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Improve diag.t to detect BADVERSION diagnostics
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
CommitLineData
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
4438c4b7
JH
34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
6df41af2
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
MHM
59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
d8225693
JM
92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
94(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
95bitwise and, and multpication), and you said something like C<*foo *
96foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We assumed you
97meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more clear -- in
98the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you really meant
99to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
100
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101=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
102
103(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
104asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
105named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
106the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
107function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
108and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
109
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110=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s
111
112(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}>, which might be
113looking for element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case
114please write C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous
115arrayref to the function named foo, then do a scalar deref on the
116value it returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
117
bdac9d71 118=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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119
120(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
121string C<"-foo"> (outside of C<use strict 'subs'>), or a call to the
122function C<foo>, negated. If you meant the string, just write
123C<"-foo">, and please use strict. If you meant the function call,
124write C<-foo()>.
125
6df41af2 126=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 127
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128(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
129redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
130redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 131
6df41af2 132=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 133
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134(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
135redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
136into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
137though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
138which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 139
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140 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
141 while (<STDIN>) {
142 print;
143 print OUT;
144 }
145 close OUT;
c9f97d15 146
6df41af2 147=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 148
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149(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
150transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 151one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 152a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
153hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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154you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
155alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 156
6df41af2 157=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 158
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159(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
160with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
161impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
162for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 163
6df41af2 164=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 165
6df41af2 166(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 167
b0fdf69e 168=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 169
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170(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
171subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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172
173 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 174 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 175 &do_something
a0d0e21e 176
8ea97a1e 177=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 178
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179(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
180such as:
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181
182 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 183 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 184
8ea97a1e 185or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 186
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187 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
188 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 189
6df41af2 190=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 191
6df41af2 192(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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193name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
194error.
a0d0e21e 195
f86702cc 196=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 197
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198(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
199that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
200will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 201
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202=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
203
204(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
205forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
206data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
207the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
208If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
209the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
210
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211=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
212
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213(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
214spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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215
216=item assertion botched: %s
217
218(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
219
220=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
221
222(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
223
224=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
225
226(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
227must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
228know which context to supply to the right side.
229
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230=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
231
4447dfc1 232(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
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233thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
234Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
235created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
236thread. See L<threads>.
237
2393f1b9 238=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 239
49293501 240(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 241the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 242
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243=item Attempt to bless into a reference
244
245(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
246the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
247supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
248
249 bless $self, $proto;
250
251when you intended
252
253 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
254
255If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
256of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
257example by:
258
259 bless $self, "$proto";
260
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261=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
262
263(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
264which is not in its key set.
265
266=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
267
268(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
269declared readonly from a restricted hash.
270
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271=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
272
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273(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
274that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
275outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 276
54310121 277=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 278
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279(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
280strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
281strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
282of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 283
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284=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
285
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286(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
287free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
288SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
289free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
290try to free it.
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291
292=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
293
e476b1b5 294(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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295
296=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
297
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298(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
299see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
300earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
301This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
302that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
303mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
304corrupted.
a0d0e21e 305
dcdda58d
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306=item Attempt to join self
307
308(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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309impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
310to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 311
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312=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
313
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314(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
315function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
316means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
317invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
318literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
319avoid this warning.
84902520 320
087b5369
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321=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
322
323(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
324compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
325unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
326L<perlvar/%INC>.
327
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NC
328=item Attempt to set length of freed array
329
330(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
331can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
332of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
333
334 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
335 $$r = 503
336
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337=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
338
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339(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
340used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
341dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 342
c32124fe
NC
343=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
344
345(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "locked"
346attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
347effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in the next major
348release of Perl 5.
349
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NC
350=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
351
352(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 353attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
259976bd 354had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in the next major
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NC
355release of Perl 5.
356
fe13d51d 357=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
a0d0e21e 358
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359(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
360or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 361S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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362S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
363
7a95317d
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364=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
365
496a33f5 366(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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367substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
368most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
369
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370=item Bad filehandle: %s
371
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372(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
373symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
374open(), or did it in another package.
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375
376=item Bad free() ignored
377
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378(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
379been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 380setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 381
9ea8bc6d 382This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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383dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
384which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 385
aa689395
PP
386=item Bad hash
387
388(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
389
6df41af2
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390=item Badly placed ()'s
391
392(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
393of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
394Perl yourself.
395
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396=item Bad name after %s::
397
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398(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
399didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
400of quotes, so
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401
402 $var = 'myvar';
403 $sym = mypack::$var;
404
405is not the same as
406
407 $var = 'myvar';
408 $sym = "mypack::$var";
409
88e1f1a2
JV
410=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
411
412(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
413plugin API.
414
4ad56ec9
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415=item Bad realloc() ignored
416
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417(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
418never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
419by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 420
a0d0e21e
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421=item Bad symbol for array
422
423(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
424wasn't a symbol table entry.
425
4df3f177
SP
426=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
427
428(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
429that wasn't a symbol table entry.
430
431
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432=item Bad symbol for filehandle
433
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434(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
435that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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436
437=item Bad symbol for hash
438
439(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
440wasn't a symbol table entry.
441
34d09196
GS
442=item Bareword found in conditional
443
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444(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
445conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
446of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
447
448 open FOO || die;
449
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450It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
451a bareword:
34d09196
GS
452
453 use constant TYPO => 1;
454 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
455
456The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
457
6df41af2
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458=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
459
460(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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461subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
462symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
463
464=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
465
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466(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
467compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
468you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 469
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470=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
471
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472(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
473subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
474exited.
a0d0e21e 475
68dc0745
PP
476=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
477
478(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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479implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
480occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
481be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
482depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 483
6df41af2
GS
484=item \1 better written as $1
485
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486(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
487The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
488substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
489because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
490there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 491
252aa082
JH
492=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
493
e476b1b5 494(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
495(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
496L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 497
69282e91 498=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 499
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500(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
501check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 502
c289d2f7
JH
503=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
504
505(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
506Check you control flow and number of arguments.
507
c5a0f51a
JH
508=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
509
e476b1b5 510(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 511
4633a7c4
LW
512=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
513
be771a83 514(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 515copyable.
4633a7c4 516
f675dbe5
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517=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
518
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519(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
520iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
521which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 522
a0d0e21e
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523=item Callback called exit
524
4929bf7b 525(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
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526exited by calling exit.
527
6df41af2 528=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 529
be771a83
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530(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
531parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
532that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
533early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
534subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
535checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
536function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
537the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 538
49704364 539=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
540
541(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
542compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
543attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
544See L<perlfunc/pack>.
