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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
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19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
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21Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
22L<perlfunc/eval>.
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23
24Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 25just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
702d120d 26The symbols C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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27
28=over 4
29
30=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
31
32(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
33to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
34if you want to localize a package variable.
35
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36=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope
37
fb73857a 38(W) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the same scope, effectively
2ba9eb46 39eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost always
8b1a09fc 40a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
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41until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
42destroyed.
43
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44=item "no" not allowed in expression
45
46(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
47no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
48
49=item "use" not allowed in expression
50
51(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
52no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
53
54=item % may only be used in unpack
55
5f05dabc 56(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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57checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
58way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
59
60=item %s (...) interpreted as function
61
62(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 63by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 64found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
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65
66=item %s argument is not a HASH element
67
5f05dabc 68(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
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69
70 $foo{$bar}
71 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
72
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73=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
74
75(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
76
77 $foo{$bar}
78 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
79
80or a hash slice, such as
81
82 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
83 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
84
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85=item %s did not return a true value
86
87(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
88it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
89traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
90do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
91
92=item %s found where operator expected
93
94(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
95sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
96it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
97delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
98
f86702cc 99=item %s had compilation errors
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100
101(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
102
f86702cc 103=item %s has too many errors
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104
105(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
106Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
107
108=item %s matches null string many times
109
110(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
111regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
112
113=item %s never introduced
114
115(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
116before it could possibly have been used.
117
118=item %s syntax OK
119
120(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
121
f86702cc 122=item %s: Command not found
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123
124(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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125of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
126Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 127
f86702cc 128=item %s: Expression syntax
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129
130(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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131of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
132Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 133
f86702cc 134=item %s: Undefined variable
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135
136(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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137of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
138Perl yourself.
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139
140=item %s: not found
141
8b1a09fc 142(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 143instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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144into Perl yourself.
145
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146=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
147
148(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
149found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
150the previous line just because you saw this message.
151
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152=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
153
154(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
155which provides a race condition that breaks security.
156
157=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
158
159(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
160know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
161
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162=item C<-p> destination: %s
163
164(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
165command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
166redirected it with select().)
167
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168=item 500 Server error
169
170See Server error.
171
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172=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
173
174(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
175if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
176
177=item @ outside of string
178
2ba9eb46 179(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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180the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
181
182=item accept() on closed fd
183
184(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
185the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
186
187=item Allocation too large: %lx
188
54310121 189(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
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190
191=item Allocation too large
192
193(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes.
a0d0e21e 194
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195=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
196
2c268ad5 197(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
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198operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
199or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
200length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
201that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
202L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
203
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204=item Arg too short for msgsnd
205
206(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
207
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208=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
209
210(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
211you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 212a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 213
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214=item Args must match #! line
215
216(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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217with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
218impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
219for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 220
f86702cc 221=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
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222
223(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
224expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
225will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
226
227=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
228
229(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
230is now heavily deprecated.
231
232=item assertion botched: %s
233
234(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
235
236=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
237
238(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
239
240=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
241
242(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
243must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
244know which context to supply to the right side.
245
246=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
247
248(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
249be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
250of those arenas.
251
54310121 252=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
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253
254(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
255optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
256indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
257that can no longer be found in the table.
258
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259=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
260
261(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
262routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
263the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
264routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
265it.
266
267=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
268
269(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
270
271=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
272
273(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
274would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
275and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
276could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
277SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
278when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
279
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280=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
281
282(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
283function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
284means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
285invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
286literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
287avoid this warning.
288
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289=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
290
291(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 292as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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293dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
294
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295=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
296
297(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 298shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 299S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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300S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
301
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302=item Bad filehandle: %s
303
304(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
305has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
306did it in another package.
307
308=item Bad free() ignored
309
310(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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311malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
312setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
313
314This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
315"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
316C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
317system malloc().
a0d0e21e 318
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319=item Bad hash
320
321(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
322
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323=item Bad name after %s::
324
325(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
326finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
327so
328
329 $var = 'myvar';
330 $sym = mypack::$var;
331
332is not the same as
333
334 $var = 'myvar';
335 $sym = "mypack::$var";
336
337=item Bad symbol for array
338
339(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
340wasn't a symbol table entry.
341
342=item Bad symbol for filehandle
343
344(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
345wasn't a symbol table entry.
346
347=item Bad symbol for hash
348
349(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
350wasn't a symbol table entry.
351
8b1a09fc 352=item Badly placed ()'s
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353
354(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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355of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
356Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 357
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358=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
359
360(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
361subroutine identifier, in curly braces or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 362Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 363
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364=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
365
366(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
367the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
368Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
369
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370=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
371
372(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
373Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
374
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375=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
376
377(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
378implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
379already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
380could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
381likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
382
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383=item bind() on closed fd
384
385(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
386the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
387
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388=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
389
390(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
391
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392=item Callback called exit
393
394(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
395exited by calling exit.
396
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397=item Can't "goto" outside a block
398
399(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
400like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
401occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
402is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
403
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404=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
405
406(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
407foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
408
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409=item Can't "last" outside a block
410
411(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
412except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
413current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
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414"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can usually double
415the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies
416will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
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417
418=item Can't "next" outside a block
419
420(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
421there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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422count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
423usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 424curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
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425
426=item Can't "redo" outside a block
427
428(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
429there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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430count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
431usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 432curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
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433
434=item Can't bless non-reference value
435
436(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
437encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
438
439=item Can't break at that line
440
54310121 441(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
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442the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
443be stopped at.
444
445=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
446
447(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
448functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
449in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
450
451=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
452
54310121 453(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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454ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
455you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
456an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
457
458=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
459
460(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
461object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
462neither an object reference nor a package name. (Perhaps it's null?)
