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Reduce false positives for @hsh{$s} and @ary[$s] warnings
[perl5.git] / ext / B / B / Concise.pm
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c99ca59a 1package B::Concise;
c27ea44e 2# Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Stephen McCamant. All rights reserved.
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3# This program is free software; you can redistribute and/or modify it
4# under the same terms as Perl itself.
5
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6# Note: we need to keep track of how many use declarations/BEGIN
7# blocks this module uses, so we can avoid printing them when user
8# asks for the BEGIN blocks in her program. Update the comments and
9# the count in concise_specials if you add or delete one. The
10# -MO=Concise counts as use #1.
78ad9108 11
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12use strict; # use #2
13use warnings; # uses #3 and #4, since warnings uses Carp
78ad9108 14
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15use Exporter (); # use #5
16
81f1be6b 17our $VERSION = "0.99";
78ad9108 18our @ISA = qw(Exporter);
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19our @EXPORT_OK = qw( set_style set_style_standard add_callback
20 concise_subref concise_cv concise_main
21 add_style walk_output compile reset_sequence );
22our %EXPORT_TAGS =
23 ( io => [qw( walk_output compile reset_sequence )],
24 style => [qw( add_style set_style_standard )],
25 cb => [qw( add_callback )],
26 mech => [qw( concise_subref concise_cv concise_main )], );
78ad9108 27
8ec8fbef 28# use #6
c99ca59a 29use B qw(class ppname main_start main_root main_cv cstring svref_2object
6a077020 30 SVf_IOK SVf_NOK SVf_POK SVf_IVisUV SVf_FAKE OPf_KIDS OPf_SPECIAL
4df7f6af 31 CVf_ANON PAD_FAKELEX_ANON PAD_FAKELEX_MULTI SVf_ROK);
c99ca59a 32
f95e3c3c 33my %style =
c99ca59a 34 ("terse" =>
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35 ["(?(#label =>\n)?)(*( )*)#class (#addr) #name (?([#targ])?) "
36 . "#svclass~(?((#svaddr))?)~#svval~(?(label \"#coplabel\")?)\n",
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37 "(*( )*)goto #class (#addr)\n",
38 "#class pp_#name"],
39 "concise" =>
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40 ["#hyphseq2 (*( (x( ;)x))*)<#classsym> #exname#arg(?([#targarglife])?)"
41 . "~#flags(?(/#private)?)(?(:#hints)?)(x(;~->#next)x)\n"
cc02ea56 42 , " (*( )*) goto #seq\n",
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43 "(?(<#seq>)?)#exname#arg(?([#targarglife])?)"],
44 "linenoise" =>
45 ["(x(;(*( )*))x)#noise#arg(?([#targarg])?)(x( ;\n)x)",
46 "gt_#seq ",
47 "(?(#seq)?)#noise#arg(?([#targarg])?)"],
48 "debug" =>
49 ["#class (#addr)\n\top_next\t\t#nextaddr\n\top_sibling\t#sibaddr\n\t"
35633035 50 . "op_ppaddr\tPL_ppaddr[OP_#NAME]\n\top_type\t\t#typenum\n"
d5ec2987 51 . "\top_flags\t#flagval\n\top_private\t#privval\t#hintsval\n"
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52 . "(?(\top_first\t#firstaddr\n)?)(?(\top_last\t\t#lastaddr\n)?)"
53 . "(?(\top_sv\t\t#svaddr\n)?)",
54 " GOTO #addr\n",
55 "#addr"],
56 "env" => [$ENV{B_CONCISE_FORMAT}, $ENV{B_CONCISE_GOTO_FORMAT},
57 $ENV{B_CONCISE_TREE_FORMAT}],
58 );
59
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60# Renderings, ie how Concise prints, is controlled by these vars
61# primary:
62our $stylename; # selects current style from %style
63my $order = "basic"; # how optree is walked & printed: basic, exec, tree
64
65# rendering mechanics:
66# these 'formats' are the line-rendering templates
67# they're updated from %style when $stylename changes
68my ($format, $gotofmt, $treefmt);
69
70# lesser players:
71my $base = 36; # how <sequence#> is displayed
72my $big_endian = 1; # more <sequence#> display
73my $tree_style = 0; # tree-order details
74my $banner = 1; # print banner before optree is traversed
cc02ea56 75my $do_main = 0; # force printing of main routine
f18deeb9 76my $show_src; # show source code
724aa791 77
cc02ea56 78# another factor: can affect all styles!
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79our @callbacks; # allow external management
80
81set_style_standard("concise");
82
c99ca59a 83my $curcv;
c27ea44e 84my $cop_seq_base;
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85
86sub set_style {
87 ($format, $gotofmt, $treefmt) = @_;
724aa791 88 #warn "set_style: deprecated, use set_style_standard instead\n"; # someday
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89 die "expecting 3 style-format args\n" unless @_ == 3;
90}
91
92sub add_style {
93 my ($newstyle,@args) = @_;
94 die "style '$newstyle' already exists, choose a new name\n"
95 if exists $style{$newstyle};
96 die "expecting 3 style-format args\n" unless @args == 3;
97 $style{$newstyle} = [@args];
724aa791 98 $stylename = $newstyle; # update rendering state
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99}
100
31b49ad4 101sub set_style_standard {
724aa791 102 ($stylename) = @_; # update rendering state
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103 die "err: style '$stylename' unknown\n" unless exists $style{$stylename};
104 set_style(@{$style{$stylename}});
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105}
106
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107sub add_callback {
108 push @callbacks, @_;
109}
c99ca59a 110
f95e3c3c 111# output handle, used with all Concise-output printing
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112our $walkHandle; # public for your convenience
113BEGIN { $walkHandle = \*STDOUT }
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114
115sub walk_output { # updates $walkHandle
116 my $handle = shift;
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117 return $walkHandle unless $handle; # allow use as accessor
118
f95e3c3c 119 if (ref $handle eq 'SCALAR') {
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120 require Config;
121 die "no perlio in this build, can't call walk_output (\\\$scalar)\n"
122 unless $Config::Config{useperlio};
f95e3c3c 123 # in 5.8+, open(FILEHANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE) writes to string
2ce64696 124 open my $tmp, '>', $handle; # but cant re-set existing STDOUT
f95e3c3c 125 $walkHandle = $tmp; # so use my $tmp as intermediate var
cc02ea56 126 return $walkHandle;
f95e3c3c 127 }
cc02ea56 128 my $iotype = ref $handle;
f95e3c3c 129 die "expecting argument/object that can print\n"
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130 unless $iotype eq 'GLOB' or $iotype and $handle->can('print');
131 $walkHandle = $handle;
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132}
133
8ec8fbef 134sub concise_subref {
c0939cee 135 my($order, $coderef, $name) = @_;
f95e3c3c 136 my $codeobj = svref_2object($coderef);
cc02ea56 137
c0939cee 138 return concise_stashref(@_)
35f75594 139 unless ref($codeobj) =~ '^B::(?:CV|FM)\z';
c0939cee 140 concise_cv_obj($order, $codeobj, $name);
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141}
142
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143sub concise_stashref {
144 my($order, $h) = @_;
6cc5d258 145 local *s;
cc02ea56 146 foreach my $k (sort keys %$h) {
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147 next unless defined $h->{$k};
148 *s = $h->{$k};
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149 my $coderef = *s{CODE} or next;
150 reset_sequence();
151 print "FUNC: ", *s, "\n";
152 my $codeobj = svref_2object($coderef);
153 next unless ref $codeobj eq 'B::CV';
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154 eval { concise_cv_obj($order, $codeobj, $k) };
155 warn "err $@ on $codeobj" if $@;
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156 }
157}
158
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159# This should have been called concise_subref, but it was exported
160# under this name in versions before 0.56
c0939cee 161*concise_cv = \&concise_subref;
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162
163sub concise_cv_obj {
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164 my ($order, $cv, $name) = @_;
165 # name is either a string, or a CODE ref (copy of $cv arg??)
166
c99ca59a 167 $curcv = $cv;
d51cf0c9 168
2018a5c3 169 if (ref($cv->XSUBANY) =~ /B::(\w+)/) {
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170 print $walkHandle "$name is a constant sub, optimized to a $1\n";
171 return;
172 }
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173 if ($cv->XSUB) {
174 print $walkHandle "$name is XS code\n";
175 return;
176 }
177 if (class($cv->START) eq "NULL") {
178 no strict 'refs';
179 if (ref $name eq 'CODE') {
180 print $walkHandle "coderef $name has no START\n";
181 }
182 elsif (exists &$name) {
e75702e9 183 print $walkHandle "$name exists in stash, but has no START\n";
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184 }
185 else {
186 print $walkHandle "$name not in symbol table\n";
187 }
188 return;
189 }
c27ea44e 190 sequence($cv->START);
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191 if ($order eq "exec") {
192 walk_exec($cv->START);
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193 }
194 elsif ($order eq "basic") {
195 # walk_topdown($cv->ROOT, sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
196 my $root = $cv->ROOT;
197 unless (ref $root eq 'B::NULL') {
198 walk_topdown($root, sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
199 } else {
200 print $walkHandle "B::NULL encountered doing ROOT on $cv. avoiding disaster\n";
201 }
c99ca59a 202 } else {
f95e3c3c 203 print $walkHandle tree($cv->ROOT, 0);
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204 }
205}
206
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207sub concise_main {
208 my($order) = @_;
209 sequence(main_start);
210 $curcv = main_cv;
211 if ($order eq "exec") {
212 return if class(main_start) eq "NULL";
213 walk_exec(main_start);
214 } elsif ($order eq "tree") {
215 return if class(main_root) eq "NULL";
f95e3c3c 216 print $walkHandle tree(main_root, 0);
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217 } elsif ($order eq "basic") {
218 return if class(main_root) eq "NULL";
219 walk_topdown(main_root,
220 sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
221 }
222}
223
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224sub concise_specials {
225 my($name, $order, @cv_s) = @_;
226 my $i = 1;
227 if ($name eq "BEGIN") {
c0939cee 228 splice(@cv_s, 0, 8); # skip 7 BEGIN blocks in this file. NOW 8 ??
