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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see perlpod manpage) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7perldos - Perl under DOS, W31, W95.
8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
11These are instructions for building Perl under DOS (or w??), using
12DJGPP v2.03 or later. Under w95 long filenames are supported.
13
14=head1 DESCRIPTION
15
16Before you start, you should glance through the README file
17found in the top-level directory where the Perl distribution
18was extracted. Make sure you read and understand the terms under
19which this software is being distributed.
20
21This port currently supports MakeMaker (the set of modules that
22is used to build extensions to perl). Therefore, you should be
23able to build and install most extensions found in the CPAN sites.
24
25Detailed instructions on how to build and install perl extension
26modules, including XS-type modules, is included. See 'BUILDING AND
27INSTALLING MODULES'.
28
29=head2 Prerequisites for Compiling Perl on DOS
30
31=over 4
32
33=item DJGPP
34
35DJGPP is a port of GNU C/C++ compiler and development tools to 32-bit,
36protected-mode environment on Intel 32-bit CPUs running MS-DOS and compatible
37operating systems, by DJ Delorie <dj@delorie.com> and friends.
38
39For more details (FAQ), check out the home of DJGPP at:
40
41 http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/
42
43If you have questions about DJGPP, try posting to the DJGPP newsgroup:
44comp.os.msdos.djgpp, or use the email gateway djgpp@delorie.com.
45
46You can find the full DJGPP distribution on any SimTel.Net mirror all over
47the world. Like:
48
49 ftp://ftp.simtel.net/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/v2*
50
51You need the following files to build perl (or add new modules):
52
53 v2/djdev203.zip
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54 v2gnu/bnu2112b.zip
55 v2gnu/gcc2953b.zip
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56 v2gnu/bsh204b.zip
57 v2gnu/mak3791b.zip
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58 v2gnu/fil40b.zip
59 v2gnu/sed3028b.zip
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60 v2gnu/txt20b.zip
61 v2gnu/dif272b.zip
62 v2gnu/grep24b.zip
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63 v2gnu/shl20jb.zip
64 v2gnu/gwk306b.zip
65 v2misc/csdpmi5b.zip
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66
67or possibly any newer version.
68
69=item Pthreads
70
71Thread support is not tested in this version of the djgpp perl.
72
73=back
74
75=head2 Shortcomings of Perl under DOS
76
77Perl under DOS lacks some features of perl under UNIX because of
78deficiencies in the UNIX-emulation, most notably:
79
80=over 4
81
82=item *
83
84fork() and pipe()
85
86=item *
87
88some features of the UNIX filesystem regarding link count and file dates
89
90=item *
91
92in-place operation is a little bit broken with short filenames
93
94=item *
95
96sockets
97
98=back
99
100=head2 Building Perl on DOS
101
102=over 4
103
104=item *
105
afdf87ad 106Unpack the source package F<perl5.8*.tar.gz> with djtarx. If you want
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107to use long file names under w95 and also to get Perl to pass all its
108tests, don't forget to use
109
110 set LFN=y
111 set FNCASE=y
112
113before unpacking the archive.
114
115=item *
116
117Create a "symlink" or copy your bash.exe to sh.exe in your C<($DJDIR)/bin>
118directory.
119
120 ln -s bash.exe sh.exe
121
122[If you have the recommended version of bash for DJGPP, this is already
123done for you.]
124
125And make the C<SHELL> environment variable point to this F<sh.exe>:
126
127 set SHELL=c:/djgpp/bin/sh.exe (use full path name!)
128
129You can do this in F<djgpp.env> too. Add this line BEFORE any section
130definition:
131
132 +SHELL=%DJDIR%/bin/sh.exe
133
134=item *
135
136If you have F<split.exe> and F<gsplit.exe> in your path, then rename
137F<split.exe> to F<djsplit.exe>, and F<gsplit.exe> to F<split.exe>.
138Copy or link F<gecho.exe> to F<echo.exe> if you don't have F<echo.exe>.
139Copy or link F<gawk.exe> to F<awk.exe> if you don't have F<awk.exe>.
140
141[If you have the recommended versions of djdev, shell utilities and
142gawk, all these are already done for you, and you will not need to do
143anything.]
144
145=item *
146
147Chdir to the djgpp subdirectory of perl toplevel and type the following
148commands:
149
150 set FNCASE=y
151 configure.bat
152
153This will do some preprocessing then run the Configure script for you.
154The Configure script is interactive, but in most cases you just need to
155press ENTER. The "set" command ensures that DJGPP preserves the letter
156case of file names when reading directories. If you already issued this
157set command when unpacking the archive, and you are in the same DOS
158session as when you unpacked the archive, you don't have to issue the
159set command again. This command is necessary *before* you start to
160(re)configure or (re)build perl in order to ensure both that perl builds
161correctly and that building XS-type modules can succeed. See the DJGPP
162info entry for "_preserve_fncase" for more information:
163
164 info libc alphabetical _preserve_fncase
165
166If the script says that your package is incomplete, and asks whether
167to continue, just answer with Y (this can only happen if you don't use
168long filenames or forget to issue "set FNCASE=y" first).
169
170When Configure asks about the extensions, I suggest IO and Fcntl,
171and if you want database handling then SDBM_File or GDBM_File
172(you need to install gdbm for this one). If you want to use the
173POSIX extension (this is the default), make sure that the stack
174size of your F<cc1.exe> is at least 512kbyte (you can check this
175with: C<stubedit cc1.exe>).
