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Re: [PATCH warnings, perldiag] document diagnostics
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
e476b1b5 12 (S) A severe warning (default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
30Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled
31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
f61d411c 57=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
60See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
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94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
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100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
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106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
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115(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
116transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
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117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
118a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash -- and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
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125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
8ea97a1e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 135
8ea97a1e 136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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137
138 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 139 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
a0d0e21e 140
8ea97a1e 141=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 142
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143(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
144such as:
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145
146 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 147 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 148
8ea97a1e 149or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 150
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151 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
152 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 153
6df41af2 154=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 155
6df41af2 156(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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157name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
158error.
a0d0e21e 159
f86702cc 160=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 161
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162(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
163that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
164will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
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165
166=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
167
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168(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
169spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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170
171=item assertion botched: %s
172
173(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
174
175=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
176
177(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
178
179=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
180
181(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
182must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
183know which context to supply to the right side.
184
5243b939 185=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
fe58ced6 186
496a33f5 187(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
5243b939 188greater than or equal to zero.
fe58ced6 189
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190=item Attempt to access to key '%_' in fixed hash
191
192(F) A hash has been marked as READONLY at the C level to turn it
193into a "record" with a fixed set of keys. The failing code
194has attempted to get or set the value of a key which does not
195exist or to delete a key.
196
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197=item Attempt to bless into a reference
198
199(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
200the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
201supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
202
203 bless $self, $proto;
204
205when you intended
206
207 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
208
209If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
210of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
211example by:
212
213 bless $self, "$proto";
214
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215=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
216
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217(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
218that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
219outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 220
54310121 221=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 222
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223(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
224strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
225strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
226of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 227
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228=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
229
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230(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
231free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
232SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
233free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
234try to free it.
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235
236=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
237
e476b1b5 238(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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239
240=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
241
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242(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
243see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
244earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
245This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
246that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
247mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
248corrupted.
a0d0e21e 249
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250=item Attempt to join self
251
252(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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253impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
254to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 255
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256=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
257
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258(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
259function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
260means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
261invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
262literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
263avoid this warning.
84902520 264
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265=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
266
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267(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
268used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
269dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 270
dc26df50 271=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %s
a0d0e21e 272
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273(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
274or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 275S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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276S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
277
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278=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
279
496a33f5 280(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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281substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
282most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
283
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284=item Bad filehandle: %s
285
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286(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
287symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
288open(), or did it in another package.
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289
290=item Bad free() ignored
291
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292(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
293been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 294setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 295
9ea8bc6d 296This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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297dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
298which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 299
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300=item Bad hash
301
302(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
303
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304=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
305
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306(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
307pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
308See L<perlref>.
57079c46 309
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310=item Badly placed ()'s
311
312(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
313of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
314Perl yourself.
315
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316=item Bad name after %s::
317
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318(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
319didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
320of quotes, so
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321
322 $var = 'myvar';
323 $sym = mypack::$var;
324
325is not the same as
326
327 $var = 'myvar';
328 $sym = "mypack::$var";
329
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330=item Bad realloc() ignored
331
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332(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
333never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
334by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 335
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336=item Bad symbol for array
337
338(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
339wasn't a symbol table entry.
340
341=item Bad symbol for filehandle
342
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343(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
344that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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345
346=item Bad symbol for hash
347
348(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
349wasn't a symbol table entry.
350
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351=item Bareword found in conditional
352
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353(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
354conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
355of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
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356
357 open FOO || die;
358
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359It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
360a bareword:
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361
362 use constant TYPO => 1;
363 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
364
365The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
366
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367=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
368
369(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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370subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
371symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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372
373=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
374
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375(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
376compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
377you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 378
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379=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
380
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381(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
382subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
383exited.
a0d0e21e 384
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385=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
386
387(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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388implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
389occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
390be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
391depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 392
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393=item \1 better written as $1
394
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395(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
396The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
397substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
398because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
399there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 400
252aa082
JH
401=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
402
e476b1b5 403(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
404(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
405L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 406
69282e91 407=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 408
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409(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
410check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 411
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412=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
413
414(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
415Check you control flow and number of arguments.
416
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417=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
418
e476b1b5 419(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 420
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421=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
422
be771a83 423(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 424copyable.
4633a7c4 425
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426=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
427
428(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
429which provides a race condition that breaks security.
430
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431=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
432
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433(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
434iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
435which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 436
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437=item Callback called exit
438
4929bf7b 439(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
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440exited by calling exit.
441
6df41af2 442=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 443
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444(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
445parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
446that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
447early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
448subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
449checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
450function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
451the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 452
6df41af2 453=item / cannot take a count
a0d0e21e 454
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455(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
456you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
457L<perlfunc/pack>.
a0d0e21e
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458
459=item Can't bless non-reference value
460
461(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
462encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
463
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464=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
465
466(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
467functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
468in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
469
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470=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
471
472(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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473object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
474like this will reproduce the error:
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475
476 $BADREF = undef;
477 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
478 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
479
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480=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
481
54310121 482(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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483ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
484didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
485object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
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486
487=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
488
489(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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490object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
491defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
492Something like this will reproduce the error:
493
494 $BADREF = 42;
495 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
496 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
497
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498=item Can't chdir to %s
499
500(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
501that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
502
0545a864 503=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 504
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505(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
506nosuid.
104d25b7 507
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508=item Can't coerce array into hash
509
510(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
511information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
512only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
513
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514=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
515
516(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 517(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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518say things like:
519
520 *foo += 1;
521
522You CAN say
523
524 $foo = *foo;
525 $foo += 1;
526
527but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
528
529=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
530
531(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 532(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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533
534=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
535
536(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 537(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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538
539=item Can't create pipe mailbox
540
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541(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
542quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 543
eb64745e 544=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 545
2f7e735d
AMS
546(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
547class qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be
548extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
549
550=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
551
552(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
553"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 554
6df41af2
GS
555=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
556
be771a83
GS
557(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
558a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 559
a0d0e21e
LW
560=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
561
be771a83
GS
562(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
563reason.
a0d0e21e 564
54310121 565=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 566
be771a83
GS
567(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
568reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
569C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 570
10f9c03d 571=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 572
e476b1b5 573(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
574characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
575inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 576
7253e4e3 577=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 578
b45f050a 579(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 580regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 581regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
582
583=item Can't do setegid!
584
be771a83
GS
585(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
586suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
587
588=item Can't do seteuid!
589
590(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
591
592=item Can't do setuid
593
be771a83
GS
594(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to do
595setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the form
596sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides under
597the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines. If the
598file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask your
599sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
a0d0e21e
LW
600
601=item Can't do waitpid with flags
602
be771a83
GS
603(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
604waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 605
a0d0e21e
LW
606=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
607
be771a83
GS
608(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
609point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
610line.
a0d0e21e
LW
611
612=item Can't exec "%s": %s
613
d1be9408 614(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
615named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
616permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
617C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
618architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
619can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
620#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
621
622=item Can't exec %s
623
be771a83
GS
624(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
625that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
626need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
627
628=item Can't execute %s
629
be771a83
GS
630(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
631found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 632
6df41af2 633=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 634
be771a83
GS
635(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
636is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 637
56ca2fc0
JH
638=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
639
640(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
89d60977 641could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property
56ca2fc0
JH
642(remember that the names of character properties consist only of
643alphanumeric characters), or maybe you forgot the C<Is> or C<In> prefix?