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229 } elsif ($name eq "CHECK") {
230 pop @cv_s; # skip the CHECK block that calls us
231 }
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232 for my $cv (@cv_s) {
233 print $walkHandle "$name $i:\n";
8ec8fbef 234 $i++;
c0939cee 235 concise_cv_obj($order, $cv, $name);
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236 }
237}
238
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239my $start_sym = "\e(0"; # "\cN" sometimes also works
240my $end_sym = "\e(B"; # "\cO" respectively
241
f95e3c3c 242my @tree_decorations =
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243 ([" ", "--", "+-", "|-", "| ", "`-", "-", 1],
244 [" ", "-", "+", "+", "|", "`", "", 0],
245 [" ", map("$start_sym$_$end_sym", "qq", "wq", "tq", "x ", "mq", "q"), 1],
246 [" ", map("$start_sym$_$end_sym", "q", "w", "t", "x", "m"), "", 0],
247 );
78ad9108 248
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249my @render_packs; # collect -stash=<packages>
250
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251sub compileOpts {
252 # set rendering state from options and args
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253 my (@options,@args);
254 if (@_) {
255 @options = grep(/^-/, @_);
256 @args = grep(!/^-/, @_);
257 }
c99ca59a 258 for my $o (@options) {
cc02ea56 259 # mode/order
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260 if ($o eq "-basic") {
261 $order = "basic";
262 } elsif ($o eq "-exec") {
263 $order = "exec";
264 } elsif ($o eq "-tree") {
265 $order = "tree";
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266 }
267 # tree-specific
268 elsif ($o eq "-compact") {
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269 $tree_style |= 1;
270 } elsif ($o eq "-loose") {
271 $tree_style &= ~1;
272 } elsif ($o eq "-vt") {
273 $tree_style |= 2;
274 } elsif ($o eq "-ascii") {
275 $tree_style &= ~2;
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276 }
277 # sequence numbering
278 elsif ($o =~ /^-base(\d+)$/) {
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279 $base = $1;
280 } elsif ($o eq "-bigendian") {
281 $big_endian = 1;
282 } elsif ($o eq "-littleendian") {
283 $big_endian = 0;
cc02ea56 284 }
9e0f9750 285 # miscellaneous, presentation
cc02ea56 286 elsif ($o eq "-nobanner") {
724aa791 287 $banner = 0;
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288 } elsif ($o eq "-banner") {
289 $banner = 1;
290 }
291 elsif ($o eq "-main") {
292 $do_main = 1;
293 } elsif ($o eq "-nomain") {
294 $do_main = 0;
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295 } elsif ($o eq "-src") {
296 $show_src = 1;
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297 }
298 elsif ($o =~ /^-stash=(.*)/) {
299 my $pkg = $1;
300 no strict 'refs';
902fde96 301 if (! %{$pkg.'::'}) {
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302 eval "require $pkg";
303 } else {
304 require Config;
305 if (!$Config::Config{usedl}
306 && keys %{$pkg.'::'} == 1
307 && $pkg->can('bootstrap')) {
b7b1e41b 308 # It is something that we're statically linked to, but hasn't
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309 # yet been used.
310 eval "require $pkg";
311 }
312 }
9e0f9750 313 push @render_packs, $pkg;
724aa791 314 }
cc02ea56 315 # line-style options
724aa791 316 elsif (exists $style{substr($o, 1)}) {
f95e3c3c 317 $stylename = substr($o, 1);
724aa791 318 set_style_standard($stylename);
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319 } else {
320 warn "Option $o unrecognized";
321 }
322 }
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323 return (@args);
324}
325
326sub compile {
327 my (@args) = compileOpts(@_);
c27ea44e 328 return sub {
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329 my @newargs = compileOpts(@_); # accept new rendering options
330 warn "disregarding non-options: @newargs\n" if @newargs;
331
332 for my $objname (@args) {
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333 next unless $objname; # skip null args to avoid noisy responses
334
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335 if ($objname eq "BEGIN") {
336 concise_specials("BEGIN", $order,
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337 B::begin_av->isa("B::AV") ?
338 B::begin_av->ARRAY : ());
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339 } elsif ($objname eq "INIT") {
340 concise_specials("INIT", $order,
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341 B::init_av->isa("B::AV") ?
342 B::init_av->ARRAY : ());
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343 } elsif ($objname eq "CHECK") {
344 concise_specials("CHECK", $order,
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345 B::check_av->isa("B::AV") ?
346 B::check_av->ARRAY : ());
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347 } elsif ($objname eq "UNITCHECK") {
348 concise_specials("UNITCHECK", $order,
349 B::unitcheck_av->isa("B::AV") ?
350 B::unitcheck_av->ARRAY : ());
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351 } elsif ($objname eq "END") {
352 concise_specials("END", $order,
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353 B::end_av->isa("B::AV") ?
354 B::end_av->ARRAY : ());
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355 }
356 else {
357 # convert function names to subrefs
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358 if (ref $objname) {
359 print $walkHandle "B::Concise::compile($objname)\n"
360 if $banner;
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361 concise_subref($order, ($objname)x2);
362 next;
8ec8fbef 363 } else {
cc02ea56 364 $objname = "main::" . $objname unless $objname =~ /::/;
cc02ea56 365 no strict 'refs';
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366 my $glob = \*$objname;
367 unless (*$glob{CODE} || *$glob{FORMAT}) {
368 print $walkHandle "$objname:\n" if $banner;
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369 print $walkHandle "err: unknown function ($objname)\n";
370 return;
371 }
35f75594
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372 if (my $objref = *$glob{CODE}) {
373 print $walkHandle "$objname:\n" if $banner;
374 concise_subref($order, $objref, $objname);
375 }
376 if (my $objref = *$glob{FORMAT}) {
377 print $walkHandle "$objname (FORMAT):\n"
378 if $banner;
379 concise_subref($order, $objref, $objname);
380 }
8ec8fbef 381 }
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382 }
383 }
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384 for my $pkg (@render_packs) {
385 no strict 'refs';
386 concise_stashref($order, \%{$pkg.'::'});
387 }
388
389 if (!@args or $do_main or @render_packs) {
f95e3c3c 390 print $walkHandle "main program:\n" if $do_main;
31b49ad4 391 concise_main($order);
c99ca59a 392 }
cc02ea56 393 return @args; # something
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394 }
395}
396
397my %labels;
724aa791 398my $lastnext; # remembers op-chain, used to insert gotos
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399
400my %opclass = ('OP' => "0", 'UNOP' => "1", 'BINOP' => "2", 'LOGOP' => "|",
401 'LISTOP' => "@", 'PMOP' => "/", 'SVOP' => "\$", 'GVOP' => "*",
051f02e9 402 'PVOP' => '"', 'LOOP' => "{", 'COP' => ";", 'PADOP' => "#");
c99ca59a 403
8ec8fbef 404no warnings 'qw'; # "Possible attempt to put comments..."; use #7
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405my @linenoise =
406 qw'# () sc ( @? 1 $* gv *{ m$ m@ m% m? p/ *$ $ $# & a& pt \\ s\\ rf bl
c99ca59a
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407 ` *? <> ?? ?/ r/ c/ // qr s/ /c y/ = @= C sC Cp sp df un BM po +1 +I
408 -1 -I 1+ I+ 1- I- ** * i* / i/ %$ i% x + i+ - i- . " << >> < i<
409 > i> <= i, >= i. == i= != i! <? i? s< s> s, s. s= s! s? b& b^ b| -0 -i
410 ! ~ a2 si cs rd sr e^ lg sq in %x %o ab le ss ve ix ri sf FL od ch cy
411 uf lf uc lc qm @ [f [ @[ eh vl ky dl ex % ${ @{ uk pk st jn ) )[ a@
412 a% sl +] -] [- [+ so rv GS GW MS MW .. f. .f && || ^^ ?: &= |= -> s{ s}
413 v} ca wa di rs ;; ; ;d }{ { } {} f{ it {l l} rt }l }n }r dm }g }e ^o
414 ^c ^| ^# um bm t~ u~ ~d DB db ^s se ^g ^r {w }w pf pr ^O ^K ^R ^W ^d ^v
