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Document the ‘Using !~’ errors
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
87of the object by explictly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
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90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
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99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
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103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
106bitwise and, and multpication), and you said something like C<*foo *
107foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We assumed you
108meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more clear -- in
109the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you really meant
110to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
111
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112=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
113
114(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
115asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
116named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
117the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
118function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
119and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
120
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121=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s
122
123(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}>, which might be
124looking for element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case
125please write C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous
126arrayref to the function named foo, then do a scalar deref on the
127value it returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
128
bdac9d71 129=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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130
131(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
132string C<"-foo"> (outside of C<use strict 'subs'>), or a call to the
133function C<foo>, negated. If you meant the string, just write
134C<"-foo">, and please use strict. If you meant the function call,
135write C<-foo()>.
136
6df41af2 137=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 138
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139(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
140redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
141redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 142
6df41af2 143=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 144
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145(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
146redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
147into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
148though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
149which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 150
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151 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
152 while (<STDIN>) {
153 print;
154 print OUT;
155 }
156 close OUT;
c9f97d15 157
6df41af2 158=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 159
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160(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
161transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 162one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 163a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
164hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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165you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
166alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 167
6df41af2 168=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 169
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170(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
171with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
172impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
173for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 174
6df41af2 175=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 176
6df41af2 177(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 178
b0fdf69e 179=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 180
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181(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
182subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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183
184 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 185 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 186 &do_something
a0d0e21e 187
8ea97a1e 188=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 189
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190(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
191such as:
5f05dabc 192
193 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 194 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 195
8ea97a1e 196or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 197
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198 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
199 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 200
6df41af2 201=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 202
6df41af2 203(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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204name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
205error.
a0d0e21e 206
f86702cc 207=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 208
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209(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
210that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
211will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 212
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213=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
214
215(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
216forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
217data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
218the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
219If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
220the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
221
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222=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
223
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224(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
225spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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226
227=item assertion botched: %s
228
229(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
230
231=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
232
233(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
234
235=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
236
237(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
238must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
239know which context to supply to the right side.
240
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241=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
242
4447dfc1 243(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
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244thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
245Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
246created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
247thread. See L<threads>.
248
2393f1b9 249=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 250
49293501 251(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 252the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 253
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254=item Attempt to bless into a reference
255
256(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
257the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
258supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
259
260 bless $self, $proto;
261
262when you intended
263
264 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
265
266If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
267of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
268example by:
269
270 bless $self, "$proto";
271
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272=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
273
274(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
275which is not in its key set.
276
277=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
278
279(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
280declared readonly from a restricted hash.
281
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282=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
283
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284(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
285that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
286outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 287
54310121 288=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 289
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290(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
291strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
292strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
293of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 294
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295=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
296
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297(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
298free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
299SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
300free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
301try to free it.
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302
303=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
304
e476b1b5 305(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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306
307=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
308
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309(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
310see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
311earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
312This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
313that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
314mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
315corrupted.
a0d0e21e 316
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317=item Attempt to join self
318
319(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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320impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
321to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 322
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323=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
324
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325(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
326function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
327means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
328invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
329literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
330avoid this warning.
84902520 331
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332=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
333
334(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
335compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
336unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
337L<perlvar/%INC>.
338
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339=item Attempt to set length of freed array
340
341(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
342can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
343of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
344
345 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
346 $$r = 503
347
b7a902f4 348=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
349
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350(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
351used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
352dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 353
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354=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
355
356(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "locked"
357attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
358effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in the next major
359release of Perl 5.
360
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361=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
362
363(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 364attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
259976bd 365had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in the next major
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366release of Perl 5.
367
fe13d51d 368=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
a0d0e21e 369
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370(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
371or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 372S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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373S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
374
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375=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
376
496a33f5 377(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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378substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
379most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
380
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381=item Bad filehandle: %s
382
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383(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
384symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
385open(), or did it in another package.
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386
387=item Bad free() ignored
388
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389(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
390been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 391setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 392
9ea8bc6d 393This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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394dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
395which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 396
aa689395 397=item Bad hash
398
399(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
400
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401=item Badly placed ()'s
402
403(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
404of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
405Perl yourself.
406
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407=item Bad name after %s::
408
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409(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
410didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
411of quotes, so
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412
413 $var = 'myvar';
414 $sym = mypack::$var;
415
416is not the same as
417
418 $var = 'myvar';
419 $sym = "mypack::$var";
420
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421=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
422
423(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
424plugin API.
425
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426=item Bad realloc() ignored
427
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428(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
429never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
430by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 431
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432=item Bad symbol for array
433
434(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
435wasn't a symbol table entry.
436
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437=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
438
439(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
440that wasn't a symbol table entry.
441
442
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443=item Bad symbol for filehandle
444
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445(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
446that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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447
448=item Bad symbol for hash
449
450(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
451wasn't a symbol table entry.
452
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453=item Bareword found in conditional
454
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455(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
456conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
457of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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458
459 open FOO || die;
460
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461It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
462a bareword:
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463
464 use constant TYPO => 1;
465 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
466
467The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
468
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469=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
470
471(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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472subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
473symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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474
475=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
476
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477(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
478compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
479you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 480
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481=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
482
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483(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
484subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
485exited.
a0d0e21e 486
68dc0745 487=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
488
489(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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490implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
491occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
492be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
493depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 494
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495=item \1 better written as $1
496
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497(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
498The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
499substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
500because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
501there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 502
252aa082
JH
503=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
504
e476b1b5 505(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
506(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
507L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 508
69282e91 509=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 510
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511(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
512check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 513
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514=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
515
516(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
517Check you control flow and number of arguments.
518
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519=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
520
e476b1b5 521(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 522
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523=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
524
be771a83 525(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 526copyable.
4633a7c4 527
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528=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
529
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530(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
531iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
532which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 533
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534=item Callback called exit
535
4929bf7b 536(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
537exited by calling exit.
538
6df41af2 539=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 540
be771a83
GS
541(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
542parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
543that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
544early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
545subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
546checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
547function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
548the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 549
49704364 550=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
551
552(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
553compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
554attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
555See L<perlfunc/pack>.
556
49704364 557=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
558
559(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
560format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
561
5c1f4d79
NC
562=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
563
564(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
565then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
566triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
567from that type of reference to a typeglob.
568
ba2fdce6
NC
569=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
570
571(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
572be directly assigned not.
573
b5d97229
RGS
574=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
575
576(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
577either with open() or binmode().
