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add the new stat(@array) diagnostic to perldiag
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
CommitLineData
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
4438c4b7
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
6df41af2
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
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53=item Aliasing via reference is experimental
54
55(S experimental::refaliasing) This warning is emitted if you use
56a reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment to
57alias one variable to another. Simply suppress the warning if you
58want to use the feature, but know that in doing so you are taking
59the risk of using an experimental feature which may change or be
60removed in a future Perl version:
61
62 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
63 use feature "refaliasing";
64 \$x = \$y;
65
de42a5a9 66=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 67
6df41af2 68(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 69
04f74579 70=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 71
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72(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
73after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 74
74d1b2e4
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75=item alpha->numify() is lossy
76
77(W numeric) An alpha version can not be numified without losing
78information.
79
6df41af2 80=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 81
75b44862 82(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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83keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
84one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
85subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 86
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87To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
88before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
89Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
90imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 91
6df41af2 92To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 93on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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94to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
95L<attributes>).
43192e07 96
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97=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
98
99(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
100all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
101first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
102C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
103
6df41af2 104=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 105
7c7af292 106(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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107you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
108a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 109
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110=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
111
112(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
113string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
114the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
115write C<-foo()>.
116
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117=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
118
7c7af292 119(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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120bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
121(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
122like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
123assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
124clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
125really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 126
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127=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
128
129(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
130asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
131named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 132the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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133function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
134and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
135
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136=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
137
138=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 139
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140(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
141the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1422 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
143might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
144foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
145that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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146
147In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
148to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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149C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
150by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
151want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
152unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
153that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
154off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 155
6df41af2 156=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 157
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158(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
159redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
160redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 161
6df41af2 162=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 163
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164(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
165redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
166into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
167though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
168which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 169
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170 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
171 while (<STDIN>) {
172 print;
173 print OUT;
174 }
175 close OUT;
c9f97d15 176
6df41af2 177=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 178
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179(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
180transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 181one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 182a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
183hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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184you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
185alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 186
6df41af2 187=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 188
6df41af2 189(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 190
f86702cc 191=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 192
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193(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
194that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
195will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 196
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197Note that for the C<Inf> and C<NaN> (infinity and not-a-number) the
198definition of "numeric" is somewhat unusual: the strings themselves
199(like "Inf") are considered numeric, and anything following them is
200considered non-numeric.
201
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202=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
203
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204(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
205system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
206take care of transforming data between external and internal
207representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
208point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
209didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
210result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 211
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212=item Argument "%s" treated as 0 in increment (++)
213
214(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to the C<++>
215operator which expects either a number or a string matching
216C</^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/>. See L<perlop/Auto-increment and
217Auto-decrement> for details.
218
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219=item Array passed to stat will be coerced to a scalar (did you want stat $_[0]?)
220
221(W syntax) You called stat() on an array, but the array will be
222coerced to a scalar - the number of elements in the array.
223
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224=item assertion botched: %s
225
21b5e840 226(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
a0d0e21e 227
0eacef8e 228=item Assertion %s failed: file "%s", line %d
a0d0e21e 229
21b5e840 230(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 231
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232=item Assigned value is not a reference
233
234(F) You tried to assign something that was not a reference to an lvalue
235reference (e.g., C<\$x = $y>). If you meant to make $x an alias to $y, use
236C<\$x = \$y>.
237
238=item Assigned value is not %s reference
239
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240(F) You tried to assign a reference to a reference constructor, but the
241two references were not of the same type. You cannot alias a scalar to
242an array, or an array to a hash; the two types must match.
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243
244 \$x = \@y; # error
245 \@x = \%y; # error
246 $y = [];
247 \$x = $y; # error; did you mean \$y?
248
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249=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
250
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251(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
252the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 253
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254=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
255
256(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
257must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
258know which context to supply to the right side.
259
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260=item Assuming NOT a POSIX class since %s in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
261
262(W regexp) You had something like these:
263
264 [[:alnum]]
265 [[:digit:xyz]
266
267They look like they might have been meant to be the POSIX classes
268C<[:alnum:]> or C<[:digit:]>. If so, they should be written:
269
270 [[:alnum:]]
271 [[:digit:]xyz]
272
273Since these aren't legal POSIX class specifications, but are legal
274bracketed character classes, Perl treats them as the latter. In the
275first example, it matches the characters C<":">, C<"[">, C<"a">, C<"l">,
276C<"m">, C<"n">, and C<"u">.
277
278If these weren't meant to be POSIX classes, this warning message is
279spurious, and can be suppressed by reordering things, such as
280
281 [[al:num]]
282
283or
284
285 [[:munla]]
286
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287=item <> at require-statement should be quotes
288
289(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
290C<require 'file'>.
291
2393f1b9 292=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 293
49293501 294(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 295the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 296
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297=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
298
299(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
300the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
301do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
302
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303=item Attempt to bless into a reference
304
305(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 306the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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307supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
308
309 bless $self, $proto;
310
311when you intended
312
313 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
314
315If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
316of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
317example by:
318
319 bless $self, "$proto";
320
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FC
321=item Attempt to clear deleted array
322
323(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
324Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
325can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
326callback on the array.
327
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328=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
329
330(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
331which is not in its key set.
332
333=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
334
335(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
336declared readonly from a restricted hash.
337
de42a5a9 338=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 339
f84fe999 340(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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341that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
342outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 343
12578ffb 344=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 345
f84fe999 346(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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347strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
348strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
349of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 350
7d5b40b4 351=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 352
f84fe999 353(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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354free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
355SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
356free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
357try to free it.
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358
359=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
360
f84fe999 361(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 362
7d5b40b4 363=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 364
8f7e4d2c 365(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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366see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
367earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
368This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
369that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
370mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
371corrupted.
a0d0e21e 372
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373=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
374
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375(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
376function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
377means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
378invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
379literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
380avoid this warning.
84902520 381
087b5369
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382=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
383
384(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
385compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
386unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
387L<perlvar/%INC>.
388
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NC
389=item Attempt to set length of freed array
390
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FC
391(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
392been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
393scalar representing the last index of an array and later
394assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
NC
395
396 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
397 $$r = 503
398
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399=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
400
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401(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
402used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
403dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 404
c32124fe
NC
405=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
406
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FC
407(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
408"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
409obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
410will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 411
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FC
412=item Attribute prototype(%s) discards earlier prototype attribute in same sub
413
414(W misc) A sub was declared as sub foo : prototype(A) : prototype(B) {}, for
415example. Since each sub can only have one prototype, the earlier
416declaration(s) are discarded while the last one is applied.
417
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418=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
419
57dedab9
FC
420(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
421the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
422The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
423will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 424
ccce04a4
FC
425=item av_reify called on tied array
426
427(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
428confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
429
de42a5a9 430=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 431
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432(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
433or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 434S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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435S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
436
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437=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
438
496a33f5 439(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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440substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
441most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
442
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443=item Bad filehandle: %s
444
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445(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
446symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
447open(), or did it in another package.
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448
449=item Bad free() ignored
450
be771a83 451(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 452been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 453setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 454
9ea8bc6d 455This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 456dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 457which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 458
aa689395
PP
459=item Bad hash
460
461(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
462
6df41af2
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463=item Badly placed ()'s
464
465(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
466of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
467Perl yourself.
468
a7cb8dae 469=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 470
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471(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
472didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
473of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
LW
474
475 $var = 'myvar';
476 $sym = mypack::$var;
477
478is not the same as
479
480 $var = 'myvar';
481 $sym = "mypack::$var";
482
88e1f1a2
JV
483=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
484
485(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
486plugin API.
487
4ad56ec9
IZ
488=item Bad realloc() ignored
489
6903afa2
FC
490(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
491had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
492be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 493
a0d0e21e
LW
494=item Bad symbol for array
495
496(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
497wasn't a symbol table entry.
498
4df3f177
SP
499=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
500
501(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
502that wasn't a symbol table entry.
503
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504=item Bad symbol for filehandle
505
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506(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
507that wasn't a symbol table entry.
a0d0e21e
LW
508
509=item Bad symbol for hash
510
511(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
512wasn't a symbol table entry.
513
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FC
514=item Bad symbol for scalar
515
516(P) An internal request asked to add a scalar entry to something that
517wasn't a symbol table entry.