463Something like this will reproduce the error:
464
465 $BADREF = undef;
466 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
467 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
468
469=item Can't chdir to %s
470
471(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
472that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
473
474=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
475
476(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 477(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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478say things like:
479
480 *foo += 1;
481
482You CAN say
483
484 $foo = *foo;
485 $foo += 1;
486
487but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
488
489=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
490
491(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 492(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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493
494=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
495
496(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 497(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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498
499=item Can't create pipe mailbox
500
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501(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
502or other plumbing problems.
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503
504=item Can't declare %s in my
505
5f05dabc 506(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
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507They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
508
509=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
510
511(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
512
54310121 513=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 514
54310121 515(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 516from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
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517such.
518
8b1a09fc 519=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
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520
521(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
522
523=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
524
525(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
526/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
527
528=item Can't do setegid!
529
530(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
531of suidperl.
532
533=item Can't do seteuid!
534
535(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
536
537=item Can't do setuid
538
539(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
540do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
541form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
542under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
543If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
544your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
545
546=item Can't do waitpid with flags
547
548(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
549without flags is emulated.
550
8b1a09fc 551=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
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552
553(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
554your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
555
556=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
557
558(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
559For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
560
561=item Can't exec "%s": %s
562
5f05dabc 563(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
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564program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
565were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
566executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
567#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
568similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
569
570=item Can't exec %s
571
572(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
573what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
574mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
575
576=item Can't execute %s
577
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578(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
579in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
580
581=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
582
583(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
584in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
585exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
586
587=item Can't find %s on PATH
588
a0d0e21e 589(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 590in the PATH.
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591
592=item Can't find label %s
593
594(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
595for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
596
597=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
598
599(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 600the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
601levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
602
fb73857a
PP
603 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
604
605If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
606included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
607programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
608
609=item Can't fork
610
611(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
612
748a9306
LW
613=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
614
615(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
616access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
617access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
618that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
619assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
620it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
621retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
622but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 623routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
624appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
625returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
626knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
627see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
628code takes stat buffers lightly.)
629
a0d0e21e
LW
630=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
631
748a9306
LW
632(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
633can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
634
635=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
636
748a9306
LW
637(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
638mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
639
640=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
641
642(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
643call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 644you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
645L<perlfunc/goto>.
646
b150fb22
RH
647=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
648
649(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
650(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
651
706a304b 652=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 653
706a304b
SM
654(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
655handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
656pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
657sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 658
748a9306
LW
659=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
660
2ba9eb46 661(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
662lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
663localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
664package name.
665
4727527e
IZ
666=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
667
668(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
669but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
670in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
671doing C<make install>.
672
38b8243a 673=item Can't locate %s in @INC
a0d0e21e 674
7a2e2cd6 675(F) You said to do (or require, or use) a file that couldn't be found
54310121
PP
676in any of the libraries mentioned in @INC. Perhaps you need to set the
677PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra library
678is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or maybe
a0d0e21e
LW
679you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>.
680
681=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
682
683(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
684functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 685method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
686
687=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
688
689(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
690to exist.
691
3e3baf6d
TB
692=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
693
694(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
695
a0d0e21e
LW
696=item Can't modify %s in %s
697
698(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 699change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 700
54310121 701=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
702
703(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
704a NULL.
705
5f05dabc 706=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 707
5f05dabc 708(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
709buffer.
710
711=item Can't open %s: %s
712
08e9d68e
DD
713(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
714filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
715switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
716is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
717on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
718
719=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
720
721(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
722try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 723IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
724and then read it in under a different file handle.
725
748a9306
LW
726=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
727
728(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
729couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
730command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
731
732=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
733
734(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 735couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
736
737=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
738
739(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
740couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
741line for writing.
748a9306
LW
742
743=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
744
745(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
746couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
747
a0d0e21e
LW
748=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
749
750(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
751
7bac28a0
PP
752=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
753
754(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
755pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
756was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
757this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
758
a0d0e21e
LW
759=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
760
761(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
762you don't have write permission to the directory.
763
748a9306
LW
764=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
765
766(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
767reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
768
a0d0e21e
LW
769=item Can't reswap uid and euid
770
771(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
772of suidperl.
773
774=item Can't return outside a subroutine
775
776(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
777there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
778
779=item Can't stat script "%s"
780
781(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
782it open already. Bizarre.
783
784=item Can't swap uid and euid
785
786(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
787of suidperl.
788
789=item Can't take log of %g
790
fb73857a
PP
791(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
792negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
793standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
794the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
795
796=item Can't take sqrt of %g
797
798(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
799negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
800with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
801
802=item Can't undef active subroutine
803
804(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
805however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
806redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
807
808=item Can't unshift
809
810(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
811as the main Perl stack.
812
813=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
814
815(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
816it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
817so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
818message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
819
820=item Can't upgrade to undef
821
822(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
823of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
824code calling sv_upgrade.
825
c07a80fd
PP
826=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
827
828(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 829You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
830and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
831Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
832lexical variable.
833
a0d0e21e
LW
834=item Can't use %s for loop variable
835
836(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
837
838=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
839
840(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
841reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
842test the type of the reference, if need be.
843
748a9306
LW
844=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
845
846(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
847a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 848to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
849Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
850out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
851
44a8e56a
PP
852=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
853
854(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
855are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
856
748a9306 857=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
858
859(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
860are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
861
862=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
863
864(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 865be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 866
a0d0e21e
LW
867=item Can't use global %s in "my"
868
869(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 870not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
871the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
872variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
873weren't.