578
96ebfdd7
RK
579=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
580
581(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
582integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
583to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
584
a0d0e21e
LW
585=item Can't bless non-reference value
586
587(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
588encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
589
dc57907a
RGS
590=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
591
0d863452
RH
592(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
593a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
594
595=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 596
0d863452
RH
597(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
598
a0d0e21e
LW
599=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
600
601(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
602functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
603in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
604
6df41af2
GS
605=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
606
607(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
608object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
609like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
610
611 $BADREF = undef;
612 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
613 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
614
a0d0e21e
LW
615=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
616
54310121 617(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
618ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
619didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
620object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
621
622=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
623
624(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
625object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
626defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
627Something like this will reproduce the error:
628
629 $BADREF = 42;
630 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
631 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
632
a0d0e21e
LW
633=item Can't chdir to %s
634
635(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
636that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
637
0545a864 638=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 639
be771a83
GS
640(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
641nosuid.
104d25b7 642
6df41af2
GS
643=item Can't coerce array into hash
644
645(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
646information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
647only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
648
a0d0e21e
LW
649=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
650
651(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 652(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
653say things like:
654
655 *foo += 1;
656
657You CAN say
658
659 $foo = *foo;
660 $foo += 1;
661
662but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
663
664=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
665
666(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 667(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
668
669=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
670
671(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 672(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 673
0d863452 674=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 675
0d863452
RH
676(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
677or C<default> block.
678
a0d0e21e
LW
679=item Can't create pipe mailbox
680
be771a83
GS
681(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
682quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 683
eb64745e 684=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 685
2f7e735d 686(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 687class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 688extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
689
690=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
691
30c282f6
NC
692(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
693"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 694
6df41af2
GS
695=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
696
be771a83
GS
697(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
698a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 699
a0d0e21e
LW
700=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
701
be771a83
GS
702(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
703reason.
a0d0e21e 704
54310121 705=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 706
be771a83
GS
707(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
708reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
709C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 710
10f9c03d 711=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 712
e476b1b5 713(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
714characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
715inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 716
7253e4e3 717=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 718
b45f050a 719(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 720regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 721regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 722
a0d0e21e
LW
723=item Can't do waitpid with flags
724
be771a83
GS
725(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
726waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 727
a0d0e21e
LW
728=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
729
be771a83
GS
730(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
731point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
732line.
a0d0e21e 733
1109a392
MHM
734=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
735
736(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
737or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
738little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
739See L<perlfunc/pack>.
740
a0d0e21e
LW
741=item Can't exec "%s": %s
742
d1be9408 743(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
744named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
745permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
746C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
747architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
748can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
749#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
750
751=item Can't exec %s
752
be771a83
GS
753(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
754that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
755need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
756
757=item Can't execute %s
758
be771a83
GS
759(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
760found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 761
6df41af2 762=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 763
be771a83
GS
764(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
765is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 766
56ca2fc0
JH
767=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
768
769(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
770could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
771See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
772for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 773
6df41af2
GS
774=item Can't find label %s
775
be771a83
GS
776(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
777possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
778
779=item Can't find %s on PATH
780
be771a83
GS
781(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
782found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 783
6df41af2 784=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 785
be771a83
GS
786(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
787found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
788script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
789
790=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
791
be771a83
GS
792(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
793that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
794nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 795
fb73857a 796 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
797
be771a83
GS
798If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
799unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
800editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 801
660a4616
TS
802=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
803
804(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
e1b711da
KW
805example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
806Unicode property, see
807L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
808for a complete list of available properties.
660a4616
TS
809If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
810by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
811possible C<\E>).
812
b3647a36 813=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 814
be771a83
GS
815(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
816pipeline.
a0d0e21e 817
b3647a36
SR
818=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
819
c973c02e 820(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
821after five seconds.
822
748a9306
LW
823=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
824
be771a83
GS
825(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
826between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
827Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
828the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
829account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
830the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
831the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
832the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
833if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
834because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
835appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
836and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
837routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
838shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
839only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 840
a0d0e21e
LW
841=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
842
be771a83
GS
843(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
844pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
845
846=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
847
748a9306
LW
848(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
849mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 850
6df41af2 851=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 852
be771a83
GS
853(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
854loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
855
856=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
857
be771a83
GS
858(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
859a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
860you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
861See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 862
9850bf21 863=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 864
9850bf21
RH
865(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
866comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
867as the reduce() function in List::Util).
868
c74ace89 869=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 870
be771a83 871(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 872"string" or block.
b150fb22 873
6df41af2
GS
874=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
875
be771a83
GS
876(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
877subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
878cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
879routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 880
0b5b802d
GS
881=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
882
be771a83
GS
883(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
884signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
885signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
886processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
887situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
888may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 889
e2c0f81f
DG
890=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
891
892(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
893attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
894process identifier.
895
6df41af2 896=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 897
6df41af2 898(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
899except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
900block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
901block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
902usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
903inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
904L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 905
2c7d6b9c
RGS
906=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
907
908(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
909package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
910
b8170e59
JB
911=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
912
913(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
914may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
915incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
916between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 917extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
918installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
919extensions.
920
748a9306
LW
921=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
922
2ba9eb46 923(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 924lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
925localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
926package name.
927
6df41af2 928=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 929
6df41af2
GS
930(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
931handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 932pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 933that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 934
ea071790 935=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
936
937(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
938found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
939unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
940need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
941the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
942to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
943L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 944
6df41af2
GS
945=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
946
be771a83
GS
947(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
948autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
949are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
950the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 951
b8170e59
JB
952=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
953
954(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
955for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
956unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
957
a0d0e21e
LW
958=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
959
960(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
961functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 962method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
963
964=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
965
be771a83
GS
966(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
967doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 968
2f7da168
RK
969=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
970
971(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
972e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
973
3e3baf6d
TB
974=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
975
be771a83
GS
976(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
977VMS.
3e3baf6d 978
a0d0e21e
LW
979=item Can't modify %s in %s
980
be771a83
GS
981(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
982to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 983
54310121 984=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
985
986(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
987a NULL.
988
6df41af2
GS
989=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
990
991(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
992such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
993
5f05dabc 994=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 995
5f05dabc 996(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
997buffer.