415 ^e ^t ^k t. fc ic fl .s .p .b .c .l .a .h g1 s1 g2 s2 ?. l? -R -W -X -r
416 -w -x -e -o -O -z -s -M -A -C -S -c -b -f -d -p -l -u -g -k -t -T -B cd
417 co cr u. cm ut r. l@ s@ r@ mD uD oD rD tD sD wD cD f$ w$ p$ sh e$ k$ g3
418 g4 s4 g5 s5 T@ C@ L@ G@ A@ S@ Hg Hc Hr Hw Mg Mc Ms Mr Sg Sc So rq do {e
419 e} {t t} g6 G6 6e g7 G7 7e g8 G8 8e g9 G9 9e 6s 7s 8s 9s 6E 7E 8E 9E Pn
c27ea44e 420 Pu GP SP EP Gn Gg GG SG EG g0 c$ lk t$ ;s n> // /= CO';
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421
422my $chars = "0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
423
19e169bf 424sub op_flags { # common flags (see BASOP.op_flags in op.h)
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425 my($x) = @_;
426 my(@v);
427 push @v, "v" if ($x & 3) == 1;
428 push @v, "s" if ($x & 3) == 2;
429 push @v, "l" if ($x & 3) == 3;
430 push @v, "K" if $x & 4;
431 push @v, "P" if $x & 8;
432 push @v, "R" if $x & 16;
433 push @v, "M" if $x & 32;
434 push @v, "S" if $x & 64;
435 push @v, "*" if $x & 128;
436 return join("", @v);
437}
438
439sub base_n {
440 my $x = shift;
441 return "-" . base_n(-$x) if $x < 0;
442 my $str = "";
443 do { $str .= substr($chars, $x % $base, 1) } while $x = int($x / $base);
444 $str = reverse $str if $big_endian;
445 return $str;
446}
447
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448my %sequence_num;
449my $seq_max = 1;
450
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451sub reset_sequence {
452 # reset the sequence
453 %sequence_num = ();
454 $seq_max = 1;
cc02ea56 455 $lastnext = 0;
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456}
457
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458sub seq {
459 my($op) = @_;
460 return "-" if not exists $sequence_num{$$op};
461 return base_n($sequence_num{$$op});
462}
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463
464sub walk_topdown {
465 my($op, $sub, $level) = @_;
466 $sub->($op, $level);
467 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
468 for (my $kid = $op->first; $$kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
469 walk_topdown($kid, $sub, $level + 1);
470 }
471 }
98517ccb 472 if (class($op) eq "PMOP") {
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473 my $maybe_root = $op->pmreplroot;
474 if (ref($maybe_root) and $maybe_root->isa("B::OP")) {
475 # It really is the root of the replacement, not something
476 # else stored here for lack of space elsewhere
477 walk_topdown($maybe_root, $sub, $level + 1);
478 }
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479 }
480}
481
482sub walklines {
483 my($ar, $level) = @_;
484 for my $l (@$ar) {
485 if (ref($l) eq "ARRAY") {
486 walklines($l, $level + 1);
487 } else {
488 $l->concise($level);
489 }
490 }
491}
492
493sub walk_exec {
494 my($top, $level) = @_;
495 my %opsseen;
496 my @lines;
497 my @todo = ([$top, \@lines]);
498 while (@todo and my($op, $targ) = @{shift @todo}) {
499 for (; $$op; $op = $op->next) {
500 last if $opsseen{$$op}++;
501 push @$targ, $op;
502 my $name = $op->name;
62e36f8a 503 if (class($op) eq "LOGOP") {
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504 my $ar = [];
505 push @$targ, $ar;
506 push @todo, [$op->other, $ar];
507 } elsif ($name eq "subst" and $ {$op->pmreplstart}) {
508 my $ar = [];
509 push @$targ, $ar;
510 push @todo, [$op->pmreplstart, $ar];
511 } elsif ($name =~ /^enter(loop|iter)$/) {
35633035
DM
512 $labels{${$op->nextop}} = "NEXT";
513 $labels{${$op->lastop}} = "LAST";
514 $labels{${$op->redoop}} = "REDO";
c99ca59a
SM
515 }
516 }
517 }
518 walklines(\@lines, 0);
519}
520
c27ea44e
SM
521# The structure of this routine is purposely modeled after op.c's peep()
522sub sequence {
523 my($op) = @_;
524 my $oldop = 0;
525 return if class($op) eq "NULL" or exists $sequence_num{$$op};
526 for (; $$op; $op = $op->next) {
527 last if exists $sequence_num{$$op};
528 my $name = $op->name;
529 if ($name =~ /^(null|scalar|lineseq|scope)$/) {
530 next if $oldop and $ {$op->next};
531 } else {
532 $sequence_num{$$op} = $seq_max++;
533 if (class($op) eq "LOGOP") {
534 my $other = $op->other;
535 $other = $other->next while $other->name eq "null";
536 sequence($other);
537 } elsif (class($op) eq "LOOP") {
538 my $redoop = $op->redoop;
539 $redoop = $redoop->next while $redoop->name eq "null";
540 sequence($redoop);
541 my $nextop = $op->nextop;
542 $nextop = $nextop->next while $nextop->name eq "null";
543 sequence($nextop);
544 my $lastop = $op->lastop;
545 $lastop = $lastop->next while $lastop->name eq "null";
546 sequence($lastop);
547 } elsif ($name eq "subst" and $ {$op->pmreplstart}) {
548 my $replstart = $op->pmreplstart;
549 $replstart = $replstart->next while $replstart->name eq "null";
550 sequence($replstart);
551 }
552 }
553 $oldop = $op;
554 }
555}
556
724aa791 557sub fmt_line { # generate text-line for op.
cc02ea56
JC
558 my($hr, $op, $text, $level) = @_;
559
560 $_->($hr, $op, \$text, \$level, $stylename) for @callbacks;
561
724aa791 562 return '' if $hr->{SKIP}; # suppress line if a callback said so
cc02ea56 563 return '' if $hr->{goto} and $hr->{goto} eq '-'; # no goto nowhere
f95e3c3c 564
cc02ea56 565 # spec: (?(text1#varText2)?)
c99ca59a 566 $text =~ s/\(\?\(([^\#]*?)\#(\w+)([^\#]*?)\)\?\)/
f95e3c3c
JC
567 $hr->{$2} ? $1.$hr->{$2}.$3 : ""/eg;
568
cc02ea56 569 # spec: (x(exec_text;basic_text)x)
c99ca59a 570 $text =~ s/\(x\((.*?);(.*?)\)x\)/$order eq "exec" ? $1 : $2/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
571
572 # spec: (*(text)*)
c99ca59a 573 $text =~ s/\(\*\(([^;]*?)\)\*\)/$1 x $level/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
574
575 # spec: (*(text1;text2)*)
c99ca59a 576 $text =~ s/\(\*\((.*?);(.*?)\)\*\)/$1 x ($level - 1) . $2 x ($level>0)/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
577
578 # convert #Var to tag=>val form: Var\t#var
579 $text =~ s/\#([A-Z][a-z]+)(\d+)?/\t\u$1\t\L#$1$2/gs;
580
581 # spec: #varN
724aa791
JC
582 $text =~ s/\#([a-zA-Z]+)(\d+)/sprintf("%-$2s", $hr->{$1})/eg;
583
cc02ea56
JC
584 $text =~ s/\#([a-zA-Z]+)/$hr->{$1}/eg; # populate #var's
585 $text =~ s/[ \t]*~+[ \t]*/ /g; # squeeze tildes
f18deeb9
JC
586
587 $text = "# $hr->{src}\n$text" if $show_src and $hr->{src};
588
f95e3c3c 589 chomp $text;
efef081e 590 return "$text\n" if $text ne "" and $order ne "tree";
f95e3c3c 591 return $text; # suppress empty lines
c99ca59a
SM
592}
593
19e169bf
JC
594our %priv; # used to display each opcode's BASEOP.op_private values
595
c99ca59a 596$priv{$_}{128} = "LVINTRO"
8c1a7e35
DIM
597 for qw(pos substr vec threadsv gvsv rv2sv rv2hv rv2gv rv2av rv2arylen
598 aelem helem aslice hslice padsv padav padhv enteriter entersub
599 padrange pushmark);
600$priv{$_}{64} = "REFC" for qw(leave leavesub leavesublv leavewrite);
601@{$priv{aassign}}{32,64} = qw(STATE COMMON);
602@{$priv{sassign}}{32,64,128} = qw(STATE BKWARD CV2GV);
603$priv{$_}{64} = "RTIME" for qw(match subst substcont qr);
604@{$priv{$_}}{1,2,4,8,16,64} = qw(<UTF >UTF IDENT SQUASH DEL COMPL GROWS)
605 for qw(trans transr);
606$priv{repeat}{64} = "DOLIST";
607$priv{leaveloop}{64} = "CONT";
608$priv{$_}{4} = "DREFed" for qw(rv2sv rv2av rv2hv);
609@{$priv{$_}}{32,64,96} = qw(DREFAV DREFHV DREFSV)
610 for qw(rv2gv rv2sv padsv aelem helem);
611$priv{$_}{16} = "STATE" for qw(padav padhv padsv);
612@{$priv{rv2gv}}{4,16} = qw(NOINIT FAKE);
613@{$priv{entersub}}{1,4,16,32,64} = qw(INARGS TARG DBG DEREF);
614@{$priv{rv2cv}}{1,8,128} = qw(CONST AMPER NO());
615$priv{gv}{32} = "EARLYCV";
616$priv{$_}{16} = "LVDEFER" for qw(aelem helem);
617$priv{$_}{16} = "OURINTR" for qw(gvsv rv2sv rv2av rv2hv r2gv enteriter);
618$priv{$_}{8} = "LVSUB"
619 for qw(rv2av rv2gv rv2hv padav padhv aelem helem aslice hslice
620 av2arylen keys rkeys substr pos vec);
95a31aad 621$priv{$_}{4} = "SLICEWARN"
429a2555 622 for qw(rv2hv rv2av kvhslice kvaslice padav padhv hslice aslice);
8c1a7e35
DIM
623@{$priv{$_}}{32,64} = qw(BOOL BOOL?) for qw(rv2hv padhv);
624$priv{substr}{16} = "REPL1ST";
c99ca59a 625$priv{$_}{16} = "TARGMY"
8c1a7e35
DIM
626 for map(($_,"s$_"), qw(chop chomp)),
627 map(($_,"i_$_"), qw(postinc postdec multiply divide modulo add
628 subtract negate)),
