2893
2894=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
2895
2896(W) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an element
2897of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't
2898built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll need to
2899rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see
2900L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the target of the change to
2901%ENV which produced the warning.
2902
a0d0e21e
LW
2903=item times not implemented
2904
2905(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2906you're not running on Unix.
2907
2908=item Too few args to syscall
2909
2910(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2911system call to call, silly dilly.
2912
9607fc9c
PP
2913=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2914
2915(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2916B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2917This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2918script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2919So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2920
9607fc9c
PP
2921If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2922mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2923by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2924first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2925
9607fc9c
PP
2926If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2927B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2928
8cc95fdb
PP
2929=item Too late for "-%s" option
2930
2931(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2932B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2933are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2934
cb1a09d0
AD
2935=item Too many ('s
2936
2937=item Too many )'s
2938
2939(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2940of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2941Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2942
a0d0e21e
LW
2943=item Too many args to syscall
2944
5f05dabc 2945(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2946
2947=item Too many arguments for %s
2948
2949(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2950
2951=item trailing \ in regexp
2952
2953(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2954it. See L<perlre>.
2955
2c268ad5 2956=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2957
2958(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
2959or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
2960C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2961
2c268ad5 2962=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2963
2964(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2965construct.
2966
2967=item truncate not implemented
2968
2969(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2970Configure knows about.
2971
2972=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2973
2974(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2975certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2976%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2977{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2978
2979=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2980
eec2d3df
GS
2981(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
2982literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2983
2984=item umask not implemented
2985
2986(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried
2987to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 2988
4633a7c4
LW
2989=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2990
2991(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2992
a0d0e21e
LW
2993=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2994
2995(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2996contexts were entered and left.
2997
2998=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2999
3000(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
3001values were temporarily localized.
3002
3003=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
3004
3005(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
3006were entered and left.
3007
3008=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
3009
3010(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
3011scalars were allocated and freed.
3012
3013=item Undefined format "%s" called
3014
3015(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3016another package? See L<perlform>.
3017
3018=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
3019
3020(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
3021it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3022
3023=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
3024
3025(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
3026has since been undefined.
3027
3028=item Undefined subroutine called
3029
3030(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
3031or if it was, it has since been undefined.
3032
3033=item Undefined subroutine in sort
3034
3035(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
3036have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3037
4633a7c4
LW
3038=item Undefined top format "%s" called
3039
3040(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3041another package? See L<perlform>.
3042
20408e3c
GS
3043=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
3044
3045(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
3046This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
3047
a0d0e21e
LW
3048=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
3049
3050(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
3051representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
3052
3053=item Unknown BYTEORDER
3054
5f05dabc 3055(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e 3056
6170680b
IZ
3057=item Unknown open() mode '%s'
3058
3059(F) The second argument of 3-arguments open is not one from the list
3060of C<L<lt>>, C<L<gt>>, C<E<gt>E<gt>>, C<+L<lt>>, C<+L<gt>>,
3061C<+E<gt>E<gt>>, C<-|>, C<|-> of possible open() modes.
3062
f675dbe5
CB
3063=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
3064
3065(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
3066iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
3067data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
3068subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
3069
a0d0e21e
LW
3070=item unmatched () in regexp
3071
3072(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
3073expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 3074the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3075
d98d5fff 3076=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 3077
d98d5fff
GS
3078(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
3079opening ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.
3080As a general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the
3081place you were last editing.
a0d0e21e
LW
3082
3083=item unmatched [] in regexp
3084
3085(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
3086include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
3087See L<perlre>.
3088
3089=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3090
54310121 3091(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
3092It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
3093an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
3094
54310121 3095=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 3096
54310121
PP
3097(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
3098in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
3099script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 3100
c9f97d15
IZ
3101=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
3102
3103(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
3104by Perl.
3105
a0d0e21e
LW
3106=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
3107
3108(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
3109Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
3110
90248788 3111=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
3112
3113(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
3114(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
3115supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
3116
3117=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
3118
3119(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
3120failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 3121because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3122
3123=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
3124
3125(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
3126
54310121
PP
3127=item Unsupported function fork
3128
3129(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
3130
3131Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
3132Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
3133the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
3134
a0d0e21e
LW
3135=item Unsupported function %s
3136
7b8d334a 3137(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
3138At least, Configure doesn't think so.
3139
3140=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
3141
3142(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
3143least that's what Configure thought.
3144
8b1a09fc 3145=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
3146
3147(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
3148a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
3149finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
3150the line, and you really meant a "less than".
3151
09bef843
SB
3152=item Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
3153
3154(F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis character while parsing an
3155attribute list, but the matching closing (right) parenthesis
3156character was not found. You may need to add (or remove) a backslash
3157character to get your parentheses to balance. See L<attributes>.
3158
3159=item Unterminated attribute list
3160
3161(F) The lexer found something other than a simple identifier at the start
3162of an attribute, and it wasn't a semicolon or the start of a
3163block. Perhaps you terminated the parameter list of the previous attribute
3164too soon. See L<attributes>.