518
34d09196
GS
519=item Bareword found in conditional
520
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521(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
522conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
523of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
524
525 open FOO || die;
526
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527It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
528a bareword:
34d09196
GS
529
530 use constant TYPO => 1;
531 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
532
533The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
534
6df41af2
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535=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
536
537(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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GS
538subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
539symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
540
541=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
542
be771a83
GS
543(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
544compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
545you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 546
a0d0e21e
LW
547=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
548
be771a83
GS
549(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
550subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
551exited.
a0d0e21e 552
68dc0745
PP
553=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
554
555(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
be771a83
GS
556implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
557occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
558be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
559depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 560
c782d7ee 561=item \%d better written as $%d
6df41af2 562
be771a83
GS
563(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
564The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
565substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
566because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
567there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 568
252aa082
JH
569=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
570
e476b1b5 571(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
572(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
573L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 574
69282e91 575=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 576
be771a83
GS
577(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
578check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 579
c289d2f7
JH
580=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
581
582(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 583Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 584
c5a0f51a
JH
585=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
586
e476b1b5 587(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 588
043c750c 589=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 590
be771a83 591(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 592copiable.
4633a7c4 593
5a25739d
FC
594=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
595
434f489b 596(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
597encountered an invalid data type.
598
b927b7e9 599=item Both or neither range ends should be Unicode in regex; marked by
6e8a73f2 600S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b927b7e9
KW
601
602(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
603
604In a bracketed character class in a regular expression pattern, you
605had a range which has exactly one end of it specified using C<\N{}>, and
606the other end is specified using a non-portable mechanism. Perl treats
607the range as a Unicode range, that is, all the characters in it are
608considered to be the Unicode characters, and which may be different code
609points on some platforms Perl runs on. For example, C<[\N{U+06}-\x08]>
610is treated as if you had instead said C<[\N{U+06}-\N{U+08}]>, that is it
611matches the characters whose code points in Unicode are 6, 7, and 8.
612But that C<\x08> might indicate that you meant something different, so
613the warning gets raised.
614
f675dbe5
CB
615=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
616
be771a83
GS
617(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
618iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
619which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 620
a0d0e21e
LW
621=item Callback called exit
622
4929bf7b 623(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
624exited by calling exit.
625
6df41af2 626=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 627
be771a83
GS
628(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
629parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
630that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
631early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
632subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
633checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
634function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
635the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 636
56feebad
FC
637=item Calling POSIX::%s() is deprecated
638
639(D deprecated) You called a function whose use is deprecated. See
640the function's name in L<POSIX> for details.
641
0c7df902
JH
642=item Cannot chr %f
643
644(F) You passed an invalid number (like an infinity or not-a-number) to C<chr>.
645
5dee29d4 646=item Cannot compress %f in pack
0c7df902 647
5dee29d4
JH
648(F) You tried compressing an infinity or not-a-number as an unsigned
649integer with BER, which makes no sense.
0c7df902 650
49704364 651=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b 652
717feafc
JH
653(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress.
654The BER compressed integer format can only be used with positive
655integers, and you attempted to compress a very large number (> 1e308).
656See L<perlfunc/pack>.
0258719b 657
49704364 658=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
659
660(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
661format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
662
5c1f4d79
NC
663=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
664
6903afa2
FC
665(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
666in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
667The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
668no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 669
4040665a 670=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
671
672(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 673be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 674
b5d97229
RGS
675=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
676
677(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
678either with open() or binmode().
679
0c7df902
JH
680=item Cannot pack %f with '%c'
681
5dee29d4 682(F) You tried converting an infinity or not-a-number to an integer,
0c7df902
JH
683which makes no sense.
684
685=item Cannot printf %f with '%c'
686
687(F) You tried printing an infinity or not-a-number as a character (%c),
688which makes no sense. Maybe you meant '%s', or just stringifying it?
689
7355df7e
FC
690=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
691
692(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
693is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
694
ce65bc73
FC
695=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
696
697(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
698keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
699do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
700Perl code, but are only used internally.
701
46e58bd2
AC
702=item Cannot yet reorder sv_catpvfn() arguments from va_list
703
704(F) Some XS code tried to use C<sv_catpvfn()> or a related function with a
705format string that specifies explicit indexes for some of the elements, and
706using a C-style variable-argument list (a C<va_list>). This is not currently
707supported. XS authors wanting to do this must instead construct a C array of
708C<SV*> scalars containing the arguments.
709
96ebfdd7
RK
710=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
711
712(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
713integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
714to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
715
a0d0e21e
LW
716=item Can't bless non-reference value
717
718(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
719encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
720
dc57907a
RGS
721=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
722
0d863452 723(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 724a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
725
726=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 727
0d863452
RH
728(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
729
6df41af2
GS
730=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
731
732(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
733object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
734like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
735
736 $BADREF = undef;
737 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
738 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
739
a0d0e21e
LW
740=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
741
54310121 742(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
743ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
744didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
745object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
746
747=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
748
749(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
750object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
751defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
752Something like this will reproduce the error:
753
754 $BADREF = 42;
755 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
756 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
757
dfe378f1
FC
758=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
759
760(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
761symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
762
2bf7e7b2
FC
763=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
764
765(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
766not attached to the symbol table.
767
a0d0e21e
LW
768=item Can't chdir to %s
769
f703fc96 770(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
771that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
772
0545a864 773=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 774
be771a83
GS
775(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
776nosuid.
104d25b7 777
22e74366 778=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
779
780(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 781(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
782say things like:
783
784 *foo += 1;
785
786You CAN say
787
788 $foo = *foo;
789 $foo += 1;
790
791but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
792
0d863452 793=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 794
0d863452
RH
795(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
796or C<default> block.
797
a0d0e21e
LW
798=item Can't create pipe mailbox
799
be771a83
GS
800(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
801quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 802
eb64745e
GS
803=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
804
30c282f6
NC
805(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
806"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 807
fc7debfb
FC
808=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
809
810(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
811C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
812issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
813error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
814
a2162cd9
FC
815=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
816
817(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
818a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
819
820=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
821
822(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
823reason.
824
825=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
826
827(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
828reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
829C<-i.bak>, or some such.
830
831=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
832
833(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
834characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
835inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
836
ab0b796c
KW
837=item Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s".
838
839(W locale) You are 1) running under "C<use locale>"; 2) the current
840locale is not a UTF-8 one; 3) you tried to do the designated case-change
841operation on the specified Unicode character; and 4) the result of this
842operation would mix Unicode and locale rules, which likely conflict.
843Mixing of different rule types is forbidden, so the operation was not
844done; instead the result is the indicated value, which is the best
845available that uses entirely Unicode rules. That turns out to almost
846always be the original character, unchanged.
847
848It is generally a bad idea to mix non-UTF-8 locales and Unicode, and
849this issue is one of the reasons why. This warning is raised when
850Unicode rules would normally cause the result of this operation to
851contain a character that is in the range specified by the locale,
8520..255, and hence is subject to the locale's rules, not Unicode's.
853
854If you are using locale purely for its characteristics related to things
855like its numeric and time formatting (and not C<LC_CTYPE>), consider
856using a restricted form of the locale pragma (see L<perllocale/The "use
857locale" pragma>) like "S<C<use locale ':not_characters'>>".
858
859Note that failed case-changing operations done as a result of
860case-insensitive C</i> regular expression matching will show up in this
861warning as having the C<fc> operation (as that is what the regular
862expression engine calls behind the scenes.)
863
a0d0e21e
LW
864=item Can't do waitpid with flags
865
be771a83
GS
866(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
867waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 868
a0d0e21e
LW
869=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
870
be771a83
GS
871(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
872point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
873line.
a0d0e21e 874
1109a392
MHM
875=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
876
877(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
878or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
879little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
880See L<perlfunc/pack>.
881
a0d0e21e
LW
882=item Can't exec "%s": %s
883
d1be9408 884(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
885named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
886permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
887C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
888architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
889can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
890#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
891
892=item Can't exec %s
893
be771a83
GS
894(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
895that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
896need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
897
898=item Can't execute %s
899
be771a83
GS
900(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
901found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 902
6df41af2 903=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 904
be771a83
GS
905(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
906is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2
GS
907
908=item Can't find label %s
909
be771a83
GS
910(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
911possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
912
913=item Can't find %s on PATH
914
be771a83
GS
915(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
916found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 917
6df41af2 918=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 919
be771a83
GS
920(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
921found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
922script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
923
924=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
925
be771a83
GS
926(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
927that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
928nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 929
fb73857a
PP
930 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
931
97b3d10f 932If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
933included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
934may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
935a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
936L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 937
660a4616
ST
938=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
939
29f52644
KW
940=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
941
942(F) The named property which you specified via C<\p> or C<\P> is not one
943known to Perl. Perhaps you misspelled the name? See
e1b711da 944L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
29f52644
KW
945for a complete list of available official
946properties. If it is a
947L<user-defined property|perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
948it must have been defined by the time the regular expression is
949matched.
950
951If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
952by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 953until C<\E>).
660a4616 954
b3647a36 955=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 956
be771a83
GS
957(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
958pipeline.
a0d0e21e 959
b3647a36
SR
960=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
961
c973c02e 962(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
963after five seconds.