629 qw(pow concat stringify left_shift right_shift bit_and bit_xor
630 bit_or complement atan2 sin cos rand exp log sqrt int hex oct
631 abs length index rindex sprintf ord chr crypt quotemeta join
632 push unshift flock chdir chown chroot unlink chmod utime rename
633 link symlink mkdir rmdir wait waitpid system exec kill getppid
634 getpgrp setpgrp getpriority setpriority time sleep);
635$priv{$_}{4} = "REVERSED" for qw(enteriter iter);
636@{$priv{const}}{2,4,8,16,64,128} = qw(NOVER SHORT STRICT ENTERED BARE FOLD);
637$priv{$_}{64} = "LINENUM" for qw(flip flop);
638$priv{list}{64} = "GUESSED";
639$priv{delete}{64} = "SLICE";
640$priv{exists}{64} = "SUB";
641@{$priv{sort}}{1,2,4,8,16,32,64} = qw(NUM INT REV INPLACE DESC QSORT STABLE);
642$priv{reverse}{8} = "INPLACE";
643$priv{threadsv}{64} = "SVREFd";
644@{$priv{$_}}{16,32,64,128} = qw(INBIN INCR OUTBIN OUTCR)
645 for qw(open backtick);
646$priv{exit}{128} = "VMS";
feaeca78 647$priv{$_}{2} = "FTACCESS"
8c1a7e35
DIM
648 for qw(ftrread ftrwrite ftrexec fteread ftewrite fteexec);
649@{$priv{entereval}}{2,4,8,16} = qw(HAS_HH UNI BYTES COPHH);
650@{$priv{$_}}{4,8,16} = qw(FTSTACKED FTSTACKING FTAFTERt)
651 for qw(ftrread ftrwrite ftrexec fteread ftewrite fteexec ftis fteowned
652 ftrowned ftzero ftsize ftmtime ftatime ftctime ftsock ftchr
653 ftblk ftfile ftdir ftpipe ftlink ftsuid ftsgid ftsvtx fttty
654 fttext ftbinary);
35633035 655$priv{$_}{2} = "GREPLEX"
8c1a7e35
DIM
656 for qw(mapwhile mapstart grepwhile grepstart);
657$priv{$_}{128} = "+1" for qw(caller wantarray runcv);
658@{$priv{coreargs}}{1,2,64,128} = qw(DREF1 DREF2 $MOD MARK);
659$priv{$_}{128} = "UTF" for qw(last redo next goto dump);
660$priv{split}{128} = "IMPLIM";
c99ca59a 661
d5ec2987
NC
662our %hints; # used to display each COP's op_hints values
663
664# strict refs, subs, vars
894ea76b 665@hints{2,512,1024,32,64,128} = ('$', '&', '*', 'x$', 'x&', 'x*');
e1dccc0d
Z
666# integers, locale, bytes
667@hints{1,4,8,16} = ('i', 'l', 'b');
8b850bd5
NC
668# block scope, localise %^H, $^OPEN (in), $^OPEN (out)
669@hints{256,131072,262144,524288} = ('{','%','<','>');
d5ec2987
NC
670# overload new integer, float, binary, string, re
671@hints{4096,8192,16384,32768,65536} = ('I', 'F', 'B', 'S', 'R');
672# taint and eval
673@hints{1048576,2097152} = ('T', 'E');
584420f0
RGS
674# filetest access, UTF-8
675@hints{4194304,8388608} = ('X', 'U');
d5ec2987
NC
676
677sub _flags {
678 my($hash, $x) = @_;
c99ca59a 679 my @s;
d5ec2987
NC
680 for my $flag (sort {$b <=> $a} keys %$hash) {
681 if ($hash->{$flag} and $x & $flag and $x >= $flag) {
c99ca59a 682 $x -= $flag;
d5ec2987 683 push @s, $hash->{$flag};
c99ca59a
SM
684 }
685 }
686 push @s, $x if $x;
687 return join(",", @s);
688}
689
d5ec2987
NC
690sub private_flags {
691 my($name, $x) = @_;
692 _flags($priv{$name}, $x);
693}
694
695sub hints_flags {
696 my($x) = @_;
697 _flags(\%hints, $x);
698}
699
c27ea44e 700sub concise_sv {
2db5ca0a 701 my($sv, $hr, $preferpv) = @_;
c27ea44e 702 $hr->{svclass} = class($sv);
31b49ad4
SM
703 $hr->{svclass} = "UV"
704 if $hr->{svclass} eq "IV" and $sv->FLAGS & SVf_IVisUV;
5b493bdf 705 Carp::cluck("bad concise_sv: $sv") unless $sv and $$sv;
c27ea44e 706 $hr->{svaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $$sv);
50786ba8 707 if ($hr->{svclass} eq "GV" && $sv->isGV_with_GP()) {
c27ea44e 708 my $gv = $sv;
7b696247
FC
709 my $stash = $gv->STASH;
710 if (class($stash) eq "SPECIAL") {
711 $stash = "<none>";
712 }
713 else {
714 $stash = $stash->NAME;
715 }
716 if ($stash eq "main") {
c27ea44e
SM
717 $stash = "";
718 } else {
719 $stash = $stash . "::";
720 }
721 $hr->{svval} = "*$stash" . $gv->SAFENAME;
722 return "*$stash" . $gv->SAFENAME;
723 } else {
4df7f6af
NC
724 if ($] >= 5.011) {
725 while (class($sv) eq "IV" && $sv->FLAGS & SVf_ROK) {
726 $hr->{svval} .= "\\";
727 $sv = $sv->RV;
728 }
729 } else {
730 while (class($sv) eq "RV") {
731 $hr->{svval} .= "\\";
732 $sv = $sv->RV;
733 }
c27ea44e
SM
734 }
735 if (class($sv) eq "SPECIAL") {
40b5b14f 736 $hr->{svval} .= ["Null", "sv_undef", "sv_yes", "sv_no"]->[$$sv];
8d919b0a
FC
737 } elsif ($preferpv
738 && ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK || class($sv) eq "REGEXP")) {
2db5ca0a 739 $hr->{svval} .= cstring($sv->PV);
c27ea44e 740 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_NOK) {
40b5b14f 741 $hr->{svval} .= $sv->NV;
c27ea44e 742 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_IOK) {
31b49ad4 743 $hr->{svval} .= $sv->int_value;
8d919b0a 744 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK || class($sv) eq "REGEXP") {
40b5b14f 745 $hr->{svval} .= cstring($sv->PV);
31b49ad4
SM
746 } elsif (class($sv) eq "HV") {
747 $hr->{svval} .= 'HASH';
c27ea44e 748 }
cc02ea56
JC
749
750 $hr->{svval} = 'undef' unless defined $hr->{svval};
751 my $out = $hr->{svclass};
752 return $out .= " $hr->{svval}" ;
c27ea44e
SM
753 }
754}
755
f18deeb9
JC
756my %srclines;
757
758sub fill_srclines {
9e0f9750
JC
759 my $fullnm = shift;
760 if ($fullnm eq '-e') {
761 $srclines{$fullnm} = [ $fullnm, "-src not supported for -e" ];
762 return;
6cc5d258 763 }
9e0f9750 764 open (my $fh, '<', $fullnm)
6cc5d258 765 or warn "# $fullnm: $!, (chdirs not supported by this feature yet)\n"
f18deeb9
JC
766 and return;
767 my @l = <$fh>;
768 chomp @l;
9e0f9750
JC
769 unshift @l, $fullnm; # like @{_<$fullnm} in debug, array starts at 1
770 $srclines{$fullnm} = \@l;
f18deeb9
JC
771}
772
c99ca59a
SM
773sub concise_op {
774 my ($op, $level, $format) = @_;
775 my %h;
776 $h{exname} = $h{name} = $op->name;
777 $h{NAME} = uc $h{name};
778 $h{class} = class($op);
779 $h{extarg} = $h{targ} = $op->targ;
780 $h{extarg} = "" unless $h{extarg};
781 if ($h{name} eq "null" and $h{targ}) {
8ec8fbef 782 # targ holds the old type
c99ca59a
SM
783 $h{exname} = "ex-" . substr(ppname($h{targ}), 3);
784 $h{extarg} = "";
8ec8fbef
SM
785 } elsif ($op->name =~ /^leave(sub(lv)?|write)?$/) {
786 # targ potentially holds a reference count
787 if ($op->private & 64) {
788 my $refs = "ref" . ($h{targ} != 1 ? "s" : "");
789 $h{targarglife} = $h{targarg} = "$h{targ} $refs";
790 }
c99ca59a 791 } elsif ($h{targ}) {
a7fd8ef6
DM
792 my $count = $h{name} eq 'padrange' ? ($op->private & 127) : 1;
793 my (@targarg, @targarglife);
794 for my $i (0..$count-1) {
795 my ($targarg, $targarglife);
796 my $padname = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[0]->ARRAY)[$h{targ}+$i];
797 if (defined $padname and class($padname) ne "SPECIAL") {
798 $targarg = $padname->PVX;
799 if ($padname->FLAGS & SVf_FAKE) {
800 # These changes relate to the jumbo closure fix.
801 # See changes 19939 and 20005
802 my $fake = '';
803 $fake .= 'a'
804 if $padname->PARENT_FAKELEX_FLAGS & PAD_FAKELEX_ANON;
805 $fake .= 'm'
806 if $padname->PARENT_FAKELEX_FLAGS & PAD_FAKELEX_MULTI;
807 $fake .= ':' . $padname->PARENT_PAD_INDEX
808 if $curcv->CvFLAGS & CVf_ANON;
809 $targarglife = "$targarg:FAKE:$fake";
810 }
811 else {
812 my $intro = $padname->COP_SEQ_RANGE_LOW - $cop_seq_base;
813 my $finish = int($padname->COP_SEQ_RANGE_HIGH) - $cop_seq_base;
814 $finish = "end" if $finish == 999999999 - $cop_seq_base;
815 $targarglife = "$targarg:$intro,$finish";
816 }
817 } else {
818 $targarglife = $targarg = "t" . ($h{targ}+$i);
127212b2 819 }
a7fd8ef6
DM
820 push @targarg, $targarg;
821 push @targarglife, $targarglife;
c99ca59a 822 }
a7fd8ef6
DM
823 $h{targarg} = join '; ', @targarg;
824 $h{targarglife} = join '; ', @targarglife;
c99ca59a
SM
825 }
826 $h{arg} = "";
827 $h{svclass} = $h{svaddr} = $h{svval} = "";
828 if ($h{class} eq "PMOP") {
2721a2ca 829 my $extra = '';
c99ca59a 830 my $precomp = $op->precomp;
7a9b44b9 831 if (defined $precomp) {
c27ea44e
SM
832 $precomp = cstring($precomp); # Escape literal control sequences
833 $precomp = "/$precomp/";
834 } else {
835 $precomp = "";
7a9b44b9 836 }
2721a2ca
DM
837 if ($op->name eq 'subst') {
838 if (class($op->pmreplstart) ne "NULL") {
839 undef $lastnext;
840 $extra = " replstart->" . seq($op->pmreplstart);
841 }
842 }
843 elsif ($op->name eq 'pushre') {
b2a3cfdd 844 # with C<@stash_array = split(/pat/, str);>,
c6e79e55 845 # *stash_array is stored in /pat/'s pmreplroot.