874
748a9306
LW
875=item Can't use subscript on %s
876
877(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
878subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
879didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
880
a0d0e21e
LW
881=item Can't write to temp file for B<-e>: %s
882
883(F) The write routine failed for some reason while trying to process
884a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
885
5f05dabc 886=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
887
888(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
889an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
890Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
891
51fa4eea
JH
892=item Cannot create temporary file "%s"
893
894(F) A temporary file could not created for some reason while trying to
895process a B<-e> switch. Maybe your temporary file partition is full,
896or over-protected, or clobbered.
897
b6c543e3
IZ
898=item Cannot find an opnumber for "%s"
899
900(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
901there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
902
51fa4eea 903=item Cannot generate temporary filename
a0d0e21e 904
51fa4eea
JH
905(F) While trying to process a B<-e> switch, a filename for a temporary
906file could not be generated. Maybe your temporary file partition is
907full, or over-protected, or clobbered.
a0d0e21e 908
e7ea3e70
IZ
909=item Cannot resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
910
911(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
912opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
913package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
914
4599a1de
JH
915=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
916
917(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
918with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
919If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
920expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
921backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
922
923=item Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions
924
925(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
926with "[:" and ending with ":]" is reserved for future extensions.
927If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
928expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
929backslash: "\[:" and ":\]".
930
931=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
932
933(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
934beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
935If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
936expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
937backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
938
a0d0e21e
LW
939=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
940
941(W) A novice will sometimes say
942
943 chmod 777, $filename
944
945not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
946to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
947
8b1a09fc 948=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
949
950(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
951
7a2e2cd6
PP
952=item Compilation failed in require
953
954(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
955Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
956were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
957
a0d0e21e
LW
958=item connect() on closed fd
959
960(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
961the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
962
4cee8e80
CS
963=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
964
965(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
966inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
967workarounds.
968
9607fc9c
PP
969=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
970
971(S) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
972inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
973workarounds.
974
e7ea3e70
IZ
975=item Copy method did not return a reference
976
977(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
978
a0d0e21e
LW
979=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
980
981(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
982
983=item corrupted regexp pointers
984
985(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
986expression compiler gave it.
987
988=item corrupted regexp program
989
990(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
991a valid magic number.
992
993=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
994
995(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 996times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
997recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
998case it indicates something else.
999
fc36a67e
PP
1000=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1001
1002(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1003C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1004twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1005
4633a7c4
LW
1006=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1007
1008(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1009
748a9306 1010=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1011
748a9306
LW
1012(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1013On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1014
7e1af8bc 1015=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1016
1017(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1018you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1019
54310121 1020=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1021
1022(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1023found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1024name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1025because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1026"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1027referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1028to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1029can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1030declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
1031
1032=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1033
1034(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1035
1036=item do_study: out of memory
1037
1038(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1039
1040=item Duplicate free() ignored
1041
1042(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1043been freed.
1044
4633a7c4
LW
1045=item elseif should be elsif
1046
1047(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1048ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1049named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1050unlikely to be what you want.
1051
a0d0e21e
LW
1052=item END failed--cleanup aborted
1053
1054(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
1055The interpreter is immediately exited.
1056
748a9306
LW
1057=item Error converting file specification %s
1058
5f05dabc 1059(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1060specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1061single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1062passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1063case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1064
fc36a67e
PP
1065=item Excessively long <> operator
1066
1067(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1068Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1069filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1070variable and glob that.
1071
f86702cc 1072=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1073
1074(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1075
1076=item Exiting eval via %s
1077
8b1a09fc 1078(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1079a goto, or a loop control statement.
1080
0a753a76
PP
1081=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1082
1083(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1084subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1085statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1086
a0d0e21e
LW
1087=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1088
8b1a09fc 1089(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1090a goto, or a loop control statement.
1091
1092=item Exiting substitution via %s
1093
8b1a09fc 1094(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1095a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1096
7b8d334a
GS
1097=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1098
1099(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1100the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1101usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
1102package, e.g. bless($ref, $p or 'MyPackage');
1103
748a9306 1104=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1105
748a9306
LW
1106(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1107service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1108filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1109the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1110
1111=item fcntl is not implemented
1112
1113(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1114PDP-11 or something?
1115
1116=item Filehandle %s never opened
1117
1118(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1119You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1120the FileHandle package.
1121
5f05dabc 1122=item Filehandle %s opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1123
1124(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1125intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1126"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1127you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1128L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1129
5f05dabc 1130=item Filehandle opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1131
1132(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1133intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1134"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1135you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1136L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1137
1138=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1139
1140(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1141a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1142that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1143the name.
1144
1145=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1146
1147(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1148a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1149that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1150the name.
1151
1152=item Format %s redefined
1153
1154(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1155
1156 {
1157 local $^W = 0;
1158 eval "format NAME =...";
1159 }
1160
1161=item Format not terminated
1162
1163(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1164to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1165
1166=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1167
1168(W) You said
1169
1170 if ($foo = 123)
1171
1172when you meant
1173
1174 if ($foo == 123)
1175
1176(or something like that).
1177
1178=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1179
1180(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1181
1182=item gethostent not implemented
1183
1184(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1185because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1186on the Internet.
1187
1188=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1189
1190(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1191Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1192
748a9306
LW
1193=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1194
1195(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1196C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1197
1198
a0d0e21e
LW
1199=item Glob not terminated
1200
1201(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1202a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1203finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1204the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1205
1206=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1207
68dc0745
PP
1208(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1209must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
a0d0e21e
LW
1210say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1211
1212=item goto must have label
1213
1214(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1215unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1216
1217=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1218
1219(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1220existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1221an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1222
1223=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1224
1225(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1226is now heavily deprecated.
