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f716a1dd
PP
1# File/Copy.pm. Written in 1994 by Aaron Sherman <ajs@ajs.com>. This
2# source code has been placed in the public domain by the author.
3# Please be kind and preserve the documentation.
4#
71be2cbc
PP
5# Additions copyright 1996 by Charles Bailey. Permission is granted
6# to distribute the revised code under the same terms as Perl itself.
f716a1dd
PP
7
8package File::Copy;
9
3b825e41 10use 5.006;
71be2cbc 11use strict;
b395063c 12use warnings;
6c254d95 13use File::Spec;
96a91e01 14use Config;
17f410f9
GS
15our(@ISA, @EXPORT, @EXPORT_OK, $VERSION, $Too_Big, $Syscopy_is_copy);
16sub copy;
17sub syscopy;
18sub cp;
19sub mv;
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PP
20
21# Note that this module implements only *part* of the API defined by
22# the File/Copy.pm module of the File-Tools-2.0 package. However, that
23# package has not yet been updated to work with Perl 5.004, and so it
24# would be a Bad Thing for the CPAN module to grab it and replace this
25# module. Therefore, we set this module's version higher than 2.0.
236a0738 26$VERSION = '2.10';
f716a1dd 27
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PP
28require Exporter;
29@ISA = qw(Exporter);
30@EXPORT = qw(copy move);
31@EXPORT_OK = qw(cp mv);
f716a1dd 32
441496b2 33$Too_Big = 1024 * 1024 * 2;
f716a1dd 34
8878f897
T
35sub croak {
36 require Carp;
37 goto &Carp::croak;
38}
39
754f2cd0
MS
40sub carp {
41 require Carp;
42 goto &Carp::carp;
43}
44
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JH
45my $macfiles;
46if ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
47 $macfiles = eval { require Mac::MoreFiles };
48 warn 'Mac::MoreFiles could not be loaded; using non-native syscopy'
3a2263fe 49 if $@ && $^W;
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JH
50}
51
6c254d95 52sub _catname {
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PP
53 my($from, $to) = @_;
54 if (not defined &basename) {
55 require File::Basename;
56 import File::Basename 'basename';
57 }
6c254d95
CN
58
59 if ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
60 # a partial dir name that's valid only in the cwd (e.g. 'tmp')
61 $to = ':' . $to if $to !~ /:/;
62 }
63
64 return File::Spec->catfile($to, basename($from));
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PP
65}
66
236a0738
AF
67# _eq($from, $to) tells whether $from and $to are identical
68# works for strings and references
69sub _eq {
70 return $_[0] == $_[1] if ref $_[0] && ref $_[1];
71 return $_[0] eq $_[1] if !ref $_[0] && !ref $_[1];
72 return "";
73}
74
f716a1dd 75sub copy {
71be2cbc 76 croak("Usage: copy(FROM, TO [, BUFFERSIZE]) ")
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PP
77 unless(@_ == 2 || @_ == 3);
78
79 my $from = shift;
80 my $to = shift;
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81
82 my $from_a_handle = (ref($from)
83 ? (ref($from) eq 'GLOB'
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G
84 || UNIVERSAL::isa($from, 'GLOB')
85 || UNIVERSAL::isa($from, 'IO::Handle'))
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PP
86 : (ref(\$from) eq 'GLOB'));
87 my $to_a_handle = (ref($to)
88 ? (ref($to) eq 'GLOB'
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G
89 || UNIVERSAL::isa($to, 'GLOB')
90 || UNIVERSAL::isa($to, 'IO::Handle'))
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91 : (ref(\$to) eq 'GLOB'));
92
236a0738 93 if (_eq($from, $to)) { # works for references, too
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94 carp("'$from' and '$to' are identical (not copied)");
95 # The "copy" was a success as the source and destination contain
96 # the same data.
