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1=head1 NAME
2
3Win32 - Interfaces to some Win32 API Functions
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7Perl on Win32 contains several functions to access Win32 APIs. Some
8are included in Perl itself (on Win32) and some are only available
9after explicitly requesting the Win32 module with:
10
11 use Win32;
12
13The builtin functions are marked as [CORE] and the other ones
14as [EXT] in the following alphabetical listing. The C<Win32> module
15is not part of the Perl source distribution; it is distributed in
16the libwin32 bundle of Win32::* modules on CPAN. The module is
17already preinstalled in binary distributions like ActivePerl.
18
19=head2 Alphabetical Listing of Win32 Functions
20
21=over
22
23=item Win32::AbortSystemShutdown(MACHINE)
24
25[EXT] Aborts a system shutdown (started by the
26InitiateSystemShutdown function) on the specified MACHINE.
27
28=item Win32::BuildNumber()
29
30[CORE] Returns the ActivePerl build number. This function is
31only available in the ActivePerl binary distribution.
32
33=item Win32::CopyFile(FROM, TO, OVERWRITE)
34
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35[CORE] The Win32::CopyFile() function copies an existing file to a new
36file. All file information like creation time and file attributes will
37be copied to the new file. However it will B<not> copy the security
38information. If the destination file already exists it will only be
39overwritten when the OVERWRITE parameter is true. But even this will
40not overwrite a read-only file; you have to unlink() it first
41yourself.
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42
43=item Win32::DomainName()
44
45[CORE] Returns the name of the Microsoft Network domain that the
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46owner of the current perl process is logged into. This function does
47B<not> work on Windows 9x.
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48
49=item Win32::ExpandEnvironmentStrings(STRING)
50
51[EXT] Takes STRING and replaces all referenced environment variable
52names with their defined values. References to environment variables
53take the form C<%VariableName%>. Case is ignored when looking up the
54VariableName in the environment. If the variable is not found then the
55original C<%VariableName%> text is retained. Has the same effect
56as the following:
57
58 $string =~ s/%([^%]*)%/$ENV{$1} || "%$1%"/eg
59
60=item Win32::FormatMessage(ERRORCODE)
61
62[CORE] Converts the supplied Win32 error number (e.g. returned by
63Win32::GetLastError()) to a descriptive string. Analogous to the
64perror() standard-C library function. Note that C<$^E> used
65in a string context has much the same effect.
66
67 C:\> perl -e "$^E = 26; print $^E;"
68 The specified disk or diskette cannot be accessed
69
70=item Win32::FsType()
71
72[CORE] Returns the name of the filesystem of the currently active
73drive (like 'FAT' or 'NTFS'). In list context it returns three values:
74(FSTYPE, FLAGS, MAXCOMPLEN). FSTYPE is the filesystem type as
75before. FLAGS is a combination of values of the following table:
76
77 0x00000001 supports case-sensitive filenames
78 0x00000002 preserves the case of filenames
79 0x00000004 supports Unicode in filenames
80 0x00000008 preserves and enforces ACLs
81 0x00000010 supports file-based compression
82 0x00000020 supports disk quotas
83 0x00000040 supports sparse files
84 0x00000080 supports reparse points
85 0x00000100 supports remote storage
86 0x00008000 is a compressed volume (e.g. DoubleSpace)
87 0x00010000 supports object identifiers
88 0x00020000 supports the Encrypted File System (EFS)
89
90MAXCOMPLEN is the maximum length of a filename component (the part
91between two backslashes) on this file system.
92
93=item Win32::FreeLibrary(HANDLE)
94
95[EXT] Unloads a previously loaded dynamic-link library. The HANDLE is
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96no longer valid after this call. See L<LoadLibrary|Win32::LoadLibrary(LIBNAME)>
97for information on dynamically loading a library.
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98
99=item Win32::GetArchName()
100
101[EXT] Use of this function is deprecated. It is equivalent with
102$ENV{PROCESSOR_ARCHITECTURE}. This might not work on Win9X.
103
104=item Win32::GetChipName()
105
106[EXT] Returns the processor type: 386, 486 or 586 for Intel processors,
10721064 for the Alpha chip.
108
109=item Win32::GetCwd()
110
111[CORE] Returns the current active drive and directory. This function
112does not return a UNC path, since the functionality required for such
113a feature is not available under Windows 95.