1227
8903cb82
PP
1228=item Identifier too long
1229
1230(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1231about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1232names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1233versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1234
8b1a09fc 1235=item Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter
a0d0e21e 1236
8b1a09fc
PP
1237(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. A logical name was encountered when preparing
1238to iterate over %ENV which violates the syntactic rules governing logical
5f05dabc
PP
1239names. Because it cannot be translated normally, it is skipped, and will not
1240appear in %ENV. This may be a benign occurrence, as some software packages
54310121 1241might directly modify logical name tables and introduce nonstandard names,
8b1a09fc 1242or it may indicate that a logical name table has been corrupted.
a0d0e21e 1243
4fdae800
PP
1244=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1245
1246(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1247error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121
PP
1248multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1249
1250Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1251either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1252transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745
PP
1253properly converting the text file format.
1254
1255Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1256text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1257handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1258
1259In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1260converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1261executed.
4fdae800 1262
a0d0e21e
LW
1263=item Illegal division by zero
1264
1265(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1266logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1267
1268=item Illegal modulus zero
1269
1270(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1271don't take to this kindly.
1272
1273=item Illegal octal digit
1274
1275(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1276
748a9306
LW
1277=item Illegal octal digit ignored
1278
1279(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1280of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1281
6ff81951
GS
1282=item Illegal hex digit ignored
1283
1284(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F in a
1285hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
1286before the illegal character.
1287
54310121
PP
1288=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1289
1290(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1291following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1292
9607fc9c
PP
1293=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1294
1295(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1296array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1297used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1298instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1299indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1300program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1301that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1302
a0d0e21e
LW
1303=item Insecure dependency in %s
1304
8b1a09fc 1305(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1306The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1307or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1308labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1309who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1310used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1311for more information.
1312
1313=item Insecure directory in %s
1314
1315(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1316script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1317See L<perlsec>.
1318
1319=item Insecure PATH
1320
1321(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
8b1a09fc 1322setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> is derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1323potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1324known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1325
bbce6d69
PP
1326=item Integer overflow in hex number
1327
1328(S) The literal hex number you have specified is too big for your
1329architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest hex literal is
13300xFFFFFFFF.
1331
1332=item Integer overflow in octal number
1333
1334(S) The literal octal number you have specified is too big for your
1335architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest octal literal is
1336037777777777.
1337
748a9306
LW
1338=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1339
1340(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1341of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1342whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
748a9306
LW
1343script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/exec>). Somehow, this count
1344has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1345this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1346and execute the specified command.
1347
a0d0e21e
LW
1348=item internal disaster in regexp
1349
1350(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1351
5cd24f17
PP
1352=item internal error: glob failed
1353
1354(P) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1355and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. This may mean that your csh (C shell) is
1356broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1357config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1358were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1359empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1360think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
1361C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
1362
a0d0e21e
LW
1363=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1364
1365(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1366
1367=item invalid [] range in regexp
1368
1369(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1370greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1371
c635e13b
PP
1372=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1373
878e08df 1374(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1375See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1376
96e4d5b1
PP
1377=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1378
8903cb82 1379(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1380(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1381ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1382
1383=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1384
8903cb82 1385(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1386(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1387ignored.
96e4d5b1 1388
a0d0e21e
LW
1389=item ioctl is not implemented
1390
1391(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1392strange for a machine that supports C.
1393
1394=item junk on end of regexp
1395
1396(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1397
1398=item Label not found for "last %s"
1399
1400(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1401loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1402See L<perlfunc/last>.
1403
1404=item Label not found for "next %s"
1405
1406(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1407that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1408L<perlfunc/last>.
1409
1410=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1411
1412(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1413that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1414L<perlfunc/last>.
1415
1416=item listen() on closed fd
1417
1418(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1419the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1420
a0d0e21e
LW
1421=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1422
1423(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1424doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1425
1426=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1427
1428(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1429by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1430ended earlier on the current line.
1431
1432=item Misplaced _ in number
1433
1434(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1435
1436=item Missing $ on loop variable
1437
8b1a09fc
PP
1438(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1439mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1440one line to the next.
1441
1442=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1443
1444(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1445"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1446
748a9306
LW
1447=item Missing operator before %s?
1448
1449(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1450found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1451
a0d0e21e
LW
1452=item Missing right bracket
1453
1454(F) The lexer counted more opening curly brackets (braces) than closing ones.
1455As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you were last
1456editing.
1457
a0d0e21e
LW
1458=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1459
1460(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1461constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1462catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1463
1464 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1465 mod(2);
1466
1467Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1468
54310121 1469=item Modification of noncreatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1470
1471(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1472subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1473backwards.
1474
54310121 1475=item Modification of noncreatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e
LW
1476
1477(F) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
1478be created for some peculiar reason.
1479
1480=item Module name must be constant
1481
1482(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1483
1484=item msg%s not implemented
1485
1486(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1487
1488=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1489
8b1a09fc
PP
1490(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1491like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1492
1493=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1494
68dc0745
PP
1495(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1496If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
1497it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<use vars> pragma is
1498provided for just this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1499
1500=item Negative length
1501
1502(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1503that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1504
1505=item nested *?+ in regexp
1506
5f05dabc 1507(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1508things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1509
5f05dabc 1510Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1511to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1512
1513=item No #! line
1514
1515(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1516even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1517
1518=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1519
1520(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1521script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1522another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1523See L<perlsec>.
1524
1525=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1526
1527(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1528
1529=item No comma allowed after %s
1530
1531(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1532allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1533Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1534
0a753a76
PP
1535One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1536constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1537importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1538does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1539explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1540L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1541would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1542remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1543constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1544list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1545this error was triggered?
1546
748a9306
LW
1547=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1548
1549(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1550and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1551want to pipe the output from this command.
1552
a0d0e21e
LW
1553=item No DB::DB routine defined
1554
1555(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1556but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1557didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1558statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1559automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1560right.
1561
1562=item No dbm on this machine
1563
1564(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1565supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1566
1567=item No DBsub routine
1568
1569(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1570but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1571didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1572ordinary subroutine call.