545
49704364 546=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
547
548(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
549format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
550
5c1f4d79
NC
551=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
552
553(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
554then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
555triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
556from that type of reference to a typeglob.
557
ba2fdce6
NC
558=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
559
560(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
561be directly assigned not.
562
b5d97229
RGS
563=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
564
565(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
566either with open() or binmode().
567
96ebfdd7
RK
568=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
569
570(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
571integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
572to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
573
a0d0e21e
LW
574=item Can't bless non-reference value
575
576(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
577encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
578
dc57907a
RGS
579=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
580
0d863452
RH
581(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
582a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
583
584=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 585
0d863452
RH
586(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
587
a0d0e21e
LW
588=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
589
590(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
591functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
592in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
593
6df41af2
GS
594=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
595
596(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
597object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
598like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
599
600 $BADREF = undef;
601 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
602 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
603
a0d0e21e
LW
604=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
605
54310121 606(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
607ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
608didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
609object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
610
611=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
612
613(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
614object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
615defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
616Something like this will reproduce the error:
617
618 $BADREF = 42;
619 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
620 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
621
a0d0e21e
LW
622=item Can't chdir to %s
623
624(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
625that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
626
0545a864 627=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 628
be771a83
GS
629(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
630nosuid.
104d25b7 631
6df41af2
GS
632=item Can't coerce array into hash
633
634(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
635information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
636only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
637
a0d0e21e
LW
638=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
639
640(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 641(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
642say things like:
643
644 *foo += 1;
645
646You CAN say
647
648 $foo = *foo;
649 $foo += 1;
650
651but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
652
653=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
654
655(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 656(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
657
658=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
659
660(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 661(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 662
0d863452 663=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 664
0d863452
RH
665(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
666or C<default> block.
667
a0d0e21e
LW
668=item Can't create pipe mailbox
669
be771a83
GS
670(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
671quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 672
eb64745e 673=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 674
2f7e735d 675(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 676class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 677extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
678
679=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
680
30c282f6
NC
681(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
682"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 683
6df41af2
GS
684=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
685
be771a83
GS
686(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
687a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 688
a0d0e21e
LW
689=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
690
be771a83
GS
691(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
692reason.
a0d0e21e 693
54310121 694=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 695
be771a83
GS
696(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
697reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
698C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 699
10f9c03d 700=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 701
e476b1b5 702(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
703characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
704inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 705
7253e4e3 706=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 707
b45f050a 708(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 709regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 710regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 711
a0d0e21e
LW
712=item Can't do waitpid with flags
713
be771a83
GS
714(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
715waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 716
a0d0e21e
LW
717=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
718
be771a83
GS
719(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
720point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
721line.
a0d0e21e 722
1109a392
MHM
723=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
724
725(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
726or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
727little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
728See L<perlfunc/pack>.
729
a0d0e21e
LW
730=item Can't exec "%s": %s
731
d1be9408 732(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
733named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
734permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
735C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
736architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
737can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
738#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
739
740=item Can't exec %s
741
be771a83
GS
742(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
743that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
744need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
745
746=item Can't execute %s
747
be771a83
GS
748(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
749found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 750
6df41af2 751=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 752
be771a83
GS
753(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
754is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 755
56ca2fc0
JH
756=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
757
758(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
759could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
760See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
761for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 762
6df41af2
GS
763=item Can't find label %s
764
be771a83
GS
765(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
766possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
767
768=item Can't find %s on PATH
769
be771a83
GS
770(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
771found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 772
6df41af2 773=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 774
be771a83
GS
775(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
776found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
777script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
778
779=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
780
be771a83
GS
781(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
782that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
783nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 784
fb73857a
PP
785 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
786
be771a83
GS
787If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
788unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
789editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 790
660a4616
ST
791=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
792
793(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
e1b711da
KW
794example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
795Unicode property, see
796L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
797for a complete list of available properties.
660a4616
ST
798If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
799by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
800possible C<\E>).
801
b3647a36 802=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 803
be771a83
GS
804(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
805pipeline.
a0d0e21e 806
b3647a36
SR
807=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
808
c973c02e 809(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
810after five seconds.
811
748a9306
LW
812=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
813
be771a83
GS
814(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
815between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
816Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
817the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
818account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
819the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
820the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
821the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
822if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
823because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
824appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
825and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
826routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
827shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
828only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 829
a0d0e21e
LW
830=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
831
be771a83
GS
832(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
833pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
834
835=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
836
748a9306
LW
837(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
838mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 839
6df41af2 840=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 841
be771a83
GS
842(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
843loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
844
845=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
846
be771a83
GS
847(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
848a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
849you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
850See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 851
9850bf21 852=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 853
9850bf21
RH
854(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
855comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
856as the reduce() function in List::Util).
857
c74ace89 858=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 859
be771a83 860(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 861"string" or block.
b150fb22 862
6df41af2
GS
863=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
864
be771a83
GS
865(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
866subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
867cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
868routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 869
0b5b802d
GS
870=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
871
be771a83
GS
872(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
873signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
874signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
875processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
876situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
877may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 878
e2c0f81f
DG
879=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
880
881(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
882attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
883process identifier.
884
6df41af2 885=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 886
6df41af2 887(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
888except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
889block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
890block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
891usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
892inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
893L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 894
2c7d6b9c
RGS
895=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
896
897(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
898package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
899
b8170e59
JB
900=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
901
902(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
903may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
904incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
905between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 906extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
907installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
908extensions.
909
748a9306
LW
910=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
911
2ba9eb46 912(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 913lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
914localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
915package name.
916
6df41af2 917=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 918
6df41af2
GS
919(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
920handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 921pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 922that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 923
ea071790 924=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
925
926(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
927found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
928unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
929need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
930the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
931to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
932L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 933
6df41af2
GS
934=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
935
be771a83
GS
936(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
937autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
938are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
939the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 940
b8170e59
JB
941=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
942
943(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
944for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
945unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
946
a0d0e21e
LW
947=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
948
949(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
950functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 951method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
952
953=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
954
be771a83
GS
955(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
956doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 957
2f7da168
RK
958=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
959
960(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
961e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
962
3e3baf6d
TB
963=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
964
be771a83
GS
965(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
966VMS.
3e3baf6d 967
a0d0e21e
LW
968=item Can't modify %s in %s
969
be771a83
GS
970(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
971to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 972
54310121 973=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
974
975(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
976a NULL.
977
6df41af2
GS
978=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
979
980(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
981such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
982
5f05dabc 983=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 984
5f05dabc 985(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
986buffer.