644
6df41af2
GS
645=item Can't find label %s
646
be771a83
GS
647(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
648possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
649
650=item Can't find %s on PATH
651
be771a83
GS
652(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
653found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 654
6df41af2 655=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 656
be771a83
GS
657(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
658found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
659script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
660
661=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
662
be771a83
GS
663(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
664that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
665nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 666
fb73857a
PP
667 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
668
be771a83
GS
669If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
670unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
671editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 672
64977eb6 673=item Can't find %s property definition %s
0103b764 674
f91328b7
JH
675(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property for
676example \p{Lu} is all uppercase letters. Escape the C<\p>, either
677C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
678possible C<\E>).
0103b764 679
a0d0e21e
LW
680=item Can't fork
681
be771a83
GS
682(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
683pipeline.
a0d0e21e 684
748a9306
LW
685=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
686
be771a83
GS
687(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
688between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
689Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
690the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
691account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
692the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
693the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
694the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
695if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
696because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
697appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
698and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
699routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
700shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
701only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 702
a0d0e21e
LW
703=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
704
be771a83
GS
705(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
706pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
707
708=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
709
748a9306
LW
710(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
711mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 712
6df41af2 713=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 714
be771a83
GS
715(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
716loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
717
718=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
719
be771a83
GS
720(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
721a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
722you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
723See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 724
b150fb22
RH
725=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
726
be771a83
GS
727(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
728"string". (You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you
729probably don't want to.)
b150fb22 730
6df41af2
GS
731=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
732
be771a83
GS
733(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
734subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
735cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
736routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 737
0b5b802d
GS
738=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
739
be771a83
GS
740(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
741signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
742signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
743processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
744situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
745may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 746
6df41af2 747=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 748
6df41af2 749(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
750except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
751block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
752block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
753usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
754inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
755L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 756
748a9306
LW
757=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
758
2ba9eb46 759(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
760lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
761localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
762package name.
763
0ebe0038
SM
764=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
765
be771a83
GS
766(F) You said something like C<< local $ar->{'key'} >>, where $ar is a
767reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but you
768can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array element
769directly -- C<< local $ar->[$ar->[0]{'key'}] >>.
0ebe0038 770
6df41af2 771=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 772
6df41af2
GS
773(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
774handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 775pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 776that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 777
ec889f3a
GS
778=item Can't locate %s
779
780(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
781found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
782unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
783need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
784the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
785to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
786L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 787
6df41af2
GS
788=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
789
be771a83
GS
790(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
791autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
792are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
793the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 794
a0d0e21e
LW
795=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
796
797(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
798functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 799method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 800
c1899e02
GS
801=item (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
802
803(F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
804"Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"". It often means
805that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.
806
a0d0e21e
LW
807=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
808
be771a83
GS
809(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
810doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 811
3e3baf6d
TB
812=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
813
be771a83
GS
814(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
815VMS.
3e3baf6d 816
a0d0e21e
LW
817=item Can't modify %s in %s
818
be771a83
GS
819(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
820to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 821
54310121 822=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
823
824(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
825a NULL.
826
6df41af2
GS
827=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
828
829(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
830such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
831
5f05dabc 832=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 833
5f05dabc 834(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
835buffer.
836
6df41af2
GS
837=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
838
839(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
840there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
841count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
842grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
843though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
844once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 845
a0d0e21e
LW
846=item Can't open %s: %s
847
c47ff5f1 848(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
849filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
850switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
851is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
852the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
853
854=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
855
be771a83
GS
856(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
857You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
858as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
859">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 860
748a9306
LW
861=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
862
be771a83
GS
863(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
864redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
865the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
866
867=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
868
be771a83
GS
869(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
870redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
871command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
872
873=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
874
be771a83
GS
875(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
876redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
877the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
878
879=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
880
be771a83
GS
881(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
882redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
883for stdout.
748a9306 884
584d69ec 885=item Can't open perl script%s: %s
a0d0e21e
LW
886
887(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
888
6df41af2
GS
889=item Can't read CRTL environ
890
891(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
892from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
893missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
894or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
895searched.
6df41af2 896
7bac28a0
PP
897=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
898
899(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
be771a83
GS
900pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when
901it was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
7bac28a0
PP
902this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
903
6df41af2
GS
904=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
905
906(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
907there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
908count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
909or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
910though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
911loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
912
64977eb6 913=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 914
be771a83
GS
915(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
916file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
917the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 918
a0d0e21e
LW
919=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
920
e476b1b5 921(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 922probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 923
748a9306
LW
924=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
925
be771a83
GS
926(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
927to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 928
6df41af2
GS
929=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
930
be771a83
GS
931(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
932to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
933method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 934
a0d0e21e
LW
935=item Can't reswap uid and euid
936
be771a83
GS
937(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
938suidperl.
a0d0e21e 939
cd06dffe
GS
940=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
941
be771a83
GS
942(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
943temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
944is not allowed.
cd06dffe 945
78f9721b
SM
946=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
947
948(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
949but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
950to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
951the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
952list context.
953
6df41af2
GS
954=item Can't return outside a subroutine
955
956(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
957there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
958
a0d0e21e
LW
959=item Can't stat script "%s"
960
be771a83
GS
961(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
962open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e
LW
963
964=item Can't swap uid and euid
965
be771a83
GS
966(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
967suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
968
969=item Can't take log of %g
970
fb73857a
PP
971(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
972negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
973standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
974negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
975
976=item Can't take sqrt of %g
977
978(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
979negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
980with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
981
982=item Can't undef active subroutine
983
984(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
985however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
986redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
987
988=item Can't unshift
989
990(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
991as the main Perl stack.
992
993=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
994
be771a83
GS
995(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
996into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
997specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
998indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e
LW
999
1000=item Can't upgrade to undef
1001
be771a83
GS
1002(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme of
1003upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the code
1004calling sv_upgrade.
a0d0e21e 1005
6df41af2
GS
1006=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1007
1008(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1009be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1010
1db89ea5
BS
1011=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1012
1013(P) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1014table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1015for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1016
6df41af2
GS
1017=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1018
be771a83
GS
1019(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1020references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1021
90b75b61 1022=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1023
1024(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1025Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1026provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1027
6df41af2
GS
1028=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1029
be771a83
GS
1030(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1031foreach.
6df41af2
GS
1032
1033=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1034
be771a83
GS
1035(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1036is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1037(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1038have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1039weren't.
1040
c07a80fd
PP
1041=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1042
1043(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1044You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1045and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1046Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1047lexical variable.
1048
a0d0e21e
LW
1049=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1050
1051(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1052reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1053test the type of the reference, if need be.
1054
748a9306 1055=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1056
be771a83
GS
1057(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1058references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1059
748a9306
LW
1060=item Can't use subscript on %s
1061
1062(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1063subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1064didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1065
6df41af2
GS
1066=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1067
75b44862
GS
1068(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1069creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1070backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1071expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1072value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1073instead.
6df41af2 1074
810b8aa5
GS
1075=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1076
1077(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1078references can be weakened.
1079
5f05dabc 1080=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1081
be771a83
GS
1082(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1083with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1084Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1085
ac7cd81a
SC
1086=item Character in "C" format wrapped
1087
1088(W pack) You said
1089
1090 pack("C", $x)
1091
1092where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1093only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1094and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1095
1096 pack("C", $x & 255)
1097
1098If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1099instead.