1573
8b1a09fc 1574=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1575
1576(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1577and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1578the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1579
8b1a09fc 1580=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1581
1582(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1583and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1584from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1585
8b1a09fc 1586=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1587
1588(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1589and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1590where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1591
8b1a09fc 1592=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1593
1594(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1595and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1596name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1597
a0d0e21e
LW
1598=item No Perl script found in input
1599
1600(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1601with #! and containing the word "perl".
1602
1603=item No setregid available
1604
1605(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1606your system.
1607
1608=item No setreuid available
1609
1610(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1611your system.
1612
1613=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1614
1615(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1616intervening space.
1617
748a9306
LW
1618=item No such pipe open
1619
1620(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1621close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1622an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1623
a0d0e21e
LW
1624=item No such signal: SIG%s
1625
1626(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1627Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1628
1629=item Not a CODE reference
1630
1631(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1632subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1633use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1634See also L<perlref>.
1635
1636=item Not a format reference
1637
1638(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1639format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1640
1641=item Not a GLOB reference
1642
55497cff 1643(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1644a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1645something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1646what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1647
1648=item Not a HASH reference
1649
1650(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1651found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1652function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1653
1654=item Not a perl script
1655
1656(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1657even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1658mention perl.
1659
1660=item Not a SCALAR reference
1661
1662(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1663found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1664function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1665
1666=item Not a subroutine reference
1667
1668(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1669subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1670use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1671See also L<perlref>.
1672
e7ea3e70 1673=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
1674
1675(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1676doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1677
1678=item Not an ARRAY reference
1679
1680(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
1681found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1682function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1683
1684=item Not enough arguments for %s
1685
1686(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
1687
1688=item Not enough format arguments
1689
1690(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
1691See L<perlform>.
1692
1693=item Null filename used
1694
5f05dabc 1695(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
1696that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
1697
55497cff
PP
1698=item Null picture in formline
1699
1700(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
1701specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
1702supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
1703
a0d0e21e
LW
1704=item NULL OP IN RUN
1705
1706(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
1707
1708=item Null realloc
1709
1710(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
1711
1712=item NULL regexp argument
1713
5f05dabc 1714(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
1715
1716=item NULL regexp parameter
1717
1718(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
1719
fc36a67e
PP
1720=item Number too long
1721
1722(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
1723about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
1724Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
1725try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
1726
1930e939 1727=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 1728
1930e939
TP
1729(S) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
1730is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 1731
bbce6d69
PP
1732=item Offset outside string
1733
1734(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
1735pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
1736The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
1737will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
1738
a0d0e21e
LW
1739=item oops: oopsAV
1740
1741(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1742
1743=item oops: oopsHV
1744
1745(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1746
e7ea3e70 1747=item Operation `%s': no method found,%s
44a8e56a 1748
e7ea3e70
IZ
1749(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
1750no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
1751terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
1752operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
1753true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 1754
748a9306
LW
1755=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
1756
1757(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
1758expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
1759to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
1760For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
1761if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
1762
a0d0e21e
LW
1763=item Out of memory for yacc stack
1764
1765(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
1766but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
1767
1768=item Out of memory!
1769
55497cff 1770(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 1771remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
1772
1773The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
1774depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
1775However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
1776an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
1777error is trappable I<once>.
1778
1779=item Out of memory during request for %s
1780
1781(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
1782remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
1783the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
1784a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
1785
a0d0e21e
LW
1786=item page overflow
1787
1788(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
1789See L<perlform>.
1790
1791=item panic: ck_grep
1792
1793(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
1794
1795=item panic: ck_split
1796
1797(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
1798
1799=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
1800
1801(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
1802are in the savestack.
1803
1804=item panic: die %s
1805
1806(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
1807it wasn't an eval context.
1808
1809=item panic: do_match
1810
1811(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1812
1813=item panic: do_split
1814
1815(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
1816
1817=item panic: do_subst
1818
1819(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1820
1821=item panic: do_trans
1822
1823(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1824
c635e13b
PP
1825=item panic: frexp
1826
1827(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
1828
a0d0e21e
LW
1829=item panic: goto
1830
1831(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
1832and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
1833
1834=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
1835
1836(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
1837
1838=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
1839
1840(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
1841
1842=item panic: last
1843
1844(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
1845it wasn't a block context.
1846
1847=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
1848
5f05dabc 1849(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
1850
1851=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
1852
1853(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
1854invalid enum on the top of it.
1855
1856=item panic: malloc
1857
1858(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
1859
1860=item panic: mapstart
1861
1862(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
1863
1864=item panic: null array
1865
1866(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
1867
1868=item panic: pad_alloc
1869
1870(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1871and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1872
1873=item panic: pad_free curpad
1874
1875(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1876and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1877
1878=item panic: pad_free po
1879
1880(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1881
1882=item panic: pad_reset curpad
1883
1884(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1885and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1886
1887=item panic: pad_sv po
1888
1889(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1890
1891=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
1892
1893(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1894and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1895
1896=item panic: pad_swipe po
1897
1898(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1899
1900=item panic: pp_iter
1901
1902(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
1903
1904=item panic: realloc
1905
1906(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
1907
1908=item panic: restartop
1909
1910(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
1911didn't supply the destination.
1912
1913=item panic: return
1914
1915(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
1916then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
1917
1918=item panic: scan_num
1919
1920(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
1921
1922=item panic: sv_insert
1923
1924(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
1925was string.
1926
1927=item panic: top_env
1928
1929(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
1930
1931=item panic: yylex
1932
1933(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
1934
7b8d334a 1935=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
1936
1937(W) You said something like
1938
1939 my $foo, $bar = @_;
1940
1941when you meant
1942
1943 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
1944
1945Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
1946
1947=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
1948
1949(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
1950than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
1951anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
1952
1953=item Permission denied
1954
1955(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
1956
748a9306
LW
1957=item pid %d not a child
1958
1959(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
1960isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
1961perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
1962
a0d0e21e
LW
1963=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
1964
1965(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
1966the BSD version, which takes a pid.