987
6df41af2
GS
988=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
989
990(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
991there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
992count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
993grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
994though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
995once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 996
a0d0e21e
LW
997=item Can't open %s: %s
998
c47ff5f1 999(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1000filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1001switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1002is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1003the command line.
a0d0e21e 1004
9a869a14
RGS
1005=item Can't open a reference
1006
1007(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
1008using the 3-arg open() syntax :
1009
1010 open FH, '>', $ref;
1011
1012but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1013open is not supported.
1014
a0d0e21e
LW
1015=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1016
be771a83
GS
1017(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1018You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1019as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1020">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1021
748a9306
LW
1022=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1023
be771a83
GS
1024(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1025redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1026the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1027
1028=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1029
be771a83
GS
1030(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1031redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1032command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1033
1034=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1035
be771a83
GS
1036(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1037redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1038the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1039
1040=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1041
be771a83
GS
1042(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1043redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1044for stdout.
748a9306 1045
2b8ca739 1046=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1047
1048(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1049
fa3aa65a
JC
1050If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1051shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1052you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1053
6df41af2
GS
1054=item Can't read CRTL environ
1055
1056(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1057from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1058missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1059or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1060searched.
6df41af2 1061
6df41af2
GS
1062=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1063
1064(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1065there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1066count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1067or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1068though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1069loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1070
64977eb6 1071=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1072
be771a83
GS
1073(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1074file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1075the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1076
a0d0e21e
LW
1077=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1078
e476b1b5 1079(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1080probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1081
748a9306
LW
1082=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1083
be771a83
GS
1084(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1085to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1086
fe13d51d 1087=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1088
be771a83
GS
1089(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1090to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1091method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1092
cd06dffe
GS
1093=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1094
be771a83
GS
1095(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1096temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1097is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1098
96ebfdd7
RK
1099=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1100
1101(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1102there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1103
78f9721b
SM
1104=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1105
1106(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1107but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1108to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1109the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1110list context.
1111
a0d0e21e
LW
1112=item Can't stat script "%s"
1113
be771a83
GS
1114(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1115open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1116
a0d0e21e
LW
1117=item Can't take log of %g
1118
fb73857a
PP
1119(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1120negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1121standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1122negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1123
1124=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1125
1126(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1127negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1128with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1129
1130=item Can't undef active subroutine
1131
1132(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1133however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1134redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1135
1136=item Can't unshift
1137
1138(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1139as the main Perl stack.
1140
c81225bc 1141=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1142
be771a83
GS
1143(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1144into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1145specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1146indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1147
1db89ea5
BS
1148=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1149
e27ad1f2 1150(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1151table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1152for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1153
96ebfdd7
RK
1154=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1155
1156(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1157be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1158
6df41af2
GS
1159=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1160
be771a83
GS
1161(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1162references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1163
90b75b61 1164=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1165
1166(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1167Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1168provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1169
1109a392
MHM
1170=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1171
1172(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1173byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1174allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1175
6df41af2
GS
1176=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1177
be771a83
GS
1178(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1179foreach.
6df41af2 1180
aab6a793 1181=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1182
be771a83
GS
1183(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1184is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1185(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1186have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1187weren't.
1188
6d3b25aa
RGS
1189=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1190
1191(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1192that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1193For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1194is inside a big-endian group.
1195
c07a80fd
PP
1196=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1197
1198(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1199You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1200and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1201Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1202lexical variable.
1203
a0d0e21e
LW
1204=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1205
1206(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1207reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1208test the type of the reference, if need be.
1209
748a9306 1210=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1211
be771a83
GS
1212(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1213references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1214
748a9306
LW
1215=item Can't use subscript on %s
1216
1217(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1218subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1219didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1220
6df41af2
GS
1221=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1222
75b44862
GS
1223(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1224creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1225backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1226expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1227value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1228instead.
6df41af2 1229
0d863452 1230=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1231
0d863452
RH
1232(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1233loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1234from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1235or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1236
810b8aa5
GS
1237=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1238
1239(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1240references can be weakened.
1241
5f05dabc 1242=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1243
be771a83
GS
1244(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1245with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1246Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1247
4a68bf9d 1248=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529
KW
1249
1250(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1251
f337b084 1252=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1253
1254(W pack) You said
1255
1256 pack("C", $x)
1257
1258where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1259only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1260and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1261
1262 pack("C", $x & 255)
1263
1264If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1265instead.
1266
f337b084
TH
1267=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1268
1269(W pack) You said
1270
1271 pack("U0W", $x)
1272
1273where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1274all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1275meant:
1276
1277 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1278
1279=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1280
1281(W pack) You said
1282
1283 pack("c", $x)
1284
1285where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1286is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1287and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1288
1289 pack("c", $x & 255);
1290
1291If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1292instead.
1293
f337b084
TH
1294=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1295
1296(W unpack) You tried something like
1297
1298 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1299
1a147d38 1300where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1301below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1302modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1303
1304 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1305
1306=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1307
1308(W pack) You tried something like
1309
1310 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1311
1a147d38
YO
1312where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1313value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1314uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1315
1316 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1317
1318=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1319
1320(W unpack) You tried something like
1321
1322 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1323
1a147d38
YO
1324where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1325value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1326uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1327
1328 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1329
96ebfdd7
RK
1330=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1331
1332(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1333
abc7ecad
SP
1334=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1335
1336(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1337a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1338
49704364
LW
1339=item Code missing after '/'
1340
1341(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1342template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1343
6df41af2
GS
1344=item %s: Command not found
1345
be771a83
GS
1346(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1347Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1348
7a2e2cd6
PP
1349=item Compilation failed in require
1350
1351(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1352Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1353encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1354
c3464db5
DD
1355=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1356
be771a83
GS
1357(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1358situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1359to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1360arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1361recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1362under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1363in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1364that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1365on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1366
38875929
DM
1367=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1368
1369(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1370cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1371function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1372cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1373has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1374first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1375after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1376lock.
1377
38875929
DM
1378=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1379
1380(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1381cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1382function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1383cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1384has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1385first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1386after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1387lock.
1388
69282e91 1389=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1390
be771a83
GS
1391(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1392to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1393L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1394
41ab332f 1395=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1396
be771a83
GS
1397(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1398an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1399specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1400corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1401L<overload>.
6df41af2 1402
fc8cd66c
YO
1403=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1404
1a147d38
YO
1405(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1406the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1407forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1408See L<charnames>.