2721a2ca
DM
846 my $gv = $op->pmreplroot;
847 if (!ref($gv)) {
848 # threaded: the value is actually a pad offset for where
849 # the GV is kept (op_pmtargetoff)
850 if ($gv) {
851 $gv = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$gv]->NAME;
852 }
853 }
854 else {
855 # unthreaded: its a GV (if it exists)
856 $gv = (ref($gv) eq "B::GV") ? $gv->NAME : undef;
857 }
858 $extra = " => \@$gv" if $gv;
c99ca59a 859 }
2721a2ca 860 $h{arg} = "($precomp$extra)";
bb16bae8 861 } elsif ($h{class} eq "PVOP" and $h{name} !~ '^transr?\z') {
c99ca59a
SM
862 $h{arg} = '("' . $op->pv . '")';
863 $h{svval} = '"' . $op->pv . '"';
864 } elsif ($h{class} eq "COP") {
865 my $label = $op->label;
c3caa09d 866 $h{coplabel} = $label;
c99ca59a
SM
867 $label = $label ? "$label: " : "";
868 my $loc = $op->file;
9e0f9750 869 my $pathnm = $loc;
c99ca59a 870 $loc =~ s[.*/][];
9e0f9750
JC
871 my $ln = $op->line;
872 $loc .= ":$ln";
c99ca59a 873 my($stash, $cseq) = ($op->stash->NAME, $op->cop_seq - $cop_seq_base);
e1dccc0d 874 $h{arg} = "($label$stash $cseq $loc)";
f18deeb9 875 if ($show_src) {
9e0f9750 876 fill_srclines($pathnm) unless exists $srclines{$pathnm};
e9c69003
NC
877 # Would love to retain Jim's use of // but this code needs to be
878 # portable to 5.8.x
879 my $line = $srclines{$pathnm}[$ln];
880 $line = "-src unavailable under -e" unless defined $line;
881 $h{src} = "$ln: $line";
f18deeb9 882 }
c99ca59a
SM
883 } elsif ($h{class} eq "LOOP") {
884 $h{arg} = "(next->" . seq($op->nextop) . " last->" . seq($op->lastop)
885 . " redo->" . seq($op->redoop) . ")";
886 } elsif ($h{class} eq "LOGOP") {
887 undef $lastnext;
888 $h{arg} = "(other->" . seq($op->other) . ")";
5b493bdf
JC
889 }
890 elsif ($h{class} eq "SVOP" or $h{class} eq "PADOP") {
6a077020 891 unless ($h{name} eq 'aelemfast' and $op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
5b493bdf 892 my $idx = ($h{class} eq "SVOP") ? $op->targ : $op->padix;
2db5ca0a 893 my $preferpv = $h{name} eq "method_named";
5b493bdf
JC
894 if ($h{class} eq "PADOP" or !${$op->sv}) {
895 my $sv = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$idx];
2db5ca0a 896 $h{arg} = "[" . concise_sv($sv, \%h, $preferpv) . "]";
6a077020
DM
897 $h{targarglife} = $h{targarg} = "";
898 } else {
2db5ca0a 899 $h{arg} = "(" . concise_sv($op->sv, \%h, $preferpv) . ")";
6a077020 900 }
c99ca59a
SM
901 }
902 }
903 $h{seq} = $h{hyphseq} = seq($op);
904 $h{seq} = "" if $h{seq} eq "-";
35633035
DM
905 $h{opt} = $op->opt;
906 $h{label} = $labels{$$op};
c99ca59a
SM
907 $h{next} = $op->next;
908 $h{next} = (class($h{next}) eq "NULL") ? "(end)" : seq($h{next});
909 $h{nextaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->next});
910 $h{sibaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->sibling});
911 $h{firstaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->first}) if $op->can("first");
912 $h{lastaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->last}) if $op->can("last");
913
914 $h{classsym} = $opclass{$h{class}};
915 $h{flagval} = $op->flags;
916 $h{flags} = op_flags($op->flags);
917 $h{privval} = $op->private;
918 $h{private} = private_flags($h{name}, $op->private);
d5ec2987
NC
919 if ($op->can("hints")) {
920 $h{hintsval} = $op->hints;
921 $h{hints} = hints_flags($h{hintsval});
922 } else {
923 $h{hintsval} = $h{hints} = '';
924 }
c99ca59a 925 $h{addr} = sprintf("%#x", $$op);
c99ca59a
SM
926 $h{typenum} = $op->type;
927 $h{noise} = $linenoise[$op->type];
f95e3c3c 928
cc02ea56 929 return fmt_line(\%h, $op, $format, $level);
c99ca59a
SM
930}
931
932sub B::OP::concise {
933 my($op, $level) = @_;
934 if ($order eq "exec" and $lastnext and $$lastnext != $$op) {
724aa791 935 # insert a 'goto' line
cc02ea56
JC
936 my $synth = {"seq" => seq($lastnext), "class" => class($lastnext),
937 "addr" => sprintf("%#x", $$lastnext),
938 "goto" => seq($lastnext), # simplify goto '-' removal
939 };
940 print $walkHandle fmt_line($synth, $op, $gotofmt, $level+1);
c99ca59a
SM
941 }
942 $lastnext = $op->next;
f95e3c3c 943 print $walkHandle concise_op($op, $level, $format);
c99ca59a
SM
944}
945
31b49ad4
SM
946# B::OP::terse (see Terse.pm) now just calls this
947sub b_terse {
948 my($op, $level) = @_;
949
950 # This isn't necessarily right, but there's no easy way to get
951 # from an OP to the right CV. This is a limitation of the
952 # ->terse() interface style, and there isn't much to do about
953 # it. In particular, we can die in concise_op if the main pad
954 # isn't long enough, or has the wrong kind of entries, compared to
955 # the pad a sub was compiled with. The fix for that would be to
956 # make a backwards compatible "terse" format that never even
957 # looked at the pad, just like the old B::Terse. I don't think
958 # that's worth the effort, though.
959 $curcv = main_cv unless $curcv;
960
961 if ($order eq "exec" and $lastnext and $$lastnext != $$op) {
724aa791 962 # insert a 'goto'
31b49ad4
SM
963 my $h = {"seq" => seq($lastnext), "class" => class($lastnext),
964 "addr" => sprintf("%#x", $$lastnext)};
cc02ea56
JC
965 print # $walkHandle
966 fmt_line($h, $op, $style{"terse"}[1], $level+1);
31b49ad4
SM
967 }
968 $lastnext = $op->next;
cc02ea56
JC
969 print # $walkHandle
970 concise_op($op, $level, $style{"terse"}[0]);
31b49ad4
SM
971}
972
c99ca59a
SM
973sub tree {
974 my $op = shift;
975 my $level = shift;
976 my $style = $tree_decorations[$tree_style];
977 my($space, $single, $kids, $kid, $nokid, $last, $lead, $size) = @$style;
978 my $name = concise_op($op, $level, $treefmt);
979 if (not $op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
980 return $name . "\n";
981 }
982 my @lines;
983 for (my $kid = $op->first; $$kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
984 push @lines, tree($kid, $level+1);
985 }
986 my $i;
987 for ($i = $#lines; substr($lines[$i], 0, 1) eq " "; $i--) {
988 $lines[$i] = $space . $lines[$i];
989 }
990 if ($i > 0) {
991 $lines[$i] = $last . $lines[$i];
992 while ($i-- > 1) {
993 if (substr($lines[$i], 0, 1) eq " ") {
994 $lines[$i] = $nokid . $lines[$i];
995 } else {
f95e3c3c 996 $lines[$i] = $kid . $lines[$i];
c99ca59a
SM
997 }
998 }
999 $lines[$i] = $kids . $lines[$i];
1000 } else {
1001 $lines[0] = $single . $lines[0];
1002 }
1003 return("$name$lead" . shift @lines,
1004 map(" " x (length($name)+$size) . $_, @lines));
1005}
1006
213a1a26
SM
1007# *** Warning: fragile kludge ahead ***
1008# Because the B::* modules run in the same interpreter as the code
2814eb74
PJ
1009# they're compiling, their presence tends to distort the view we have of
1010# the code we're looking at. In particular, perl gives sequence numbers
1011# to COPs. If the program we're looking at were run on its own, this
1012# would start at 1. Because all of B::Concise and all the modules it
1013# uses are compiled first, though, by the time we get to the user's
1014# program the sequence number is already pretty high, which could be
1015# distracting if you're trying to tell OPs apart. Therefore we'd like to
1016# subtract an offset from all the sequence numbers we display, to
1017# restore the simpler view of the world. The trick is to know what that
1018# offset will be, when we're still compiling B::Concise! If we
213a1a26 1019# hardcoded a value, it would have to change every time B::Concise or
2814eb74
PJ
1020# other modules we use do. To help a little, what we do here is compile
1021# a little code at the end of the module, and compute the base sequence
1022# number for the user's program as being a small offset later, so all we
1023# have to worry about are changes in the offset.
7252851f
NC
1024
1025# [For 5.8.x and earlier perl is generating sequence numbers for all ops,
1026# and using them to reference labels]
1027
1028
213a1a26
SM
1029# When you say "perl -MO=Concise -e '$a'", the output should look like:
1030
1031# 4 <@> leave[t1] vKP/REFC ->(end)
1032# 1 <0> enter ->2
1033 #^ smallest OP sequence number should be 1
1034# 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v ->3
1035 # ^ smallest COP sequence number should be 1
1036# - <1> ex-rv2sv vK/1 ->4
1037# 3 <$> gvsv(*a) s ->4
1038
c27ea44e
SM
1039# If the second of the marked numbers there isn't 1, it means you need
1040# to update the corresponding magic number in the next line.
1041# Remember, this needs to stay the last things in the module.
e69a2255 1042
c27ea44e 1043# Why is this different for MacOS? Does it matter?
8ec8fbef 1044my $cop_seq_mnum = $^O eq 'MacOS' ? 12 : 11;
e69a2255 1045$cop_seq_base = svref_2object(eval 'sub{0;}')->START->cop_seq + $cop_seq_mnum;
c99ca59a
SM
1046
10471;
1048
1049__END__
1050
1051=head1 NAME
1052
1053B::Concise - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops
1054
1055=head1 SYNOPSIS
1056
1057 perl -MO=Concise[,OPTIONS] foo.pl
1058
78ad9108
PJ
1059 use B::Concise qw(set_style add_callback);
1060
c99ca59a
SM
1061=head1 DESCRIPTION
1062
1063This compiler backend prints the internal OPs of a Perl program's syntax
1064tree in one of several space-efficient text formats suitable for debugging
1065the inner workings of perl or other compiler backends. It can print OPs in
1066the order they appear in the OP tree, in the order they will execute, or
1067in a text approximation to their tree structure, and the format of the
3c4b39be 1068information displayed is customizable. Its function is similar to that of
c99ca59a
SM
1069perl's B<-Dx> debugging flag or the B<B::Terse> module, but it is more
1070sophisticated and flexible.