1967
bbce6d69
PP
1968=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
1969
774d564b
PP
1970(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
1971strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
1972as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 1973parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 1974
774d564b
PP
1975You probably wrote something like this:
1976
54310121 1977 @list = qw(
774d564b 1978 a # a comment
bbce6d69 1979 b # another comment
774d564b 1980 );
bbce6d69
PP
1981
1982when you should have written this:
1983
774d564b 1984 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
1985 a
1986 b
774d564b
PP
1987 );
1988
1989If you really want comments, build your list the
1990old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
1991
1992 @list = (
1993 'a', # a comment
1994 'b', # another comment
1995 );
bbce6d69
PP
1996
1997=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
1998
774d564b 1999(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2000aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2001delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2002used.)
bbce6d69 2003
54310121 2004You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2005
774d564b
PP
2006 qw! a, b, c !;
2007
2008which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2009commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2010
774d564b 2011 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2012
a0d0e21e
LW
2013=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2014
2015(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2016Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2017end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2018Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2019
2020=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2021
2022(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2023
a0d0e21e
LW
2024 open FOO || die;
2025
2026is now misinterpreted as
2027
2028 open(FOO || die);
2029
68dc0745
PP
2030because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2031and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2032put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2033instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
2034
2035=item print on closed filehandle %s
2036
2037(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2038Check your logic flow.
2039
2040=item printf on closed filehandle %s
2041
2042(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2043Check your logic flow.
2044
2045=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2046
54310121 2047(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2048which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2049last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2050
2051 open FOO || die;
2052
3fe9a6f1 2053=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2054
3fe9a6f1
PP
2055(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2056or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2057
8b1a09fc 2058=item Read on closed filehandle E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2059
2060(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2061Check your logic flow.
2062
2063=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2064
54310121 2065(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2066
2067=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2068
2069(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2070desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2071which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2072
2073=item Recursive inheritance detected
2074
2075(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2076an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2077
1930e939
TP
2078=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2079
2080(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2081an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2082usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2083to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
2084
2085 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2086 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2087 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2088 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2089
7b8d334a
GS
2090=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2091
2092(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2093an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2094usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2095to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
2096
2097 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2098 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2099 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2100 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2101
a0d0e21e
LW
2102=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2103
2104(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2105reference count of other than 1.
2106
fb73857a
PP
2107=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2108
2109(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2110could match an empty string.
2111
a0d0e21e
LW
2112=item regexp memory corruption
2113
2114(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2115expression compiler gave it.
2116
2117=item regexp out of space
2118
2119(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2120
2121=item regexp too big
2122
2ba9eb46 2123(F) The current implementation of regular expressions uses shorts as
a0d0e21e
LW
2124address offsets within a string. Unfortunately this means that if
2125the regular expression compiles to longer than 32767, it'll blow up.
2126Usually when you want a regular expression this big, there is a better
2127way to do it with multiple statements. See L<perlre>.
2128
2129=item Reversed %s= operator
2130
2131(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2132comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2133
2134=item Runaway format
2135
2136(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2137produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2138199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2139themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2140shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2141
2142=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2143
a6006777 2144(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2145an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2146The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2147assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2148like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2149subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2150
748a9306 2151On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2152element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2153Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2154L<perlref>.
2155
a6006777
PP
2156=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2157
2158(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2159a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2160The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2161assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2162like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2163subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2164
2165On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2166element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2167Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2168L<perlref>.
2169
a0d0e21e
LW
2170=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2171
54310121
PP
2172(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2173or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2174
2175=item Search pattern not terminated
2176
2177(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2178construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2179Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2180
96e4d5b1 2181=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2182
96e4d5b1
PP
2183(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2184was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2185
2186=item select not implemented
2187
2188(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2189
2190=item sem%s not implemented
2191
2192(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2193
2194=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2195
2196(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2197that had previously been marked as free.
2198
2199=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2200
2201(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2202or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2203
2204=item Send on closed socket
2205
2206(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
2207Check your logic flow.
2208
1b1626e4 2209=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2210
1b1626e4
G
2211(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2212See L<perlre>.
2213
a0d0e21e
LW
2214=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2215
2216(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2217parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2218
2219=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2220
2221(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2222but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2223
2224=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2225
2226(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2227See L<perlre>.
2228
a5f75d66
AD
2229=item Server error
2230
9607fc9c
PP
2231Also known as "500 Server error".
2232
2233B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2234
2235You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2236CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2237tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2238from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2239server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2240for more information:
2241
2242 http://www.perl.com/perl/faq/idiots-guide.html
2243 http://www.perl.com/perl/faq/perl-cgi-faq.html
2244 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2245 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2246 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2247
a0d0e21e
LW
2248=item setegid() not implemented
2249
8b1a09fc 2250(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2251the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2252think so.
2253
2254=item seteuid() not implemented
2255
8b1a09fc 2256(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2257the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2258think so.
2259
2260=item setrgid() not implemented
2261
8b1a09fc 2262(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2263the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2264think so.
2265
2266=item setruid() not implemented
2267
1f8d2005 2268(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2269the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2270think so.
2271
2272=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2273
2274(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2275because the world might have written on it already.
2276
2277=item shm%s not implemented
2278
2279(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2280
2281=item shutdown() on closed fd
2282
2283(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2284
f86702cc 2285=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2286
2287(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2288put it into the wrong package?
2289
2290=item sort is now a reserved word
2291
2292(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2293But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2294
2295=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2296
2297(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2298it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2299See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2300
2301=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2302
2303(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2304or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2305
2306=item Split loop
2307
2308(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2309more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2310See L<perlfunc/split>.