964
748a9306
LW
965=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
966
be771a83
GS
967(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
968between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
969Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
970the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
971account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
972the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 973the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
974the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
975if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
976because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
977appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
978and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
979routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
980shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
981only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 982
a0d0e21e
LW
983=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
984
be771a83
GS
985(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
986pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
987
988=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
989
748a9306
LW
990(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
991mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 992
6df41af2 993=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 994
be771a83
GS
995(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
996loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
997
998=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
999
be771a83
GS
1000(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
1001a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
1002you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
1003See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 1004
5a25739d
FC
1005=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
1006
1007(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
1008"string" or block.
1009
9850bf21 1010=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 1011
9850bf21
RH
1012(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
1013comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
1014as the reduce() function in List::Util).
1015
6df41af2
GS
1016=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
1017
be771a83
GS
1018(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
1019subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
1020cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
1021routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 1022
0b5b802d
GS
1023=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
1024
be771a83
GS
1025(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
1026signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
1027signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
1028processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
1029situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
1030may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 1031
e2c0f81f
DG
1032=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
1033
1034(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
1035attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
1036process identifier.
1037
6df41af2 1038=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 1039
6df41af2 1040(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
1041except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
1042block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
1043block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
1044usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
1045inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
1046L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 1047
2c7d6b9c
RGS
1048=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
1049
1050(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
1051package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
1052
b8170e59
JB
1053=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
1054
6903afa2
FC
1055(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
1056This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
1057that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
1058to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
1059dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
1060that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
1061dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 1062
748a9306
LW
1063=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
1064
2ba9eb46 1065(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
1066lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
1067want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
1068the package name.
748a9306 1069
6df41af2 1070=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 1071
6df41af2
GS
1072(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
1073handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 1074pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 1075that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 1076
ea071790 1077=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 1078
fa816bf3
FC
1079(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
1080Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
1081the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
1082to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
1083extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
1084to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
1085L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 1086
6df41af2
GS
1087=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
1088
be771a83
GS
1089(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
1090autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
1091are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
1092the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 1093
b8170e59
JB
1094=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
1095
1096(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 1097for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
1098unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
1099
a0d0e21e
LW
1100=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
1101
1102(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
1103functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 1104method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 1105
8af56b9d
FC
1106=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s" (perhaps you forgot
1107to load "%s"?)
1108
1109(F) You called a method on a class that did not exist, and the method
1110could not be found in UNIVERSAL. This often means that a method
1111requires a package that has not been loaded.
1112
a0d0e21e
LW
1113=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
1114
be771a83
GS
1115(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
1116doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 1117
2f7da168
RK
1118=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
1119
1120(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
1121e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
1122
f4ad53f4 1123=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 1124
be771a83
GS
1125(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
1126VMS.
3e3baf6d 1127
cd40cd58
NC
1128=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
1129
ff9c1ae8 1130(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
1131that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
1132process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
1133the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
1134from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
1135functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
1136
a0d0e21e
LW
1137=item Can't modify %s in %s
1138
be771a83
GS
1139(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1140to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1141
54310121 1142=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1143
1144(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1145a NULL.
1146
0f948285 1147=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call of &%s
6df41af2
GS
1148
1149(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1150such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1151
cf6e1fa1
FC
1152=item Can't modify reference to %s in %s assignment
1153
1154(F) Only a limited number of constructs can be used as the argument to a
1155reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment, and what
1156you used was not one of them. See L<perlref/Assigning to References>.
1157
1158=item Can't modify reference to localized parenthesized array in list
1159assignment
1160
1161(F) Assigning to C<\local(@array)> or C<\(local @array)> is not supported, as
1162it is not clear exactly what it should do. If you meant to make @array
1163refer to some other array, use C<\@array = \@other_array>. If you want to
1164make the elements of @array aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1165right-hand side, use C<\(@array) = @scalar_refs>.
1166
1167=item Can't modify reference to parenthesized hash in list assignment
1168
1169(F) Assigning to C<\(%hash)> is not supported. If you meant to make %hash
1170refer to some other hash, use C<\%hash = \%other_hash>. If you want to
1171make the elements of %hash into aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1172right-hand side, use a hash slice: C<\@hash{@keys} = @those_scalar_refs>.
1173
5f05dabc 1174=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1175
5f05dabc 1176(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1177buffer.
1178
6df41af2
GS
1179=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1180
1181(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1182there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1183count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1184grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1185though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1186once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1187
a0d0e21e
LW
1188=item Can't open %s: %s
1189
c47ff5f1 1190(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1191filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1192switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1193this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1194you named on the command line.
1195
1196(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1197your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1198
9a869a14
RGS
1199=item Can't open a reference
1200
1201(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1202using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1203
1204 open FH, '>', $ref;
1205
1206but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1207open is not supported.
1208
a0d0e21e
LW
1209=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1210
be771a83
GS
1211(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1212You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1213as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1214">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1215
748a9306
LW
1216=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1217
be771a83
GS
1218(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1219redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1220the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1221
1222=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1223
be771a83
GS
1224(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1225redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1226command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1227
1228=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1229
be771a83
GS
1230(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1231redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1232the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1233
1234=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1235
be771a83
GS
1236(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1237redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1238for stdout.
748a9306 1239
3b1cf97d 1240=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1241
1242(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1243
fa3aa65a
JC
1244If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1245shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1246you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1247
6df41af2
GS
1248=item Can't read CRTL environ
1249
1250(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1251from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1252missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1253or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1254searched.
6df41af2 1255
f3106bc8
LM
1256=item Can't redeclare "%s" in "%s"
1257
1258(F) A "my", "our" or "state" declaration was found within another declaration,
1259such as C<my ($x, my($y), $z)> or C<our (my $x)>.
1260
6df41af2
GS
1261=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1262
1263(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1264there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1265count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1266or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1267though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1268loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1269
64977eb6 1270=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1271
be771a83
GS
1272(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1273file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1274the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1275
a0d0e21e
LW
1276=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1277
e476b1b5 1278(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1279probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1280
748a9306
LW
1281=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1282
be771a83
GS
1283(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1284to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1285
9415f659
KW
1286=item Can't represent character for Ox%X on this platform
1287
1288(F) There is a hard limit to how big a character code point can be due
1289to the fundamental properties of UTF-8, especially on EBCDIC
1290platforms. The given code point exceeds that. The only work-around is
1291to not use such a large code point.
1292
4f12ec0e
FC
1293=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1294
1295(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1296all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1297the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1298supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1299
fe13d51d 1300=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1301
1fa582fa
FC
1302(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1303opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1304package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1305
cd06dffe
GS
1306=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1307
be771a83
GS
1308(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1309temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1310is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1311
96ebfdd7
RK
1312=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1313
1314(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1315there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1316
78f9721b
SM
1317=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1318
6903afa2
FC
1319(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1320subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1321think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1322write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1323Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1324
a0d0e21e
LW
1325=item Can't stat script "%s"
1326
be771a83
GS
1327(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1328open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1329
a0d0e21e
LW
1330=item Can't take log of %g
1331
fb73857a 1332(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1333negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1334standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1335negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1336
1337=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1338
1339(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1340negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1341with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1342
1343=item Can't undef active subroutine
1344
1345(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1346however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1347redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1348
c81225bc 1349=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1350
be771a83
GS
1351(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1352into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1353specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1354indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1355
6651ba0b
FC
1356=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1357
1358(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1359other than "=" after the module name.
1360
1f1ec7b5
KW
1361=item Can't use a hash as a reference
1362
1363(F) You tried to use a hash as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1364C<< %foo->{"bar"} >> or C<< %$ref->{"hello"} >>. Versions of perl
1365<= 5.22.0 used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't
1366have. This was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5
KW
1367
1368=item Can't use an array as a reference
1369
1370(F) You tried to use an array as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1371C<< @foo->[23] >> or C<< @$ref->[99] >>. Versions of perl <= 5.22.0
1372used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't have. This
1373was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5 1374
1db89ea5
BS
1375=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1376
e27ad1f2 1377(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1378table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1379for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1380
96ebfdd7
RK
1381=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1382
1383(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1384be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1385
6df41af2
GS
1386=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1387
be771a83
GS
1388(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1389references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1390
90b75b61 1391=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1392
20561843 1393(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1394Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1395provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1396
1109a392
MHM
1397=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1398
1399(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1400byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1401allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1402
e35475de
KW
1403=item Can't use 'defined(@array)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1404
1405(F) defined() is not useful on arrays because it
1406checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
1407array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1408
1409=item Can't use 'defined(%hash)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1410
1411(F) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes.
1412
1413Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1414becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1415weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1416These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice, so it now
1417generates a fatal error.
1418
1419If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1420context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
1421
1422 if (%hash) {
1423 # not empty
1424 }
1425
1426If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1427variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1428a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1429it's loaded, etc.
1430
6df41af2
GS
1431=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1432
c1f06047 1433(P) The parser got confused when trying to parse a C<foreach> loop.