1071
f8a679e6
RGS
1072=head1 EXAMPLE
1073
f9f861ec
JC
1074Here's two outputs (or 'renderings'), using the -exec and -basic
1075(i.e. default) formatting conventions on the same code snippet.
19e169bf
JC
1076
1077 % perl -MO=Concise,-exec -e '$a = $b + 42'
1078 1 <0> enter
1079 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v
1080 3 <#> gvsv[*b] s
1081 4 <$> const[IV 42] s
1082 * 5 <2> add[t3] sK/2
1083 6 <#> gvsv[*a] s
1084 7 <2> sassign vKS/2
1085 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC
1086
f9f861ec
JC
1087In this -exec rendering, each opcode is executed in the order shown.
1088The add opcode, marked with '*', is discussed in more detail.
19e169bf
JC
1089
1090The 1st column is the op's sequence number, starting at 1, and is
f9f861ec
JC
1091displayed in base 36 by default. Here they're purely linear; the
1092sequences are very helpful when looking at code with loops and
1093branches.
19e169bf
JC
1094
1095The symbol between angle brackets indicates the op's type, for
1096example; <2> is a BINOP, <@> a LISTOP, and <#> is a PADOP, which is
1097used in threaded perls. (see L</"OP class abbreviations">).
1098
f9f861ec 1099The opname, as in B<'add[t1]'>, may be followed by op-specific
19e169bf
JC
1100information in parentheses or brackets (ex B<'[t1]'>).
1101
f9f861ec 1102The op-flags (ex B<'sK/2'>) are described in (L</"OP flags
19e169bf 1103abbreviations">).
f8a679e6
RGS
1104
1105 % perl -MO=Concise -e '$a = $b + 42'
8ec8fbef 1106 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC ->(end)
f8a679e6
RGS
1107 1 <0> enter ->2
1108 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v ->3
1109 7 <2> sassign vKS/2 ->8
19e169bf 1110 * 5 <2> add[t1] sK/2 ->6
f8a679e6
RGS
1111 - <1> ex-rv2sv sK/1 ->4
1112 3 <$> gvsv(*b) s ->4
1113 4 <$> const(IV 42) s ->5
1114 - <1> ex-rv2sv sKRM*/1 ->7
1115 6 <$> gvsv(*a) s ->7
1116
19e169bf
JC
1117The default rendering is top-down, so they're not in execution order.
1118This form reflects the way the stack is used to parse and evaluate
1119expressions; the add operates on the two terms below it in the tree.
f8a679e6 1120
19e169bf
JC
1121Nullops appear as C<ex-opname>, where I<opname> is an op that has been
1122optimized away by perl. They're displayed with a sequence-number of
1123'-', because they are not executed (they don't appear in previous
1124example), they're printed here because they reflect the parse.
f8a679e6 1125
19e169bf
JC
1126The arrow points to the sequence number of the next op; they're not
1127displayed in -exec mode, for obvious reasons.
f8a679e6 1128
19e169bf
JC
1129Note that because this rendering was done on a non-threaded perl, the
1130PADOPs in the previous examples are now SVOPs, and some (but not all)
1131of the square brackets have been replaced by round ones. This is a
1132subtle feature to provide some visual distinction between renderings
1133on threaded and un-threaded perls.
f8a679e6 1134
f8a679e6 1135
c99ca59a
SM
1136=head1 OPTIONS
1137
1138Arguments that don't start with a hyphen are taken to be the names of
710ba574
FC
1139subroutines or formats to render; if no
1140such functions are specified, the main
9e0f9750
JC
1141body of the program (outside any subroutines, and not including use'd
1142or require'd files) is rendered. Passing C<BEGIN>, C<UNITCHECK>,
1143C<CHECK>, C<INIT>, or C<END> will cause all of the corresponding
1144special blocks to be printed. Arguments must follow options.
c99ca59a 1145
724aa791
JC
1146Options affect how things are rendered (ie printed). They're presented
1147here by their visual effect, 1st being strongest. They're grouped
1148according to how they interrelate; within each group the options are
1149mutually exclusive (unless otherwise stated).
1150
1151=head2 Options for Opcode Ordering
1152
1153These options control the 'vertical display' of opcodes. The display
1154'order' is also called 'mode' elsewhere in this document.
1155
c99ca59a
SM
1156=over 4
1157
1158=item B<-basic>
1159
1160Print OPs in the order they appear in the OP tree (a preorder
1161traversal, starting at the root). The indentation of each OP shows its
19e169bf
JC
1162level in the tree, and the '->' at the end of the line indicates the
1163next opcode in execution order. This mode is the default, so the flag
1164is included simply for completeness.
c99ca59a
SM
1165
1166=item B<-exec>
1167
1168Print OPs in the order they would normally execute (for the majority
1169of constructs this is a postorder traversal of the tree, ending at the
1170root). In most cases the OP that usually follows a given OP will
1171appear directly below it; alternate paths are shown by indentation. In
1172cases like loops when control jumps out of a linear path, a 'goto'
1173line is generated.
1174
1175=item B<-tree>
1176
1177Print OPs in a text approximation of a tree, with the root of the tree
1178at the left and 'left-to-right' order of children transformed into
1179'top-to-bottom'. Because this mode grows both to the right and down,
1180it isn't suitable for large programs (unless you have a very wide
1181terminal).
1182
724aa791
JC
1183=back
1184
1185=head2 Options for Line-Style
1186
1187These options select the line-style (or just style) used to render
1188each opcode, and dictates what info is actually printed into each line.
1189
1190=over 4
1191
1192=item B<-concise>
1193
1194Use the author's favorite set of formatting conventions. This is the
1195default, of course.
1196
1197=item B<-terse>
1198
1199Use formatting conventions that emulate the output of B<B::Terse>. The
1200basic mode is almost indistinguishable from the real B<B::Terse>, and the
1201exec mode looks very similar, but is in a more logical order and lacks
1202curly brackets. B<B::Terse> doesn't have a tree mode, so the tree mode
1203is only vaguely reminiscent of B<B::Terse>.
1204
1205=item B<-linenoise>
1206
1207Use formatting conventions in which the name of each OP, rather than being
1208written out in full, is represented by a one- or two-character abbreviation.
1209This is mainly a joke.
1210
1211=item B<-debug>
1212
1213Use formatting conventions reminiscent of B<B::Debug>; these aren't
1214very concise at all.
1215
1216=item B<-env>
1217
1218Use formatting conventions read from the environment variables
1219C<B_CONCISE_FORMAT>, C<B_CONCISE_GOTO_FORMAT>, and C<B_CONCISE_TREE_FORMAT>.
1220
1221=back
1222
1223=head2 Options for tree-specific formatting
1224
1225=over 4
1226
c99ca59a
SM
1227=item B<-compact>
1228
1229Use a tree format in which the minimum amount of space is used for the
1230lines connecting nodes (one character in most cases). This squeezes out
1231a few precious columns of screen real estate.
1232
1233=item B<-loose>
1234
1235Use a tree format that uses longer edges to separate OP nodes. This format
1236tends to look better than the compact one, especially in ASCII, and is
1237the default.
1238
1239=item B<-vt>
1240
1241Use tree connecting characters drawn from the VT100 line-drawing set.
1242This looks better if your terminal supports it.
1243
1244=item B<-ascii>
1245
1246Draw the tree with standard ASCII characters like C<+> and C<|>. These don't
1247look as clean as the VT100 characters, but they'll work with almost any
1248terminal (or the horizontal scrolling mode of less(1)) and are suitable
1249for text documentation or email. This is the default.
1250
724aa791 1251=back
c99ca59a 1252
724aa791
JC
1253These are pairwise exclusive, i.e. compact or loose, vt or ascii.
1254
1255=head2 Options controlling sequence numbering
1256
1257=over 4
c99ca59a
SM
1258
1259=item B<-base>I<n>
1260
1261Print OP sequence numbers in base I<n>. If I<n> is greater than 10, the
1262digit for 11 will be 'a', and so on. If I<n> is greater than 36, the digit
1263for 37 will be 'A', and so on until 62. Values greater than 62 are not
1264currently supported. The default is 36.
1265
1266=item B<-bigendian>
1267
1268Print sequence numbers with the most significant digit first. This is the
1269usual convention for Arabic numerals, and the default.
1270
1271=item B<-littleendian>
1272
1c2e8cca 1273Print sequence numbers with the least significant digit first. This is
724aa791 1274obviously mutually exclusive with bigendian.
c99ca59a 1275
724aa791 1276=back
c99ca59a 1277
724aa791 1278=head2 Other options
c99ca59a 1279
f18deeb9
JC
1280=over 4
1281
1282=item B<-src>
1283
e6665613
JC
1284With this option, the rendering of each statement (starting with the
1285nextstate OP) will be preceded by the 1st line of source code that
1286generates it. For example:
f18deeb9
JC
1287
1288 1 <0> enter
1289 # 1: my $i;
1290 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 junk.pl:1) v:{
1291 3 <0> padsv[$i:1,10] vM/LVINTRO
1292 # 3: for $i (0..9) {
1293 4 <;> nextstate(main 3 junk.pl:3) v:{
1294 5 <0> pushmark s
1295 6 <$> const[IV 0] s
1296 7 <$> const[IV 9] s
1297 8 <{> enteriter(next->j last->m redo->9)[$i:1,10] lKS
1298 k <0> iter s
1299 l <|> and(other->9) vK/1
1300 # 4: print "line ";
1301 9 <;> nextstate(main 2 junk.pl:4) v
1302 a <0> pushmark s
1303 b <$> const[PV "line "] s
1304 c <@> print vK
1305 # 5: print "$i\n";
e6665613 1306 ...
f18deeb9 1307
9e0f9750
JC
1308=item B<-stash="somepackage">
1309
1310With this, "somepackage" will be required, then the stash is
1311inspected, and each function is rendered.