97 return 1;
96a91e01 98 }
99
ac7b122d 100 if ((($Config{d_symlink} && $Config{d_readlink}) || $Config{d_link}) &&
b8ccb221 101 !($^O eq 'MSWin32' || $^O eq 'os2' || $^O eq 'vms')) {
ac7b122d
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102 my @fs = stat($from);
103 if (@fs) {
96a91e01 104 my @ts = stat($to);
ac7b122d 105 if (@ts && $fs[0] == $ts[0] && $fs[1] == $ts[1]) {
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106 carp("'$from' and '$to' are identical (not copied)");
107 return 0;
96a91e01 108 }
109 }
110 }
111
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112 if (!$from_a_handle && !$to_a_handle && -d $to && ! -d $from) {
113 $to = _catname($from, $to);
114 }
115
1a04d035 116 if (defined &syscopy && !$Syscopy_is_copy
e6434134 117 && !$to_a_handle
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118 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'os2' ) # OS/2 cannot handle handles
119 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'mpeix') # and neither can MPE/iX.
7509b657 120 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'MSWin32')
fa648be5 121 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'MacOS')
2986a63f 122 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'NetWare')
1a04d035 123 )
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PP
124 {
125 return syscopy($from, $to);
126 }
127
128 my $closefrom = 0;
129 my $closeto = 0;
f716a1dd 130 my ($size, $status, $r, $buf);
48a5c399 131 local($\) = '';
f716a1dd 132
23ba2776 133 my $from_h;
71be2cbc 134 if ($from_a_handle) {
23ba2776 135 $from_h = $from;
f716a1dd 136 } else {
fa648be5 137 $from = _protect($from) if $from =~ /^\s/s;
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WD
138 $from_h = \do { local *FH };
139 open($from_h, "< $from\0") or goto fail_open1;
140 binmode $from_h or die "($!,$^E)";
f716a1dd 141 $closefrom = 1;
1a04d035
A
142 }
143
23ba2776 144 my $to_h;
71be2cbc 145 if ($to_a_handle) {
23ba2776 146 $to_h = $to;
1a04d035 147 } else {
fa648be5 148 $to = _protect($to) if $to =~ /^\s/s;
23ba2776
WD
149 $to_h = \do { local *FH };
150 open($to_h,"> $to\0") or goto fail_open2;
151 binmode $to_h or die "($!,$^E)";
71be2cbc 152 $closeto = 1;
1a04d035 153 }
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PP
154
155 if (@_) {
156 $size = shift(@_) + 0;
157 croak("Bad buffer size for copy: $size\n") unless ($size > 0);
158 } else {
025a6ea3 159 $size = tied(*$from_h) ? 0 : -s $from_h || 0;
f716a1dd 160 $size = 1024 if ($size < 512);
441496b2 161 $size = $Too_Big if ($size > $Too_Big);
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PP
162 }
163
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164 $! = 0;
165 for (;;) {
166 my ($r, $w, $t);
23ba2776 167 defined($r = sysread($from_h, $buf, $size))
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PP
168 or goto fail_inner;
169 last unless $r;
170 for ($w = 0; $w < $r; $w += $t) {
23ba2776 171 $t = syswrite($to_h, $buf, $r - $w, $w)
71be2cbc 172 or goto fail_inner;
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PP
173 }
174 }
71be2cbc 175
23ba2776
WD
176 close($to_h) || goto fail_open2 if $closeto;
177 close($from_h) || goto fail_open1 if $closefrom;
71be2cbc 178
48a5c399 179 # Use this idiom to avoid uninitialized value warning.
f716a1dd 180 return 1;
1a04d035 181
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PP
182 # All of these contortions try to preserve error messages...
183 fail_inner:
184 if ($closeto) {
185 $status = $!;
186 $! = 0;
23ba2776 187 close $to_h;
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PP
188 $! = $status unless $!;
189 }
190 fail_open2:
191 if ($closefrom) {
192 $status = $!;
193 $! = 0;
23ba2776 194 close $from_h;
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195 $! = $status unless $!;
196 }
197 fail_open1:
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198 return 0;
199}
9b957b78 200
441496b2 201sub move {
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202 croak("Usage: move(FROM, TO) ") unless @_ == 2;
203
71be2cbc 204 my($from,$to) = @_;
754f2cd0 205
fa76202e 206 my($fromsz,$tosz1,$tomt1,$tosz2,$tomt2,$sts,$ossts);
441496b2 207
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208 if (-d $to && ! -d $from) {
209 $to = _catname($from, $to);
210 }
211
212 ($tosz1,$tomt1) = (stat($to))[7,9];
213 $fromsz = -s $from;
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214 if ($^O eq 'os2' and defined $tosz1 and defined $fromsz) {
215 # will not rename with overwrite
216 unlink $to;
217 }
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218 return 1 if rename $from, $to;
219
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220 # Did rename return an error even though it succeeded, because $to
221 # is on a remote NFS file system, and NFS lost the server's ack?
222 return 1 if defined($fromsz) && !-e $from && # $from disappeared
223 (($tosz2,$tomt2) = (stat($to))[7,9]) && # $to's there
224 ($tosz1 != $tosz2 or $tomt1 != $tomt2) && # and changed
225 $tosz2 == $fromsz; # it's all there
1a04d035 226
71be2cbc 227 ($tosz1,$tomt1) = (stat($to))[7,9]; # just in case rename did something
762548ba
MS
228
229 {
230 local $@;
231 eval {
754f2cd0 232 local $SIG{__DIE__};
762548ba
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233 copy($from,$to) or die;
234 my($atime, $mtime) = (stat($from))[8,9];
235 utime($atime, $mtime, $to);
236 unlink($from) or die;
237 };
238 return 1 unless $@;
239 }
fa76202e 240 ($sts,$ossts) = ($! + 0, $^E + 0);
1a04d035 241
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PP
242 ($tosz2,$tomt2) = ((stat($to))[7,9],0,0) if defined $tomt1;
243 unlink($to) if !defined($tomt1) or $tomt1 != $tomt2 or $tosz1 != $tosz2;
244 ($!,$^E) = ($sts,$ossts);
245 return 0;
441496b2 246}
9b957b78 247
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PP
248*cp = \&copy;
249*mv = \&move;
250
fa648be5
CN
251
252if ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
253 *_protect = sub { MacPerl::MakeFSSpec($_[0]) };
254} else {
255 *_protect = sub { "./$_[0]" };
256}
257
9b957b78 258# &syscopy is an XSUB under OS/2
1d84e8df
JH
259unless (defined &syscopy) {
260 if ($^O eq 'VMS') {
261 *syscopy = \&rmscopy;
262 } elsif ($^O eq 'mpeix') {
263 *syscopy = sub {
3f5ee302 264 return 0 unless @_ == 2;
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JH
265 # Use the MPE cp program in order to
266 # preserve MPE file attributes.
267 return system('/bin/cp', '-f', $_[0], $_[1]) == 0;
268 };
cf2f24a4
JD
269 } elsif ($^O eq 'MSWin32' && defined &DynaLoader::boot_DynaLoader) {
270 # Win32::CopyFile() fill only work if we can load Win32.xs
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271 *syscopy = sub {
272 return 0 unless @_ == 2;
273 return Win32::CopyFile(@_, 1);
274 };
bcdb689b 275 } elsif ($macfiles) {
fa648be5
CN
276 *syscopy = sub {
277 my($from, $to) = @_;
278 my($dir, $toname);
279
280 return 0 unless -e $from;
281
282 if ($to =~ /(.*:)([^:]+):?$/) {
283 ($dir, $toname) = ($1, $2);
284 } else {
285 ($dir, $toname) = (":", $to);
286 }
287
288 unlink($to);
289 Mac::MoreFiles::FSpFileCopy($from, $dir, $toname, 1);
290 };
1d84e8df 291 } else {
1a04d035 292 $Syscopy_is_copy = 1;
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JH
293 *syscopy = \&copy;
294 }
295}
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296
2971;
298
299__END__
a5f75d66 300
f716a1dd
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301=head1 NAME
302
303File::Copy - Copy files or filehandles
304
a5f75d66 305=head1 SYNOPSIS
f716a1dd 306
5ce10329 307 use File::Copy;
f716a1dd 308
5ce10329
NC
309 copy("file1","file2") or die "Copy failed: $!";
310 copy("Copy.pm",\*STDOUT);
441496b2 311 move("/dev1/fileA","/dev2/fileB");
f716a1dd 312
78e38bb6 313 use File::Copy "cp";
f716a1dd 314
23f3aea0 315 $n = FileHandle->new("/a/file","r");
c6dfe06b 316 cp($n,"x");
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PP
317
318=head1 DESCRIPTION
319
441496b2
CB
320The File::Copy module provides two basic functions, C<copy> and
321C<move>, which are useful for getting the contents of a file from
322one place to another.
323
324=over 4
325
0cdecedb
GS
326=item copy
327X<copy> X<cp>
441496b2
CB
328
329The C<copy> function takes two
f716a1dd
PP
330parameters: a file to copy from and a file to copy to. Either
331argument may be a string, a FileHandle reference or a FileHandle
332glob. Obviously, if the first argument is a filehandle of some
333sort, it will be read from, and if it is a file I<name> it will
334be opened for reading. Likewise, the second argument will be
96a91e01 335written to (and created if need be). Trying to copy a file on top
336of itself is a fatal error.
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PP
337
338B<Note that passing in
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PP
339files as handles instead of names may lead to loss of information
340on some operating systems; it is recommended that you use file
e6434134 341names whenever possible.> Files are opened in binary mode where
8dcee03e 342applicable. To get a consistent behaviour when copying from a
e6434134 343filehandle to a file, use C<binmode> on the filehandle.
f716a1dd
PP
344
345An optional third parameter can be used to specify the buffer
346size used for copying. This is the number of bytes from the
3a964d77 347first file, that will be held in memory at any given time, before
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PP
348being written to the second file. The default buffer size depends
349upon the file, but will generally be the whole file (up to 2Mb), or
3501k for filehandles that do not reference files (eg. sockets).
351
352You may use the syntax C<use File::Copy "cp"> to get at the
353"cp" alias for this function. The syntax is I<exactly> the same.
354
0cdecedb
GS
355=item move
356X<move> X<mv> X<rename>
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CB
357
358The C<move> function also takes two parameters: the current name
71be2cbc
PP
359and the intended name of the file to be moved. If the destination
360already exists and is a directory, and the source is not a
361directory, then the source file will be renamed into the directory
362specified by the destination.
363
364If possible, move() will simply rename the file. Otherwise, it copies
365the file to the new location and deletes the original. If an error occurs
366during this copy-and-delete process, you may be left with a (possibly partial)
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CB
367copy of the file under the destination name.
368
369You may use the "mv" alias for this function in the same way that
370you may use the "cp" alias for C<copy>.
371
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GS
372=item syscopy
373X<syscopy>
441496b2 374
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PP
375File::Copy also provides the C<syscopy> routine, which copies the
376file specified in the first parameter to the file specified in the
377second parameter, preserving OS-specific attributes and file
378structure. For Unix systems, this is equivalent to the simple
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SB
379C<copy> routine, which doesn't preserve OS-specific attributes. For
380VMS systems, this calls the C<rmscopy> routine (see below). For OS/2
381systems, this calls the C<syscopy> XSUB directly. For Win32 systems,
382this calls C<Win32::CopyFile>.
9b957b78 383
bcdb689b
JH
384On Mac OS (Classic), C<syscopy> calls C<Mac::MoreFiles::FSpFileCopy>,
385if available.
386
0cdecedb 387B<Special behaviour if C<syscopy> is defined (OS/2, VMS and Win32)>
9b957b78 388
71be2cbc
PP
389If both arguments to C<copy> are not file handles,
390then C<copy> will perform a "system copy" of
9b957b78
PP
391the input file to a new output file, in order to preserve file
392attributes, indexed file structure, I<etc.> The buffer size
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PP
393parameter is ignored. If either argument to C<copy> is a
394handle to an opened file, then data is copied using Perl
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PP
395operators, and no effort is made to preserve file attributes
396or record structure.
397
55497cff
PP
398The system copy routine may also be called directly under VMS and OS/2
399as C<File::Copy::syscopy> (or under VMS as C<File::Copy::rmscopy>, which
71be2cbc 400is the routine that does the actual work for syscopy).
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PP
401
402=item rmscopy($from,$to[,$date_flag])
0cdecedb 403X<rmscopy>
9b957b78 404
71be2cbc
PP
405The first and second arguments may be strings, typeglobs, typeglob
406references, or objects inheriting from IO::Handle;
407they are used in all cases to obtain the
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PP
408I<filespec> of the input and output files, respectively. The
409name and type of the input file are used as defaults for the
410output file, if necessary.
411
412A new version of the output file is always created, which
413inherits the structure and RMS attributes of the input file,
414except for owner and protections (and possibly timestamps;
415see below). All data from the input file is copied to the
416output file; if either of the first two parameters to C<rmscopy>
417is a file handle, its position is unchanged. (Note that this
418means a file handle pointing to the output file will be
419associated with an old version of that file after C<rmscopy>
420returns, not the newly created version.)
421
422The third parameter is an integer flag, which tells C<rmscopy>
1fef88e7
JM
423how to handle timestamps. If it is E<lt> 0, none of the input file's
424timestamps are propagated to the output file. If it is E<gt> 0, then
9b957b78
PP
425it is interpreted as a bitmask: if bit 0 (the LSB) is set, then
426timestamps other than the revision date are propagated; if bit 1
427is set, the revision date is propagated. If the third parameter
428to C<rmscopy> is 0, then it behaves much like the DCL COPY command:
429if the name or type of the output file was explicitly specified,
430then no timestamps are propagated, but if they were taken implicitly
431from the input filespec, then all timestamps other than the
432revision date are propagated. If this parameter is not supplied,
433it defaults to 0.
434
435Like C<copy>, C<rmscopy> returns 1 on success. If an error occurs,
436it sets C<$!>, deletes the output file, and returns 0.
437
55497cff
PP
438=back
439
f716a1dd
PP
440=head1 RETURN
441
441496b2
CB
442All functions return 1 on success, 0 on failure.
443$! will be set if an error was encountered.
f716a1dd 444
6c254d95
CN
445=head1 NOTES
446
447=over 4
448
449=item *
450
451On Mac OS (Classic), the path separator is ':', not '/', and the
452current directory is denoted as ':', not '.'. You should be careful
453about specifying relative pathnames. While a full path always begins
454with a volume name, a relative pathname should always begin with a
455':'. If specifying a volume name only, a trailing ':' is required.
456
457E.g.
458
459 copy("file1", "tmp"); # creates the file 'tmp' in the current directory
460 copy("file1", ":tmp:"); # creates :tmp:file1
461 copy("file1", ":tmp"); # same as above
0cdecedb 462 copy("file1", "tmp"); # same as above, if 'tmp' is a directory (but don't do
6c254d95
CN
463 # that, since it may cause confusion, see example #1)
464 copy("file1", "tmp:file1"); # error, since 'tmp:' is not a volume
465 copy("file1", ":tmp:file1"); # ok, partial path
466 copy("file1", "DataHD:"); # creates DataHD:file1
0cdecedb
GS
467
468 move("MacintoshHD:fileA", "DataHD:fileB"); # moves (don't copies) files from one
6c254d95
CN
469 # volume to another
470
471=back
472
f716a1dd
PP
473=head1 AUTHOR
474
441496b2 475File::Copy was written by Aaron Sherman I<E<lt>ajs@ajs.comE<gt>> in 1995,
bd3fa61c 476and updated by Charles Bailey I<E<lt>bailey@newman.upenn.eduE<gt>> in 1996.
f716a1dd
PP
477
478=cut
441496b2 479