1100
1101=item Character in "c" format wrapped
1102
1103(W pack) You said
1104
1105 pack("c", $x)
1106
1107where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1108is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1109and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1110
1111 pack("c", $x & 255);
1112
1113If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1114instead.
1115
9ddeeac9 1116=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 1117
e476b1b5 1118(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
a0d0e21e 1119
6df41af2
GS
1120=item %s: Command not found
1121
be771a83
GS
1122(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1123Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1124
7a2e2cd6
PP
1125=item Compilation failed in require
1126
1127(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1128Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1129encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1130
c3464db5
DD
1131=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1132
be771a83
GS
1133(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1134situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1135to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1136arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1137recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1138under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1139in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1140that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1141on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1142
69282e91 1143=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1144
be771a83
GS
1145(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1146to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1147L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1148
41ab332f 1149=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1150
be771a83
GS
1151(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1152an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1153specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1154corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1155L<overload>.
6df41af2 1156
779c5bc9
GS
1157=item Constant is not %s reference
1158
1159(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1160is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1161The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1162usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1163See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1164
4cee8e80
CS
1165=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1166
be771a83
GS
1167(S|W redefine) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
1168eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1169commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1170
9607fc9c
PP
1171=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1172
be771a83
GS
1173(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1174for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1175workarounds.
9607fc9c 1176
e7ea3e70
IZ
1177=item Copy method did not return a reference
1178
64977eb6 1179(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1180L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1181
6798c92b
GS
1182=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1183
1184(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1185
a0d0e21e
LW
1186=item corrupted regexp pointers
1187
1188(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1189expression compiler gave it.
1190
1191=item corrupted regexp program
1192
be771a83
GS
1193(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1194valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1195
6df41af2
GS
1196=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1197
1198(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1199
1200=item C<-p> destination: %s
1201
1202(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
1203command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
1204redirected it with select().)
1205
1206=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
1207
1208(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
1209know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
1210
a0d0e21e
LW
1211=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1212
be771a83
GS
1213(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1214100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1215infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1216which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1217
f10b0346 1218=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1219
be771a83
GS
1220(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1221checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1222array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1223
f10b0346 1224=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1225
be771a83
GS
1226(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1227checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1228is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1229
fc36a67e
PP
1230=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1231
be771a83
GS
1232(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1233long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1234that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1235
3cdd684c
TP
1236=item Did not produce a valid header
1237
1238See Server error.
1239
6df41af2
GS
1240=item %s did not return a true value
1241
1242(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1243it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1244traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1245do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1246
cc507455 1247=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1248
be771a83
GS
1249(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1250such.
4633a7c4 1251
cc507455 1252=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1253
be771a83
GS
1254(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1255variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1256seems superfluous.
33633739 1257
cc507455 1258=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1259
be771a83
GS
1260(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1261@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1262carried away.
748a9306 1263
7e1af8bc 1264=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1265
1266(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1267you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1268
3cdd684c
TP
1269=item Document contains no data
1270
1271See Server error.
1272
a0d0e21e
LW
1273=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1274
1275(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1276
1277=item do_study: out of memory
1278
1279(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1280
6df41af2
GS
1281=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1282
1283(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1284found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1285name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1286because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1287"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1288something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1289subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1290"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1291
ac206dc8
RGS
1292=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1293
1294(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1295qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1296
a0d0e21e
LW
1297=item Duplicate free() ignored
1298
be771a83
GS
1299(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1300already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1301
4633a7c4
LW
1302=item elseif should be elsif
1303
be771a83
GS
1304(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's ugly.
1305Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
1306"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1307unlikely to be what you want.
1308
ab13f0c7
JH
1309=item Empty %s
1310
1311(F) Empty C<\p{}> or C<\P{}>.
1312
85ab1d1d 1313=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1314
85ab1d1d 1315(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1316effective uids or gids failed.
1317
748a9306
LW
1318=item Error converting file specification %s
1319
5f05dabc 1320(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1321specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1322single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1323an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1324conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1325
e4d48cc9
GS
1326=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1327
be771a83
GS
1328(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1329expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1330is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1331
e4d48cc9
GS
1332=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1333
be771a83
GS
1334(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1335C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1336pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1337is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1338building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1339that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1340
6df41af2
GS
1341=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1342
be771a83
GS
1343(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1344assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1345pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1346
fc36a67e
PP
1347=item Excessively long <> operator
1348
1349(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1350Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1351filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1352variable and glob that.
1353
f86702cc 1354=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1355
1356(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1357
1358=item Exiting eval via %s
1359
be771a83
GS
1360(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1361goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1362
1363=item Exiting format via %s
1364
be771a83
GS
1365(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1366goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1367
0a753a76
PP
1368=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1369
be771a83
GS
1370(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1371sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1372loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1373
a0d0e21e
LW
1374=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1375
be771a83
GS
1376(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1377as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1378
1379=item Exiting substitution via %s
1380
be771a83
GS
1381(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1382as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1383
7b8d334a
GS
1384=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1385
be771a83
GS
1386(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1387the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1388usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1389e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1390
6df41af2
GS
1391=item %s: Expression syntax
1392
be771a83
GS
1393(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1394Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1395
1396=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1397
1398(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
1399END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1400routines has been prematurely ended.
1401
7253e4e3 1402=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1403
be771a83 1404(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1405character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1406in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1407"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1408problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1409
748a9306 1410=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1411
be771a83
GS
1412(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1413system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1414details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1415you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1416
1417=item fcntl is not implemented
1418
1419(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1420PDP-11 or something?
1421
af8c498a 1422=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1423
be771a83
GS
1424(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended it
1425to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or "+>"
1426or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to write
1427the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1428
af8c498a 1429=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1430
be771a83
GS
1431(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If
1432you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
1433with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1434intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1435
1436=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1437
1438(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1439a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1440happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1441name.
a0d0e21e
LW
1442
1443=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1444
1445(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1446a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1447happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1448name.
a0d0e21e 1449
56e90b21
GS
1450=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1451
be771a83 1452(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1453some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1454filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1455same name?
56e90b21 1456
5cd5c422
RB
1457=item Quantifier follows nothing in regex;
1458
1459marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2 1460
b45f050a 1461(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it if you
7253e4e3
RK
1462meant it literally. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
1463where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
1464
1465=item Format not terminated
1466
1467(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1468to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1469
a0d0e21e
LW
1470=item Format %s redefined
1471
e476b1b5 1472(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1473
1474 {
271595cc 1475 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1476 eval "format NAME =...";
1477 }
1478
a0d0e21e
LW
1479=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1480
e476b1b5 1481(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1482
1483 if ($foo = 123)
1484
1485when you meant
1486
1487 if ($foo == 123)
1488
1489(or something like that).
1490
6df41af2
GS
1491=item %s found where operator expected
1492
1493(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
be771a83
GS
1494sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
1495operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1496operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1497
a0d0e21e
LW
1498=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1499
1500(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1501
1502=item gethostent not implemented
1503
1504(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1505because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1506on the Internet.
1507
69282e91 1508=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1509
be771a83
GS
1510(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1511socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1512
748a9306
LW
1513=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1514
1515(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1516C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1517
6df41af2
GS
1518=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1519
be771a83
GS
1520(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1521forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1522L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1523
1524=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1525
1526(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1527must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1528"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1529is in (using "::").
