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8fde188e 2This document is written in pod format hence there are punctuation
eae55d03 3characters in odd places. Do not worry, you've apparently got
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4the ASCII->EBCDIC translation worked out correctly. You can read
5more about pod in pod/perlpod.pod or the short summary in the
6INSTALL file.
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8=head1 NAME
9
10README.os390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390.
11
12=head1 SYNOPSIS
13
14This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl
15on OS/390 Unix System Services.
16
17=head1 DESCRIPTION
18
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19This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release 3, 5, 6, 7,
208, and 9. It may work on other versions or releases, but those are
21the ones we've tested it on.
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22
23You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks before
eae55d03 24running the Configure script for Perl.
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25
26=head2 Unpacking
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27
28Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:
29
30 http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxqp1.html
31
32to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:
33
34 pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar
35
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36=head2 Setup and utilities
37
38Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including any necessary
39parser template files. If you have not already done so then be sure to:
40
41 cp /samples/yyparse.c /etc
42
43This may also be a good time to ensure that your /etc/protocol file
44and either your /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/hosts files are in place.
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45The IBM document that described such USS system setup issues was
46SC28-1890-07 "OS/390 UNIX System Services Planning", in particular
47Chapter 6 on customizing the OE shell.
8fde188e 48
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49GNU make for OS/390, which is required for the build of perl (as well as
50building CPAN modules and extensions), is available from:
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51
52 http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/index.htm
53
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54Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!" errors while
55trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries. If you encounter such
56trouble then try to download the source code kit and build GNU make
57from source to eliminate any such trouble. You might also find GNU make
58(as well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open Source Software
59for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.
60
61There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h header file
62that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and possibly V2R9. The problem with
63the header file is that near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT constant
64there is a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment like so:
65
66 #define SO_REUSEPORT 0x0200 /* allow local address & port
67 reuse */ /
68
69You could edit that header yourself to remove that last '/', or you might
70note that Language Environment (LE) APAR PQ39997 describes the problem
71and PTF's UQ46272 and UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and apply them.
72If left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an inability for Perl
73to build its "Socket" extension.
74
75For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky bit for your
76world readable /tmp directory if you have not already done so (see man chmod).
77
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78=head2 Configure
79
80Once you've unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure" (see INSTALL
81for a full discussion of the Configure options). There is a "hints" file
82for os390 that specifies the correct values for most things. Some things
83to watch out for include:
84
85=over 4
86
87=item *
88
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89A message of the form:
90
91 (I see you are using the Korn shell. Some ksh's blow up on Configure,
92 mainly on older exotic systems. If yours does, try the Bourne shell instead.)
93
94is nothing to worry about at all.
95
96=item *
97
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98Some of the parser default template files in /samples are needed in /etc.
99In particular be sure that you at least copy /samples/yyparse.c to /etc
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100before running Perl's Configure. This step ensures successful extraction
101of EBCDIC versions of parser files such as perly.c. This has to be done
102before running Configure the first time. If you failed to do so then the
103easiest way to re-Configure Perl is to delete your misconfigured build root
104and re extract the source from the tar ball. If for some reason you do not
105want to do that then, after ensuring that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in place
106run the following commands from within the Perl build directory:
107
108 rm -f y.tab.c y.tab.h
109 yacc -d perly.y
110 mv -f y.tab.c perly.c
111 chmod u+w perly.c
112 sed -e '/^#include "perl\.h"/a\
113 \
114 #define yydebug PL_yydebug\
115 #define yynerrs PL_yynerrs\
116 #define yyerrflag PL_yyerrflag\
117 #define yychar PL_yychar\
118 #define yyval PL_yyval\
119 #define yylval PL_yylval' \
120 -e '/YYSTYPE *yyval;/D' \
121 -e '/YYSTYPE *yylval;/D' \
122 -e '/int yychar,/,/yynerrs;/D' \
123 -e 's/int yydebug = 0;/yydebug = 0;/' \
124 -e 's/[^_]realloc(/PerlMem_realloc(/g' \
125 -e 's/fprintf *( *stderr *,/PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,/g' \
126 -e 's/y\.tab/perly/g' perly.c >perly.tmp
127 mv -f perly.tmp perly.c
128 mv -f y.tab.h perly.h
129 cd x2p
130 rm -f y.tab.c y.tab.h
131 yacc a2p.y
132 mv -f y.tab.c a2p.c
133 chmod u+w a2p.c
134 sed -e 's/fprintf *( *stderr *,/PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,/g' \
135 -e 's/y\.tab/a2p/g' a2p.c >a2p.tmp
136 mv -f a2p.tmp a2p.c
137 mv -f y.tab.h a2p.h
138 cd ..
139
140There, easy huh? If you find typing all that in difficult then perhaps
141you should reconsider the rm -rf of the perl build directory and
142re extraction of the source tar ball.
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143
144=item *
145
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146This port doesn't support dynamic loading. Although OS/390 has support
147for DLLs via dllload(), there are some differences that cause problems
148for Perl. (We need a volunteer to write a ext/DynaLoader/dl_dllload.xs
149file).
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150
151=item *
9d116dd7 152
eae55d03 153Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O". There is
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154a bug in either the optimizer or perl that causes perl to
155not work correctly when the optimizer is on.