1409
1410
779c5bc9
GS
1411=item Constant is not %s reference
1412
1413(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1414is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1415The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1416usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1417See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1418
4cee8e80
CS
1419=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1420
bb028877 1421(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1422eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1423commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1424
9607fc9c
PP
1425=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1426
be771a83
GS
1427(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1428for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1429workarounds.
9607fc9c 1430
e7ea3e70
IZ
1431=item Copy method did not return a reference
1432
64977eb6 1433(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1434L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1435
6798c92b
GS
1436=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1437
1438(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1439
a0d0e21e
LW
1440=item corrupted regexp pointers
1441
1442(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1443expression compiler gave it.
1444
1445=item corrupted regexp program
1446
be771a83
GS
1447(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1448valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1449
6df41af2
GS
1450=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1451
1452(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1453
49704364
LW
1454=item Count after length/code in unpack
1455
1456(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1457you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1458L<perlfunc/pack>.
1459
1408fb84 1460=item "\c%c" more clearly written simply as "%s"
f9d13529
KW
1461
1462(D deprecated) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1463non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408fb84
KW
1464written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1465characters. This message may not remain as Deprecated beyond 5.13.
f9d13529 1466
a0d0e21e
LW
1467=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1468
be771a83
GS
1469(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1470100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1471infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1472which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1473
aad1d01f
NC
1474This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1475setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1476
f10b0346 1477=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1478
be771a83
GS
1479(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1480checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1481array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1482
f10b0346 1483=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1484
be771a83
GS
1485(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1486checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1487is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1488
62658f4d
PM
1489=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1490
1491(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1492there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1493
fc36a67e
PP
1494=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1495
be771a83
GS
1496(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1497long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1498that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1499
4a68bf9d 1500=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1501
1502(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1503But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1504deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1505continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1506colons.
1507
6d3b25aa
RGS
1508=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1509
1510(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1511There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1512not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1513conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1514static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1515relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1516declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1517
6d3b25aa
RGS
1518 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1519
1520becomes
1521
1522 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1523
36fb85f3
RGS
1524Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1525have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1526
1527 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1528
500ab966
RGS
1529=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1530
1531(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1532just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1533to create a dangling reference.
1534
3cdd684c
TP
1535=item Did not produce a valid header
1536
1537See Server error.
1538
6df41af2
GS
1539=item %s did not return a true value
1540
1541(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1542it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1543traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1544do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1545
cc507455 1546=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1547
413ff9f6
FC
1548(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1549some such.
4633a7c4 1550
cc507455 1551=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1552
be771a83
GS
1553(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1554variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1555seems superfluous.
33633739 1556
cc507455 1557=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1558
be771a83
GS
1559(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1560@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1561carried away.
748a9306 1562
7e1af8bc 1563=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1564
1565(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1566you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1567
3cdd684c
TP
1568=item Document contains no data
1569
1570See Server error.
1571
62658f4d
PM
1572=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1573
1574(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1575define a C<$VERSION.>
1576
49704364
LW
1577=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1578
1579(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1580See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1581
a0d0e21e
LW
1582=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1583
1584(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1585
1586=item do_study: out of memory
1587
1588(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1589
6df41af2
GS
1590=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1591
56da5a46
RGS
1592(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1593"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1594name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1595because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1596"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1597something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1598subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1599"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1600
ac206dc8
RGS
1601=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1602
1603(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1604qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1605
84d78eb7
YO
1606=item dump is not supported
1607
1608(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1609
a0d0e21e
LW
1610=item Duplicate free() ignored
1611
be771a83
GS
1612(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1613already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1614
1109a392
MHM
1615=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1616
1617(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1618in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1619
4633a7c4
LW
1620=item elseif should be elsif
1621
56da5a46
RGS
1622(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1623ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1624"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1625unlikely to be what you want.
1626
ab13f0c7
JH
1627=item Empty %s
1628
af6f566e
HS
1629(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1630described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1631a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1632
85ab1d1d 1633=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1634
85ab1d1d 1635(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1636effective uids or gids failed.
1637
c038024b
RGS
1638=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1639
1640(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1641aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1642program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1643
748a9306
LW
1644=item Error converting file specification %s
1645
5f05dabc 1646(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1647specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1648single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1649an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1650conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1651
e4d48cc9
GS
1652=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1653
be771a83
GS
1654(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1655expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1656is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1657
fc8f615e 1658=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1659
be771a83
GS
1660(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1661C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1662pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1663is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1664building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1665that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1666
6df41af2
GS
1667=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1668
be771a83
GS
1669(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1670assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1671pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1672
1a147d38
YO
1673=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1674
1675(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1676any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1677
1678The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1679discovered.
1680
fc36a67e
PP
1681=item Excessively long <> operator
1682
1683(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1684Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1685filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1686variable and glob that.
1687
ed9aa3b7
SG
1688=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1689
1690(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1691
fe13d51d 1692=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1693
1694(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1695
1696=item Exiting eval via %s
1697
be771a83
GS
1698(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1699goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1700
1701=item Exiting format via %s
1702
9a2ff54b 1703(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1704goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1705
0a753a76
PP
1706=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1707
be771a83
GS
1708(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1709sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1710loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1711
a0d0e21e
LW
1712=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1713
be771a83
GS
1714(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1715as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1716
1717=item Exiting substitution via %s
1718
be771a83
GS
1719(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1720as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1721
7b8d334a
GS
1722=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1723
be771a83
GS
1724(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1725the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1726usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1727e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1728
6df41af2
GS
1729=item %s: Expression syntax
1730
be771a83
GS
1731(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1732Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1733
1734=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1735
3c10abe3
AG
1736(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1737CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1738queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1739
7253e4e3 1740=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1741
be771a83 1742(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1743character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1744in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1745"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1746problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1747
1b1ee2ef 1748=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1749
be771a83
GS
1750(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1751system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1752details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1753you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1754
1755=item fcntl is not implemented
1756
1757(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1758PDP-11 or something?
1759
22846ab4
AB
1760=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1761
1762(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1763is not possible.
1764
f337b084
TH
1765=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1766
1767(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1768which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1769a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1770C<u63> as format.
1771
af8c498a 1772=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1773
6c8d78fb
HS
1774(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1775it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1776"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1777write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1778
af8c498a 1779=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1780
6c8d78fb
HS
1781(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1782you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1783with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1784intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1785Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1786(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1787
1788=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1789
1790(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1791as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1792previously.
1793
1794=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1795
1796(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1797as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1798
1799=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1800
1801(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1802a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1803happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1804name.
a0d0e21e 1805
56e90b21
GS
1806=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1807
be771a83 1808(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1809some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1810filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1811same name?