6df41af2 1434
aab6a793 1435=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1436
be771a83
GS
1437(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1438is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1439(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1440have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1441weren't.
1442
6d3b25aa
RGS
1443=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1444
1445(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1446that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1447For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1448is inside a big-endian group.
1449
c07a80fd
PP
1450=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1451
1452(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1453You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1454and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1455Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1456lexical variable.
1457
a0d0e21e
LW
1458=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1459
1460(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1461reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1462test the type of the reference, if need be.
1463
748a9306 1464=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1465
5e634d20
FC
1466=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1467
b41bf23f
FC
1468(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1469C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1470L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1471in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1472for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1473of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1474symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1475
748a9306
LW
1476=item Can't use subscript on %s
1477
1478(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1479subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1480didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1481
6df41af2
GS
1482=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1483
75b44862
GS
1484(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1485creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1486backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1487expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1488value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1489instead.
6df41af2 1490
810b8aa5
GS
1491=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1492
1493(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1494references can be weakened.
1495
fc7debfb
FC
1496=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1497
1498(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1499loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1500from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1501or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1502
5f05dabc 1503=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1504
be771a83
GS
1505(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1506with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1507Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1508
a04e6aad 1509=item Character following "\c" must be printable ASCII
f9d13529 1510
7357bd17 1511(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be a printable (non-control) ASCII character.
17a3df4c 1512
727b6379 1513Note that ASCII characters that don't map to control characters are
7357bd17 1514discouraged, and will generate the warning (when enabled)
727b6379 1515L</""\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"">.
f9d13529 1516
163a633c
KW
1517=item Character following \%c must be '{' or a single-character Unicode property name in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1518
1519(F) (In the above the C<%c> is replaced by either C<p> or C<P>.) You
1520specified something that isn't a legal Unicode property name. Most
1521Unicode properties are specified by C<\p{...}>. But if the name is a
1522single character one, the braces may be omitted.
1523
f337b084 1524=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1525
1526(W pack) You said
1527
1528 pack("C", $x)
1529
1530where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1531only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1532and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1533
1534 pack("C", $x & 255)
1535
1536If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1537instead.
1538
f337b084 1539=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1540
1541(W pack) You said
1542
1543 pack("c", $x)
1544
1545where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1546is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1547and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1548
1549 pack("c", $x & 255);
1550
1551If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1552instead.
1553
f337b084
TH
1554=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1555
1556(W unpack) You tried something like
1557
1558 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1559
1a147d38 1560where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1561below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1562value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1563
1564 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1565
5a25739d
FC
1566=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1567
1568(W pack) You said
1569
1570 pack("U0W", $x)
1571
1572where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1573expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1574as if you meant:
1575
1576 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1577
f337b084
TH
1578=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1579
1580(W pack) You tried something like
1581
1582 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1583
1a147d38 1584where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1585value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1586uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1587
1588 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1589
1590=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1591
1592(W unpack) You tried something like
1593
1594 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1595
1a147d38 1596where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1597value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1598uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1599
1600 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1601
f51551f7
FC
1602=item charnames alias definitions may not contain a sequence of multiple spaces
1603
1604(F) You defined a character name which had multiple space characters
1605in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these names are
1606defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1607could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>. See
1608L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1609
1610=item charnames alias definitions may not contain trailing white-space
1611
1612(F) You defined a character name which ended in a space
1613character. Remove the trailing space(s). Usually these names are
1614defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1615could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
1616See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1617
60121127
TC
1618=item chdir() on unopened filehandle %s
1619
1620(W unopened) You tried chdir() on a filehandle that was never opened.
1621
f866a7cd
FC
1622=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1623
1624(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
7ed0dd93
FC
1625non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which
1626is better written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash
1627for non-word characters. Doing it the way you did is not portable
1628between ASCII and EBCDIC platforms.
f866a7cd 1629
6651ba0b
FC
1630=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1631
1632(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1633
abc7ecad
SP
1634=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1635
1636(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1637a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1638
5a25739d
FC
1639=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1640
1641(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1642
541ed3a9
FC
1643=item Closure prototype called
1644
1645(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1646handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1647This subroutine cannot be called.
1648
74d1b2e4
FC
1649=item \C no longer supported in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1650
1651(F) The \C character class used to allow a match of single byte
1652within a multi-byte utf-8 character, but was removed in v5.24 as
1653it broke encapsulation and its implementation was extremely buggy.
1654If you really need to process the individual bytes, you probably
1655want to convert your string to one where each underlying byte is
1656stored as a character, with utf8::encode().
1657
49704364
LW
1658=item Code missing after '/'
1659
6903afa2
FC
1660(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1661another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1662
c0236afe
KW
1663=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, and not portable
1664
1665(S non_unicode) You had a code point that has never been in any
1666standard, so it is likely that languages other than Perl will NOT
1667understand it. At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code
1668points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher, and this code point is higher.
1669
1670Acceptance of these code points is a Perl extension, and you should
1671expect that nothing other than Perl can handle them; Perl itself on
1672EBCDIC platforms before v5.24 does not handle them.
1673
1674Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a 32 bit word.
1675
1676Perl also makes no guarantees that the representation of these code
1677points won't change at some point in the future, say when machines
1678become available that have larger than a 64-bit word. At that time,
1679files written by an older Perl would require conversion before being
1680readable by a newer Perl.
1681
5a25739d
FC
1682=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1683
2d88a86a 1684(S non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1685of U+10FFFF.
1686
c0236afe
KW
1687Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, but
1688these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. Further, even if
1689these languages/systems accept these large code points, they may have
1690chosen a different representation for them than the UTF-8-like one that
1691Perl has, which would mean files are not exchangeable between them and
1692Perl.
1693
1694On EBCDIC platforms, code points above 0x3FFF_FFFF have a different
1695representation in Perl v5.24 than before, so any file containing these
1696that was written before that version will require conversion before
1697being readable by a later Perl.
0876b9a0 1698
6df41af2
GS
1699=item %s: Command not found
1700
a892b81a 1701(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
66a1f5ec
FC
1702instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1703Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1704
1705 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1706
7a2e2cd6
PP
1707=item Compilation failed in require
1708
1709(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1710Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1711encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1712
c3464db5
DD
1713=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1714
be771a83
GS
1715(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1716situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1717to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1718arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1719recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1720under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1721in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1722that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1723on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1724
69282e91 1725=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1726
be771a83
GS
1727(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1728to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1729L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1730
e21e7c6a
FC
1731=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1732
1733(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1734(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1735L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1736
1737=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1738
1739(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1740overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
f738a371 1741L<overload> pragma?
e21e7c6a 1742
779c5bc9
GS
1743=item Constant is not %s reference
1744
1745(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1746is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1747The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1748usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1749See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1750
0ac016fc
FC
1751=item Constants from lexical variables potentially modified elsewhere are
1752deprecated
1753
1754(D deprecated) You wrote something like
1755
1756 my $var;
1757 $sub = sub () { $var };
1758
1759but $var is referenced elsewhere and could be modified after the C<sub>
1760expression is evaluated. Either it is explicitly modified elsewhere
1761(C<$var = 3>) or it is passed to a subroutine or to an operator like
1762C<printf> or C<map>, which may or may not modify the variable.
1763
1764Traditionally, Perl has captured the value of the variable at that
1765point and turned the subroutine into a constant eligible for inlining.
1766In those cases where the variable can be modified elsewhere, this
1767breaks the behavior of closures, in which the subroutine captures
1768the variable itself, rather than its value, so future changes to the
1769variable are reflected in the subroutine's return value.
1770
1771This usage is deprecated, because the behavior is likely to change
1772in a future version of Perl.
1773
1774If you intended for the subroutine to be eligible for inlining, then
1775make sure the variable is not referenced elsewhere, possibly by
1776copying it:
1777
1778 my $var2 = $var;
1779 $sub = sub () { $var2 };
1780
1781If you do want this subroutine to be a closure that reflects future
1782changes to the variable that it closes over, add an explicit C<return>:
1783
1784 my $var;
1785 $sub = sub () { return $var };
1786
4cee8e80
CS
1787=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1788
aeb94125
FC
1789(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1790been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1791for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1792
9607fc9c
PP
1793=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1794
be771a83
GS
1795(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1796for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1797workarounds.
9607fc9c 1798
5a25739d
FC
1799=item Constant(%s) unknown
1800
1801(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1802to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1803character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
3ee1a09c 1804forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?
5a25739d 1805
4a873d7a
FC
1806=item :const is experimental
1807
1808(S experimental::const_attr) The "const" attribute is experimental.
1809If you want to use the feature, disable the warning with C<no warnings
1810'experimental::const_attr'>, but know that in doing so you are taking
1811the risk that your code may break in a future Perl version.