1530
e476b1b5
GS
1531=item glob failed (%s)
1532
be771a83
GS
1533(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1534C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1535C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1536nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1537resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1538broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1539config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1540were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1541empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1542think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1543C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1544
a0d0e21e
LW
1545=item Glob not terminated
1546
1547(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1548a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1549not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1550earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1551
6df41af2 1552=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1553
6df41af2
GS
1554(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1555version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1556
1557=item goto must have label
1558
1559(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1560unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1561
6df41af2
GS
1562=item %s had compilation errors
1563
1564(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1565
a0d0e21e
LW
1566=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1567
be771a83
GS
1568(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1569to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1570created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1571
1572=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1573
be771a83
GS
1574(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1575spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1576
6df41af2
GS
1577=item %s has too many errors
1578
1579(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1580Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1581
252aa082
JH
1582=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1583
e476b1b5 1584(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1585(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1586L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1587
8903cb82
PP
1588=item Identifier too long
1589
1590(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1591about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1592names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1593of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1594
6df41af2 1595=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1596
6df41af2 1597(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1598
6df41af2 1599=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1600
be771a83
GS
1601(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1602binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1603offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1604
4fdae800
PP
1605=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1606
d5898338 1607(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1608would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1609when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1610version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1611to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1612
d37a9538
ST
1613=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
1614
420cdfc1 1615(W syntax) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration. Legal
d37a9538
ST
1616characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
1617
a0d0e21e
LW
1618=item Illegal division by zero
1619
be771a83
GS
1620(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1621your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1622meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1623
6df41af2
GS
1624=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1625
be771a83
GS
1626(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1627A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1628number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1629
a0d0e21e
LW
1630=item Illegal modulus zero
1631
be771a83
GS
1632(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1633numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1634
6df41af2 1635=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1636
6df41af2
GS
1637(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1638two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1639
1640=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 1641
d1be9408 1642(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 1643
399388f4 1644=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1645
d1be9408 1646(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 1647Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1648
6df41af2 1649=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
6ff81951 1650
6df41af2 1651(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1c4db469 1652following switches: B<-[DIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 1653
6df41af2 1654=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1655
75b44862 1656(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1657internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1658delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1659
6df41af2 1660=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1661
be771a83
GS
1662(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1663name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1664didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1665ignored.
54310121 1666
6df41af2 1667=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1668
be771a83
GS
1669(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1670the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1671system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
1672times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
1673would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 1674
be771a83
GS
1675Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
1676also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 1677
a0d0e21e
LW
1678=item Insecure dependency in %s
1679
8b1a09fc 1680(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
1681The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
1682setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
1683tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
1684from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
1685such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
1686L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
1687
1688=item Insecure directory in %s
1689
be771a83
GS
1690(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
1691setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
1692the world. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 1693
62f468fc 1694=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1695
1696(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1697setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1698C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1699potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1700known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1701
a7ae9550
GS
1702=item Integer overflow in %s number
1703
75b44862 1704(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
1705either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
1706your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
1707On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
1708representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
17090b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1710transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1711internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1712operations.
bbce6d69 1713
7253e4e3 1714=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1715
1716(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 1717The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
1718discovered.
1719
748a9306
LW
1720=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1721
be771a83
GS
1722(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
1723you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
1724to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
1725L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
1726Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
1727terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 1728
7253e4e3 1729=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 1730
7253e4e3
RK
1731(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
1732<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1733discovered.
a0d0e21e 1734
6df41af2
GS
1735=item %s (...) interpreted as function
1736
75b44862 1737(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 1738followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 1739operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 1740L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 1741
09bef843
SB
1742=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1743
1744The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1745by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1746
1747=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1748
be771a83
GS
1749The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
1750recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1751
c635e13b
PP
1752=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1753
be771a83
GS
1754(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
1755L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 1756
7253e4e3 1757=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1758
1759(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
1760greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
1761C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
1762up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1763problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 1764
7253e4e3 1765=item Invalid [] range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
1766
1767(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
1768character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
1769
09bef843
SB
1770=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1771
0120eecf 1772(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
1773elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
1774parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
1775See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1776
96e4d5b1
PP
1777=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1778
8903cb82 1779(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
be771a83
GS
1780(W pack) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be
1781silently ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1782
1783=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1784
be771a83
GS
1785(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See
1786L<perlfunc/unpack>.
75b44862
GS
1787(W unpack) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be
1788silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 1789
a0d0e21e
LW
1790=item ioctl is not implemented
1791
1792(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1793strange for a machine that supports C.
1794
c289d2f7
JH
1795=item ioctl() on unopened %s
1796
1797(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
1798Check you control flow and number of arguments.
1799
80cbd5ad
JH
1800=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
1801
1802(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
1803neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
1804
6ad11d81
JH
1805=item `%s' is not a code reference
1806
04a80ee0
RGS
1807(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
1808needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
1809to a subroutine.
1810
1811=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
1812
04a80ee0
RGS
1813(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
1814unaware of.
6ad11d81 1815
a0d0e21e
LW
1816=item junk on end of regexp
1817
1818(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1819
1820=item Label not found for "last %s"
1821
be771a83
GS
1822(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
1823of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1824L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1825
1826=item Label not found for "next %s"
1827
1828(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1829that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1830L<perlfunc/last>.
1831
1832=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1833
1834(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1835that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1836L<perlfunc/last>.
1837
85ab1d1d 1838=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1839
85ab1d1d 1840(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1841effective uids or gids failed.
1842
69282e91 1843=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1844
be771a83
GS
1845(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
1846to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1847L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 1848
9d837945
TM
1849=item lstat() on filehandle %s
1850
d1be9408 1851(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
9d837945
TM
1852by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
1853instead on the filehandle.)
1854
cd06dffe
GS
1855=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1856
1857(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
be771a83
GS
1858values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
1859L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 1860
5cd5c422
RB
1861=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex;
1862
1863marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
1864
1865(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
7253e4e3
RK
1866handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release. The <-- HERE
1867shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2e50fd82 1868
6df41af2
GS
1869=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
1870
1871(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
1872
1873 prefix1;prefix2
1874
1875or
6df41af2
GS
1876 prefix1 prefix2
1877
be771a83
GS
1878with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
1879a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
1880appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 1881"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 1882
2f758a16
ST
1883=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
1884
d37a9538
ST
1885(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
1886syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
1887obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
1888when the function is called.
2f758a16 1889
ba210ebe
JH
1890=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
1891
1892Perl detected something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding rules.
1893
dea0fc0b
JH
1894=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
1895
1896Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
1897doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
1898
5cd5c422
RB
1899=item %s matches null string many times in regex;
1900
1901marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1902
1903(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
1904regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
1905shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
1906See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 1907
25f58aea
PN
1908=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
1909
1910(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
1911interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
1912"use" or "my".
1913
6df41af2
GS
1914=item % may only be used in unpack
1915
1916(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
1917checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
1918See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 1919
a0d0e21e
LW
1920=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1921
1922(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1923doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1924
3cdd684c
TP
1925=item Method %s not permitted
1926
1927See Server error.
1928
a0d0e21e
LW
1929=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1930
1931(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1932by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1933ended earlier on the current line.
1934
1935=item Misplaced _ in number
1936
d4ced10d
JH
1937(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
1938separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 1939
4a2d328f 1940=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1941
4a2d328f 1942(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1943double-quotish context.
1944
a0d0e21e
LW
1945=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1946
1947(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1948"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1949
06eaf0bc
GS
1950=item Missing command in piped open
1951
be771a83
GS
1952(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
1953C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
1954blank.