998
6df41af2
GS
999=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1000
1001(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1002there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1003count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1004grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1005though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1006once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1007
a0d0e21e
LW
1008=item Can't open %s: %s
1009
c47ff5f1 1010(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1011filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1012switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1013is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1014the command line.
a0d0e21e 1015
9a869a14
RGS
1016=item Can't open a reference
1017
1018(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
1019using the 3-arg open() syntax :
1020
1021 open FH, '>', $ref;
1022
1023but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1024open is not supported.
1025
a0d0e21e
LW
1026=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1027
be771a83
GS
1028(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1029You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1030as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1031">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1032
748a9306
LW
1033=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1034
be771a83
GS
1035(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1036redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1037the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1038
1039=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1040
be771a83
GS
1041(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1042redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1043command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1044
1045=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1046
be771a83
GS
1047(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1048redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1049the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1050
1051=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1052
be771a83
GS
1053(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1054redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1055for stdout.
748a9306 1056
2b8ca739 1057=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1058
1059(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1060
fa3aa65a
JC
1061If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1062shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1063you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1064
6df41af2
GS
1065=item Can't read CRTL environ
1066
1067(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1068from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1069missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1070or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1071searched.
6df41af2 1072
6df41af2
GS
1073=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1074
1075(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1076there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1077count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1078or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1079though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1080loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1081
64977eb6 1082=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1083
be771a83
GS
1084(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1085file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1086the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1087
a0d0e21e
LW
1088=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1089
e476b1b5 1090(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1091probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1092
748a9306
LW
1093=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1094
be771a83
GS
1095(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1096to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1097
fe13d51d 1098=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1099
be771a83
GS
1100(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1101to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1102method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1103
cd06dffe
GS
1104=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1105
be771a83
GS
1106(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1107temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1108is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1109
96ebfdd7
RK
1110=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1111
1112(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1113there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1114
78f9721b
SM
1115=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1116
1117(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1118but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1119to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1120the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1121list context.
1122
a0d0e21e
LW
1123=item Can't stat script "%s"
1124
be771a83
GS
1125(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1126open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1127
a0d0e21e
LW
1128=item Can't take log of %g
1129
fb73857a 1130(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1131negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1132standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1133negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1134
1135=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1136
1137(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1138negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1139with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1140
1141=item Can't undef active subroutine
1142
1143(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1144however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1145redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1146
1147=item Can't unshift
1148
1149(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1150as the main Perl stack.
1151
c81225bc 1152=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1153
be771a83
GS
1154(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1155into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1156specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1157indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1158
1db89ea5
BS
1159=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1160
e27ad1f2 1161(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1162table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1163for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1164
96ebfdd7
RK
1165=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1166
1167(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1168be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1169
6df41af2
GS
1170=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1171
be771a83
GS
1172(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1173references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1174
90b75b61 1175=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1176
1177(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1178Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1179provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1180
1109a392
MHM
1181=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1182
1183(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1184byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1185allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1186
6df41af2
GS
1187=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1188
be771a83
GS
1189(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1190foreach.
6df41af2 1191
aab6a793 1192=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1193
be771a83
GS
1194(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1195is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1196(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1197have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1198weren't.
1199
6d3b25aa
RGS
1200=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1201
1202(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1203that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1204For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1205is inside a big-endian group.
1206
c07a80fd 1207=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1208
1209(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1210You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1211and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1212Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1213lexical variable.
1214
a0d0e21e
LW
1215=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1216
1217(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1218reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1219test the type of the reference, if need be.
1220
748a9306 1221=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1222
be771a83
GS
1223(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1224references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1225
748a9306
LW
1226=item Can't use subscript on %s
1227
1228(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1229subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1230didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1231
6df41af2
GS
1232=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1233
75b44862
GS
1234(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1235creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1236backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1237expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1238value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1239instead.
6df41af2 1240
0d863452 1241=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1242
0d863452
RH
1243(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1244loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1245from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1246or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1247
810b8aa5
GS
1248=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1249
1250(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1251references can be weakened.
1252
5f05dabc 1253=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1254
be771a83
GS
1255(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1256with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1257Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1258
4a68bf9d 1259=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529
KW
1260
1261(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1262
f337b084 1263=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1264
1265(W pack) You said
1266
1267 pack("C", $x)
1268
1269where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1270only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1271and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1272
1273 pack("C", $x & 255)
1274
1275If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1276instead.
1277
f337b084
TH
1278=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1279
1280(W pack) You said
1281
1282 pack("U0W", $x)
1283
1284where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1285all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1286meant:
1287
1288 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1289
1290=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1291
1292(W pack) You said
1293
1294 pack("c", $x)
1295
1296where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1297is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1298and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1299
1300 pack("c", $x & 255);
1301
1302If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1303instead.
1304
f337b084
TH
1305=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1306
1307(W unpack) You tried something like
1308
1309 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1310
1a147d38 1311where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1312below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1313modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1314
1315 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1316
1317=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1318
1319(W pack) You tried something like
1320
1321 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1322
1a147d38
YO
1323where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1324value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1325uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1326
1327 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1328
1329=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1330
1331(W unpack) You tried something like
1332
1333 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1334
1a147d38
YO
1335where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1336value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1337uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1338
1339 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1340
96ebfdd7
RK
1341=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1342
1343(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1344
abc7ecad
SP
1345=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1346
1347(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1348a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1349
49704364
WL
1350=item Code missing after '/'
1351
1352(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1353template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1354
6df41af2
GS
1355=item %s: Command not found
1356
be771a83
GS
1357(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1358Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1359
7a2e2cd6 1360=item Compilation failed in require
1361
1362(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1363Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1364encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1365
c3464db5
DD
1366=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1367
be771a83
GS
1368(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1369situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1370to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1371arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1372recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1373under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1374in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1375that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1376on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1377
38875929
DM
1378=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1379
1380(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1381cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1382function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1383cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1384has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1385first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1386after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1387lock.
1388
38875929
DM
1389=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1390
1391(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1392cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1393function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1394cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1395has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1396first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1397after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1398lock.
1399
69282e91 1400=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1401
be771a83
GS
1402(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1403to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1404L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1405
41ab332f 1406=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1407
be771a83
GS
1408(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1409an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1410specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1411corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1412L<overload>.
6df41af2 1413
fc8cd66c
YO
1414=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1415
1a147d38
YO
1416(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1417the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1418forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1419See L<charnames>.
1420
1421
779c5bc9
GS
1422=item Constant is not %s reference
1423
1424(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1425is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1426The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1427usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1428See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1429
4cee8e80
CS
1430=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1431
bb028877 1432(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1433eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1434commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1435
9607fc9c 1436=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1437
be771a83
GS
1438(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1439for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1440workarounds.