114
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115=item Win32::GetFolderPath(FOLDER [, CREATE])
116
117[EXT] Returns the full pathname of one of the Windows special folders.
118The folder will be created if it doesn't exist and the optional CREATE
119argument is true. The following FOLDER constants are defined by the
120Win32 module, but only exported on demand:
121
122 CSIDL_ADMINTOOLS
123 CSIDL_APPDATA
124 CSIDL_CDBURN_AREA
125 CSIDL_COMMON_ADMINTOOLS
126 CSIDL_COMMON_APPDATA
127 CSIDL_COMMON_DESKTOPDIRECTORY
128 CSIDL_COMMON_DOCUMENTS
129 CSIDL_COMMON_FAVORITES
130 CSIDL_COMMON_MUSIC
131 CSIDL_COMMON_PICTURES
132 CSIDL_COMMON_PROGRAMS
133 CSIDL_COMMON_STARTMENU
134 CSIDL_COMMON_STARTUP
135 CSIDL_COMMON_TEMPLATES
136 CSIDL_COMMON_VIDEO
137 CSIDL_COOKIES
138 CSIDL_DESKTOP
139 CSIDL_DESKTOPDIRECTORY
140 CSIDL_FAVORITES
141 CSIDL_FONTS
142 CSIDL_HISTORY
143 CSIDL_INTERNET_CACHE
144 CSIDL_LOCAL_APPDATA
145 CSIDL_MYMUSIC
146 CSIDL_MYPICTURES
147 CSIDL_MYVIDEO
148 CSIDL_NETHOOD
149 CSIDL_PERSONAL
150 CSIDL_PRINTHOOD
151 CSIDL_PROFILE
152 CSIDL_PROGRAMS
153 CSIDL_PROGRAM_FILES
154 CSIDL_PROGRAM_FILES_COMMON
155 CSIDL_RECENT
156 CSIDL_RESOURCES
157 CSIDL_RESOURCES_LOCALIZED
158 CSIDL_SENDTO
159 CSIDL_STARTMENU
160 CSIDL_STARTUP
161 CSIDL_SYSTEM
162 CSIDL_TEMPLATES
163 CSIDL_WINDOWS
164
165Note that not all folders are defined on all versions of Windows.
166
167Please refer to the MSDN documentation of the CSIDL constants,
168currently available at:
169
170http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/shellcc/platform/shell/reference/enums/csidl.asp
171
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172=item Win32::GetFullPathName(FILENAME)
173
174[CORE] GetFullPathName combines the FILENAME with the current drive
175and directory name and returns a fully qualified (aka, absolute)
176path name. In list context it returns two elements: (PATH, FILE) where
177PATH is the complete pathname component (including trailing backslash)
178and FILE is just the filename part. Note that no attempt is made to
179convert 8.3 components in the supplied FILENAME to longnames or
180vice-versa. Compare with Win32::GetShortPathName and
181Win32::GetLongPathName.
182
87275199 183This function has been added for Perl 5.6.
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184
185=item Win32::GetLastError()
186
187[CORE] Returns the last error value generated by a call to a Win32 API
188function. Note that C<$^E> used in a numeric context amounts to the
189same value.
190
191=item Win32::GetLongPathName(PATHNAME)
192
4375e838 193[CORE] Returns a representation of PATHNAME composed of longname
da2094fd 194components (if any). The result may not necessarily be longer
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195than PATHNAME. No attempt is made to convert PATHNAME to the
196absolute path. Compare with Win32::GetShortPathName and
197Win32::GetFullPathName.
198
87275199 199This function has been added for Perl 5.6.
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200
201=item Win32::GetNextAvailDrive()
202
203[CORE] Returns a string in the form of "<d>:" where <d> is the first
204available drive letter.
205
206=item Win32::GetOSVersion()
207
3e526985 208[CORE] Returns the list (STRING, MAJOR, MINOR, BUILD, ID), where the
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209elements are, respectively: An arbitrary descriptive string, the major
210version number of the operating system, the minor version number, the
211build number, and a digit indicating the actual operating system.
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212For the ID, the values are 0 for Win32s, 1 for Windows 9X/Me and 2 for
213Windows NT/2000/XP/2003. In scalar context it returns just the ID.