2311
8b1a09fc 2312=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2313
2314(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2315on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2316
2317=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2318
2319(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2320This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2321there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2322which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2323by itself.
2324
e7ea3e70
IZ
2325=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2326
2327(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2328Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2329may break this.
2330
a0d0e21e
LW
2331=item Subroutine %s redefined
2332
2333(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2334
2335 {
2336 local $^W = 0;
2337 eval "sub name { ... }";
2338 }
2339
2340=item Substitution loop
2341
2342(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2343substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2344input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2345L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2346
2347=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2348
2349(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2350construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2351Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2352
2353=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2354
2355(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2356construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2357Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2358
2359=item substr outside of string
2360
3e3baf6d
TB
2361(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2362string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2363length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2364mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2365of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2366
f86702cc 2367=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2368
2369(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2370version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2371
2372=item syntax error
2373
2374(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2375
2376 A keyword is misspelled.
2377 A semicolon is missing.
2378 A comma is missing.
2379 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2380 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2381 A closing quote is missing.
2382
2383Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2384error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2385The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2386it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2387before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2388Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2389the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2390C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2391if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2392
cb1a09d0
AD
2393=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2394
8b1a09fc 2395(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2396instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2397into Perl yourself.
2398
a0d0e21e
LW
2399=item System V IPC is not implemented on this machine
2400
5f05dabc 2401(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem", "shm",
a0d0e21e
LW
2402or "msg". See L<perlfunc/semctl>, for example.
2403
2404=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2405
2406(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2407Check your logic flow.
2408
fc36a67e
PP
2409=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2410
2411(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2412nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2413
8903cb82 2414=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2415
8903cb82
PP
2416(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2417never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2418
8b1a09fc 2419=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2420
2421(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2422open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2423
2424=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2425
8b1a09fc 2426(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2427a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2428
2429 $[ = 0;
2430 $[ = 1;
2431 ...
2432 local $[ = 0;
2433 local $[ = 1;
2434 ...
2435
2436This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2437out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2438
2439=item The %s function is unimplemented
2440
2441The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2442to the probings of Configure.
2443
f86702cc 2444=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2445
2446(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2447probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2448think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2449will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2450will deny it.
2451
2452=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2453
2454(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2455if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2456the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2457
2458=item times not implemented
2459
2460(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2461you're not running on Unix.
2462
2463=item Too few args to syscall
2464
2465(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2466system call to call, silly dilly.
2467
9607fc9c
PP
2468=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2469
2470(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2471B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2472This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2473script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2474So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2475
9607fc9c
PP
2476If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2477mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2478by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2479first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2480
9607fc9c
PP
2481If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2482B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2483
8cc95fdb
PP
2484=item Too late for "-%s" option
2485
2486(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2487B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2488are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2489
cb1a09d0
AD
2490=item Too many ('s
2491
2492=item Too many )'s
2493
2494(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2495of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2496Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2497
a0d0e21e
LW
2498=item Too many args to syscall
2499
5f05dabc 2500(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2501
2502=item Too many arguments for %s
2503
2504(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2505
2506=item trailing \ in regexp
2507
2508(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2509it. See L<perlre>.
2510
2c268ad5 2511=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2512
2513(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
2514or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
2515C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2516
2c268ad5 2517=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2518
2519(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2520construct.
2521
2522=item truncate not implemented
2523
2524(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2525Configure knows about.
2526
2527=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2528
2529(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2530certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2531%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2532{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2533
2534=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2535
5f05dabc 2536(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal literals
a0d0e21e
LW
2537always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2538
4633a7c4
LW
2539=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2540
2541(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2542
a0d0e21e
LW
2543=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2544
2545(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2546contexts were entered and left.
2547
2548=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2549
2550(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2551values were temporarily localized.
2552
2553=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2554
2555(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2556were entered and left.
2557
2558=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2559
2560(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2561scalars were allocated and freed.
2562
2563=item Undefined format "%s" called
2564
2565(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2566another package? See L<perlform>.
2567
2568=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2569
2570(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2571it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2572
2573=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2574
2575(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2576has since been undefined.
2577
2578=item Undefined subroutine called
2579
2580(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2581or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2582
2583=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2584
2585(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2586have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2587
4633a7c4
LW
2588=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2589
2590(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2591another package? See L<perlform>.
2592
20408e3c
GS
2593=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
2594
2595(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
2596This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
2597
a0d0e21e
LW
2598=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2599
2600(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2601representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2602
2603=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2604
5f05dabc 2605(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e
LW
2606
2607=item unmatched () in regexp
2608
2609(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
2610expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 2611the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2612
2613=item Unmatched right bracket
2614
2615(F) The lexer counted more closing curly brackets (braces) than opening
2616ones, so you're probably missing an opening bracket. As a general
2617rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the place you were
2618last editing.
2619
2620=item unmatched [] in regexp
2621
2622(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
2623include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
2624See L<perlre>.
2625
2626=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2627
54310121 2628(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
2629It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
2630an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
2631
54310121 2632=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 2633
54310121
PP
2634(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
2635in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
2636script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e
LW
2637
2638=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
2639
2640(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
2641Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2642
90248788 2643=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
2644
2645(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
2646(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
2647supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
2648
2649=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
2650
2651(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
2652failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 2653because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2654
2655=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
2656
2657(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
2658
54310121
PP
2659=item Unsupported function fork
2660
2661(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
2662
2663Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
2664Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
2665the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
2666
a0d0e21e
LW
2667=item Unsupported function %s
2668
7b8d334a 2669(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
2670At least, Configure doesn't think so.
2671
2672=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
2673
2674(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
2675least that's what Configure thought.