9607fc9c 1441
e7ea3e70
IZ
1442=item Copy method did not return a reference
1443
64977eb6 1444(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1445L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1446
6798c92b
GS
1447=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1448
1449(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1450
a0d0e21e
LW
1451=item corrupted regexp pointers
1452
1453(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1454expression compiler gave it.
1455
1456=item corrupted regexp program
1457
be771a83
GS
1458(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1459valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1460
6df41af2
GS
1461=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1462
1463(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1464
49704364
WL
1465=item Count after length/code in unpack
1466
1467(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1468you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1469L<perlfunc/pack>.
1470
1408fb84 1471=item "\c%c" more clearly written simply as "%s"
f9d13529
KW
1472
1473(D deprecated) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1474non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408fb84
KW
1475written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1476characters. This message may not remain as Deprecated beyond 5.13.
f9d13529 1477
a0d0e21e
LW
1478=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1479
be771a83
GS
1480(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1481100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1482infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1483which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1484
aad1d01f
NC
1485This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1486setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1487
f10b0346 1488=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1489
be771a83
GS
1490(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1491checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1492array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1493
f10b0346 1494=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1495
be771a83
GS
1496(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1497checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1498is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1499
62658f4d
PM
1500=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1501
1502(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1503there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1504
fc36a67e 1505=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1506
be771a83
GS
1507(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1508long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1509that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1510
4a68bf9d 1511=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1512
1513(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1514But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1515deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1516continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1517colons.
1518
6d3b25aa
RGS
1519=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1520
1521(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1522There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1523not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1524conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1525static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1526relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1527declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1528
6d3b25aa
RGS
1529 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1530
1531becomes
1532
1533 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1534
36fb85f3
RGS
1535Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1536have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1537
1538 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1539
500ab966
RGS
1540=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1541
1542(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1543just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1544to create a dangling reference.
1545
3cdd684c
TP
1546=item Did not produce a valid header
1547
1548See Server error.
1549
6df41af2
GS
1550=item %s did not return a true value
1551
1552(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1553it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1554traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1555do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1556
cc507455 1557=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1558
413ff9f6
FC
1559(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1560some such.
4633a7c4 1561
cc507455 1562=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1563
be771a83
GS
1564(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1565variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1566seems superfluous.
33633739 1567
cc507455 1568=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1569
be771a83
GS
1570(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1571@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1572carried away.
748a9306 1573
7e1af8bc 1574=item Died
5f05dabc 1575
1576(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1577you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1578
3cdd684c
TP
1579=item Document contains no data
1580
1581See Server error.
1582
62658f4d
PM
1583=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1584
1585(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1586define a C<$VERSION.>
1587
49704364
WL
1588=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1589
1590(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1591See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1592
a0d0e21e
LW
1593=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1594
1595(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1596
1597=item do_study: out of memory
1598
1599(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1600
6df41af2
GS
1601=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1602
56da5a46
RGS
1603(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1604"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1605name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1606because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1607"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1608something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1609subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1610"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1611
ac206dc8
RGS
1612=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1613
1614(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1615qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1616
84d78eb7
YO
1617=item dump is not supported
1618
1619(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1620
a0d0e21e
LW
1621=item Duplicate free() ignored
1622
be771a83
GS
1623(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1624already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1625
1109a392
MHM
1626=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1627
1628(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1629in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1630
4633a7c4
LW
1631=item elseif should be elsif
1632
56da5a46
RGS
1633(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1634ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1635"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1636unlikely to be what you want.
1637
ab13f0c7
JH
1638=item Empty %s
1639
af6f566e
HS
1640(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1641described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1642a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1643
85ab1d1d 1644=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1645
85ab1d1d 1646(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1647effective uids or gids failed.
1648
c038024b
RGS
1649=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1650
1651(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1652aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1653program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1654
748a9306
LW
1655=item Error converting file specification %s
1656
5f05dabc 1657(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1658specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1659single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1660an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1661conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1662
e4d48cc9
GS
1663=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1664
be771a83
GS
1665(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1666expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1667is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1668
fc8f615e 1669=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1670
be771a83
GS
1671(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1672C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1673pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1674is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1675building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1676that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1677
6df41af2
GS
1678=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1679
be771a83
GS
1680(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1681assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1682pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1683
1a147d38
YO
1684=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1685
1686(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1687any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1688
1689The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1690discovered.
1691
fc36a67e 1692=item Excessively long <> operator
1693
1694(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1695Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1696filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1697variable and glob that.
1698
ed9aa3b7
SG
1699=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1700
1701(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1702
fe13d51d 1703=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1704
1705(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1706
1707=item Exiting eval via %s
1708
be771a83
GS
1709(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1710goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1711
1712=item Exiting format via %s
1713
9a2ff54b 1714(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1715goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1716
0a753a76 1717=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1718
be771a83
GS
1719(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1720sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1721loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1722
a0d0e21e
LW
1723=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1724
be771a83
GS
1725(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1726as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1727
1728=item Exiting substitution via %s
1729
be771a83
GS
1730(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1731as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1732
7b8d334a
GS
1733=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1734
be771a83
GS
1735(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1736the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1737usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1738e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1739
6df41af2
GS
1740=item %s: Expression syntax
1741
be771a83
GS
1742(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1743Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1744
1745=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1746
3c10abe3
AG
1747(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1748CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1749queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1750
7253e4e3 1751=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1752
be771a83 1753(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1754character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1755in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1756"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1757problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1758
1b1ee2ef 1759=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1760
be771a83
GS
1761(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1762system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1763details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1764you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1765
1766=item fcntl is not implemented
1767
1768(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1769PDP-11 or something?
1770
22846ab4
AB
1771=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1772
1773(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1774is not possible.
1775
f337b084
TH
1776=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1777
1778(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1779which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1780a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1781C<u63> as format.
1782
af8c498a 1783=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1784
6c8d78fb
HS
1785(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1786it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1787"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1788write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1789
af8c498a 1790=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1791
6c8d78fb
HS
1792(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1793you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1794with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1795intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1796Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1797(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1798
1799=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1800
1801(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1802as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1803previously.
1804
1805=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1806
1807(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1808as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1809
1810=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1811
1812(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1813a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1814happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1815name.
a0d0e21e 1816
56e90b21
GS
1817=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1818
be771a83 1819(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1820some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1821filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1822same name?