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214
215Currently known values for ID MAJOR and MINOR are as follows:
216
217 OS ID MAJOR MINOR
218 Win32s 0 - -
219 Windows 95 1 4 0
220 Windows 98 1 4 10
221 Windows Me 1 4 90
222 Windows NT 3.51 2 3 51
223 Windows NT 4 2 4 0
224 Windows 2000 2 5 0
225 Windows XP 2 5 1
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226 Windows Server 2003 2 5 2
227
228On Windows NT 4 SP6 and later this function returns the following
229additional values: SPMAJOR, SPMINOR, SUITEMASK, PRODUCTTYPE.
230
231SPMAJOR and SPMINOR are are the version numbers of the latest
232installed service pack.
233
234SUITEMASK is a bitfield identifying the product suites available on
235the system. Known bits are:
236
237 VER_SUITE_SMALLBUSINESS 0x00000001
238 VER_SUITE_ENTERPRISE 0x00000002
239 VER_SUITE_BACKOFFICE 0x00000004
240 VER_SUITE_COMMUNICATIONS 0x00000008
241 VER_SUITE_TERMINAL 0x00000010
242 VER_SUITE_SMALLBUSINESS_RESTRICTED 0x00000020
243 VER_SUITE_EMBEDDEDNT 0x00000040
244 VER_SUITE_DATACENTER 0x00000080
245 VER_SUITE_SINGLEUSERTS 0x00000100
246 VER_SUITE_PERSONAL 0x00000200
247 VER_SUITE_BLADE 0x00000400
248 VER_SUITE_EMBEDDED_RESTRICTED 0x00000800
249 VER_SUITE_SECURITY_APPLIANCE 0x00001000
250
251The VER_SUITE_xxx names are listed here to crossreference the Microsoft
252documentation. The Win32 module does not provide symbolic names for these
253constants.
254
255PRODUCTTYPE provides additional information about the system. It should
256be one of the following integer values:
257
258 1 - Workstation (NT 4, 2000 Pro, XP Home, XP Pro)
259 2 - Domaincontroller
260 3 - Server
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261
262=item Win32::GetOSName()
263
264[EXT] In scalar context returns the name of the Win32 operating system
265being used. In list context returns a two element list of the OS name
266and whatever edition information is known about the particular build
267(for Win9x boxes) and whatever service packs have been installed.
268The latter is roughly equivalent to the first item returned by
269GetOSVersion() in list context.
270
271Currently the possible values for the OS name are
272
3e526985 273 Win32s Win95 Win98 WinMe WinNT3.51 WinNT4 Win2000 WinXP/.Net Win2003
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274
275This routine is just a simple interface into GetOSVersion(). More
276specific or demanding situations should use that instead. Another
277option would be to use POSIX::uname(), however the latter appears to
278report only the OS family name and not the specific OS. In scalar
279context it returns just the ID.
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281The name "WinXP/.Net" is used for historical reasons only, to maintain
282backwards compatibility of the Win32 module. Windows .NET Server has
283been renamed as Windows 2003 Server before final release and uses a
284different major/minor version number than Windows XP.
285
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286=item Win32::GetShortPathName(PATHNAME)
287
da2094fd 288[CORE] Returns a representation of PATHNAME composed only of
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289short (8.3) path components. The result may not necessarily be
290shorter than PATHNAME. Compare with Win32::GetFullPathName and
291Win32::GetLongPathName.
292
293=item Win32::GetProcAddress(INSTANCE, PROCNAME)
294
295[EXT] Returns the address of a function inside a loaded library. The
296information about what you can do with this address has been lost in
297the mist of time. Use the Win32::API module instead of this deprecated
298function.
299
300=item Win32::GetTickCount()
301
302[CORE] Returns the number of milliseconds elapsed since the last
303system boot. Resolution is limited to system timer ticks (about 10ms
304on WinNT and 55ms on Win9X).
305
cb49b31f 306=item Win32::InitiateSystemShutdown
551e1d92 307
cb49b31f 308(MACHINE, MESSAGE, TIMEOUT, FORCECLOSE, REBOOT)
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309
310[EXT] Shutsdown the specified MACHINE, notifying users with the
311supplied MESSAGE, within the specified TIMEOUT interval. Forces
312closing of all documents without prompting the user if FORCECLOSE is
313true, and reboots the machine if REBOOT is true. This function works
314only on WinNT.