1312
f18deeb9
JC
1313=back
1314
1315The following options are pairwise exclusive.
cc02ea56 1316
724aa791 1317=over 4
c99ca59a 1318
724aa791 1319=item B<-main>
c99ca59a 1320
724aa791 1321Include the main program in the output, even if subroutines were also
cc02ea56
JC
1322specified. This rendering is normally suppressed when a subroutine
1323name or reference is given.
1324
1325=item B<-nomain>
1326
1327This restores the default behavior after you've changed it with '-main'
1328(it's not normally needed). If no subroutine name/ref is given, main is
1329rendered, regardless of this flag.
1330
1331=item B<-nobanner>
1332
1333Renderings usually include a banner line identifying the function name
1334or stringified subref. This suppresses the printing of the banner.
1335
1336TBC: Remove the stringified coderef; while it provides a 'cookie' for
1337each function rendered, the cookies used should be 1,2,3.. not a
1338random hex-address. It also complicates string comparison of two
1339different trees.
c99ca59a 1340
724aa791 1341=item B<-banner>
c99ca59a 1342
cc02ea56
JC
1343restores default banner behavior.
1344
1345=item B<-banneris> => subref
1346
1347TBC: a hookpoint (and an option to set it) for a user-supplied
1348function to produce a banner appropriate for users needs. It's not
1349ideal, because the rendering-state variables, which are a natural
1350candidate for use in concise.t, are unavailable to the user.
c99ca59a 1351
724aa791 1352=back
c99ca59a 1353
724aa791 1354=head2 Option Stickiness
c99ca59a 1355
724aa791
JC
1356If you invoke Concise more than once in a program, you should know that
1357the options are 'sticky'. This means that the options you provide in
1358the first call will be remembered for the 2nd call, unless you
1359re-specify or change them.
c99ca59a 1360
cc02ea56
JC
1361=head1 ABBREVIATIONS
1362
1363The concise style uses symbols to convey maximum info with minimal
1364clutter (like hex addresses). With just a little practice, you can
1365start to see the flowers, not just the branches, in the trees.
1366
1367=head2 OP class abbreviations
1368
1369These symbols appear before the op-name, and indicate the
1370B:: namespace that represents the ops in your Perl code.
1371
1372 0 OP (aka BASEOP) An OP with no children
1373 1 UNOP An OP with one child
1374 2 BINOP An OP with two children
1375 | LOGOP A control branch OP
1376 @ LISTOP An OP that could have lots of children
1377 / PMOP An OP with a regular expression
1378 $ SVOP An OP with an SV
1379 " PVOP An OP with a string
1380 { LOOP An OP that holds pointers for a loop
1381 ; COP An OP that marks the start of a statement
1382 # PADOP An OP with a GV on the pad
1383
1384=head2 OP flags abbreviations
1385
19e169bf
JC
1386OP flags are either public or private. The public flags alter the
1387behavior of each opcode in consistent ways, and are represented by 0
1388or more single characters.
cc02ea56
JC
1389
1390 v OPf_WANT_VOID Want nothing (void context)
1391 s OPf_WANT_SCALAR Want single value (scalar context)
1392 l OPf_WANT_LIST Want list of any length (list context)
19e169bf 1393 Want is unknown
cc02ea56
JC
1394 K OPf_KIDS There is a firstborn child.
1395 P OPf_PARENS This operator was parenthesized.
1396 (Or block needs explicit scope entry.)
1397 R OPf_REF Certified reference.
1398 (Return container, not containee).
1399 M OPf_MOD Will modify (lvalue).
1400 S OPf_STACKED Some arg is arriving on the stack.
1401 * OPf_SPECIAL Do something weird for this op (see op.h)
1402
19e169bf
JC
1403Private flags, if any are set for an opcode, are displayed after a '/'
1404
1405 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC ->(end)
1406 7 <2> sassign vKS/2 ->8
1407
1408They're opcode specific, and occur less often than the public ones, so
1409they're represented by short mnemonics instead of single-chars; see
00baac8f 1410F<op.h> for gory details, or try this quick 2-liner:
19e169bf
JC
1411
1412 $> perl -MB::Concise -de 1
1413 DB<1> |x \%B::Concise::priv
1414
c99ca59a
SM
1415=head1 FORMATTING SPECIFICATIONS
1416
724aa791
JC
1417For each line-style ('concise', 'terse', 'linenoise', etc.) there are
14183 format-specs which control how OPs are rendered.
1419
1420The first is the 'default' format, which is used in both basic and exec
1421modes to print all opcodes. The 2nd, goto-format, is used in exec
1422mode when branches are encountered. They're not real opcodes, and are
1423inserted to look like a closing curly brace. The tree-format is tree
1424specific.
1425
cc02ea56
JC
1426When a line is rendered, the correct format-spec is copied and scanned
1427for the following items; data is substituted in, and other
1428manipulations like basic indenting are done, for each opcode rendered.
1429
1430There are 3 kinds of items that may be populated; special patterns,
1431#vars, and literal text, which is copied verbatim. (Yes, it's a set
1432of s///g steps.)
1433
1434=head2 Special Patterns
1435
1436These items are the primitives used to perform indenting, and to
1437select text from amongst alternatives.
c99ca59a
SM
1438
1439=over 4
1440
1441=item B<(x(>I<exec_text>B<;>I<basic_text>B<)x)>
1442
1443Generates I<exec_text> in exec mode, or I<basic_text> in basic mode.
1444
1445=item B<(*(>I<text>B<)*)>
1446
1447Generates one copy of I<text> for each indentation level.
1448
1449=item B<(*(>I<text1>B<;>I<text2>B<)*)>
1450
1451Generates one fewer copies of I<text1> than the indentation level, followed
1452by one copy of I<text2> if the indentation level is more than 0.
1453
1454=item B<(?(>I<text1>B<#>I<var>I<Text2>B<)?)>
1455
1456If the value of I<var> is true (not empty or zero), generates the
1457value of I<var> surrounded by I<text1> and I<Text2>, otherwise
1458nothing.
1459
cc02ea56
JC
1460=item B<~>
1461
1462Any number of tildes and surrounding whitespace will be collapsed to
1463a single space.
1464
1465=back
1466
1467=head2 # Variables
1468
1469These #vars represent opcode properties that you may want as part of
1470your rendering. The '#' is intended as a private sigil; a #var's
1471value is interpolated into the style-line, much like "read $this".
1472
1473These vars take 3 forms:
1474
1475=over 4
1476
c99ca59a
SM
1477=item B<#>I<var>
1478
cc02ea56
JC
1479A property named 'var' is assumed to exist for the opcodes, and is
1480interpolated into the rendering.
c99ca59a
SM
1481
1482=item B<#>I<var>I<N>
1483
cc02ea56
JC
1484Generates the value of I<var>, left justified to fill I<N> spaces.
1485Note that this means while you can have properties 'foo' and 'foo2',
1486you cannot render 'foo2', but you could with 'foo2a'. You would be
1487wise not to rely on this behavior going forward ;-)
c99ca59a 1488
cc02ea56 1489=item B<#>I<Var>
c99ca59a 1490
cc02ea56
JC
1491This ucfirst form of #var generates a tag-value form of itself for
1492display; it converts '#Var' into a 'Var => #var' style, which is then
1493handled as described above. (Imp-note: #Vars cannot be used for
1494conditional-fills, because the => #var transform is done after the check
1495for #Var's value).
c99ca59a
SM
1496
1497=back
1498
cc02ea56
JC
1499The following variables are 'defined' by B::Concise; when they are
1500used in a style, their respective values are plugged into the
1501rendering of each opcode.
1502
1503Only some of these are used by the standard styles, the others are
1504provided for you to delve into optree mechanics, should you wish to
1505add a new style (see L</add_style> below) that uses them. You can
00baac8f 1506also add new ones using L</add_callback>.
c99ca59a
SM
1507
1508=over 4
1509
1510=item B<#addr>
1511
cc02ea56 1512The address of the OP, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1513
1514=item B<#arg>
1515
1516The OP-specific information of the OP (such as the SV for an SVOP, the
cc02ea56 1517non-local exit pointers for a LOOP, etc.) enclosed in parentheses.
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SM
1518
1519=item B<#class>
1520
1521The B-determined class of the OP, in all caps.
1522
f8a679e6 1523=item B<#classsym>
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SM
1524
1525A single symbol abbreviating the class of the OP.
1526
c3caa09d
SM
1527=item B<#coplabel>
1528
1529The label of the statement or block the OP is the start of, if any.
1530
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SM
1531=item B<#exname>
1532
1533The name of the OP, or 'ex-foo' if the OP is a null that used to be a foo.
1534
1535=item B<#extarg>
1536
1537The target of the OP, or nothing for a nulled OP.
1538
1539=item B<#firstaddr>
1540
19e169bf 1541The address of the OP's first child, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1542
1543=item B<#flags>
1544
1545The OP's flags, abbreviated as a series of symbols.
1546
1547=item B<#flagval>
1548
1549The numeric value of the OP's flags.
1550
d5ec2987
NC
1551=item B<#hints>
1552
1553The COP's hint flags, rendered with abbreviated names if possible. An empty
4f948f3a
RGS
1554string if this is not a COP. Here are the symbols used:
1555
1556 $ strict refs
1557 & strict subs
1558 * strict vars
d1718a7c
FC
1559 x$ explicit use/no strict refs
1560 x& explicit use/no strict subs
1561 x* explicit use/no strict vars
4f948f3a
RGS
1562 i integers
1563 l locale
1564 b bytes
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RGS
1565 { block scope
1566 % localise %^H
1567 < open in
1568 > open out
1569 I overload int
1570 F overload float
1571 B overload binary
1572 S overload string
1573 R overload re
1574 T taint
1575 E eval
1576 X filetest access
1577 U utf-8
d5ec2987
NC
1578
1579=item B<#hintsval>
1580
1581The numeric value of the COP's hint flags, or an empty string if this is not
1582a COP.
1583
f8a679e6 1584=item B<#hyphseq>
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SM
1585
1586The sequence number of the OP, or a hyphen if it doesn't have one.
1587
1588=item B<#label>
1589
1590'NEXT', 'LAST', or 'REDO' if the OP is a target of one of those in exec
1591mode, or empty otherwise.