56e90b21 1812
6df41af2
GS
1813=item Format not terminated
1814
1815(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1816to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1817
a0d0e21e
LW
1818=item Format %s redefined
1819
e476b1b5 1820(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1821
1822 {
271595cc 1823 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1824 eval "format NAME =...";
1825 }
1826
a0d0e21e
LW
1827=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1828
e476b1b5 1829(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1830
1831 if ($foo = 123)
1832
1833when you meant
1834
1835 if ($foo == 123)
1836
1837(or something like that).
1838
6df41af2
GS
1839=item %s found where operator expected
1840
56da5a46
RGS
1841(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1842If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1843operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1844operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1845
a0d0e21e
LW
1846=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1847
1848(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1849
1850=item gethostent not implemented
1851
1852(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1853because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1854on the Internet.
1855
69282e91 1856=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1857
be771a83
GS
1858(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1859socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1860
748a9306
LW
1861=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1862
1863(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1864C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1865
6df41af2
GS
1866=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1867
be771a83
GS
1868(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1869forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1870L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1871
1872=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1873
a4edf47d 1874(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1875that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1876declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1877which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1878
e476b1b5
GS
1879=item glob failed (%s)
1880
be771a83
GS
1881(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1882C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1883C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1884nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1885resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1886broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1887config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1888were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1889empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1890think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1891C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1892
a0d0e21e
LW
1893=item Glob not terminated
1894
1895(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1896a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1897not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1898earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1899
8b56d6ff
FC
1900=item gmtime(%.0f) too large
1901
fc003d4b
MS
1902(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1903it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1904date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1905not-a-number value).
1906
1907=item gmtime(%.0f) too small
1908
1909(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1910it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1911date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1912not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1913
6df41af2 1914=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1915
6df41af2
GS
1916(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1917version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1918
1919=item goto must have label
1920
1921(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1922unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1923
49704364 1924=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1925
49704364 1926(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1927supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1928 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1929
fe13d51d 1930=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1931
1932(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1933
a0d0e21e
LW
1934=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1935
be771a83
GS
1936(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1937to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1938created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1939
1940=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1941
be771a83
GS
1942(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1943spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1944
6df41af2
GS
1945=item %s has too many errors
1946
1947(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1948Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1949
e6897b1a
KW
1950=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
1951
1952(D syntax)
1953
1954You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
1955without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
1956
1957 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
1958 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
1959
1960both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first form
1961in Perl 5.16. And,
1962
1963 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
1964
1965will be disallowed too.
1966
252aa082
JH
1967=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1968
e476b1b5 1969(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1970(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1971L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1972
8903cb82
PP
1973=item Identifier too long
1974
1975(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1976about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1977names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1978of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1979
c3c41406 1980=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 1981
ff3f963a
KW
1982(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
1983zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 1984its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
1985been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
1986
6df41af2 1987=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1988
6df41af2 1989(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1990
6df41af2 1991=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1992
be771a83
GS
1993(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1994binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1995offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1996
4fdae800
PP
1997=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1998
d5898338 1999(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2000would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2001when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2002version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2003to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2004
d37a9538
ST
2005=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2006
197afce1
MT
2007(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2008Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 2009
904d85c5
RGS
2010=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2011
2012(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2013you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2014
8e742a20
MHM
2015=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2016
2017(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2018
a0d0e21e
LW
2019=item Illegal division by zero
2020
be771a83
GS
2021(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2022your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2023meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2024
6df41af2
GS
2025=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2026
be771a83
GS
2027(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2028A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2029number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2030
a0d0e21e
LW
2031=item Illegal modulus zero
2032
be771a83
GS
2033(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2034numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2035
6df41af2 2036=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2037
6df41af2
GS
2038(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2039two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2040
2041=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2042
d1be9408 2043(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2044
399388f4 2045=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2046
d1be9408 2047(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2048Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2049
fe13d51d 2050=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2051
6df41af2 2052(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2053following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2054
6df41af2 2055=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2056
75b44862 2057(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2058internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2059delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2060
6df41af2 2061=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2062
be771a83
GS
2063(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2064name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2065didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2066ignored.
54310121 2067
6df41af2 2068=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2069
be771a83
GS
2070(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2071the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2072system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2073times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2074would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2075
be771a83
GS
2076Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2077also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2078
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2079=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2080
2081(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2082C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2083documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2084
979699d9
JH
2085=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2086
2087(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2088Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2089encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2090
1a147d38
YO
2091=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2092
2093(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2094text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2095either consume text or fail.
2096
2097The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2098discovered.
2099
6dbe9451
NC
2100=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2101
2102(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2103of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2104C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2105as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2106
a0d0e21e
LW
2107=item Insecure dependency in %s
2108
8b1a09fc 2109(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2110The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2111setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2112tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2113from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2114such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2115L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2116
2117=item Insecure directory in %s
2118
be771a83
GS
2119(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2120setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2121the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2122See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2123
62f468fc 2124=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2125
2126(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2127setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2128C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2129supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2130the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2131
a7ae9550
GS
2132=item Integer overflow in %s number
2133
75b44862 2134(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2135either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2136your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2137On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2138representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21390b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2140transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2141internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2142operations.
bbce6d69 2143
2fba7546
GA
2144=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2145
0be96356
AL
2146(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2147or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2148integers for your architecture.
2149
46314c13
JP
2150=item Integer overflow in version
2151
2152(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2153size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2154because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2155element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2156trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2157100/9.
2158
7253e4e3 2159=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2160
2161(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2162The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2163discovered.
2164
748a9306
LW
2165=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2166
be771a83
GS
2167(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2168you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2169to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2170L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2171Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2172terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2173
7253e4e3 2174=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2175
7253e4e3
RK
2176(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2177<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2178discovered.
a0d0e21e 2179
6df41af2
GS
2180=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2181
75b44862 2182(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2183followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2184operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2185L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2186
09bef843
SB
2187=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2188
2189The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
2190by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2191
2192=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2193
be771a83
GS
2194The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
2195recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2196
c635e13b
PP
2197=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2198
be771a83
GS
2199(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2200L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2201
9e08bc66
ST
2202=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2203
2204(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2205didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2206from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2207The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2208The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2209escape was discovered.
2210
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2211=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2212
2213(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2214or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2215(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2216
7253e4e3 2217=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2218
2219(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2220greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2221C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2222up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2223problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2224
d1573ac7 2225=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2226
2227(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2228character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2229
09bef843
SB
2230=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2231
0120eecf 2232(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2233elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2234parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2235See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2236
b4581f09
JH
2237=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2238
2239(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2240colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2241If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2242list was terminated too soon.
2243
49704364 2244=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2245
49704364
LW
2246(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2247See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2248(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2249silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2250
46314c13
JP
2251=item Invalid version format (multiple underscores)
2252
2253(F) Versions may contain at most a single underscore, which signals
2254that the version is a beta release. See L<version> for the allowed
2255version formats.
2256
2257=item Invalid version format (underscores before decimal)
2258
2259(F) Versions may not contain decimals after the optional underscore.
2260See L<version> for the allowed version formats.
2261
a0d0e21e
LW
2262=item ioctl is not implemented
2263
2264(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2265strange for a machine that supports C.
2266
c289d2f7
JH
2267=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2268
2269(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2270Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2271
fe13d51d 2272=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2273
2274(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2275you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2276with 'useperlio'.
2277
80cbd5ad
JH
2278=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2279
2280(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2281neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2282
b4581f09
JH
2283=item $* is no longer supported
2284
d1d15184 2285(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2286been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2287C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2288
2289Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2290modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2291expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2292
8ae1fe26
RGS
2293=item $# is no longer supported
2294
d1d15184 2295(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2296been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2297printf/sprintf functions instead.
2298
6ad11d81
JH
2299=item `%s' is not a code reference
2300
04a80ee0
RGS
2301(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2302needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2303to a subroutine.
2304
2305=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2306
04a80ee0
RGS
2307(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2308unaware of.
6ad11d81 2309
a0d0e21e
LW
2310=item junk on end of regexp
2311
2312(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2313
2314=item Label not found for "last %s"
2315
be771a83
GS
2316(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2317of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2318L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2319
2320=item Label not found for "next %s"
2321
2322(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2323that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2324L<perlfunc/last>.
2325
2326=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2327
2328(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2329that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2330L<perlfunc/last>.
2331
85ab1d1d 2332=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2333
85ab1d1d 2334(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2335effective uids or gids failed.
2336
49704364
LW
2337=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2338
d7f8936a 2339(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2340length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2341an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2342
f0e67a1d
Z
2343=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2344
2345(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2346(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2347tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2348This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2349reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2350plain ASCII is recommended.
2351
2352=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2353
2354(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2355detectable way.
2356
69282e91 2357=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2358
be771a83
GS
2359(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2360to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2361L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2362
8b56d6ff
FC
2363=item localtime(%.0f) too large
2364
fc003d4b
MS
2365(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2366than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2367wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2368not-a-number value).
2369
2370=item localtime(%.0f) too small
2371
2372(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2373than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2374wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2375not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2376
58e23c8d 2377=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2378
2379(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2380handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2381
b88df990
NC
2382=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2383
2384(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2385for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2386hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2387because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2388are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2389You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2390
2f7da168
RK
2391=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2392
2393(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2394by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2395instead on the filehandle.)
2396
885ef6f5
GG
2397=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2398
963d9ce9 2399(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
885ef6f5
GG
2400by declaring the subroutine with a lvalue attribute is not
2401possible. To make the the subroutine a lvalue subroutine add the
2402lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the the declaration before
2403the definition.
2404
96ebfdd7
RK
2405=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2406
2407(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2408values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2409L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2410
49704364
LW
2411=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2412
2413(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2414are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2415
2416=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2417
2418(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2419are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2420
6df41af2
GS
2421=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2422
2423(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2424
2425 prefix1;prefix2
2426
2427or
6df41af2
GS
2428 prefix1 prefix2
2429
be771a83
GS
2430with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2431a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2432appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2433"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2434
2f758a16
ST
2435=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2436
d37a9538
ST
2437(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2438syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2439obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2440when the function is called.
2f758a16 2441
ba210ebe
JH
2442=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2443
2575c402
JW
2444(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2445encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2446
2575c402
JW
2447One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2448you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
24498-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2450
2451If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2452sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2453set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2454message.
2455
2456See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2457
dea0fc0b
JH
2458=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2459
183097aa 2460(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2461doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2462
ff3f963a
KW
2463=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2464
2465(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2466
f337b084
TH
2467=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2468
2469(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2470rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2471
2472=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2473
2474(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2475rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2476
2477=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2478
2479(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2480rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2481
fe13d51d 2482=item Maximal count of pending signals (%d) exceeded
2563cec5 2483
fe13d51d 2484(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2485usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2486too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2487resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2488safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2489
49704364 2490=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2491
2492(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2493regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2494shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2495See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2496
25f58aea
PN
2497=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2498
2499(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2500interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2501"use" or "my".
2502
49704364 2503=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2504
2505(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2506checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2507See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2508
a0d0e21e
LW
2509=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2510
2511(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2512doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2513
3cdd684c
TP
2514=item Method %s not permitted
2515
2516See Server error.
2517
a0d0e21e
LW
2518=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2519
2520(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2521by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2522ended earlier on the current line.
2523
2524=item Misplaced _ in number
2525
d4ced10d
JH
2526(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2527separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2528
7baa4690
HS
2529=item Missing argument in %s
2530
2531(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2532supplied.
2533
9e81e6a1
RGS
2534=item Missing argument to -%c
2535
2536(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2537immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2538
ff3f963a 2539=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2540
4a2d328f 2541(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2542double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2543comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2544This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2545the C<\N>.
423cee85 2546
f0a2b745
KW
2547=item Missing braces on \o{}
2548
2549(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2550
a0d0e21e
LW
2551=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2552
2553(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2554"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2555
06eaf0bc
GS
2556=item Missing command in piped open
2557
be771a83
GS
2558(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2559C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2560blank.
06eaf0bc 2561
961ce445
RGS
2562=item Missing control char name in \c
2563
2564(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2565character name.
2566
6df41af2
GS
2567=item Missing name in "my sub"
2568
be771a83
GS
2569(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2570they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2571
2572=item Missing $ on loop variable
2573
be771a83
GS
2574(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2575are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2576can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2577
cc507455 2578=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2579
56da5a46
RGS
2580(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2581"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2582
ab13f0c7
JH
2583=item Missing right brace on %s
2584
ff3f963a
KW
2585(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2586
4a68bf9d 2587=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2588
0a96133f
KW
2589(F)
2590C<\N> has two meanings.
2591
2592The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2593in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2594Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2595double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2596have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2597
0a96133f 2598Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2599patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2600C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2601
2602This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2603left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2604the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2605that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 26063; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2607and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2608
2609However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2610omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2611raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2612the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2613
d98d5fff 2614=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2615
be771a83
GS
2616(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2617ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2618were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2619
6df41af2
GS
2620=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2621
56da5a46
RGS
2622(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2623"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2624the previous line just because you saw this message.