06eaf0bc 1955
6df41af2
GS
1956=item Missing name in "my sub"
1957
be771a83
GS
1958(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
1959they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
1960
1961=item Missing $ on loop variable
1962
be771a83
GS
1963(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
1964are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
1965can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 1966
cc507455 1967=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306
LW
1968
1969(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1970found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1971
ab13f0c7
JH
1972=item Missing right brace on %s
1973
1974(F) Missing right brace in C<\p{...}> or C<\P{...}>.
1975
d98d5fff 1976=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1977
be771a83
GS
1978(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
1979ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
1980were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1981
6df41af2
GS
1982=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
1983
1984(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1985found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
1986the previous line just because you saw this message.
1987
a0d0e21e
LW
1988=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1989
1990(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1991constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1992catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1993
1994 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1995 mod(2);
1996
1997Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1998
c5674021
PDF
1999Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2000is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2001
2002 $x = 1;
2003 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2004 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2005 }
c5674021 2006
7a4340ed 2007=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2008
2009(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2010subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2011backwards.
2012
7a4340ed 2013=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2014
be771a83
GS
2015(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2016couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2017
2018=item Module name must be constant
2019
2020(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2021
be98fb35 2022=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2023
be98fb35
GS
2024(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2025you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2026about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2027
a0d0e21e
LW
2028=item msg%s not implemented
2029
2030(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2031
2032=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2033
75b44862
GS
2034(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2035They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2036
6df41af2 2037=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
09bef843 2038
6df41af2 2039(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
be771a83
GS
2040Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A*
2041or Z*. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2042
2043=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
2044
be771a83
GS
2045(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, which
2046must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z to indicate what sort
2047of string is to be unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2048
2049=item / must follow a numeric type
2050
be771a83
GS
2051(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#', but this did not
2052follow some numeric unpack specification. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2053
2054=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2055
be771a83
GS
2056(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2057that yet.
6df41af2
GS
2058
2059=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
2060
be771a83
GS
2061(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2062sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2063local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2064
8b1a09fc
PP
2065=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2066
e476b1b5 2067(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2068If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2069again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2070provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
2071
2072=item Negative length
2073
be771a83
GS
2074(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2075length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2076
7253e4e3 2077=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2078
b45f050a 2079(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2080things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2081expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2082
7253e4e3 2083Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2084C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2085
6df41af2 2086=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2087
be771a83
GS
2088(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2089scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e
LW
2090
2091=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2092
be771a83
GS
2093(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2094setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2095will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2096securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2097
2098=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2099
2100(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2101
2102=item No comma allowed after %s
2103
2104(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2105allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2106Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2107
0a753a76
PP
2108One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2109constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2110importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2111does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2112explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2113L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2114would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2115remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2116constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2117list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2118this error was triggered?
2119
748a9306
LW
2120=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2121
be771a83
GS
2122(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2123redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2124doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2125
a0d0e21e
LW
2126=item No DB::DB routine defined
2127
be771a83
GS
2128(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2129for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof) didn't
2130define a routine to be called at the beginning of each statement. Which
2131is odd, because the file should have been required automatically, and
2132should have blown up the require if it didn't parse right.
a0d0e21e
LW
2133
2134=item No dbm on this machine
2135
2136(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2137supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2138
2139=item No DBsub routine
2140
2141(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
2142but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
2143didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
2144ordinary subroutine call.
2145
c47ff5f1 2146=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2147
be771a83
GS
2148(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2149redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2150find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2151
c47ff5f1 2152=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2153
be771a83
GS
2154(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2155redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2156name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2157
6df41af2
GS
2158=item No #! line
2159
2160(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2161even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2162
2163=item "no" not allowed in expression
2164
be771a83
GS
2165(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2166returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2167
c47ff5f1 2168=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2169
be771a83
GS
2170(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2171redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2172doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2173
c47ff5f1 2174=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2175
be771a83
GS
2176(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2177redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2178find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2179
1ec3e8de
GS
2180=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2181
be771a83
GS
2182(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2183declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2184semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2185
a0d0e21e
LW
2186=item No Perl script found in input
2187
2188(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2189with #! and containing the word "perl".
2190
2191=item No setregid available
2192
2193(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2194your system.
2195
2196=item No setreuid available
2197
2198(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2199your system.
2200
a67e862a 2201=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2202
be771a83
GS
2203(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2204immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2205
6df41af2
GS
2206=item No %s specified for -%c
2207
2208(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2209you haven't specified one.
2210
2c692339
RGS
2211=item No such class %s
2212
2213(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration, but
2214this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2215
6df41af2
GS
2216=item No such pipe open
2217
2218(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2219close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2220earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2221
88e9b055 2222=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 2223
88e9b055 2224(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
2225not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
2226array indices for that to work.
2227
88e9b055 2228=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee 2229
be771a83
GS
2230(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type does
2231not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in the
2232%FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash is
2233%usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
f1192cee 2234
a0d0e21e
LW
2235=item No such signal: SIG%s
2236
be771a83
GS
2237(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2238not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2239names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2240
2241=item Not a CODE reference
2242
2243(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2244subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2245use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2246also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2247
2248=item Not a format reference
2249
2250(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2251format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2252
2253=item Not a GLOB reference
2254
be771a83
GS
2255(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2256symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2257something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2258kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2259
2260=item Not a HASH reference
2261
be771a83
GS
2262(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2263reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2264find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2265
6df41af2
GS
2266=item Not an ARRAY reference
2267
be771a83
GS
2268(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2269a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2270to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2271
a0d0e21e
LW
2272=item Not a perl script
2273
2274(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2275even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2276mention perl.
2277
2278=item Not a SCALAR reference
2279
be771a83
GS
2280(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2281a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2282to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2283
2284=item Not a subroutine reference
2285
2286(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2287subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2288use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2289also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2290
e7ea3e70 2291=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2292
2293(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2294doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2295
a0d0e21e
LW
2296=item Not enough arguments for %s
2297
2298(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2299
6df41af2
GS
2300=item Not enough format arguments
2301
be771a83
GS
2302(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2303supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2304
2305=item %s: not found
2306
be771a83
GS
2307(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2308of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2309yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2310
2311=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2312
6df41af2
GS
2313(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2314timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2315to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2316F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2317need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2318
2319=item Null filename used
2320
be771a83
GS
2321(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2322machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2323
6df41af2
GS
2324=item NULL OP IN RUN
2325
be771a83
GS
2326(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2327pointer.
6df41af2 2328
55497cff
PP
2329=item Null picture in formline
2330
2331(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2332specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2333supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2334
a0d0e21e
LW
2335=item Null realloc
2336
2337(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2338
2339=item NULL regexp argument
2340
5f05dabc 2341(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2342
2343=item NULL regexp parameter
2344
2345(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2346
fc36a67e
PP
2347=item Number too long
2348
be771a83 2349(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 2350about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
2351versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2352the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2353"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2354
6df41af2
GS
2355=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2356
be771a83
GS
2357(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2358The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2359future version.