1812
b77472f9
FC
1813=item :const is not permitted on named subroutines
1814
1815(F) The "const" attribute causes an anonymous subroutine to be run and
465068b9 1816its value captured at the time that it is cloned. Named subroutines are
b77472f9
FC
1817not cloned like this, so the attribute does not make sense on them.
1818
e7ea3e70
IZ
1819=item Copy method did not return a reference
1820
6903afa2 1821(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1822L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1823
4aaa4757
FC
1824=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1825
1826(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1827with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1828in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1829called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1830
1831 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1832 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1833
6798c92b
GS
1834=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1835
1836(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1837
675fa9ff
FC
1838=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1839
1840(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1841one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1842latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1843
a0d0e21e
LW
1844=item corrupted regexp pointers
1845
1846(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1847expression compiler gave it.
1848
1849=item corrupted regexp program
1850
be771a83
GS
1851(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1852valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1853
de42a5a9 1854=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1855
1856(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1857
49704364
LW
1858=item Count after length/code in unpack
1859
1860(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1861you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1862L<perlfunc/pack>.
1863
f2cccb4c
KW
1864=for comment
1865The following are used in lib/diagnostics.t for testing two =items that
1866share the same description. Changes here need to be propagated to there
1867
6651ba0b
FC
1868=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1869
a0d0e21e
LW
1870=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1871
be771a83
GS
1872(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1873100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1874infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1875which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1876
aad1d01f
NC
1877This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1878setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1879
e0e4a6e3
FC
1880=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by
1881S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
bcb95744 1882
6903afa2 1883(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1884most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1885of the C<....> part.
1886
6e8a73f2 1887The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1888discovered.
1889
62658f4d
PM
1890=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1891
1892(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1893there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1894
36447869
FC
1895=item delete argument is index/value array slice, use array slice
1896
1897(F) You used index/value array slice syntax (C<%array[...]>) as
1898the argument to C<delete>. You probably meant C<@array[...]> with
1899an @ symbol instead.
1900
1901=item delete argument is key/value hash slice, use hash slice
1902
1903(F) You used key/value hash slice syntax (C<%hash{...}>) as the argument to
1904C<delete>. You probably meant C<@hash{...}> with an @ symbol instead.
1905
0ffcbc25
FC
1906=item delete argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
1907
4a0af295 1908(F) The argument to C<delete> must be either a hash or array element,
0ffcbc25
FC
1909such as:
1910
1911 $foo{$bar}
1912 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1913
1914or a hash or array slice, such as:
1915
1916 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1917 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1918
fc36a67e
PP
1919=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1920
be771a83
GS
1921(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1922long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1923that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1924
6d3b25aa
RGS
1925=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1926
fa816bf3
FC
1927(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1928has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1929not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1930conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1931static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1932relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1933declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1934
6d3b25aa
RGS
1935 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1936
1937becomes
1938
1939 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1940
ea9d9ebc 1941Beginning with perl 5.10.0, you can also use C<state> variables to have
fa816bf3 1942lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1943
1944 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1945
500ab966
RGS
1946=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1947
1948(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1949just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1950than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1951
3cdd684c
TP
1952=item Did not produce a valid header
1953
1954See Server error.
1955
6df41af2
GS
1956=item %s did not return a true value
1957
1958(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1959it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1960traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1961do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1962
cc507455 1963=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1964
413ff9f6
FC
1965(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1966some such.
4633a7c4 1967
cc507455 1968=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1969
be771a83
GS
1970(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1971variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1972seems superfluous.
33633739 1973
cc507455 1974=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1975
be771a83
GS
1976(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1977@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1978carried away.
748a9306 1979
7e1af8bc 1980=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1981
1982(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1983you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1984
3cdd684c
TP
1985=item Document contains no data
1986
1987See Server error.
1988
62658f4d
PM
1989=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1990
1991(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 1992define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 1993
49704364
LW
1994=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1995
1996(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1997See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1998
95cb0d72
FC
1999=item Don't know how to get file name
2000
2001(P) C<PerlIO_getname>, a perl internal I/O function specific to VMS, was
2002somehow called on another platform. This should not happen.
2003
4021c788 2004=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
2005
2006(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
2007
2008=item do_study: out of memory
2009
2010(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
2011
6df41af2
GS
2012=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
2013
56da5a46
RGS
2014(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2015"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
2016name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
2017because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
2018"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
2019something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
2020subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
2021"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 2022
ac206dc8
RGS
2023=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
2024
2025(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
2026qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
2027
84d78eb7
YO
2028=item dump is not supported
2029
2030(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
2031
a0d0e21e
LW
2032=item Duplicate free() ignored
2033
be771a83
GS
2034(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
2035already been freed.
a0d0e21e 2036
1109a392
MHM
2037=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
2038
35f0cd76
FC
2039(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
2040type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 2041
4633a7c4
LW
2042=item elseif should be elsif
2043
fa816bf3
FC
2044(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
2045it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
2046named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
2047unlikely to be what you want.
2048
c30c479a
KW
2049=item Empty \%c in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2050
e0e4a6e3 2051=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2052
af6f566e 2053(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 2054described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 2055a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 2056
85ab1d1d 2057=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2058
85ab1d1d 2059(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2060effective uids or gids failed.
2061
c038024b
RGS
2062=item %ENV is aliased to %s
2063
2064(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
2065aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 2066program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 2067
748a9306
LW
2068=item Error converting file specification %s
2069
5f05dabc 2070(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 2071specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
2072single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
2073an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
2074conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 2075
ad19ef22 2076=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 2077
be771a83
GS
2078(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2079expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
2080is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 2081
ad19ef22 2082=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 2083
be771a83
GS
2084(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
2085C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
2086pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
2087it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
2088C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
2089interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
2090L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 2091
ad19ef22 2092=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 2093
be771a83
GS
2094(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
2095assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
2096pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 2097
e0e4a6e3
FC
2098=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by
2099S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
2100
2101(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 2102any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 2103
6e8a73f2 2104The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
2105discovered.
2106
fc36a67e
PP
2107=item Excessively long <> operator
2108
2109(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
2110Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
2111filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
2112variable and glob that.
2113
ed9aa3b7
SG
2114=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
2115
af8bb25a 2116(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 2117OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 2118
fe13d51d 2119=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
2120
2121(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
2122
0ffcbc25
FC
2123=item exists argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
2124
4a0af295 2125(F) The argument to C<exists> must be a hash or array element or a
0ffcbc25
FC
2126subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
2127
2128 $foo{$bar}
2129 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
2130 &do_something
2131
2132=item exists argument is not a subroutine name
2133
ccfc2567
FC
2134(F) The argument to C<exists> for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine name,
2135and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
0ffcbc25 2136
a0d0e21e
LW
2137=item Exiting eval via %s
2138
be771a83
GS
2139(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
2140goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
2141
2142=item Exiting format via %s
2143
9a2ff54b 2144(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 2145goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2146
0a753a76
PP
2147=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
2148
be771a83
GS
2149(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
2150sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
2151loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 2152
a0d0e21e
LW
2153=item Exiting subroutine via %s
2154
be771a83
GS
2155(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
2156as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2157
2158=item Exiting substitution via %s
2159
be771a83
GS
2160(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
2161as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2162
e0e4a6e3 2163=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2164
675fa9ff 2165(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2166
2167 (?13
2168
2169to denote a capturing group of the form
2170L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
2171but omitted the C<")">.
2172
e0e4a6e3 2173=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
27350048 2174
8b6fbf55
FC
2175(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
2176only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
2177C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
2178containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
2179This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
2180interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
2181have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
2182L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
2183
baabe3fb 2184=item Experimental aliasing via reference not enabled
1f8155a2 2185
baabe3fb 2186(F) To do aliasing via references, you must first enable the feature:
1f8155a2 2187
baabe3fb
FC
2188 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
2189 use feature "refaliasing";
1f8155a2
FC
2190 \$x = \$y;
2191
74d1b2e4
FC
2192=item Experimental %s on scalar is now forbidden
2193
2194(F) An experimental feature added in Perl 5.14 allowed C<each>, C<keys>,
2195C<push>, C<pop>, C<shift>, C<splice>, C<unshift>, and C<values> to be called with a
2196scalar argument. This experiment is considered unsuccessful, and
2197has been removed. The C<postderef> feature may meet your needs better.
2198
30d9c59b
Z
2199=item Experimental subroutine signatures not enabled
2200
2201(F) To use subroutine signatures, you must first enable them:
2202
caa35032 2203 no warnings "experimental::signatures";
30d9c59b
Z
2204 use feature "signatures";
2205 sub foo ($left, $right) { ... }
2206
6da34ecb
FC
2207=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
2208
2209(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
2210
2211 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
2212 use feature 'lexical_subs';
2213 my sub foo { ... }
2214
7b8d334a
GS
2215=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
2216
be771a83
GS
2217(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
2218the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
2219usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
2220e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 2221
6df41af2
GS
2222=item %s: Expression syntax
2223
be771a83
GS
2224(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
2225Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2226
2227=item %s failed--call queue aborted
2228
3c10abe3
AG
2229(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
2230CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
2231queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 2232
502aca56
TC
2233=item Failed to close in-place edit file %s: %s
2234
2235(F) Closing an output file from in-place editing, as with the C<-i>
2236command-line switch, failed.