56e90b21 1823
6df41af2
GS
1824=item Format not terminated
1825
1826(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1827to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1828
a0d0e21e
LW
1829=item Format %s redefined
1830
e476b1b5 1831(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1832
1833 {
271595cc 1834 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1835 eval "format NAME =...";
1836 }
1837
a0d0e21e
LW
1838=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1839
e476b1b5 1840(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1841
1842 if ($foo = 123)
1843
1844when you meant
1845
1846 if ($foo == 123)
1847
1848(or something like that).
1849
6df41af2
GS
1850=item %s found where operator expected
1851
56da5a46
RGS
1852(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1853If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1854operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1855operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1856
a0d0e21e
LW
1857=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1858
1859(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1860
1861=item gethostent not implemented
1862
1863(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1864because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1865on the Internet.
1866
69282e91 1867=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1868
be771a83
GS
1869(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1870socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1871
748a9306
LW
1872=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1873
1874(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1875C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1876
6df41af2
GS
1877=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1878
be771a83
GS
1879(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1880forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1881L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1882
1883=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1884
a4edf47d 1885(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1886that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1887declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1888which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1889
e476b1b5
GS
1890=item glob failed (%s)
1891
be771a83
GS
1892(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1893C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1894C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1895nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1896resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1897broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1898config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1899were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1900empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1901think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1902C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1903
a0d0e21e
LW
1904=item Glob not terminated
1905
1906(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1907a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1908not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1909earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1910
8b56d6ff
FC
1911=item gmtime(%.0f) too large
1912
fc003d4b
MS
1913(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1914it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1915date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1916not-a-number value).
1917
1918=item gmtime(%.0f) too small
1919
1920(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1921it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1922date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1923not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1924
6df41af2 1925=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1926
6df41af2
GS
1927(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1928version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1929
1930=item goto must have label
1931
1932(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1933unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1934
49704364 1935=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1936
49704364 1937(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1938supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1939 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1940
fe13d51d 1941=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1942
1943(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1944
a0d0e21e
LW
1945=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1946
be771a83
GS
1947(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1948to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1949created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1950
1951=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1952
be771a83
GS
1953(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1954spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1955
6df41af2
GS
1956=item %s has too many errors
1957
1958(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1959Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1960
e6897b1a
KW
1961=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
1962
1963(D syntax)
1964
1965You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
1966without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
1967
1968 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
1969 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
1970
1971both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first form
1972in Perl 5.16. And,
1973
1974 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
1975
1976will be disallowed too.
1977
252aa082
JH
1978=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1979
e476b1b5 1980(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1981(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1982L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1983
8903cb82 1984=item Identifier too long
1985
1986(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1987about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1988names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1989of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1990
c3c41406 1991=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 1992
ff3f963a
KW
1993(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
1994zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 1995its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
1996been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
1997
6df41af2 1998=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1999
6df41af2 2000(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2001
6df41af2 2002=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2003
be771a83
GS
2004(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2005binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2006offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2007
4fdae800 2008=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
2009
d5898338 2010(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2011would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2012when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2013version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2014to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2015
d37a9538
ST
2016=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2017
197afce1
MT
2018(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2019Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 2020
904d85c5
RGS
2021=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2022
2023(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2024you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2025
8e742a20
MHM
2026=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2027
2028(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2029
a0d0e21e
LW
2030=item Illegal division by zero
2031
be771a83
GS
2032(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2033your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2034meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2035
6df41af2
GS
2036=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2037
be771a83
GS
2038(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2039A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2040number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2041
a0d0e21e
LW
2042=item Illegal modulus zero
2043
be771a83
GS
2044(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2045numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2046
6df41af2 2047=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2048
6df41af2
GS
2049(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2050two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2051
2052=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2053
d1be9408 2054(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2055
399388f4 2056=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2057
d1be9408 2058(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2059Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2060
fe13d51d 2061=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2062
6df41af2 2063(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2064following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2065
6df41af2 2066=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2067
75b44862 2068(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2069internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2070delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2071
6df41af2 2072=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2073
be771a83
GS
2074(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2075name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2076didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2077ignored.
54310121 2078
6df41af2 2079=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2080
be771a83
GS
2081(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2082the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2083system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2084times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2085would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2086
be771a83
GS
2087Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2088also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2089
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2090=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2091
2092(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2093C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2094documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2095
979699d9
JH
2096=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2097
2098(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2099Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2100encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2101
1a147d38
YO
2102=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2103
2104(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2105text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2106either consume text or fail.
2107
2108The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2109discovered.
2110
6dbe9451
NC
2111=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2112
2113(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2114of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2115C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2116as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2117
a0d0e21e
LW
2118=item Insecure dependency in %s
2119
8b1a09fc 2120(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2121The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2122setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2123tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2124from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2125such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2126L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2127
2128=item Insecure directory in %s
2129
be771a83
GS
2130(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2131setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2132the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2133See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2134
62f468fc 2135=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2136
2137(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2138setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2139C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2140supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2141the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2142
a7ae9550
GS
2143=item Integer overflow in %s number
2144
75b44862 2145(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2146either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2147your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2148On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2149representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21500b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2151transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2152internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2153operations.
bbce6d69 2154
2fba7546
GA
2155=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2156
0be96356
AL
2157(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2158or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2159integers for your architecture.
2160
46314c13
JP
2161=item Integer overflow in version
2162
2163(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2164size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2165because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2166element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2167trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2168100/9.
2169
7253e4e3 2170=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2171
2172(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2173The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2174discovered.
2175
748a9306
LW
2176=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2177
be771a83
GS
2178(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2179you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2180to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2181L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2182Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2183terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2184
7253e4e3 2185=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2186
7253e4e3
RK
2187(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2188<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2189discovered.
a0d0e21e 2190
6df41af2
GS
2191=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2192
75b44862 2193(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2194followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2195operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2196L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2197
09bef843
SB
2198=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2199
2200The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
2201by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2202
2203=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2204
be771a83
GS
2205The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
2206recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2207
c635e13b 2208=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2209
be771a83
GS
2210(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2211L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2212
9e08bc66
TS
2213=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2214
2215(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2216didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2217from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2218The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2219The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2220escape was discovered.
2221
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2222=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2223
2224(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2225or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2226(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2227
7253e4e3 2228=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2229
2230(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2231greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2232C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2233up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2234problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2235
d1573ac7 2236=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2237
2238(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2239character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2240
09bef843
SB
2241=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2242
0120eecf 2243(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2244elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2245parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2246See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2247
b4581f09
JH
2248=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2249
2250(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2251colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2252If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2253list was terminated too soon.