9d116dd7 156
8fde188e 157=item *
9d116dd7 158
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159Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the
160networking APIs are either missing or have the wrong
161names. In particular, make sure that there's either
eae55d03 162an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that
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163gethostbyname() works, and make sure that the file
164/etc/proto has been renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT
165/etc/protocols, as used by other Unix systems).
9d116dd7 166
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167=back
168
169=head2 Build, test, install
170
171Simply put:
172
173 sh Configure
174 make
175 make test
176
eae55d03 177if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP diagnosis) then:
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178
179 make install
180
181this last step may or may not require UID=0 privileges depending
182on how you answered the questions that Configure asked and whether
183or not you have write access to the directories you specified.
184
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185=head2 build anomalies
186
187"Out of memory!" messages during the build of Perl are most often fixed
188by re building the GNU make utility for OS/390 from a source code kit.
189
190Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE parameter in your
191'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note too that as of V2R8 address space
192limits can be set on a per user ID basis in the USS segment of a RACF
193profile). People have reported successful builds of Perl with MAXASSIZE
194parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be possible to build Perl
195with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).
196
197Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit your ulimit
198settings. Check that the following command returns reasonable values:
199
200 ulimit -a
201
202To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules loaded into the
203Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a link list or step lib.
204
205If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the build of the
206Socket extension then be sure to fix the syntax error in the system
207header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.
208
209=head2 testing anomalies
210
211The `make test` step runs a Perl Verification Procedure, usually before
212installation. You might encounter STDERR messages even during a successful
213run of `make test`. Here is a guide to some of the more commonly seen
214anomalies:
215
216=over 4
217
218=item *
219
220A message of the form:
221
222 comp/cpp.............ERROR CBC3191 ./.301989890.c:1 The character $ is not a
223 valid C source character.
224 FSUM3065 The COMPILE step ended with return code 12.
225 FSUM3017 Could not compile .301989890.c. Correct the errors and try again.
226 ok
227
228indicates that the t/comp/cpp.t test of Perl's -P command line switch has
229passed but that the particular invocation of c89 -E in the cpp script does
230not suppress the C compiler check of source code validity.
231
232=item *
233
234A message of the form:
235
236 io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
237 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
238 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
239 ok
240
241indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has passed but done so
242with extraneous messages on stderr from CEE.
243
244=item *
245
246A message of the form:
247
248 lib/ftmp-security....File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe
249 (sticky bit not set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
250 File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe (sticky bit not
251 set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
252 ok
253
254indicates a problem with the permissions on your /tmp directory within the HFS.
255To correct that problem issue the command:
256
257 chmod a+t /tmp
258
259from an account with write access to the directory entry for /tmp.
260
261=back
262
8fde188e 263=head2 Usage Hints
64d55c8a 264
9d116dd7 265When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the EBCDIC and ASCII
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266character sets are different. See perlebcdic.pod for more on such character
267set issues. Perl builtin functions that may behave differently under
268EBCDIC are also mentioned in the perlport.pod document.
9d116dd7 269
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270Open Edition (UNIX System Services) from V2R8 onward does support
271#!/path/to/perl script invocation. There is a PTF available from
272IBM for V2R7 that will allow shell/kernel support for #!. USS
273releases prior to V2R7 did not support the #! means of script invocation.
274If you are running V2R6 or earlier then see:
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275
276 head `whence perldoc`
277
278for an example of how to use the "eval exec" trick to ask the shell to
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279have Perl run your scripts on those older releases of Unix System Services.
280
281=head2 Modules and Extensions
282
283Pure pure (that is non xs) modules may be installed via the usual:
284
285 perl Makefile.PL
286 make
287 make test
288 make install
289
290You can also build xs based extensions to Perl for OS/390 but will need
291to follow the instructions in ExtUtils::MakeMaker for building
292statically linked perl binaries. In the simplest configurations building
293a static perl + xs extension boils down to:
9d116dd7 294
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295 perl Makefile.PL
296 make
297 make perl
298 make test
299 make install
300 make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl
8fde188e 301
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302In most cases people have reported better results with GNU make rather
303than the system's /bin/make program, whether for plain modules or for
304xs based extensions.
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305
306=head1 AUTHORS
307
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308David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis Longnecker
309and William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR and PTF feedback.
310Thanks to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwedow for SG24-5944-00.
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311
312=head1 SEE ALSO
313
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314L<INSTALL>, L<perlport>, L<perlebcdic>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.
315
316 http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/index.htm
317
318 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg245944.html
319
320 http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc
321
322 http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/portbk/bpxacenv.html
323
324 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
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325
326=head2 Mailing list
327
328The Perl Institute (http://www.perl.org/) maintains a perl-mvs
329mailing list of interest to all folks building and/or
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330using perl on all EBCDIC platforms (not just OS/390).
331To subscribe, send a message of:
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332
333 subscribe perl-mvs
334
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335to majordomo@perl.org. There is a web archive of the mailing list at:
336
337 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
9d116dd7 338
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339=head1 HISTORY
340
341This document was originally written by David Fiander for the 5.005
342release of Perl.
343
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344This document was podified for the 5.005_03 release of Perl 11 March 1999.
345
346Updated 12 November 2000 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
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347
348=cut
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