2237
e0e4a6e3 2238=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
73b437c8 2239
98d31c73 2240(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 2241character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
2242in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
2243construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
e0e4a6e3 2244the "-", "\-". The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression
3c6ca74a 2245the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 2246
1b1ee2ef 2247=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 2248
be771a83
GS
2249(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
2250system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
2251details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
2252you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2253
2254=item fcntl is not implemented
2255
2256(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
2257PDP-11 or something?
2258
22846ab4
AB
2259=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
2260
2261(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
2262is not possible.
2263
f337b084
TH
2264=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
2265
d8b5cc61 2266(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
2267which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
2268a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 2269C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 2270
af8c498a 2271=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 2272
6c8d78fb
HS
2273(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
2274it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
2275"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
2276write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 2277
af8c498a 2278=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2279
6c8d78fb
HS
2280(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2281you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2282with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2283read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2284is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2285output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2286
2287=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2288
2289(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2290as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2291previously.
2292
2293=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2294
2295(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2296as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2297
2298=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2299
2300(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2301a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2302happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2303name.
a0d0e21e 2304
56e90b21
GS
2305=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2306
be771a83 2307(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2308some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2309filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2310same name?
56e90b21 2311
6df41af2
GS
2312=item Format not terminated
2313
2314(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2315to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2316
a0d0e21e
LW
2317=item Format %s redefined
2318
e476b1b5 2319(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2320
2321 {
271595cc 2322 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2323 eval "format NAME =...";
2324 }
2325
a0d0e21e
LW
2326=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2327
e476b1b5 2328(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2329
2330 if ($foo = 123)
2331
2332when you meant
2333
2334 if ($foo == 123)
2335
2336(or something like that).
2337
6df41af2
GS
2338=item %s found where operator expected
2339
56da5a46
RGS
2340(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2341If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2342operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2343operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2344
a0d0e21e
LW
2345=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2346
2347(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2348
2349=item gethostent not implemented
2350
2351(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2352because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2353on the Internet.
2354
69282e91 2355=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2356
be771a83
GS
2357(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2358socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2359
748a9306
LW
2360=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2361
2362(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2363C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2364
6df41af2
GS
2365=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2366
be771a83
GS
2367(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2368forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2369L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2370
0f539b13
BF
2371=item given is experimental
2372
675fa9ff
FC
2373(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2374is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2375in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2376L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2377
68567d27
FC
2378=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name (did you forget to
2379declare "my %s"?)
6df41af2 2380
a4edf47d 2381(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2382that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2383declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2384which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2385
e476b1b5
GS
2386=item glob failed (%s)
2387
5ead438e 2388(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2389for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2390pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2391nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2392resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2393is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2394in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2395if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2396all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2397think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2398C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2399
a0d0e21e
LW
2400=item Glob not terminated
2401
2402(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2403a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2404not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2405earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2406
b35b96b6
JH
2407=item gmtime(%f) failed
2408
2409(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that it could not handle:
2410too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
2411
bcd05b94 2412=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2413
e9200be3 2414(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2415it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2416date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2417not-a-number value).
2418
bcd05b94 2419=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2420
e9200be3 2421(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2422it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2423
6df41af2 2424=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2425
6df41af2
GS
2426(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2427version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2428
2429=item goto must have label
2430
2431(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2432unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2433
6651ba0b
FC
2434=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2435
2436(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2437the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2438has since been undefined.
2439
6fbc9859 2440=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
e0e4a6e3 2441S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2442
2443(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2444they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2445this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2446
5a25739d
FC
2447=item ()-group starts with a count
2448
2449(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2450something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2451
fe13d51d 2452=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2453
2454(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2455
a0d0e21e
LW
2456=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2457
be771a83
GS
2458(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2459to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2460created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e 2461
6df41af2
GS
2462=item %s has too many errors
2463
2464(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2465Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2466
cc4d09e1
KW
2467=item Having more than one /%c regexp modifier is deprecated
2468
2469(D deprecated, regexp) You used the indicated regular expression pattern
2470modifier at least twice in a string of modifiers. It is deprecated to
2471do this with this particular modifier, to allow future extensions to the
2472Perl language.
2473
61e61fbc
JH
2474=item Hexadecimal float: exponent overflow
2475
d8f2b442 2476(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a larger exponent
61e61fbc
JH
2477than the floating point supports.
2478
2479=item Hexadecimal float: exponent underflow
2480
d8f2b442 2481(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a smaller exponent
61e61fbc
JH
2482than the floating point supports.
2483
5488d373 2484=item Hexadecimal float: internal error (%s)
cf4f6003
JH
2485
2486(F) Something went horribly bad in hexadecimal float handling.
2487
61e61fbc
JH
2488=item Hexadecimal float: mantissa overflow
2489
2490(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point literal had more bits in
2491the mantissa (the part between the 0x and the exponent, also known as
2492the fraction or the significand) than the floating point supports.
2493
40bca5ae
JH
2494=item Hexadecimal float: precision loss
2495
2496(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point had internally more
2497digits than could be output. This can be caused by unsupported
2498long double formats, or by 64-bit integers not being available
2499(needed to retrieve the digits under some configurations).
2500
2501=item Hexadecimal float: unsupported long double format
2502
2503(F) You have configured Perl to use long doubles but
d8f2b442 2504the internals of the long double format are unknown;
40bca5ae
JH
2505therefore the hexadecimal float output is impossible.
2506
252aa082
JH
2507=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2508
e476b1b5 2509(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2510(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2511L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2512
8903cb82
PP
2513=item Identifier too long
2514
2515(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2516about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2517names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2518of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2519
e0e4a6e3
FC
2520=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by
2521S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2522
f3ba6905 2523(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes (C<\N{...}>) may return a
0f44b2a5
FC
2524zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character
2525class its behavior is not well defined. Check that the correct
2526escape has been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
fc8cd66c 2527
6df41af2 2528=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2529
6df41af2 2530(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2531
6df41af2 2532=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2533
be771a83
GS
2534(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2535binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2536offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2537
6597eb22
FC
2538=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2539
e4d150f1
FC
2540(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype
2541declaration. The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';',
2542indicating the rest of the parameters are optional, or one of '@'
2543or '%', since those two will accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2544
78d0fecf 2545=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2546
d5898338 2547(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2548would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2549when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2550version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2551to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2552
d37a9538
ST
2553=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2554
197afce1 2555(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2556Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
30d9c59b
Z
2557Perhaps you were trying to write a subroutine signature but didn't enable
2558that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>), so your signature was
2559instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
d37a9538 2560
904d85c5
RGS
2561=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2562
2563(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2564you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2565
8e742a20
MHM
2566=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2567
6903afa2 2568(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2569
a0d0e21e
LW
2570=item Illegal division by zero
2571
be771a83
GS
2572(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2573your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2574meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2575
6df41af2
GS
2576=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2577
be771a83
GS
2578(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2579A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2580number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2581
a0d0e21e
LW
2582=item Illegal modulus zero
2583
be771a83
GS
2584(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2585numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2586
6df41af2 2587=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2588
6df41af2
GS
2589(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2590two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2591
2592=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2593
d1be9408 2594(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2595
399388f4 2596=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2597
d1be9408 2598(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2599Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2600
e0e4a6e3 2601=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2602
675fa9ff 2603(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2604
2605 (?+foo)
2606
2607The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2608capturing group. See
2609L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2610
375ed12a
JH
2611=item Illegal suidscript
2612
2613(F) The script run under suidperl was somehow illegal.
2614
fe13d51d 2615=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2616
6df41af2 2617(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2618following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2619
4003ea29
KW
2620=item Illegal user-defined property name
2621
2622(F) You specified a Unicode-like property name in a regular expression
2623pattern (using C<\p{}> or C<\P{}>) that Perl knows isn't an official
2624Unicode property, and was likely meant to be a user-defined property
2625name, but it can't be one of those, as they must begin with either C<In>
2626or C<Is>. Check the spelling. See also
2627L</Can't find Unicode property definition "%s">.
2628
6df41af2 2629=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2630
75b44862 2631(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2632internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2633delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2634
6df41af2 2635=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2636
be771a83
GS
2637(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2638name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2639didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2640ignored.
54310121 2641
6df41af2 2642=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2643
be771a83
GS
2644(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2645the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2646system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2647times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2648would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2649
be771a83
GS
2650Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2651also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2652
e0e4a6e3
FC
2653=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE>
2654in m/%s/
0d0b4b3b 2655
675fa9ff 2656(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2657expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2658too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2659enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2660
6fbc9859
MH
2661=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2662parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2663
2664(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2665C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2666documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2667
6a2ed79a 2668=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2669
2670(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2671text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2672either consume text or fail.