2254
2c86d456
DG
2255=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2256
2257(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2258A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2259decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2260v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2261The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2262See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2263
49704364 2264=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2265
49704364
WL
2266(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2267See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2268(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2269silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2270
2c86d456
DG
2271=item Invalid version format (%s)
2272
2273(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2274A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2275decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2276v-string. If the v-string has less than three components, it must have a
2277leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional. Both
2278decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2279component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2280dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2281criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2282allowed version formats.
46314c13 2283
798ae1b7
DG
2284=item Invalid version object
2285
2286(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2287the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2288was blessed into the "version" class.
2289
a0d0e21e
LW
2290=item ioctl is not implemented
2291
2292(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2293strange for a machine that supports C.
2294
c289d2f7
JH
2295=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2296
2297(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2298Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2299
fe13d51d 2300=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2301
2302(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2303you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2304with 'useperlio'.
2305
80cbd5ad
JH
2306=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2307
2308(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2309neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2310
b4581f09
JH
2311=item $* is no longer supported
2312
d1d15184 2313(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2314been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2315C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2316
2317Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2318modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2319expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2320
8ae1fe26
RGS
2321=item $# is no longer supported
2322
d1d15184 2323(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2324been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2325printf/sprintf functions instead.
2326
6ad11d81
JH
2327=item `%s' is not a code reference
2328
04a80ee0
RGS
2329(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2330needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2331to a subroutine.
2332
2333=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2334
04a80ee0
RGS
2335(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2336unaware of.
6ad11d81 2337
a0d0e21e
LW
2338=item junk on end of regexp
2339
2340(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2341
2342=item Label not found for "last %s"
2343
be771a83
GS
2344(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2345of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2346L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2347
2348=item Label not found for "next %s"
2349
2350(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2351that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2352L<perlfunc/last>.
2353
2354=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2355
2356(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2357that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2358L<perlfunc/last>.
2359
85ab1d1d 2360=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2361
85ab1d1d 2362(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2363effective uids or gids failed.
2364
49704364
WL
2365=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2366
d7f8936a 2367(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
WL
2368length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2369an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2370
f0e67a1d
Z
2371=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2372
2373(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2374(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2375tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2376This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2377reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2378plain ASCII is recommended.
2379
2380=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2381
2382(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2383detectable way.
2384
69282e91 2385=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2386
be771a83
GS
2387(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2388to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2389L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2390
8b56d6ff
FC
2391=item localtime(%.0f) too large
2392
fc003d4b
MS
2393(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2394than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2395wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2396not-a-number value).
2397
2398=item localtime(%.0f) too small
2399
2400(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2401than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2402wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2403not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2404
58e23c8d 2405=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2406
2407(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2408handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2409
b88df990
NC
2410=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2411
2412(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2413for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2414hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2415because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2416are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2417You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2418
2f7da168
RK
2419=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2420
2421(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2422by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2423instead on the filehandle.)
2424
885ef6f5
GG
2425=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2426
963d9ce9 2427(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2428by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2429possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2430lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2431the definition.
2432
96ebfdd7
RK
2433=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2434
2435(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2436values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2437L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2438
49704364
WL
2439=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2440
2441(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2442are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2443
2444=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2445
2446(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2447are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2448
6df41af2
GS
2449=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2450
2451(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2452
2453 prefix1;prefix2
2454
2455or
6df41af2
GS
2456 prefix1 prefix2
2457
be771a83
GS
2458with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2459a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2460appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2461"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2462
2f758a16
ST
2463=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2464
d37a9538
ST
2465(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2466syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2467obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2468when the function is called.
2f758a16 2469
ba210ebe
JH
2470=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2471
2575c402
JW
2472(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2473encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2474
2575c402
JW
2475One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2476you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
24778-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2478
2479If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2480sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2481set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2482message.
2483
2484See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2485
dea0fc0b
JH
2486=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2487
183097aa 2488(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2489doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2490
ff3f963a
KW
2491=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2492
2493(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2494
f337b084
TH
2495=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2496
2497(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2498rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2499
2500=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2501
2502(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2503rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2504
2505=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2506
2507(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2508rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2509
fe13d51d 2510=item Maximal count of pending signals (%d) exceeded
2563cec5 2511
fe13d51d 2512(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2513usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2514too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2515resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2516safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2517
49704364 2518=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2519
2520(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2521regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2522shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2523See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2524
25f58aea
PN
2525=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2526
2527(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2528interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2529"use" or "my".
2530
49704364 2531=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2532
2533(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2534checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2535See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2536
a0d0e21e
LW
2537=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2538
2539(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2540doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2541
3cdd684c
TP
2542=item Method %s not permitted
2543
2544See Server error.
2545
a0d0e21e
LW
2546=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2547
2548(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2549by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2550ended earlier on the current line.
2551
2552=item Misplaced _ in number
2553
d4ced10d
JH
2554(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2555separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2556
7baa4690
HS
2557=item Missing argument in %s
2558
2559(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2560supplied.
2561
9e81e6a1
RGS
2562=item Missing argument to -%c
2563
2564(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2565immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2566
ff3f963a 2567=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2568
4a2d328f 2569(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2570double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2571comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2572This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2573the C<\N>.
423cee85 2574
f0a2b745
KW
2575=item Missing braces on \o{}
2576
2577(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2578
a0d0e21e
LW
2579=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2580
2581(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2582"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2583
06eaf0bc
GS
2584=item Missing command in piped open
2585
be771a83
GS
2586(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2587C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2588blank.
06eaf0bc 2589
961ce445
RGS
2590=item Missing control char name in \c
2591
2592(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2593character name.
2594
6df41af2
GS
2595=item Missing name in "my sub"
2596
be771a83
GS
2597(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2598they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2599
2600=item Missing $ on loop variable
2601
be771a83
GS
2602(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2603are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2604can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2605
cc507455 2606=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2607
56da5a46
RGS
2608(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2609"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2610
ab13f0c7
JH
2611=item Missing right brace on %s
2612
ff3f963a
KW
2613(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2614
4a68bf9d 2615=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2616
0a96133f
KW
2617(F)
2618C<\N> has two meanings.