2625
a0d0e21e
LW
2626=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2627
2628(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2629constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2630catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2631
2632 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2633 mod(2);
2634
2635Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2636
c5674021
PDF
2637Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2638is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2639
2640 $x = 1;
2641 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2642 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2643 }
c5674021 2644
7a4340ed 2645=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2646
2647(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2648subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2649backwards.
2650
7a4340ed 2651=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2652
be771a83
GS
2653(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2654couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2655
2656=item Module name must be constant
2657
2658(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2659
be98fb35 2660=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2661
be98fb35
GS
2662(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2663you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2664about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2665
fe13d51d 2666=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2667
2668(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2669can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2670list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2671See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2672
a0d0e21e
LW
2673=item msg%s not implemented
2674
2675(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2676
2677=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2678
75b44862
GS
2679(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2680They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2681
49704364 2682=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2683
49704364
LW
2684(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2685follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2686See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2687
2688=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2689
be771a83
GS
2690(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2691that yet.
6df41af2 2692
30c282f6 2693=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2694
be771a83
GS
2695(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2696sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2697local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2698
4a68bf9d 2699=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2700
c3c41406
KW
2701(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2702character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2703specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2704
4a68bf9d 2705=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406
KW
2706
2707(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2708was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2709such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2710
2711 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2712 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2713 /$re/;
2714
b09c05e6 2715Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2716
2717 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2718 /$re/;
2719
2720The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2721components:
2722
2723 $re = '\N';
2724 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2725
2726It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2727doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2728
2729Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2730C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2731
2732 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2733 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2734
8b1a09fc
PP
2735=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2736
e476b1b5 2737(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2738If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2739again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2740provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2741
64b374f4
FD
2742NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2743%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2744the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2745will not trigger this warning.
2746
4a68bf9d 2747=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
ff3f963a
KW
2748
2749(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2750number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2751or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2752
49704364
LW
2753=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2754
2755(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2756negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2757
a0d0e21e
LW
2758=item Negative length
2759
be771a83
GS
2760(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2761length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2762
ed9aa3b7
SG
2763=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2764
2765(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2766greater than or equal to zero.
2767
7253e4e3 2768=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2769
b45f050a 2770(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2771things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2772expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2773
7253e4e3 2774Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2775C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2776
6df41af2 2777=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2778
be771a83
GS
2779(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2780scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2781
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2782=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2783
2784(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2785real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2786See L<mro>.
2787
a0d0e21e
LW
2788=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2789
be771a83
GS
2790(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2791setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2792will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2793securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2794
a0d0e21e
LW
2795=item No comma allowed after %s
2796
2797(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2798allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2799Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2800
0a753a76
PP
2801One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2802constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2803importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2804does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2805explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2806L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2807would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2808remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2809constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2810list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2811this error was triggered?
2812
748a9306
LW
2813=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2814
be771a83
GS
2815(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2816redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2817doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2818
a0d0e21e
LW
2819=item No DB::DB routine defined
2820
be771a83 2821(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2822for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2823module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2824statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2825
2826=item No dbm on this machine
2827
2828(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2829supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2830
ccafdc96 2831=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2832
ccafdc96
RGS
2833(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2834for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2835module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2836of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2837
96ebfdd7
RK
2838=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2839
2840(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2841
c47ff5f1 2842=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2843
be771a83
GS
2844(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2845redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2846find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2847
49704364
LW
2848=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2849
2850(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2851matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2852
c47ff5f1 2853=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2854
be771a83
GS
2855(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2856redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2857name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2858
6df41af2
GS
2859=item No #! line
2860
2861(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2862even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2863
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2864=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2865
2866(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2867in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2868it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2869or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2870
6df41af2
GS
2871=item "no" not allowed in expression
2872
be771a83
GS
2873(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2874returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2875
c47ff5f1 2876=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2877
be771a83
GS
2878(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2879redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2880doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2881
c47ff5f1 2882=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2883
be771a83
GS
2884(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2885redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2886find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2887
1ec3e8de
GS
2888=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2889
be771a83
GS
2890(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2891declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2892semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2893
a0d0e21e
LW
2894=item No Perl script found in input
2895
2896(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2897with #! and containing the word "perl".
2898
2899=item No setregid available
2900
2901(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2902your system.
2903
2904=item No setreuid available
2905
2906(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2907your system.
2908
6df41af2
GS
2909=item No %s specified for -%c
2910
2911(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2912you haven't specified one.
e75d1f10
RD
2913=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2914
2915(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2916but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2917package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2918
2c692339
RGS
2919=item No such class %s
2920
30c282f6 2921(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2922this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2923
3c20a832
SP
2924=item No such hook: %s
2925
2926(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2927accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2928
6df41af2
GS
2929=item No such pipe open
2930
2931(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2932close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2933earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2934
a0d0e21e
LW
2935=item No such signal: SIG%s
2936
be771a83
GS
2937(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2938not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2939names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2940
2941=item Not a CODE reference
2942
2943(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2944subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2945use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2946also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2947
2948=item Not a format reference
2949
2950(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2951format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2952
2953=item Not a GLOB reference
2954
be771a83
GS
2955(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2956symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2957something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2958kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2959
2960=item Not a HASH reference
2961
be771a83
GS
2962(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2963reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2964find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2965
6df41af2
GS
2966=item Not an ARRAY reference
2967
be771a83
GS
2968(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2969a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2970to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2971
a0d0e21e
LW
2972=item Not a perl script
2973
2974(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2975even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2976mention perl.
2977
2978=item Not a SCALAR reference
2979
be771a83
GS
2980(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2981a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2982to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2983
2984=item Not a subroutine reference
2985
2986(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2987subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2988use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2989also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2990
e7ea3e70 2991=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2992
2993(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2994doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2995
a0d0e21e
LW
2996=item Not enough arguments for %s
2997
2998(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2999
6df41af2
GS
3000=item Not enough format arguments
3001
be771a83
GS
3002(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3003supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3004
3005=item %s: not found
3006
be771a83
GS
3007(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3008of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3009yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3010
3011=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3012
6df41af2
GS
3013(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3014timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3015to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3016F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3017need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3018
f0a2b745
KW
3019=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3020
3021(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
3022encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as indicated.
3023
4ef2275c
GA
3024=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3025
3026(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3027Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3028select. See L<perlfunc/select>
3029
a0d0e21e
LW
3030=item Null filename used
3031
be771a83
GS
3032(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3033machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3034
6df41af2
GS
3035=item NULL OP IN RUN
3036
be771a83
GS
3037(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3038pointer.