6df41af2 2360
252aa082
JH
2361=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2362
75b44862 2363(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2364(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2365L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2366
2367See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2368
6ad11d81
JH
2369=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
2370
04a80ee0
RGS
2371(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
2372arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 2373
b21befc1
MG
2374=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
2375
2376(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2377which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
2378
1930e939 2379=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2380
be771a83
GS
2381(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2382which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2383
bbce6d69
PP
2384=item Offset outside string
2385
2386(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
be771a83
GS
2387pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine. The sole
2388exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer will extend
2389the buffer and zero pad the new area.
bbce6d69 2390
9ddeeac9
JH
2391=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
2392
2393(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
c289d2f7 2394that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
9ddeeac9 2395
c289d2f7 2396=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
2397
2398(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
2399never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
2400call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
2401
a0d0e21e
LW
2402=item oops: oopsAV
2403
e476b1b5 2404(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2405
2406=item oops: oopsHV
2407
e476b1b5 2408(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2409
56f7f34b 2410=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2411
be771a83
GS
2412(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2413handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2414of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2415C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2416
748a9306
LW
2417=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2418
be771a83
GS
2419(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2420was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2421use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2422example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2423"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2424
6df41af2
GS
2425=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2426
be771a83
GS
2427(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2428in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2429
a80b8354
GS
2430=item Out of memory!
2431
2432(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2433remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2434no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2435
6df41af2 2436=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 2437
6df41af2
GS
2438(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2439remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
2440the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
2441possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 2442
1b979e0a 2443=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2444
be771a83
GS
2445(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
2446insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
2447request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2448
2449The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2450depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
2451However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
2452emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
2453is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
2454where the failed request happened.
55497cff 2455
1b979e0a
IZ
2456=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2457
2458(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
2459is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
2460C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 2461
6df41af2
GS
2462=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2463
be771a83
GS
2464(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
2465parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
2466otherwise.
6df41af2
GS
2467
2468=item @ outside of string
2469
2470(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
2471the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2472
2473=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
2474
be771a83
GS
2475(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
2476package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
2477some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
2478mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 2479
5b027e89
RGS
2480=item Package '%s' not found (did you use the incorrect case?)
2481
2482(W misc) You included a package file via C<use>, but the package name
5b7c7e90 2483did not match the file name. It's possible that you misspelled the
5b027e89
RGS
2484package name.
2485
a0d0e21e
LW
2486=item page overflow
2487
be771a83
GS
2488(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
2489page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 2490
6df41af2
GS
2491=item panic: %s
2492
2493(P) An internal error.
2494
a0d0e21e
LW
2495=item panic: ck_grep
2496
2497(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2498
2499=item panic: ck_split
2500
2501(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2502
2503=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2504
be771a83
GS
2505(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
2506there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 2507
810b8aa5
GS
2508=item panic: del_backref
2509
2510(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2511reference.
2512
a0d0e21e
LW
2513=item panic: die %s
2514
2515(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2516it wasn't an eval context.
2517
2269b42e 2518=item panic: pp_match
a0d0e21e 2519
be771a83
GS
2520(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
2521data.
a0d0e21e 2522
a0d0e21e
LW
2523=item panic: do_subst
2524
be771a83
GS
2525(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
2526data.
a0d0e21e 2527
2269b42e 2528=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 2529
2269b42e 2530(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 2531data.
a0d0e21e 2532
c635e13b
PP
2533=item panic: frexp
2534
2535(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2536
a0d0e21e
LW
2537=item panic: goto
2538
2539(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2540and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2541
2542=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2543
2544(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2545
2546=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2547
2548(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2549
e446cec8
IZ
2550=item panic: kid popen errno read
2551
2552(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2553
a0d0e21e
LW
2554=item panic: last
2555
2556(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2557it wasn't a block context.
2558
2559=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2560
be771a83
GS
2561(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
2562scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2563
2564=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2565
2566(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2567invalid enum on the top of it.
2568
810b8aa5
GS
2569=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2570
2571(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2572references to an object.
2573
6df41af2
GS
2574=item panic: malloc
2575
2576(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2577
a0d0e21e
LW
2578=item panic: mapstart
2579
2580(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2581
2582=item panic: null array
2583
2584(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2585
2586=item panic: pad_alloc
2587
2588(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2589and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2590
2591=item panic: pad_free curpad
2592
2593(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2594and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2595
2596=item panic: pad_free po
2597
2598(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2599
2600=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2601
2602(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2603and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2604
2605=item panic: pad_sv po
2606
2607(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2608
2609=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2610
2611(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2612and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2613
2614=item panic: pad_swipe po
2615
2616(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2617
2618=item panic: pp_iter
2619
2620(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2621
2269b42e
JH
2622=item panic: pp_split
2623
2624(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2625
a0d0e21e
LW
2626=item panic: realloc
2627
2628(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2629
2630=item panic: restartop
2631
2632(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2633didn't supply the destination.
2634
2635=item panic: return
2636
2637(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2638then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2639
2640=item panic: scan_num
2641
2642(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2643
2644=item panic: sv_insert
2645
2646(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2647was string.
2648
2649=item panic: top_env
2650
6224f72b 2651(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2652
2653=item panic: yylex
2654
2655(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2656
dea0fc0b
JH
2657=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
2658
2659(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
64977eb6 2660to even) byte length.
dea0fc0b 2661
7b8d334a 2662=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 2663
e476b1b5 2664(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
2665
2666 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2667
2668when you meant
2669
2670 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2671
54884818 2672Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 2673
75b44862 2674=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
a0d0e21e 2675
be771a83
GS
2676(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
2677recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
2678you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2679
6df41af2
GS
2680=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2681
2682(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
fecfaeb8 2683C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2
GS
2684
2685=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2686
2687(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
2688
2689 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2690 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
2691 LC_ALL = "En_US",
2692 LANG = (unset)
2693 are supported and installed on your system.
2694 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
2695
2696Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
2697settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
0ea6b70f
JH
2698This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your operating
2699system supplier and/or system administrator have set up the so-called
2700locale system but Perl could not use those settings. This was not
2701dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that
2702Perl can and will use, the script will be run. Before you really fix
2703the problem, however, you will get the same error message each time
2704you run Perl. How to really fix the problem can be found in
2705L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 2706
bccbfa77
NC
2707=item perlio: argument list not closed for layer "%s"
2708
64977eb6 2709(S) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you forgot
bccbfa77 2710the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
64977eb6
NC
2711data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
2712the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
2713If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
2714the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
2715
2716=item perlio: invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2717
2718(S) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
d1be9408 2719colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
64977eb6
NC
2720If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2721list was terminated too soon.
bccbfa77 2722
ef0f9817
DD
2723=item perlio: unknown layer "%s"
2724
2725(S) An attempt was made to push an unknown layer onto the Perl I/O
2726system. (Layers take care of transforming data between external and
2727internal representations.) Note that some layers, such as C<mmap>,
2728are not supported in all environments. If your program didn't
2729explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the result of the
2730value of the environment variable PERLIO.
2731
a0d0e21e
LW
2732=item Permission denied
2733
2734(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2735
bd3fa61c 2736=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 2737
be771a83
GS
2738(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
2739process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
2740fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 2741
3bf38418
WL
2742=item P must have an explicit size
2743
2744(F) The unpack format P must have an explicit size, not "*".