2619
2620The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2621in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2622Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2623double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2624have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2625
0a96133f 2626Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2627patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2628C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2629
2630This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2631left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2632the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2633that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 26343; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2635and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2636
2637However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2638omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2639raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2640the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2641
d98d5fff 2642=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2643
be771a83
GS
2644(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2645ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2646were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2647
6df41af2
GS
2648=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2649
56da5a46
RGS
2650(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2651"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2652the previous line just because you saw this message.
2653
a0d0e21e
LW
2654=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2655
2656(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2657constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2658catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2659
2660 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2661 mod(2);
2662
2663Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2664
c5674021
PDF
2665Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2666is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2667
2668 $x = 1;
2669 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2670 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2671 }
c5674021 2672
7a4340ed 2673=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2674
2675(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2676subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2677backwards.
2678
7a4340ed 2679=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2680
be771a83
GS
2681(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2682couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2683
2684=item Module name must be constant
2685
2686(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2687
be98fb35 2688=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2689
be98fb35
GS
2690(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2691you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2692about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2693
fe13d51d 2694=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2695
2696(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2697can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2698list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2699See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2700
a0d0e21e
LW
2701=item msg%s not implemented
2702
2703(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2704
2705=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2706
75b44862
GS
2707(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2708They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2709
49704364 2710=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2711
49704364
WL
2712(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2713follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2714See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2715
2716=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2717
be771a83
GS
2718(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2719that yet.
6df41af2 2720
30c282f6 2721=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2722
be771a83
GS
2723(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2724sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2725local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2726
4a68bf9d 2727=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2728
c3c41406
KW
2729(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2730character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2731specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2732
4a68bf9d 2733=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406
KW
2734
2735(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2736was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2737such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2738
2739 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2740 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2741 /$re/;
2742
b09c05e6 2743Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2744
2745 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2746 /$re/;
2747
2748The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2749components:
2750
2751 $re = '\N';
2752 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2753
2754It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2755doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2756
2757Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2758C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2759
2760 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2761 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2762
8b1a09fc 2763=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2764
e476b1b5 2765(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2766If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2767again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2768provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2769
64b374f4
FD
2770NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2771%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2772the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2773will not trigger this warning.
2774
4a68bf9d 2775=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
ff3f963a
KW
2776
2777(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2778number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2779or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2780
49704364
WL
2781=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2782
2783(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2784negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2785
a0d0e21e
LW
2786=item Negative length
2787
be771a83
GS
2788(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2789length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2790
ed9aa3b7
SG
2791=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2792
2793(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2794greater than or equal to zero.
2795
7253e4e3 2796=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2797
b45f050a 2798(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2799things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2800expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2801
7253e4e3 2802Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2803C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2804
6df41af2 2805=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2806
be771a83
GS
2807(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2808scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2809
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2810=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2811
2812(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2813real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2814See L<mro>.
2815
a0d0e21e
LW
2816=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2817
be771a83
GS
2818(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2819setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2820will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2821securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2822
a0d0e21e
LW
2823=item No comma allowed after %s
2824
2825(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2826allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2827Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2828
0a753a76 2829One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2830constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2831importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2832does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2833explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2834L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2835would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2836remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2837constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2838list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2839this error was triggered?
2840
748a9306
LW
2841=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2842
be771a83
GS
2843(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2844redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2845doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2846
a0d0e21e
LW
2847=item No DB::DB routine defined
2848
be771a83 2849(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2850for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2851module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2852statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2853
2854=item No dbm on this machine
2855
2856(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2857supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2858
ccafdc96 2859=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2860
ccafdc96
RGS
2861(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2862for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2863module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2864of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2865
96ebfdd7
RK
2866=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2867
2868(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2869
c47ff5f1 2870=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2871
be771a83
GS
2872(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2873redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2874find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2875
49704364
WL
2876=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2877
2878(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2879matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2880
c47ff5f1 2881=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2882
be771a83
GS
2883(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2884redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2885name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2886
6df41af2
GS
2887=item No #! line
2888
2889(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2890even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2891
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2892=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2893
2894(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2895in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2896it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2897or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2898
6df41af2
GS
2899=item "no" not allowed in expression
2900
be771a83
GS
2901(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2902returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2903
c47ff5f1 2904=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2905
be771a83
GS
2906(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2907redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2908doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2909
c47ff5f1 2910=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2911
be771a83
GS
2912(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2913redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2914find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2915
1ec3e8de
GS
2916=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2917
be771a83
GS
2918(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2919declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2920semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2921
a0d0e21e
LW
2922=item No Perl script found in input
2923
2924(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2925with #! and containing the word "perl".
2926
2927=item No setregid available
2928
2929(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2930your system.
2931
2932=item No setreuid available
2933
2934(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2935your system.
2936
6df41af2
GS
2937=item No %s specified for -%c
2938
2939(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2940you haven't specified one.
e75d1f10
RD
2941=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2942
2943(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2944but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2945package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2946
2c692339
RGS
2947=item No such class %s
2948
30c282f6 2949(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2950this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2951
3c20a832
SP
2952=item No such hook: %s
2953
2954(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2955accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2956
6df41af2
GS
2957=item No such pipe open
2958
2959(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2960close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2961earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2962
a0d0e21e
LW
2963=item No such signal: SIG%s
2964
be771a83
GS
2965(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2966not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2967names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2968
2969=item Not a CODE reference
2970
2971(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2972subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2973use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2974also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2975
2976=item Not a format reference
2977
2978(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2979format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2980
2981=item Not a GLOB reference
2982
be771a83
GS
2983(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2984symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2985something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2986kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2987
2988=item Not a HASH reference
2989
be771a83
GS
2990(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2991reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2992find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2993
6df41af2
GS
2994=item Not an ARRAY reference
2995
be771a83
GS
2996(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2997a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2998to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2999
a0d0e21e
LW
3000=item Not a perl script
3001
3002(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3003even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3004mention perl.
3005
3006=item Not a SCALAR reference
3007
be771a83
GS
3008(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3009a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3010to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3011
3012=item Not a subroutine reference
3013
3014(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3015subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3016use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3017also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3018
e7ea3e70 3019=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3020
3021(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3022doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3023
a0d0e21e
LW
3024=item Not enough arguments for %s
3025
3026(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3027
6df41af2
GS
3028=item Not enough format arguments
3029
be771a83
GS
3030(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3031supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3032
3033=item %s: not found
3034
be771a83
GS
3035(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3036of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3037yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3038
3039=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3040
6df41af2
GS
3041(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3042timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3043to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3044F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3045need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3046
f0a2b745
KW
3047=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3048
3049(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
3050encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as indicated.