3165
a0d0e21e
LW
3166=item Use of $# is deprecated
3167
8b1a09fc 3168(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
3169Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
3170
3171=item Use of $* is deprecated
3172
4a6725af 3173(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
3174you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
3175use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
3176action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
3177
748a9306
LW
3178=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
3179
5f05dabc
PP
3180(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
3181only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 3182
8b1a09fc 3183=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
3184
3185(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 3186wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 3187
a0d0e21e
LW
3188=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
3189
3190(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
3191subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
3192a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
3193
dc848c6f
PP
3194=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
3195
5cd24f17
PP
3196(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
3197up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
3198be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 3199as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
3200
3201This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
3202only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
3203of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
3204interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
3205use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
3206
3207The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
3208non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
3209depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
3210C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
3211
fb73857a
PP
3212In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
3213should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 3214C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 3215
85b81015
LW
3216=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
3217
3218(D) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
3219may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
3220the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
3221different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
3222names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
3223e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
3224
dc848c6f
PP
3225=item Use of %s is deprecated
3226
3227(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
3228because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
3229bad side effects.
3230
a0d0e21e
LW
3231=item Use of uninitialized value
3232
3233(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
3234interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
5311ebfa 3235warning assign a defined value to your variables.
a0d0e21e 3236
8202fd39
G
3237=item Useless use of "re" pragma
3238
3239(W) You did C<use re;> without any arguments. That isn't very useful.
3240
a0d0e21e
LW
3241=item Useless use of %s in void context
3242
3243(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
3244with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
3245from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
3246this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
3247your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
3248if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
3249
3250 $one, $two = 1, 2;
3251
3252when you meant to say
3253
3254 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
3255
748a9306
LW
3256Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
3257reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
3258example, if you say
3259
3260 $array = (1,2);
3261
3262when you should have said
3263
3264 $array = [1,2];
3265
3266The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
3267while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
3268a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
3269throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
3270L<perlref> for more on this.
3271
55497cff
PP
3272=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
3273
3274(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
3275valid when C<untie> was called.
3276
68dc0745 3277=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 3278
68dc0745
PP
3279(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
3280or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
3281value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
3282probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
3283expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 3284
f675dbe5
CB
3285=item Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
3286
3287(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV
3288element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer
3289than 1024 characters. The return value has been truncated to 1024
3290characters.
3291
9607fc9c 3292=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
3293
3294(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
3295that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
3296something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
3297by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
3298on the front of your variable.
3299
44a8e56a
PP
3300=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
3301
3302(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
3303subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
3304(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
3305the outermost subroutine. For example:
3306
3307 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
3308
3309If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
3310indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
3311as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
3312referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
3313the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
3314*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
3315you want.
3316
3317In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
3318subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
3319support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
3320subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
3321
3322=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
3323
3324(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
3325variable defined in an outer subroutine.
3326
3327When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
3328the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
3329*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
3330call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
3331subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
3332other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
3333
3334Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
3335lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
3336will I<never> share the given variable.
3337
3338This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
3339anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
3340reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 3341they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
3342variables.
3343
f86702cc 3344=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
3345
3346(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3347of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3348Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3349
084610c0
GS
3350=item Version number must be a constant number
3351
3352(P) The attempt to translate a C<use Module n.n LIST> statement into
3353its equivalent C<BEGIN> block found an internal inconsistency with
3354the version number.
3355
3e6e419a
JH
3356=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3357
3358(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3359
3360 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3361 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3362 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3363 LANG = (unset)
3364 are supported and installed on your system.
3365 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3366
3367Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3368settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
3369This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
3370administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
3371not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
3372is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
3373script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
3374will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
3375fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
3376
7e1af8bc 3377=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
3378
3379(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
3380you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
3381
f86702cc 3382=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 3383
8b1a09fc 3384(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 3385close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 3386
5f05dabc 3387=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
3388
3389(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
3390binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
3391unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
3392has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
3393
3394 rand + 5;
3395
3396you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
3397
3398 rand() + 5;
3399
3400but in actual fact, you got
3401
3402 rand(+5);
3403
5f05dabc 3404So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e 3405
af8c498a 3406=item Write on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3407
3408(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
3409Check your logic flow.
3410
3411=item X outside of string
3412
3413(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
3414the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3415
3416=item x outside of string
3417
3418(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
3419the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3420
3421=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
3422
3423(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3424
3425=item Xsub called in sort
3426
3427(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3428
3429=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
3430
3431(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
3432already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
3433Use a filename instead.
3434
3435=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
3436
5f05dabc 3437(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
3438sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
3439about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
3440the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
3441
3442=item You need to quote "%s"
3443
3444(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
3445already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
3446will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
3447probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
3448
3449=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
3450
3451(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
3452Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
3453See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
3454
3455=item \1 better written as $1
3456
3457(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 3458of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
3459substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
3460because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
3461if there are more than 9 backreferences.
3462
8b1a09fc 3463=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3464
3465(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3466found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 3467'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 3468
8b1a09fc 3469=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3470
3471(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3472thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
3473command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
3474from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
3475streams, such as
3476
3477 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
3478 while (<STDIN>) {
3479 print;
3480 print OUT;
3481 }
3482 close OUT;
3483
774d564b 3484=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 3485
774d564b
PP
3486(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
3487version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3488
3489=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3490
dc848c6f 3491(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
3492
3493 prefix1;prefix2
3494
3495or
3496
3497 prefix1 prefix2
3498
dc848c6f
PP
3499with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3500of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3501may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3502"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3503
3504=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3505
54310121 3506(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3507C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3508
3509=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3510
3511(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3512applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3513port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3514L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3515in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3516
a0d0e21e
LW
3517=back
3518