2673
6dbe9451
NC
2674=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2675
6903afa2
FC
2676(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2677initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2678C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2679context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2680supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2681
2186f873
FC
2682=item %%s[%s] in scalar context better written as $%s[%s]
2683
2684(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used an array index/value slice
2685(indicated by %) to select a single element of an array. Generally
2686it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2687is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value it
2688returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<%foo[&bar]> provides
2689a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if you're
2690expecting only one subscript. When called in list context, it also
2691returns the index (what C<&bar> returns) in addition to the value.
2692
2693=item %%s{%s} in scalar context better written as $%s{%s}
2694
2695(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used a hash key/value slice
2696(indicated by %) to select a single element of a hash. Generally it's
2697better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2698is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value
2699it returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> and
2700provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2701if you're expecting only one subscript. When called in list context,
2702it also returns the key in addition to the value.
2703
a0d0e21e
LW
2704=item Insecure dependency in %s
2705
8b1a09fc 2706(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2707The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2708setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2709tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2710from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2711such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2712L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2713
2714=item Insecure directory in %s
2715
be771a83
GS
2716(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2717setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2718the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2719See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2720
62f468fc 2721=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2722
2723(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2724setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2725C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2726supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2727the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2728
0e9be77f
DM
2729=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2730
2731(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2732expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2733function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2734See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2735
b9ef414d
FC
2736=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2737
2738(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2739or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2740integers for your architecture.
2741
a7ae9550
GS
2742=item Integer overflow in %s number
2743
35928bc5 2744(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2745either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2746your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2747On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2748representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
27490b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2750transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2751internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2752operations.
bbce6d69 2753
fc89ca81
FC
2754=item Integer overflow in srand
2755
2756(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2757in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2758replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2759architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2760you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2761return the same sequence of random numbers.
2762
46314c13
JP
2763=item Integer overflow in version
2764
18da5252
FC
2765=item Integer overflow in version %d
2766
784d71ed
FC
2767(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2768the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2769because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2770element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2771to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2772
e0e4a6e3 2773=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2774
2775(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
e0e4a6e3 2776The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2777discovered.
2778
748a9306
LW
2779=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2780
be771a83
GS
2781(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2782you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2783to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2784L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2785Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2786terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2787
870978ae
FC
2788=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2789
2790(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2791formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2792C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2793by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2794message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2795reserved format.
2796
e0e4a6e3 2797=item Internal urp in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b45f050a 2798
fa816bf3 2799(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
e0e4a6e3 2800S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2801discovered.
a0d0e21e 2802
6df41af2
GS
2803=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2804
75b44862 2805(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2806followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2807operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2808L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2809
f51551f7
FC
2810=item In '(?...)', the '(' and '?' must be adjacent in regex;
2811marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2812
2813(F) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in this context in a regular
2814expression pattern should be an indivisible token, with nothing
2815intervening between the C<"("> and the C<"?">, but you separated them
2816with whitespace.
2817
09bef843
SB
2818=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2819
a4a4c9e2 2820(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2821by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2822
2823=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2824
a4a4c9e2 2825(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2826recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2827
e0e4a6e3
FC
2828=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by
2829S<<-- HERE> in '%s
225fb84f
KW
2830
2831(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2832the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2833the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2834
c8028aa6
TC
2835=item Invalid \0 character in %s for %s: %s\0%s
2836
fa3234e3
FC
2837(W syscalls) Embedded \0 characters in pathnames or other system call
2838arguments produce a warning as of 5.20. The parts after the \0 were
2839formerly ignored by system calls.
c8028aa6 2840
e0e4a6e3 2841=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by S<<-- HERE> in \N{%s}
a690c7c4
FC
2842
2843(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2844indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2845
c635e13b
PP
2846=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2847
be771a83
GS
2848(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2849L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2850
e0e4a6e3
FC
2851=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by
2852S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
9e08bc66 2853
98d31c73 2854(W regexp)(F) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
9e08bc66
ST
2855didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2856from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
98d31c73
FC
2857The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD)
2858instead, except within S<C<(?[ ])>>, where it is a fatal error.
e0e4a6e3 2859The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2860escape was discovered.
2861
8149aa9f
FC
2862=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2863
e0e4a6e3
FC
2864=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by
2865S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 2866
8149aa9f 2867(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2868number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
28690 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2870
6651ba0b
FC
2871=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2872
2873(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2874cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2875arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2876B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2877
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2878=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2879
162a3e34
FC
2880(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2881where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2882the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2883a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2884
40e4140b
FC
2885=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2886
2887(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
abc0aa9d 2888not valid character numbers, so it returns the Unicode replacement
40e4140b
FC
2889character (U+FFFD).
2890
74d1b2e4
FC
2891=item Invalid number '%s' for -C option.
2892
2893(F) You supplied a number to the -C option that either has extra leading
2894zeroes or overflows perl's unsigned integer representation.
2895
6651ba0b
FC
2896=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2897
8ff21bfe
FC
2898(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2899with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 2900See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 2901
6e8a73f2 2902=item Invalid quantifier in {,} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
35cd12d1
HS
2903
2904(F) The pattern looks like a {min,max} quantifier, but the min or max
2905could not be parsed as a valid number - either it has leading zeroes,
2906or it represents too big a number to cope with. The S<<-- HERE> shows
2907where in the regular expression the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
2908
e0e4a6e3 2909=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2910
2911(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2912greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2913C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
e0e4a6e3 2914up to C<ff>. The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2915problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2916
d1573ac7 2917=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2918
2919(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2920character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2921
09bef843
SB
2922=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2923
0120eecf 2924(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2925elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2926parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2927See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2928
b4581f09
JH
2929=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2930
2bfc5f71
FC
2931(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2932than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2933If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2934list was terminated too soon.
2935
2c86d456
DG
2936=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2937
fa816bf3 2938(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2939A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2940decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2941v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2942The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2943See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2944
49704364 2945=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2946
49704364
LW
2947(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2948See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2949
49704364 2950(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2951silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2952
2c86d456
DG
2953=item Invalid version format (%s)
2954
fa816bf3 2955(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2956A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2957decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2958v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2959must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2960optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2961trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2962after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2963text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2964for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2965
798ae1b7
DG
2966=item Invalid version object
2967
fa816bf3
FC
2968(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2969Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2970an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2971
cd209d9d 2972=item In '(*VERB...)', the '(' and '*' must be adjacent in regex;
e0e4a6e3 2973marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
675fa9ff 2974
cd209d9d 2975(F) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
675fa9ff
FC
2976this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2977indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
cd209d9d 2978and the C<"*">, but you separated them.
675fa9ff 2979
a0d0e21e
LW
2980=item ioctl is not implemented
2981
2982(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2983strange for a machine that supports C.
2984
c289d2f7
JH
2985=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2986
2987(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2988Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2989
fe13d51d 2990=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2991
2992(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2993you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2994with 'useperlio'.
2995
80cbd5ad
JH
2996=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2997
2998(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2999neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 3000
6e8a73f2 3001=item '%s' is an unknown bound type in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
64935bc6
KW
3002
3003(F) You used C<\b{...}> or C<\B{...}> and the C<...> is not known to
3004Perl. The current valid ones are given in
3005L<perlrebackslash/\b{}, \b, \B{}, \B>.
3006
74d1b2e4
FC
3007=item %s() is deprecated on :utf8 handles
3008
3009(W deprecated) The sysread(), recv(), syswrite() and send() operators are
3010deprecated on handles that have the C<:utf8> layer, either explicitly, or
3011implicitly, eg., with the C<:encoding(UTF-16LE)> layer.
3012
3013Both sysread() and recv() currently use only the C<:utf8> flag for the stream,
3014ignoring the actual layers. Since sysread() and recv() do no UTF-8
3015validation they can end up creating invalidly encoded scalars.
3016
3017Similarly, syswrite() and send() use only the C<:utf8> flag, otherwise ignoring
3018any layers. If the flag is set, both write the value UTF-8 encoded, even if
3019the layer is some different encoding, such as the example above.
3020
3021Ideally, all of these operators would completely ignore the C<:utf8> state,
3022working only with bytes, but this would result in silently breaking existing
3023code. To avoid this a future version of perl will throw an exception when
3024any of sysread(), recv(), syswrite() or send() are called on handle with the
3025C<:utf8> layer.
3026
6e8a73f2 3027=item "%s" is more clearly written simply as "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
acdfc3b6
KW
3028
3029(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
3030
3031You specified a character that has the given plainer way of writing it,
3032and which is also portable to platforms running with different character
3033sets.