2745
5cd5c422
RB
2746=item POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex;
2747
2748marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2749
9a0b3859 2750(W regexp) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
7253e4e3
RK
2751I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for example:
2752/[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not currently
2753implemented; they are simply placeholders for future extensions and will
2754cause fatal errors. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
2755where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2756
5cd5c422
RB
2757=item POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex;
2758
2759marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2760
2761(F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
7253e4e3
RK
2762beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
2763If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
2764expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
2765backslash: "\[." and ".\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
2766about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2767
5cd5c422
RB
2768=item POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex;
2769
2770marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2771
7253e4e3
RK
2772(F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
2773with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions. If you
2774need to represent those character sequences inside a regular expression
2775character class, just quote the square brackets with the backslash: "\[="
2776and "=\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2777problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2778
5cd5c422
RB
2779=item POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex;
2780
2781marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2782
7253e4e3
RK
2783(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. The <-- HERE
2784shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2785See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2786
a0d0e21e
LW
2787=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2788
81777298 2789(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2790the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2791
bbce6d69
PP
2792=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2793
e476b1b5 2794(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
75b44862 2795strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as
be771a83
GS
2796literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
2797parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2798
774d564b
PP
2799You probably wrote something like this:
2800
54310121 2801 @list = qw(
774d564b 2802 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2803 b # another comment
774d564b 2804 );
bbce6d69
PP
2805
2806when you should have written this:
2807
774d564b 2808 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2809 a
2810 b
774d564b
PP
2811 );
2812
2813If you really want comments, build your list the
2814old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2815
2816 @list = (
2817 'a', # a comment
2818 'b', # another comment
2819 );
bbce6d69
PP
2820
2821=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2822
be771a83
GS
2823(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
2824commas aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used
2825different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
2826frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2827
54310121 2828You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2829
774d564b
PP
2830 qw! a, b, c !;
2831
2832which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2833commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2834
774d564b 2835 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2836
a0d0e21e
LW
2837=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2838
2839(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2840Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2841end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2842Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2843
18623440
PS
2844=item Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string
2845
2846(W ambiguous) You said something like `@foo' in a double-quoted string
32b0a12e
AMS
2847but there was no array C<@foo> in scope at the time. If you wanted a
2848literal @foo, then write it as \@foo; otherwise find out what happened
2849to the array you apparently lost track of.
18623440 2850
6df41af2
GS
2851=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2852
2853(W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
2854could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2855
8cd79558
GS
2856=item pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
2857
a1063b2d 2858(D deprecated) You have written something like this:
8cd79558
GS
2859
2860 sub doit
2861 {
2862 use attrs qw(locked);
2863 }
2864
2865You should use the new declaration syntax instead.
2866
2867 sub doit : locked
2868 {
2869 ...
2870
2871The C<use attrs> pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for
2872backward-compatibility. See L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">.
2873
a0d0e21e
LW
2874=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2875
e476b1b5 2876(S precedence) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2877
a0d0e21e
LW
2878 open FOO || die;
2879
2880is now misinterpreted as
2881
2882 open(FOO || die);
2883
be771a83
GS
2884because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and
2885list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must put
2886parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead
2887of "||".
a0d0e21e 2888
3cdd684c
TP
2889=item Premature end of script headers
2890
2891See Server error.
2892
6df41af2
GS
2893=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
2894
be771a83 2895(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2896before now. Check your control flow.
6df41af2 2897
9a7dcd9c 2898=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2899
be771a83 2900(W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2901before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 2902
6df41af2 2903=item Process terminated by SIG%s
a0d0e21e 2904
6df41af2
GS
2905(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
2906applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
2907port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
2908L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
fecfaeb8 2909in L<perlos2>.
a0d0e21e 2910
3fe9a6f1 2911=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2912
9a0b3859 2913(S prototype) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been
be771a83 2914declared or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2915
5cd5c422
RB
2916=item Quantifier in {,} bigger than %d in regex;
2917
2918marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
9baa0206 2919
b45f050a 2920(F) There is currently a limit to the size of the min and max values of the
7253e4e3 2921{min,max} construct. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where
b45f050a 2922the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
9baa0206 2923
5cd5c422
RB
2924=item Quantifier unexpected on zero-length expression;
2925
2926marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
9baa0206 2927
b45f050a
JF
2928(W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where
2929it makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion. Try putting the
2930quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example, the way to match
2931"abc" provided that it is followed by three repetitions of "xyz" is
2932C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
9baa0206 2933
7253e4e3
RK
2934The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2935discovered.
2936
89ea2908
GA
2937=item Range iterator outside integer range
2938
2939(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2940are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
be771a83
GS
2941One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string increment
2942by prepending "0" to your numbers.
89ea2908 2943
9a7dcd9c 2944=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2945
75b44862 2946(W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2947before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 2948
6df41af2
GS
2949=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2950
2951(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
2952
4ad56ec9
IZ
2953=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2954
be771a83
GS
2955(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
2956already been freed.
4ad56ec9 2957
a0d0e21e
LW
2958=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2959
be771a83
GS
2960(F debugging) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce
2961the desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
a0d0e21e
LW
2962which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2963
3e0ccd42 2964=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2965
2966(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2967an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2968
7a4340ed 2969=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method %s
3e0ccd42 2970
be771a83
GS
2971(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking
2972a method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance
2973hierarchy.
3e0ccd42 2974
1930e939
TP
2975=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2976
be771a83
GS
2977(W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list
2978with an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This usually
2979means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant to use
2980parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2981
2982 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2983 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2984 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2985 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2986
810b8aa5
GS
2987=item Reference is already weak
2988
e476b1b5 2989(W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
810b8aa5
GS
2990Doing so has no effect.
2991
a0d0e21e
LW
2992=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2993
be771a83
GS
2994(W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with
2995a reference count of other than 1.
a0d0e21e 2996
5cd5c422
RB
2997=item Reference to nonexistent group in regex;
2998
2999marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3000
3001(F) You used something like C<\7> in your regular expression, but there are
3002not at least seven sets of capturing parentheses in the expression. If you
3003wanted to have the character with value 7 inserted into the regular expression,
3004prepend a zero to make the number at least two digits: C<\07>
9baa0206 3005
7253e4e3 3006The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a 3007discovered.
9baa0206 3008
a0d0e21e
LW
3009=item regexp memory corruption
3010
3011(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
3012expression compiler gave it.
3013
b45f050a 3014=item Regexp out of space
a0d0e21e 3015
be771a83
GS
3016(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it
3017earlier.
a0d0e21e 3018
7a95317d
GS
3019=item Repeat count in pack overflows
3020
be771a83
GS
3021(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3022signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
7a95317d
GS
3023
3024=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
3025
be771a83
GS
3026(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3027signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
7a95317d 3028
a0d0e21e
LW
3029=item Reversed %s= operator
3030
be771a83
GS
3031(W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must
3032always comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
a0d0e21e
LW
3033
3034=item Runaway format
3035
3036(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
3037produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
3038199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
3039themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
3040shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
3041
3042=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
3043
be771a83
GS
3044(W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a
3045single element of an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar
3046value (indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always
3047behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
3048argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
3049and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
3050if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 3051
748a9306 3052On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 3053element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
3054Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
3055L<perlref>.
3056
a6006777
PP
3057=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
3058
75b44862 3059(W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single
be771a83
GS
3060element of a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value
3061(indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves
3062like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
3063argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
3064and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
3065if you're expecting only one subscript.
3066
3067On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash element
3068as a list, you need to look into how references work, because Perl will
3069not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
a6006777
PP
3070L<perlref>.
3071
3e2f796a
NIS
3072=item Scalars leaked: %d
3073
3074(P) Something went wrong in Perl's internal bookkeeping of scalars:
3075not all scalar variables were deallocated by the time Perl exited.