2676
8b1a09fc 2677=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
2678
2679(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
2680a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
2681finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
2682the line, and you really meant a "less than".
2683
5cd24f17
PP
2684=item Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated
2685
2686(D) Perl versions before 5.004 misinterpreted any type marker followed
2687by "$" and a digit. For example, "$$0" was incorrectly taken to mean
2688"${$}0" instead of "${$0}". This bug is (mostly) fixed in Perl 5.004.
2689
2690However, the developers of Perl 5.004 could not fix this bug completely,
2691because at least two widely-used modules depend on the old meaning of
2692"$$0" in a string. So Perl 5.004 still interprets "$$<digit>" in the
2693old (broken) way inside strings; but it generates this message as a
2694warning. And in Perl 5.005, this special treatment will cease.
2695
a0d0e21e
LW
2696=item Use of $# is deprecated
2697
8b1a09fc 2698(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
2699Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
2700
2701=item Use of $* is deprecated
2702
4a6725af 2703(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
2704you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
2705use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
2706action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
2707
748a9306
LW
2708=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
2709
5f05dabc
PP
2710(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
2711only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 2712
8b1a09fc 2713=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
2714
2715(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 2716wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 2717
a0d0e21e
LW
2718=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
2719
2720(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
2721subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
2722a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
2723
dc848c6f
PP
2724=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
2725
5cd24f17
PP
2726(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
2727up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
2728be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 2729as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
2730
2731This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
2732only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
2733of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
2734interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
2735use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
2736
2737The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
2738non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
2739depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
2740C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
2741
fb73857a
PP
2742In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
2743should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 2744C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 2745
dc848c6f
PP
2746=item Use of %s is deprecated
2747
2748(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
2749because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
2750bad side effects.
2751
a0d0e21e
LW
2752=item Use of uninitialized value
2753
2754(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
2755interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
2756warning assign an initial value to your variables.
2757
2758=item Useless use of %s in void context
2759
2760(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
2761with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
2762from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
2763this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
2764your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
2765if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
2766
2767 $one, $two = 1, 2;
2768
2769when you meant to say
2770
2771 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
2772
748a9306
LW
2773Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
2774reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
2775example, if you say
2776
2777 $array = (1,2);
2778
2779when you should have said
2780
2781 $array = [1,2];
2782
2783The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
2784while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
2785a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
2786throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
2787L<perlref> for more on this.
2788
55497cff
PP
2789=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
2790
2791(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
2792valid when C<untie> was called.
2793
68dc0745 2794=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 2795
68dc0745
PP
2796(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
2797or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
2798value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
2799probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
2800expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 2801
9607fc9c 2802=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
2803
2804(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
2805that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
2806something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
2807by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
2808on the front of your variable.
2809
44a8e56a
PP
2810=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
2811
2812(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
2813subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
2814(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
2815the outermost subroutine. For example:
2816
2817 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
2818
2819If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
2820indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
2821as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
2822referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
2823the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
2824*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
2825you want.
2826
2827In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
2828subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
2829support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
2830subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
2831
2832=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
2833
2834(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
2835variable defined in an outer subroutine.
2836
2837When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
2838the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
2839*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
2840call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
2841subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
2842other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
2843
2844Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
2845lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
2846will I<never> share the given variable.
2847
2848This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
2849anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
2850reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 2851they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
2852variables.
2853
f86702cc 2854=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
2855
2856(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2857of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2858Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2859
3e6e419a
JH
2860=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2861
2862(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
2863
2864 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2865 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
2866 LC_ALL = "En_US",
2867 LANG = (unset)
2868 are supported and installed on your system.
2869 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
2870
2871Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
2872settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
2873This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
2874administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
2875not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
2876is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
2877script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
2878will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
2879fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
2880
7e1af8bc 2881=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
2882
2883(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
2884you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
2885
f86702cc 2886=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 2887
8b1a09fc 2888(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 2889close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 2890
5f05dabc 2891=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
2892
2893(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
2894binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
2895unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
2896has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
2897
2898 rand + 5;
2899
2900you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
2901
2902 rand() + 5;
2903
2904but in actual fact, you got
2905
2906 rand(+5);
2907
5f05dabc 2908So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e
LW
2909
2910=item Write on closed filehandle
2911
2912(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2913Check your logic flow.
2914
2915=item X outside of string
2916
2917(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
2918the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2919
2920=item x outside of string
2921
2922(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
2923the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2924
2925=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
2926
2927(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2928
2929=item Xsub called in sort
2930
2931(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2932
2933=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
2934
2935(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
2936already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
2937Use a filename instead.
2938
2939=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
2940
5f05dabc 2941(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
2942sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
2943about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
2944the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
2945
2946=item You need to quote "%s"
2947
2948(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
2949already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
2950will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
2951probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
2952
2953=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
2954
2955(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
2956Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
2957See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2958
2959=item \1 better written as $1
2960
2961(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 2962of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
2963substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
2964because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
2965if there are more than 9 backreferences.
2966
8b1a09fc 2967=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2968
2969(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2970found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 2971'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 2972
8b1a09fc 2973=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2974
2975(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2976thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
2977command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
2978from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
2979streams, such as
2980
2981 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
2982 while (<STDIN>) {
2983 print;
2984 print OUT;
2985 }
2986 close OUT;
2987
774d564b 2988=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 2989
774d564b
PP
2990(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2991version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
2992
2993=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2994
dc848c6f 2995(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
2996
2997 prefix1;prefix2
2998
2999or
3000
3001 prefix1 prefix2
3002
dc848c6f
PP
3003with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3004of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3005may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3006"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3007
3008=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3009
54310121 3010(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3011C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3012
3013=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3014
3015(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3016applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3017port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3018L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3019in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3020
a0d0e21e
LW
3021=back
3022