176
177You can use the Configure script in non-interactive mode too.
178When I built my F<perl.exe>, I used something like this:
179
180 configure.bat -des
181
182You can find more info about Configure's command line switches in
183the F<INSTALL> file.
184
185When the script ends, and you want to change some values in the
186generated F<config.sh> file, then run
187
188 sh Configure -S
189
190after you made your modifications.
191
192IMPORTANT: if you use this C<-S> switch, be sure to delete the CONFIG
193environment variable before running the script:
194
195 set CONFIG=
196
197=item *
198
199Now you can compile Perl. Type:
200
201 make
202
203=back
204
205=head2 Testing Perl on DOS
206
207Type:
208
209 make test
210
211If you're lucky you should see "All tests successful". But there can be
212a few failed subtests (less than 5 hopefully) depending on some external
213conditions (e.g. some subtests fail under linux/dosemu or plain dos
214with short filenames only).
215
216=head2 Installation of Perl on DOS
217
218Type:
219
220 make install
221
222This will copy the newly compiled perl and libraries into your DJGPP
223directory structure. Perl.exe and the utilities go into C<($DJDIR)/bin>,
224and the library goes under C<($DJDIR)/lib/perl5>. The pod documentation
225goes under C<($DJDIR)/lib/perl5/pod>.
226
227=head1 BUILDING AND INSTALLING MODULES ON DOS
228
229=head2 Building Prerequisites for Perl on DOS
230
231For building and installing non-XS modules, all you need is a working
232perl under DJGPP. Non-XS modules do not require re-linking the perl
233binary, and so are simpler to build and install.
234
235XS-type modules do require re-linking the perl binary, because part of
236an XS module is written in "C", and has to be linked together with the
237perl binary to be executed. This is required because perl under DJGPP
238is built with the "static link" option, due to the lack of "dynamic
239linking" in the DJGPP environment.
240
241Because XS modules require re-linking of the perl binary, you need both
242the perl binary distribution and the perl source distribution to build
243an XS extension module. In addition, you will have to have built your
244perl binary from the source distribution so that all of the components
245of the perl binary are available for the required link step.
246
247=head2 Unpacking CPAN Modules on DOS
248
249First, download the module package from CPAN (e.g., the "Comma Separated
250Value" text package, Text-CSV-0.01.tar.gz). Then expand the contents of
251the package into some location on your disk. Most CPAN modules are
252built with an internal directory structure, so it is usually safe to
253expand it in the root of your DJGPP installation. Some people prefer to
254locate source trees under /usr/src (i.e., C<($DJDIR)/usr/src>), but you may
255put it wherever seems most logical to you, *EXCEPT* under the same
256directory as your perl source code. There are special rules that apply
257to modules which live in the perl source tree that do not apply to most
258of the modules in CPAN.
259
260Unlike other DJGPP packages, which are normal "zip" files, most CPAN
261module packages are "gzipped tarballs". Recent versions of WinZip will
262safely unpack and expand them, *UNLESS* they have zero-length files. It
263is a known WinZip bug (as of v7.0) that it will not extract zero-length
264files.
265
266From the command line, you can use the djtar utility provided with DJGPP
267to unpack and expand these files. For example:
268
269 C:\djgpp>djtarx -v Text-CSV-0.01.tar.gz
270
271This will create the new directory C<($DJDIR)/Text-CSV-0.01>, filling
272it with the source for this module.
273
274=head2 Building Non-XS Modules on DOS
275
276To build a non-XS module, you can use the standard module-building
277instructions distributed with perl modules.
278
279 perl Makefile.PL
280 make
281 make test
282 make install
283
284This is sufficient because non-XS modules install only ".pm" files and
285(sometimes) pod and/or man documentation. No re-linking of the perl
286binary is needed to build, install or use non-XS modules.
287
288=head2 Building XS Modules on DOS
289
290To build an XS module, you must use the standard module-building
291instructions distributed with perl modules *PLUS* three extra
292instructions specific to the DJGPP "static link" build environment.
293
294 set FNCASE=y
295 perl Makefile.PL
296 make
297 make perl
298 make test
299 make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl.exe
300 make install
301
302The first extra instruction sets DJGPP's FNCASE environment variable so
303that the new perl binary which you must build for an XS-type module will
304build correctly. The second extra instruction re-builds the perl binary
305in your module directory before you run "make test", so that you are
306testing with the new module code you built with "make". The third extra
307instruction installs the perl binary from your module directory into the
308standard DJGPP binary directory, C<($DJDIR)/bin>, replacing your
309previous perl binary.
310
311Note that the MAP_TARGET value *must* have the ".exe" extension or you
312will not create a "perl.exe" to replace the one in C<($DJDIR)/bin>.
313
314When you are done, the XS-module install process will have added information
210b36aa 315to your "perllocal" information telling that the perl binary has been replaced,
3a1825b5 316and what module was installed. You can view this information at any time
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317by using the command:
318
319 perl -S perldoc perllocal
320
321=head1 AUTHOR
322
323Laszlo Molnar, F<laszlo.molnar@eth.ericsson.se> [Installing/building perl]
324
325Peter J. Farley III F<pjfarley@banet.net> [Building/installing modules]
326
327=head1 SEE ALSO
328
329perl(1).
330
331=cut
332