3034
4f650b80 3035=item $* is no longer supported
b4581f09 3036
4f650b80 3037(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
ea9d9ebc 3038perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. In
4f650b80
NC
3039previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
3040matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
3041
3042Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
3043modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
3044with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 3045then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 3046
8ae1fe26
RGS
3047=item $# is no longer supported
3048
a58ac25e 3049(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
ea9d9ebc 3050perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 3051should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 3052
ccf3535a 3053=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 3054
6903afa2
FC
3055(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
3056overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
3057an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 3058
ccf3535a 3059=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 3060
04a80ee0
RGS
3061(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
3062unaware of.
6ad11d81 3063
5a25739d
FC
3064=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
3065
3066(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
3067that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
3068given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
3069make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
3070it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
3071should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
3072line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
3073
aec0ef10 3074=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
3075
3076(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
3077
3078=item Label not found for "last %s"
3079
be771a83
GS
3080(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
3081of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3082L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3083
3084=item Label not found for "next %s"
3085
3086(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
3087that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3088L<perlfunc/last>.
3089
3090=item Label not found for "redo %s"
3091
3092(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
3093that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3094L<perlfunc/last>.
3095
85ab1d1d 3096=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 3097
85ab1d1d 3098(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
3099effective uids or gids failed.
3100
49704364
LW
3101=item length/code after end of string in unpack
3102
d7f8936a 3103(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
3104length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
3105an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3106
25e26107 3107=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 3108
0d46a4e7
FC
3109(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
3110probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
3111
3112Array size can be obtained by doing:
3113
3114 scalar(@array);
3115
3116The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
3117
3118 scalar(keys %hash);
3119
f0e67a1d
Z
3120=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
3121
d4fe7078
RS
3122(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
3123(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
3124couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
3125of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 3126it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
3127
3128=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
3129
3130(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
3131detectable way.
3132
69282e91 3133=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3134
be771a83
GS
3135(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
3136to check the return value of your socket() call? See
3137L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 3138
6651ba0b
FC
3139=item List form of piped open not implemented
3140
3141(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
3142form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
3143Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
3144
dc6bb7ba
FC
3145=item %s: loadable library and perl binaries are mismatched (got handshake key %p, needed %p)
3146
3147(P) A dynamic loading library C<.so> or C<.dll> was being loaded into the
3148process that was built against a different build of perl than the
3149said library was compiled against. Reinstalling the XS module will
3150likely fix this error.
3151
8c6180a9
KW
3152=item Locale '%s' may not work well.%s
3153
780fcc9f 3154(W locale) You are using the named locale, which is a non-UTF-8 one, and
dae67c56
KW
3155which perl has determined is not fully compatible with what it can
3156handle. The second C<%s> gives a reason.
8c6180a9
KW
3157
3158By far the most common reason is that the locale has characters in it
3159that are represented by more than one byte. The only such locales that
3160Perl can handle are the UTF-8 locales. Most likely the specified locale
3161is a non-UTF-8 one for an East Asian language such as Chinese or
3162Japanese. If the locale is a superset of ASCII, the ASCII portion of it
780fcc9f 3163may work in Perl.
8c6180a9
KW
3164
3165Some essentially obsolete locales that aren't supersets of ASCII, mainly
3166those in ISO 646 or other 7-bit locales, such as ASMO 449, can also have
3167problems, depending on what portions of the ASCII character set get
3168changed by the locale and are also used by the program.
3169The warning message lists the determinable conflicting characters.
3170
780fcc9f
KW
3171Note that not all incompatibilities are found.
3172
3173If this happens to you, there's not much you can do except switch to use a
3174different locale or use L<Encode> to translate from the locale into
3175UTF-8; if that's impracticable, you have been warned that some things
3176may break.
3177
3178This message is output once each time a bad locale is switched into
3179within the scope of C<S<use locale>>, or on the first possibly-affected
3180operation if the C<S<use locale>> inherits a bad one. It is not raised
3181for any operations from the L<POSIX> module.
3182
a2162cd9
FC
3183=item localtime(%f) failed
3184
3185(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that it could not handle:
3186too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
3187
3188=item localtime(%f) too large
3189
3190(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
3191than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3192wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
3193not-a-number value).
3194
3195=item localtime(%f) too small
3196
3197(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
3198than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3199wrong date.
3200
58e23c8d 3201=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3202
3203(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 3204handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 3205
b88df990
NC
3206=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
3207
e63e8a91
FC
3208(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
3209is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
3210accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
3211warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
3212when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
3213insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 3214
93fad930 3215=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
3216
3217(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
3218by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
3219instead on the filehandle.)
3220
345d70e3 3221=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 3222
345d70e3
FC
3223(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
3224attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
3225does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
3226want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
3227details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
3228if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 3229
885ef6f5
GG
3230=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
3231
345d70e3
FC
3232(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
3233subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
3234not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
3235add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
3236foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
3237
3238See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 3239
6f1b3ab0
FC
3240=item Magical list constants are not supported
3241
3242(F) You assigned a magical array to a stash element, and then tried
3243to use the subroutine from the same slot. You are asking Perl to do
3244something it cannot do, details subject to change between Perl versions.
3245
2db62bbc 3246=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 3247
2db62bbc 3248(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
3249are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3250
3251=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
3252
2db62bbc 3253(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
3254are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3255
6df41af2
GS
3256=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3257
3258(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
3259
3260 prefix1;prefix2
3261
3262or
6df41af2
GS
3263 prefix1 prefix2
3264
be771a83
GS
3265with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
3266a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
3267appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 3268"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 3269
2f758a16
ST
3270=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
3271
d37a9538
ST
3272(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
3273syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
3274obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
3275when the function is called.
30d9c59b
Z
3276Perhaps the function's author was trying to write a subroutine signature
3277but didn't enable that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>),
3278so the signature was instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
2f758a16 3279
ba210ebe
JH
3280=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
3281
4d6f11e5 3282(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 3283encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 3284
2575c402
JW
3285One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
3286you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 32878-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
3288
3289If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
3290sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
3291set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
3292message.
3293
3294See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 3295
107160e2
KW
3296=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
3297
3298(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
3299encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
3300just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
3301warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
3302malformation.
3303
bde9e88d 3304=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
3305
3306(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
3307
4a5d3a93
FC
3308=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
3309
3310(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3311rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3312
f337b084
TH
3313=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
3314
3315(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3316rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3317
3318=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
3319
3320(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3321rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3322
4a5d3a93 3323=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 3324
4a5d3a93
FC
3325(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
3326doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
3327
30d9c59b
Z
3328=item Mandatory parameter follows optional parameter
3329
3330(F) In a subroutine signature, you wrote something like "$a = undef,
3331$b", making an earlier parameter optional and a later one mandatory.
3332Parameters are filled from left to right, so it's impossible for the
3333caller to omit an earlier one and pass a later one. If you want to act
3334as if the parameters are filled from right to left, declare the rightmost
3335optional and then shuffle the parameters around in the subroutine's body.
3336
2d88a86a
KW
3337=item Matched non-Unicode code point 0x%X against Unicode property; may
3338not be portable
3339
3340(S non_unicode) Perl allows strings to contain a superset of
3341Unicode code points; each code point may be as large as what is storable
3342in an unsigned integer on your system, but these may not be accepted by
3343other languages/systems. This message occurs when you matched a string
3344containing such a code point against a regular expression pattern, and
3345the code point was matched against a Unicode property, C<\p{...}> or
3346C<\P{...}>. Unicode properties are only defined on Unicode code points,
3347so the result of this match is undefined by Unicode, but Perl (starting
3348in v5.20) treats non-Unicode code points as if they were typical
3349unassigned Unicode ones, and matched this one accordingly. Whether a
3350given property matches these code points or not is specified in
3351L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>.
3352
3353This message is suppressed (unless it has been made fatal) if it is
3354immaterial to the results of the match if the code point is Unicode or
3355not. For example, the property C<\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit}> only can match
3356the 22 characters C<[0-9A-Fa-f]>, so obviously all other code points,
3357Unicode or not, won't match it. (And C<\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit}> will match
3358every code point except these 22.)
3359
3360Getting this message indicates that the outcome of the match arguably
3361should have been the opposite of what actually happened. If you think
3362that is the case, you may wish to make the C<non_unicode> warnings
3363category fatal; if you agree with Perl's decision, you may wish to turn
3364off this category.
3365
3366See L<perlunicode/Beyond Unicode code points> for more information.
3367
e0e4a6e3
FC
3368=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in
3369m/%s/
4a5d3a93
FC
3370
3371(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
e0e4a6e3 3372regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The S<<-- HERE>
9e3ec65c 3373shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 3374See L<perlre>.
f337b084 3375
de42a5a9 3376=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 3377
6903afa2 3378(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
3379usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
3380too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
3381resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 3382safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 3383
25f58aea
PN
3384=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3385
3386(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4