1592
1593=item B<#lastaddr>
1594
19e169bf 1595The address of the OP's last child, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1596
1597=item B<#name>
1598
1599The OP's name.
1600
1601=item B<#NAME>
1602
1603The OP's name, in all caps.
1604
1605=item B<#next>
1606
1607The sequence number of the OP's next OP.
1608
1609=item B<#nextaddr>
1610
19e169bf 1611The address of the OP's next OP, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1612
1613=item B<#noise>
1614
c27ea44e 1615A one- or two-character abbreviation for the OP's name.
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SM
1616
1617=item B<#private>
1618
1619The OP's private flags, rendered with abbreviated names if possible.
1620
1621=item B<#privval>
1622
1623The numeric value of the OP's private flags.
1624
1625=item B<#seq>
1626
2814eb74
PJ
1627The sequence number of the OP. Note that this is a sequence number
1628generated by B::Concise.
c99ca59a 1629
7252851f
NC
1630=item B<#seqnum>
1631
16325.8.x and earlier only. 5.9 and later do not provide this.
1633
1634The real sequence number of the OP, as a regular number and not adjusted
1635to be relative to the start of the real program. (This will generally be
1636a fairly large number because all of B<B::Concise> is compiled before
1637your program is).
1638
2814eb74 1639=item B<#opt>
c99ca59a 1640
b84c7839 1641Whether or not the op has been optimized by the peephole optimizer.
2814eb74 1642
7252851f
NC
1643Only available in 5.9 and later.
1644
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SM
1645=item B<#sibaddr>
1646
19e169bf 1647The address of the OP's next youngest sibling, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1648
1649=item B<#svaddr>
1650
19e169bf 1651The address of the OP's SV, if it has an SV, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1652
1653=item B<#svclass>
1654
1655The class of the OP's SV, if it has one, in all caps (e.g., 'IV').
1656
1657=item B<#svval>
1658
1659The value of the OP's SV, if it has one, in a short human-readable format.
1660
1661=item B<#targ>
1662
1663The numeric value of the OP's targ.
1664
1665=item B<#targarg>
1666
1667The name of the variable the OP's targ refers to, if any, otherwise the
1668letter t followed by the OP's targ in decimal.
1669
1670=item B<#targarglife>
1671
1672Same as B<#targarg>, but followed by the COP sequence numbers that delimit
1673the variable's lifetime (or 'end' for a variable in an open scope) for a
1674variable.
1675
1676=item B<#typenum>
1677
1678The numeric value of the OP's type, in decimal.
1679
1680=back
1681
f9f861ec
JC
1682=head1 One-Liner Command tips
1683
1684=over 4
1685
1686=item perl -MO=Concise,bar foo.pl
1687
1688Renders only bar() from foo.pl. To see main, drop the ',bar'. To see
1689both, add ',-main'
1690
1691=item perl -MDigest::MD5=md5 -MO=Concise,md5 -e1
1692
1693Identifies md5 as an XS function. The export is needed so that BC can
1694find it in main.
1695
1696=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,_POSIX_ARG_MAX -e1
1697
1698Identifies _POSIX_ARG_MAX as a constant sub, optimized to an IV.
1699Although POSIX isn't entirely consistent across platforms, this is
1700likely to be present in virtually all of them.
1701
1702=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,a -e 'print _POSIX_SAVED_IDS'
1703
1704This renders a print statement, which includes a call to the function.
1705It's identical to rendering a file with a use call and that single
1706statement, except for the filename which appears in the nextstate ops.
1707
1708=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,a -e 'sub a{_POSIX_SAVED_IDS}'
1709
1710This is B<very> similar to previous, only the first two ops differ. This
1711subroutine rendering is more representative, insofar as a single main
1712program will have many subs.
1713
6cc5d258
JC
1714=item perl -MB::Concise -e 'B::Concise::compile("-exec","-src", \%B::Concise::)->()'
1715
1716This renders all functions in the B::Concise package with the source
1717lines. It eschews the O framework so that the stashref can be passed
9e0f9750
JC
1718directly to B::Concise::compile(). See -stash option for a more
1719convenient way to render a package.
f9f861ec 1720
d5e42f17 1721=back
f9f861ec 1722
78ad9108
PJ
1723=head1 Using B::Concise outside of the O framework
1724
cc02ea56
JC
1725The common (and original) usage of B::Concise was for command-line
1726renderings of simple code, as given in EXAMPLE. But you can also use
1727B<B::Concise> from your code, and call compile() directly, and
724aa791 1728repeatedly. By doing so, you can avoid the compile-time only
cc02ea56
JC
1729operation of O.pm, and even use the debugger to step through
1730B::Concise::compile() itself.
f95e3c3c 1731
cc02ea56
JC
1732Once you're doing this, you may alter Concise output by adding new
1733rendering styles, and by optionally adding callback routines which
1734populate new variables, if such were referenced from those (just
1735added) styles.
f95e3c3c 1736
724aa791 1737=head2 Example: Altering Concise Renderings
78ad9108
PJ
1738
1739 use B::Concise qw(set_style add_callback);
cc02ea56 1740 add_style($yourStyleName => $defaultfmt, $gotofmt, $treefmt);
78ad9108 1741 add_callback
f95e3c3c
JC
1742 ( sub {
1743 my ($h, $op, $format, $level, $stylename) = @_;
78ad9108 1744 $h->{variable} = some_func($op);
cc02ea56
JC
1745 });
1746 $walker = B::Concise::compile(@options,@subnames,@subrefs);
1747 $walker->();
78ad9108 1748
f95e3c3c
JC
1749=head2 set_style()
1750
724aa791
JC
1751B<set_style> accepts 3 arguments, and updates the three format-specs
1752comprising a line-style (basic-exec, goto, tree). It has one minor
1753drawback though; it doesn't register the style under a new name. This
1754can become an issue if you render more than once and switch styles.
1755Thus you may prefer to use add_style() and/or set_style_standard()
1756instead.
1757
1758=head2 set_style_standard($name)
1759
1760This restores one of the standard line-styles: C<terse>, C<concise>,
1761C<linenoise>, C<debug>, C<env>, into effect. It also accepts style
1762names previously defined with add_style().
f95e3c3c 1763
345e2394 1764=head2 add_style ()
78ad9108 1765
f95e3c3c
JC
1766This subroutine accepts a new style name and three style arguments as
1767above, and creates, registers, and selects the newly named style. It is
1768an error to re-add a style; call set_style_standard() to switch between
1769several styles.
1770
345e2394 1771=head2 add_callback ()
f95e3c3c 1772
19e169bf
JC
1773If your newly minted styles refer to any new #variables, you'll need
1774to define a callback subroutine that will populate (or modify) those
1775variables. They are then available for use in the style you've
1776chosen.
f95e3c3c
JC
1777
1778The callbacks are called for each opcode visited by Concise, in the
1779same order as they are added. Each subroutine is passed five
1780parameters.
1781
1782 1. A hashref, containing the variable names and values which are
1783 populated into the report-line for the op
1784 2. the op, as a B<B::OP> object
1785 3. a reference to the format string
1786 4. the formatting (indent) level
1787 5. the selected stylename
78ad9108
PJ
1788
1789To define your own variables, simply add them to the hash, or change
1790existing values if you need to. The level and format are passed in as
1791references to scalars, but it is unlikely that they will need to be
1792changed or even used.
1793
724aa791 1794=head2 Running B::Concise::compile()
f95e3c3c
JC
1795
1796B<compile> accepts options as described above in L</OPTIONS>, and
1797arguments, which are either coderefs, or subroutine names.
1798
cc02ea56
JC
1799It constructs and returns a $treewalker coderef, which when invoked,
1800traverses, or walks, and renders the optrees of the given arguments to
1801STDOUT. You can reuse this, and can change the rendering style used
1802each time; thereafter the coderef renders in the new style.
f95e3c3c
JC
1803
1804B<walk_output> lets you change the print destination from STDOUT to
19e169bf
JC
1805another open filehandle, or into a string passed as a ref (unless
1806you've built perl with -Uuseperlio).
f95e3c3c 1807
555bd962
BG
1808 my $walker = B::Concise::compile('-terse','aFuncName', \&aSubRef); # 1
1809 walk_output(\my $buf);
1810 $walker->(); # 1 renders -terse
1811 set_style_standard('concise'); # 2
1812 $walker->(); # 2 renders -concise
1813 $walker->(@new); # 3 renders whatever
1814 print "3 different renderings: terse, concise, and @new: $buf\n";
cc02ea56
JC
1815
1816When $walker is called, it traverses the subroutines supplied when it
1817was created, and renders them using the current style. You can change
1818the style afterwards in several different ways:
1819
1820 1. call C<compile>, altering style or mode/order
1821 2. call C<set_style_standard>
1822 3. call $walker, passing @new options
1823
1824Passing new options to the $walker is the easiest way to change
1825amongst any pre-defined styles (the ones you add are automatically
1826recognized as options), and is the only way to alter rendering order
1827without calling compile again. Note however that rendering state is
1828still shared amongst multiple $walker objects, so they must still be
1829used in a coordinated manner.
f95e3c3c
JC
1830
1831=head2 B::Concise::reset_sequence()
1832
1833This function (not exported) lets you reset the sequence numbers (note
1834that they're numbered arbitrarily, their goal being to be human
1835readable). Its purpose is mostly to support testing, i.e. to compare
1836the concise output from two identical anonymous subroutines (but
1837different instances). Without the reset, B::Concise, seeing that
1838they're separate optrees, generates different sequence numbers in
1839the output.
1840
1841=head2 Errors
1842
9a3b3024
JC
1843Errors in rendering (non-existent function-name, non-existent coderef)
1844are written to the STDOUT, or wherever you've set it via
1845walk_output().
31b49ad4 1846
9a3b3024
JC
1847Errors using the various *style* calls, and bad args to walk_output(),
1848result in die(). Use an eval if you wish to catch these errors and
1849continue processing.
78ad9108 1850
c99ca59a
SM
1851=head1 AUTHOR
1852
31b49ad4 1853Stephen McCamant, E<lt>smcc@CSUA.Berkeley.EDUE<gt>.
c99ca59a
SM
1854
1855=cut