3076What this usually indicates is a memory leak, which is of course bad,
3077especially if the Perl program is intended to be long-running.
3078
a0d0e21e
LW
3079=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
3080
54310121
PP
3081(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
3082or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
3083
3084=item Search pattern not terminated
3085
3086(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
3087construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3088Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 3089
9ddeeac9 3090=item %sseek() on unopened filehandle
a0d0e21e 3091
be771a83
GS
3092(W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a
3093filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
3094
3095=item select not implemented
3096
3097(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
3098
ae21d580 3099=item Self-ties of arrays and hashes are not supported
68a4a7e4 3100
ae21d580
JH
3101(F) Self-ties are of arrays and hashes are not supported in
3102the current implementation.
68a4a7e4 3103
6df41af2 3104=item Semicolon seems to be missing
a0d0e21e 3105
75b44862
GS
3106(W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing
3107semicolon, or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
3108
3109=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
3110
be771a83
GS
3111(S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a
3112scalar that had previously been marked as free.
a0d0e21e 3113
6df41af2 3114=item sem%s not implemented
a0d0e21e 3115
6df41af2 3116(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
a0d0e21e 3117
69282e91 3118=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3119
be771a83 3120(W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3121before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 3122
7253e4e3 3123=item Sequence (? incomplete in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
7b8d334a 3124
7253e4e3 3125(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?. The <-- HERE
b45f050a 3126shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
be771a83 3127L<perlre>.
1b1626e4 3128
5cd5c422
RB
3129=item Sequence (?{...}) not terminated or not {}-balanced in regex;
3130
3131marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3132
3133(F) If the contents of a (?{...}) clause contains braces, they must balance
7253e4e3
RK
3134for Perl to properly detect the end of the clause. The <-- HERE shows in
3135the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
3136L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3137
5cd5c422
RB
3138=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented in regex;
3139
3140marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3141
b45f050a 3142(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved but
7253e4e3 3143has not yet been written. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
b45f050a
JF
3144where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3145
5cd5c422
RB
3146=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized in regex;
3147
3148marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3149
7253e4e3
RK
3150(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense. The
3151<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
3152discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3153
5cd5c422
RB
3154=item Sequence (?#... not terminated in regex;
3155
3156marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
3157
3158(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
7253e4e3
RK
3159parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. The <-- HERE shows in
3160the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
3161L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
3162
3163=item 500 Server error
3164
3165See Server error.
3166
a5f75d66
AD
3167=item Server error
3168
3cdd684c 3169This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
be771a83
GS
3170to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error text
3171varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen variants
3172are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted", "Document
3173contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and "Did not
3174produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
3175
3176B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
3177
be771a83
GS
3178You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the
3179user CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user
3180account you tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables
3181(like PATH) from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a
3182location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or less.
3183Please see the following for more information:
9607fc9c 3184
06a5f41f
JH
3185 http://www.perl.org/CGI_MetaFAQ.html
3186 http://www.htmlhelp.org/faq/cgifaq.html
3187 http://www.w3.org/Security/Faq/
a5f75d66 3188
be94a901
GS
3189You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
3190
a0d0e21e
LW
3191=item setegid() not implemented
3192
be771a83
GS
3193(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't
3194support the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3195didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
3196
3197=item seteuid() not implemented
3198
be771a83
GS
3199(F) You tried to assign to C<< $> >>, and your operating system doesn't
3200support the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3201didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 3202
81777298
GS
3203=item setpgrp can't take arguments
3204
be771a83
GS
3205(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no
3206arguments, unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process
3207group ID.
81777298 3208
a0d0e21e
LW
3209=item setrgid() not implemented
3210
be771a83
GS
3211(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't
3212support the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3213didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
3214
3215=item setruid() not implemented
3216
be771a83
GS
3217(F) You tried to assign to C<$<>, and your operating system doesn't
3218support the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3219didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 3220
6df41af2
GS
3221=item setsockopt() on closed socket %s
3222
be771a83
GS
3223(W closed) You tried to set a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
3224forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
3225L<perlfunc/setsockopt>.
3226
a0d0e21e
LW
3227=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
3228
be771a83
GS
3229(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the
3230world, because the world might have written on it already.
a0d0e21e
LW
3231
3232=item shm%s not implemented
3233
3234(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
3235
6df41af2
GS
3236=item <> should be quotes
3237
3238(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
3239C<require 'file'>.
3240
3241=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
3242
3243(W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
be771a83
GS
3244as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true or false
3245result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string, which is
3246probably not what you had in mind.
6df41af2 3247
69282e91 3248=item shutdown() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3249
75b44862
GS
3250(W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit
3251superfluous.
a0d0e21e 3252
f86702cc 3253=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e 3254
be771a83
GS
3255(W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist.
3256Perhaps you put it into the wrong package?
a0d0e21e
LW
3257
3258=item sort is now a reserved word
3259
3260(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
3261But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
3262
3263=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
3264
3265(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
c47ff5f1 3266it by not using C<< <=> >> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
3267See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3268
3269=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
3270
3271(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
3272or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3273
3274=item Split loop
3275
be771a83
GS
3276(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't
3277iterate more times than there are characters of input, which is what
3278happened.) See L<perlfunc/split>.
a0d0e21e 3279
a0d0e21e
LW
3280=item Statement unlikely to be reached
3281
be771a83
GS
3282(W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a
3283die(). This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns
3284unless there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system()
3285instead, which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in
3286a block by itself.
a0d0e21e 3287
9ddeeac9 3288=item stat() on unopened filehandle %s
6df41af2 3289
355b1299
JH
3290(W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function on a filehandle that
3291was either never opened or has since been closed.
6df41af2 3292
7a4340ed 3293=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading %s
e7ea3e70 3294
be771a83
GS
3295(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation
3296stubs. Stubs should never be implicitly created, but explicit calls to
3297C<can> may break this.
e7ea3e70 3298
a0d0e21e
LW
3299=item Subroutine %s redefined
3300
e476b1b5 3301(W redefine) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
3302
3303 {
271595cc 3304 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
3305 eval "sub name { ... }";
3306 }
3307
3308=item Substitution loop
3309
be771a83
GS
3310(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a substitution
3311shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of input, which
3312is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 3313L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
3314
3315=item Substitution pattern not terminated
3316
d1be9408 3317(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of an s/// or s{}{}
a0d0e21e 3318construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3319Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3320
3321=item Substitution replacement not terminated
3322
d1be9408 3323(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of an s/// or s{}{}
a0d0e21e 3324construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3325Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3326
3327=item substr outside of string
3328
be771a83
GS
3329(W substr),(F) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of
3330a string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
3331length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is fatal if
3332substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side of an
3333assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 3334
f86702cc 3335=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e 3336
be771a83
GS
3337(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but
3338a version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
a0d0e21e 3339
5cd5c422
RB
3340=item Switch (?(condition)... contains too many branches in regex;
3341
3342marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3343
3344(F) A (?(condition)if-clause|else-clause) construct can have at most two
3345branches (the if-clause and the else-clause). If you want one or both to
3346contain alternation, such as using C<this|that|other>, enclose it in
3347clustering parentheses:
3348
3349 (?(condition)(?:this|that|other)|else-clause)
3350
7253e4e3 3351The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
3352discovered. See L<perlre>.
3353
5cd5c422
RB
3354=item Switch condition not recognized in regex;
3355
3356marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/