315
316=item Win32::IsWinNT()
317
318[CORE] Returns non zero if the Win32 subsystem is Windows NT.
319
320=item Win32::IsWin95()
321
322[CORE] Returns non zero if the Win32 subsystem is Windows 95.
323
324=item Win32::LoadLibrary(LIBNAME)
325
326[EXT] Loads a dynamic link library into memory and returns its module
327handle. This handle can be used with Win32::GetProcAddress and
328Win32::FreeLibrary. This function is deprecated. Use the Win32::API
329module instead.
330
331=item Win32::LoginName()
332
333[CORE] Returns the username of the owner of the current perl process.
334
335=item Win32::LookupAccountName(SYSTEM, ACCOUNT, DOMAIN, SID, SIDTYPE)
336
337[EXT] Looks up ACCOUNT on SYSTEM and returns the domain name the SID and
338the SID type.
339
340=item Win32::LookupAccountSID(SYSTEM, SID, ACCOUNT, DOMAIN, SIDTYPE)
341
625a29bd 342[EXT] Looks up SID on SYSTEM and returns the account name, domain name,
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343and the SID type.
344
345=item Win32::MsgBox(MESSAGE [, FLAGS [, TITLE]])
346
347[EXT] Create a dialogbox containing MESSAGE. FLAGS specifies the
348required icon and buttons according to the following table:
349
350 0 = OK
351 1 = OK and Cancel
352 2 = Abort, Retry, and Ignore
353 3 = Yes, No and Cancel
354 4 = Yes and No
355 5 = Retry and Cancel
356
357 MB_ICONSTOP "X" in a red circle
358 MB_ICONQUESTION question mark in a bubble
359 MB_ICONEXCLAMATION exclamation mark in a yellow triangle
360 MB_ICONINFORMATION "i" in a bubble
361
362TITLE specifies an optional window title. The default is "Perl".
363
364The function returns the menu id of the selected push button:
365
366 0 Error
367
368 1 OK
369 2 Cancel
370 3 Abort
371 4 Retry
372 5 Ignore
373 6 Yes
374 7 No
375
376=item Win32::NodeName()
377
378[CORE] Returns the Microsoft Network node-name of the current machine.
379
380=item Win32::RegisterServer(LIBRARYNAME)
381
382[EXT] Loads the DLL LIBRARYNAME and calls the function DllRegisterServer.
383
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384=item Win32::SetChildShowWindow(SHOWWINDOW)
385
386[CORE] Sets the I<ShowMode> of child processes started by system().
387By default system() will create a new console window for child
388processes if Perl itself is not running from a console. Calling
389SetChildShowWindow(0) will make these new console windows invisible.
390Calling SetChildShowWindow() without arguments reverts system() to the
391default behavior. The return value of SetChildShowWindow() is the
392previous setting or C<undef>.
393
394[EXT] The following symbolic constants for SHOWWINDOW are available
395(but not exported) from the Win32 module: SW_HIDE, SW_SHOWNORMAL,
396SW_SHOWMINIMIZED, SW_SHOWMAXIMIZED and SW_SHOWNOACTIVATE.
397
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398=item Win32::SetCwd(NEWDIRECTORY)
399
400[CORE] Sets the current active drive and directory. This function does not
401work with UNC paths, since the functionality required to required for
402such a feature is not available under Windows 95.
403
404=item Win32::SetLastError(ERROR)
405
406[CORE] Sets the value of the last error encountered to ERROR. This is
407that value that will be returned by the Win32::GetLastError()
87275199 408function. This functions has been added for Perl 5.6.
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409
410=item Win32::Sleep(TIME)
411
412[CORE] Pauses for TIME milliseconds. The timeslices are made available
413to other processes and threads.
414
415=item Win32::Spawn(COMMAND, ARGS, PID)
416
417[CORE] Spawns a new process using the supplied COMMAND, passing in
418arguments in the string ARGS. The pid of the new process is stored in
419PID. This function is deprecated. Please use the Win32::Process module
420instead.
421
422=item Win32::UnregisterServer(LIBRARYNAME)
423
424[EXT] Loads the DLL LIBRARYNAME and calls the function
425DllUnregisterServer.
426
427=back
428
429=cut