6df41af2 3039
55497cff
PP
3040=item Null picture in formline
3041
3042(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3043specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3044supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3045
a0d0e21e
LW
3046=item Null realloc
3047
3048(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3049
3050=item NULL regexp argument
3051
5f05dabc 3052(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3053
3054=item NULL regexp parameter
3055
3056(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3057
fc36a67e
PP
3058=item Number too long
3059
be771a83 3060(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3061about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3062versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3063the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3064"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3065
f0a2b745
KW
3066=item Number with no digits
3067
3068(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.
3069This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between the braces.
3070
6df41af2
GS
3071=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3072
be771a83
GS
3073(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3074The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3075future version.
6df41af2 3076
252aa082
JH
3077=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3078
75b44862 3079(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3080(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3081L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3082
3083See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3084
6ad11d81
JH
3085=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3086
04a80ee0
RGS
3087(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3088arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3089
b21befc1
MG
3090=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3091
3092(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3093which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3094
1930e939 3095=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3096
be771a83
GS
3097(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3098which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3099
bbce6d69
PP
3100=item Offset outside string
3101
42bc49da
JH
3102(F, W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
3103with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3104imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3105take place when going past the end of the string when either
3106C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3107for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3108with real files).
bbce6d69 3109
c289d2f7 3110=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3111
3112(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3113never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3114call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3115
96ebfdd7
RK
3116=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3117
3118(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3119that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3120
a0d0e21e
LW
3121=item oops: oopsAV
3122
e476b1b5 3123(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3124
3125=item oops: oopsHV
3126
e476b1b5 3127(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3128
abc718f2
RGS
3129=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3130
3131(W io deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
3132a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3133Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3134and is deprecated.
3135
3136=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3137
3138(W io deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
3139a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3140Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3141and is deprecated.
3142
a0288114 3143=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3144
be771a83
GS
3145(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3146handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3147of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3148C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3149
748a9306
LW
3150=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3151
be771a83
GS
3152(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3153was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3154use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3155example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3156"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3157
6df41af2
GS
3158=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3159
be771a83
GS
3160(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3161in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3162
a80b8354
GS
3163=item Out of memory!
3164
3165(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3166remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3167no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3168
19a52907
JH
3169At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3170process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3171C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3172the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3173and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3174
6d3b25aa
RGS
3175=item Out of memory during %s extend
3176
3177(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3178the largest possible memory allocation.
3179
6df41af2 3180=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3181
6df41af2
GS
3182(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3183remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3184the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3185possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3186
1b979e0a 3187=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3188
be771a83
GS
3189(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3190insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3191request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3192
3193The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3194depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3195However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3196emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3197is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3198where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3199
1b979e0a
IZ
3200=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3201
3202(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3203is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3204C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3205
6df41af2
GS
3206=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3207
be771a83
GS
3208(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3209parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3210otherwise.
6df41af2 3211
28be1210
TH
3212=item '.' outside of string in pack
3213
3214(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3215position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3216
49704364 3217=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3218
49704364 3219(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3220the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3221
f337b084
TH
3222=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3223
3224(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3225the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3226UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3227
7cb0cfe6
BM
3228=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3229
3230(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3231but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3232L<overload>.
3233
3234=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3235
3236(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3237overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3238
6df41af2
GS
3239=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3240
be771a83
GS
3241(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3242package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3243some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3244mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3245
96ebfdd7
RK
3246=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3247
3248(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3249signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3250
a0d0e21e
LW
3251=item page overflow
3252
be771a83
GS
3253(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3254page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3255
6df41af2
GS
3256=item panic: %s
3257
3258(P) An internal error.
3259
c99a1475
NC
3260=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3261
3262(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3263an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3264platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3265enter this branch on this platform.
3266
a0d0e21e
LW
3267=item panic: ck_grep
3268
3269(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3270
3271=item panic: ck_split
3272
3273(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
3274
3275=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
3276
be771a83
GS
3277(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
3278there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 3279
810b8aa5
GS
3280=item panic: del_backref
3281
3282(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
3283reference.
3284
7619c85e
RG
3285=item panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
3286
3287(P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
3288last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called from
3289an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is
3290a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.
3291
a0d0e21e
LW
3292=item panic: die %s
3293
3294(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
3295it wasn't an eval context.
3296
a0d0e21e
LW
3297=item panic: do_subst
3298
be771a83
GS
3299(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
3300data.
a0d0e21e 3301
2269b42e 3302=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 3303
2269b42e 3304(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 3305data.
a0d0e21e 3306
b7f7fd0b
NC
3307=item panic: fold_constants JMPENV_PUSH returned %d
3308
10203f38 3309(P) While attempting folding constants an exception other than an C<eval>
b7f7fd0b
NC
3310failure was caught.
3311
c635e13b
PP
3312=item panic: frexp
3313
3314(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
3315
a0d0e21e
LW
3316=item panic: goto
3317
3318(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
3319and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
3320
23976bdd
NC
3321=item panic: hfreeentries failed to free hash
3322
3323(P) The internal routine used to clear a hashes entries tried repeatedly,
3324but each time something added more entries to the hash. Most likely the hash
3325contains an object with a reference back to the hash and a destructor that
3326adds a new object to the hash.
3327
a0d0e21e
LW
3328=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
3329
3330(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
3331
3332=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
3333
3334(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
3335
e446cec8
IZ
3336=item panic: kid popen errno read
3337
3338(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
3339
a0d0e21e
LW
3340=item panic: last
3341
3342(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
3343it wasn't a block context.
3344
3345=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
3346
be771a83
GS
3347(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
3348scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
3349
3350=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
3351
3352(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
3353invalid enum on the top of it.
3354
810b8aa5
GS
3355=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
3356
3357(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
3358references to an object.
3359
6df41af2
GS
3360=item panic: malloc
3361
3362(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
3363
27d5b266
JH
3364=item panic: memory wrap
3365
3366(P) Something tried to allocate more memory than possible.
3367
a0d0e21e
LW
3368=item panic: pad_alloc
3369
3370(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3371and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3372
3373=item panic: pad_free curpad
3374
3375(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3376and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3377
3378=item panic: pad_free po
3379
3380(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3381
3382=item panic: pad_reset curpad
3383
3384(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3385and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3386
3387=item panic: pad_sv po
3388
3389(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3390
3391=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
3392
3393(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3394and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3395
3396=item panic: pad_swipe po
3397
3398(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3399
3400=item panic: pp_iter
3401
3402(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
3403
96ebfdd7
RK
3404=item panic: pp_match%s
3405
3406(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
3407data.
3408
2269b42e
JH
3409=item panic: pp_split