3051
4ef2275c
GA
3052=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3053
3054(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3055Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3056select. See L<perlfunc/select>
3057
a0d0e21e
LW
3058=item Null filename used
3059
be771a83
GS
3060(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3061machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3062
6df41af2
GS
3063=item NULL OP IN RUN
3064
be771a83
GS
3065(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3066pointer.
6df41af2 3067
55497cff 3068=item Null picture in formline
3069
3070(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3071specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3072supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3073
a0d0e21e
LW
3074=item Null realloc
3075
3076(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3077
3078=item NULL regexp argument
3079
5f05dabc 3080(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3081
3082=item NULL regexp parameter
3083
3084(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3085
fc36a67e 3086=item Number too long
3087
be771a83 3088(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3089about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3090versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3091the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3092"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3093
f0a2b745
KW
3094=item Number with no digits
3095
3096(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.
3097This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between the braces.
3098
6df41af2
GS
3099=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3100
be771a83
GS
3101(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3102The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3103future version.
6df41af2 3104
252aa082
JH
3105=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3106
75b44862 3107(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3108(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3109L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3110
3111See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3112
6ad11d81
JH
3113=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3114
04a80ee0
RGS
3115(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3116arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3117
b21befc1
MG
3118=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3119
3120(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3121which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3122
1930e939 3123=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3124
be771a83
GS
3125(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3126which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3127
bbce6d69 3128=item Offset outside string
3129
42bc49da
JH
3130(F, W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
3131with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3132imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3133take place when going past the end of the string when either
3134C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3135for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3136with real files).
bbce6d69 3137
c289d2f7 3138=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3139
3140(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3141never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3142call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3143
96ebfdd7
RK
3144=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3145
3146(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3147that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3148
a0d0e21e
LW
3149=item oops: oopsAV
3150
e476b1b5 3151(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3152
3153=item oops: oopsHV
3154
e476b1b5 3155(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3156
abc718f2
RGS
3157=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3158
3159(W io deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
3160a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3161Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3162and is deprecated.
3163
3164=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3165
3166(W io deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
3167a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3168Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3169and is deprecated.
3170
a0288114 3171=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3172
be771a83
GS
3173(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3174handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3175of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3176C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3177
748a9306
LW
3178=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3179
be771a83
GS
3180(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3181was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3182use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3183example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3184"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3185
6df41af2
GS
3186=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3187
be771a83
GS
3188(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3189in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3190
a80b8354
GS
3191=item Out of memory!
3192
3193(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3194remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3195no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3196
19a52907
JH
3197At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3198process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3199C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3200the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3201and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3202
6d3b25aa
RGS
3203=item Out of memory during %s extend
3204
3205(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3206the largest possible memory allocation.
3207
6df41af2 3208=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3209
6df41af2
GS
3210(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3211remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3212the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3213possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3214
1b979e0a 3215=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3216
be771a83
GS
3217(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3218insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3219request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3220
3221The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3222depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3223However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3224emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3225is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3226where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3227
1b979e0a
IZ
3228=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3229
3230(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3231is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3232C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3233
6df41af2
GS
3234=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3235
be771a83
GS
3236(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3237parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3238otherwise.
6df41af2 3239
28be1210
TH
3240=item '.' outside of string in pack
3241
3242(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3243position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3244
49704364 3245=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3246
49704364 3247(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3248the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3249
f337b084
TH
3250=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3251
3252(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3253the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3254UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3255
7cb0cfe6
BM
3256=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3257
3258(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3259but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3260L<overload>.
3261
3262=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3263
3264(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3265overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3266
6df41af2
GS
3267=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3268
be771a83
GS
3269(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3270package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3271some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3272mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3273
96ebfdd7
RK
3274=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3275
3276(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3277signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3278
a0d0e21e
LW
3279=item page overflow
3280
be771a83
GS
3281(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3282page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3283
6df41af2
GS
3284=item panic: %s
3285
3286(P) An internal error.
3287
c99a1475
NC
3288=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3289
3290(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3291an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3292platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3293enter this branch on this platform.
3294
a0d0e21e
LW
3295=item panic: ck_grep
3296
3297(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3298
3299=item panic: ck_split
3300
3301(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
3302
3303=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
3304
be771a83
GS
3305(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
3306there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 3307
810b8aa5
GS
3308=item panic: del_backref
3309
3310(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
3311reference.
3312
7619c85e
RG
3313=item panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
3314
3315(P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
3316last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called from
3317an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is
3318a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.
3319
a0d0e21e
LW
3320=item panic: die %s
3321
3322(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
3323it wasn't an eval context.
3324
a0d0e21e
LW
3325=item panic: do_subst
3326
be771a83
GS
3327(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
3328data.
a0d0e21e 3329
2269b42e 3330=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 3331
2269b42e 3332(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 3333data.
a0d0e21e 3334
b7f7fd0b
NC
3335=item panic: fold_constants JMPENV_PUSH returned %d
3336
10203f38 3337(P) While attempting folding constants an exception other than an C<eval>
b7f7fd0b
NC
3338failure was caught.
3339
c635e13b 3340=item panic: frexp
3341
3342(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
3343
a0d0e21e
LW
3344=item panic: goto
3345
3346(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
3347and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
3348
23976bdd
NC
3349=item panic: hfreeentries failed to free hash
3350
3351(P) The internal routine used to clear a hashes entries tried repeatedly,
3352but each time something added more entries to the hash. Most likely the hash
3353contains an object with a reference back to the hash and a destructor that
3354adds a new object to the hash.
3355
a0d0e21e
LW
3356=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
3357
3358(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
3359
3360=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
3361
3362(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
3363
e446cec8
IZ
3364=item panic: kid popen errno read
3365
3366(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
3367
a0d0e21e
LW
3368=item panic: last
3369
3370(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
3371it wasn't a block context.
3372
3373=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
3374
be771a83
GS
3375(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
3376scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
3377
3378=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
3379
3380(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
3381invalid enum on the top of it.
3382
810b8aa5
GS
3383=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
3384
3385(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
3386references to an object.
3387
6df41af2
GS
3388=item panic: malloc
3389
3390(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
3391
27d5b266
JH
3392=item panic: memory wrap
3393
3394(P) Something tried to allocate more memory than possible.
3395
a0d0e21e
LW
3396=item panic: pad_alloc
3397
3398(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3399and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3400
3401=item panic: pad_free curpad
3402
3403(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating