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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
5aabfad6 4
8736538c 5=head1 NAME
5aabfad6 6
f8dbba82 7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
5aabfad6 8
8736538c 9=head1 SYNOPSIS
5aabfad6 10
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11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
12on Cygwin. This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
5aabfad6 14
f8dbba82 15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
b4bcd662 16version of Perl is provided on the Cygwin CD. If you do not need to
f8dbba82 17customize the configuration, consider using one of these packages:
5aabfad6 18
f8dbba82 19 http://cygutils.netpedia.net/
5aabfad6 20
f8dbba82 21=head1 PREREQUISITES
8736538c 22
f8dbba82 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
8736538c 24
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25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
26platforms. They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
27system calls and environment these programs expect. More information
28about this project can be found at:
8736538c 29
f8dbba82 30 http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/
1cab015a 31
f8dbba82 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
8736538c 33
497711e7 34At the time this document was last updated, Cygwin 1.1.2 was current.
8736538c 35
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36B<NOTE:> At this point, minimal effort has been made to provide
37compatibility with old (beta) Cygwin releases. The focus has been to
38provide a high quality release and not worry about working around old
39Cygwin bugs. If you wish to use Perl with Cygwin B20.1 or earlier,
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40consider using perl5.005_03, which is available in source and binary
41form at C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/> or on the Cygwin CD. If there
42is significant demand, a patch kit can be developed to port back to
43earlier Cygwin versions.
1cab015a 44
f8dbba82 45=head2 Cygwin Configuration
1cab015a 46
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47While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
48that Perl builds cleanly. These changes are B<not> required for normal
49Perl usage.
1cab015a 50
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51B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
52They do not depend on your host system (Win9x, WinNT) or your Cygwin
53configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts). The only
b4bcd662 54dependencies come from hard-coded pathnames like C</usr/local>. However,
f8dbba82 55your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's runtime
b4bcd662 56behavior (see L</"TEST">).
1cab015a 57
f8dbba82 58=over 4
1cab015a 59
f8dbba82 60=item * C<PATH>
1cab015a 61
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62Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
63versions of programs. Any Windows directories should be removed or
64moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
1cab015a 65
f8dbba82 66=item * I<nroff>
1cab015a 67
f8dbba82 68If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
b4bcd662 69Configure will B<not> prompt you to install I<man> pages.
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70
71=item * Permissions
72
73On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
74and file permissions may not be set correctly. Since the build process
75creates files and directories, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
76-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
77
78Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
79that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
80I<Administrators> group. Depending on your umask, you may find that you
81can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
82the owner). When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
83issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
84a UNIX system.
1cab015a 85
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86=back
87
f8dbba82 88=head1 CONFIGURE
8736538c 89
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90The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
91F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
92(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
f89d6eaa 93
f8dbba82 94This will run Configure and keep a record:
8736538c 95
f8dbba82 96 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
8736538c 97
b4bcd662 98If you are willing to accept all the defaults run Configure with B<-de>.
f8dbba82 99However, several useful customizations are available.
5aabfad6 100
f8dbba82 101=head2 Strip Binaries
5aabfad6 102
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103It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
104The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the
105binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
106prompts you,
8736538c 107
f8dbba82 108 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
5db16f6a 109 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
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110 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
111 [none] -s
8736538c 112
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113or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
114near the end of the file.
8736538c 115
f8dbba82 116=head2 Optional Libraries
8736538c 117
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118Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
119some optional libraries. Configure will find them if they are
120installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
121searches. Pre-built packages for most of these are available at
122C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/>.
8736538c 123
f8dbba82 124=over 4
8736538c 125
f8dbba82 126=item * C<-lcrypt>
8736538c 127
f8dbba82 128The crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
1cab015a 129
5db16f6a 130The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:
1cab015a 131
b4bcd662 132 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
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133
134NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
135see the glibc README for more details.
1cab015a 136
f8dbba82 137The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
1cab015a 138
b4bcd662 139 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/libcrypt.tgz
1cab015a 140
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141There is also a Linux compatible 56 bit DES crypt port by Corinna
142Vinschen:
143
144 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Vinschen_Corinna/V1.1.1/crypt-1.0.tar.gz
145
f8dbba82 146=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
1cab015a 147
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148GDBM is available for Cygwin. GDBM's ndbm/dbm compatibility feature
149also makes C<NDBM_File> and C<ODBM_File> possible (although they add
150little extra value).
1cab015a 151
f8dbba82 152=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
1cab015a 153
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154BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin. Some details can be found in
155F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
1cab015a 156
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157=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
158
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159A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.
160
161NOTE: This has B<not> been extensively tested. In particular,
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162C<d_semctl_semun> is undefined because it fails a Configure test
163and on Win9x the I<shm*()> functions seem to hang. It also creates
164a compile time dependency because F<perl.h> includes F<<sys/ipc.h>>
165and F<<sys/sem.h>> (which will be required in the future when compiling
166CPAN modules).
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167
168=back
169
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170=head2 Configure-time Options
171
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172The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options. Some of
173these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible. Also, some of
174these are experimental. You can either select an option when Configure
175prompts you or you can define (undefine) symbols on the command line.
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176
177=over 4
178
179=item * C<-Uusedl>
180
0a110db2 181Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled statically.
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182
183=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
1cab015a 184
f8dbba82 185By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source. If you
0a110db2 186want to force Perl to build with the system malloc() undefine this symbol.
1cab015a 187
6b49d266 188=item * C<-Dusemultiplicity>
1cab015a 189
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190Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
191more than one interpreter instance. This works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 192
f8dbba82 193=item * C<-Duseperlio>
1cab015a 194
f8dbba82 195The PerlIO abstraction works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 196
0a110db2 197=item * C<-Duse64bitint>
1cab015a 198
f8dbba82 199I<gcc> supports 64-bit integers. However, several additional long long
5db16f6a 200functions are necessary to use them within Perl (I<{strtol,strtoul}l>).
f8dbba82 201These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 202
f8dbba82 203=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
1cab015a 204
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205I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes). However, several additional
206long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
5db16f6a 207(I<{atan2,cos,exp,floor,fmod,frexp,log,modf,pow,sin,sqrt}l,strtold>).
f8dbba82 208These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 209
f8dbba82 210=item * C<-Dusethreads>
1cab015a 211
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212POSIX threads are B<not> yet implemented in Cygwin.
213
214=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
215
0a110db2 216Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit integers
5db16f6a 217for internal size and position calculations.
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218
219=back
220
f8dbba82 221=head2 Suspicious Warnings
1cab015a 222
f8dbba82 223You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
8736538c 224
f8dbba82 225=over 4
8736538c 226
f8dbba82 227=item * Whoa There
8736538c 228
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229Cygwin does not yet implement chroot() functionality, but has a stub
230function that returns C<ENOSYS>. You will see a message when Configure
231detects that its guess conflicts with the hint file.
8736538c 232
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233 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
234 The recommended value for $d_chroot on this machine was "undef"!
235 Keep the recommended value? [y]
8736538c 236
f8dbba82 237You should keep the recommended value.
8736538c 238
b4bcd662 239=item * I<dlsym()>
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240
241I<ld2> is needed to build dynamic libraries, but it does not exist
242when dlsym() checking occurs (it is not created until `C<make>' runs).
243You will see the following message:
244
245 Checking whether your dlsym() needs a leading underscore ...
b4bcd662 246 ld2: not found
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247 I can't compile and run the test program.
248 I'm guessing that dlsym doesn't need a leading underscore.
249
250Since the guess is correct, this is not a problem.
251
b4bcd662 252=item * Win9x and C<d_eofnblk>
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253
254Win9x does not correctly report C<EOF> with a non-blocking read on a
255closed pipe. You will see the following messages:
256
257 But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
258 WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
259
260 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
261 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
262 Keep the recommended value? [y]
263
264At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended
265value.
266
f8dbba82 267=item * Checking how std your stdio is...
5aabfad6 268
f8dbba82 269Configure reports:
5aabfad6 270
f8dbba82 271 Your stdio doesn't appear very std.
5aabfad6 272
f8dbba82 273This is correct.
5aabfad6 274
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275=item * Compiler/Preprocessor defines
276
277The following error occurs because of the Cygwin C<#define> of
278C<_LONG_DOUBLE>:
279
280 Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
281 try.c:3847: parse error
282
283This failure does not seem to cause any problems.
284
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285=back
286
f8dbba82 287=head1 MAKE
5aabfad6 288
b4bcd662 289Simply run I<make> and wait:
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290
291 make 2>&1 | tee log.make
292
293=head2 Warnings
294
295Warnings like these are normal:
296
297 warning: overriding commands for target <file>
298 warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
299
300 Warning: no export definition file provided
301 dllwrap will create one, but may not be what you want
302
303=head2 ld2
304
305During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
306directory (where you said to put public executables). It does not
307wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
308this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
309fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
310The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>. If this
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311is not the case `C<make>' will fail at some point. If this happens,
312just manually copy I<ld2> from the source directory to somewhere in
313your C<PATH>.
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314
315=head1 TEST
316
317There are two steps to running the test suite:
318
319 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
320
321 cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
322
323The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
324running as `C<./perl harness>'.
5aabfad6 325
f8dbba82 326Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
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327configuration. If a test can pass in some Cygwin setup, it is always
328attempted and explainable test failures are documented. It is possible
329that Perl will pass all the tests, but it is more likely that some tests
330will fail for one of these reasons.
1cab015a 331
f8dbba82 332=head2 File Permissions
1cab015a 333
f8dbba82 334UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
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335{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}. By default Cygwin
336only tracks the Win32 read-only attribute represented as the UNIX file
337user write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they
338have a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are
339always readable and executable). On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN>
340setting, the additional mode bits are stored as extended file attributes.
341On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard
342WinNT security descriptors and access control lists. Without one of
343these options, these tests will fail:
1cab015a 344
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345 Failed Test List of failed
346 ------------------------------------
347 io/fs.t 5, 7, 9-10
348 lib/anydbm.t 2
349 lib/db-btree.t 20
350 lib/db-hash.t 16
351 lib/db-recno.t 18
352 lib/gdbm.t 2
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353 lib/ndbm.t 2
354 lib/odbm.t 2
355 lib/sdbm.t 2
356 op/stat.t 9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
1cab015a 357
f8dbba82 358=head2 Hard Links
1cab015a 359
f8dbba82 360FAT partitions do not support hard links (whereas NTFS does), in which
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361case Cygwin implements link() by copying the file. On remote (network)
362drives Cygwin's stat() always sets C<st_nlink> to 1, so the link count
363for remote directories and files is not available. In both cases,
364these tests will fail:
1cab015a 365
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366 Failed Test List of failed
367 ------------------------------------
368 io/fs.t 4
369 op/stat.t 3
1cab015a 370
f8dbba82 371=head2 Filetime Granularity
1cab015a 372
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373On FAT partitions the filetime granularity is 2 seconds. The following
374test will fail:
1cab015a 375
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376 Failed Test List of failed
377 ------------------------------------
378 io/fs.t 18
1cab015a 379
f8dbba82 380=head2 Tainting Checks
1cab015a 381
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382When Perl is running in taint mode, C<$ENV{PATH}> is considered tainted
383and not used, so DLLs not in the default system directories will not
384be found. While the tests are running you will see warnings popup from
385the system with messages like:
1cab015a 386
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387 Win9x
388 Error Starting Program
389 A required .DLL file, CYGWIN1.DLL, was not found
1cab015a 390
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391 WinNT
392 perl.exe or sh.exe - Unable to Locate DLL
393 The dynamic link library cygwin1.dll could not be found in the
394 specified path ...
1cab015a 395
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396Just click OK and ignore them. When running `C<make test>', 2 popups
397occur. During `C<./perl harness>', 4 popups occur. Also, these tests
398will fail:
1cab015a 399
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400 Failed Test List of failed
401 ------------------------------------
402 op/taint.t 1, 3, 31, 37
1cab015a 403
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404Alternatively, you can copy F<cygwin1.dll> into the directory where the
405tests run:
406
407 cp `type -p cygwin1.dll` t
408
409or one of the Windows system directories (although, this is B<not>
410recommended).
1cab015a 411
f8dbba82 412=head2 /etc/group
5aabfad6 413
5db16f6a 414Cygwin does not require F</etc/group>, in which case the F<op/grent.t>
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415test will be skipped. The check performed by F<op/grent.t> expects to
416see entries that use the members field, otherwise this test will fail:
f89d6eaa 417
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418 Failed Test List of failed
419 ------------------------------------
420 op/grent.t 1
1cab015a 421
f8dbba82 422=head2 Script Portability
1cab015a 423
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424Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on top of
425Win32 systems. However, in addition to the items noted above, there are
426some differences that you should know about. This is a very brief guide
427to portability, more information can be found in the Cygwin documentation.
1cab015a 428
f8dbba82 429=over 4
1cab015a 430
f8dbba82 431=item * Pathnames
1cab015a 432
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433Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\>)
434slashes. They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
435Naming Codes (F<//UNC>). DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
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436F<com*>, F<lpt?>, F<nul>) are invalid as base filenames. However, they
437can be used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>). Names may contain all
438printable characters except these:
1cab015a 439
f8dbba82 440 : * ? " < > |
1cab015a 441
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442File names are case insensitive, but case preserving. A pathname
443that contains a backslash is a Win32 pathname (and not subject to the
444translations applied to POSIX style pathnames).
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445
446=item * Text/Binary
447
448When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode. In text mode
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449a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations. With Cygwin, the default
450mode for an open() is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies
451the file. Perl provides a binmode() function to set binary mode on files
452that otherwise would be treated as text. sysopen() with the C<O_TEXT>
453flag sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:
454
455 sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
f8dbba82 456
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457lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files opened in binary mode.
458
459The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.
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460
461=item * F<.exe>
462
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463The Cygwin stat(), lstat() and readlink() functions make the F<.exe>
464extension transparent by looking for F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo>
465(unless a F<foo> also exists). Cygwin does not require a F<.exe>
466extension, but I<gcc> adds it automatically when building a program.
467However, when accessing an executable as a normal file (e.g., I<cp>
468in a makefile) the F<.exe> is not transparent. The I<install> included
469with Cygwin automatically appends a F<.exe> when necessary.
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470
471=item * chown()
472
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473On WinNT chown() can change a file's user and group IDs. On Win9x chown()
474is a no-op, although this is appropriate since there is no security model.
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475
476=item * Miscellaneous
477
478File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
479returns C<ENOSYS>.
480
f8dbba82 481Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
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482
483=back
484
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485=head1 INSTALL
486
b4bcd662 487This will install Perl, including I<man> pages.
f8dbba82 488
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489 make install | tee log.make-install
490
491NOTE: If C<STDERR> is redirected `C<make install>' will B<not> prompt
492you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 493
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494You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'. If you
495are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
1cab015a 496
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497Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
498found in the F<INSTALL> document.
1cab015a 499
f8dbba82 500=head1 MANIFEST
1cab015a 501
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502These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
503These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
504code. Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
505be kept as clean as possible.
1cab015a 506
f8dbba82 507=over 4
1cab015a 508
f8dbba82 509=item Documentation
1cab015a 510
6b49d266 511 INSTALL README.cygwin
f8dbba82 512 Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004
6b49d266 513 AUTHORS MAINTAIN MANIFEST README.win32
f8dbba82 514 pod/perl.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod
b4bcd662 515 pod/perlport.pod pod/perltoc.pod pod/perldelta.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod
1cab015a 516
f8dbba82 517=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
1cab015a 518
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519 cygwin/Makefile.SHs
520 cygwin/ld2.in
521 cygwin/perlld.in
522 ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
523 ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
524 ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
525 hints/cygwin.sh
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526 Configure - help finding hints from uname,
527 shared libperl required for dynamic loading
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528 Makefile.SH - linklibperl
529 Porting/patchls - cygwin in port list
f8dbba82 530 installman - man pages with :: translated to .
5db16f6a 531 installperl - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
6b49d266 532 makedepend.SH - uwinfix
1cab015a 533
f8dbba82 534=item Tests
1cab015a 535
f8dbba82 536 t/io/tell.t - binmode
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537 t/lib/glob-basic.t - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
538 t/op/magic.t - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
539 t/op/stat.t - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
540 (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
541 previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
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542
543=item Compiled Perl Source
544
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545 EXTERN.h - __declspec(dllimport)
546 XSUB.h - __declspec(dllexport)
b4bcd662 547 cygwin/cygwin.c - os_extras (getcwd, spawn)
6b49d266 548 perl.c - os_extras
f8dbba82 549 perl.h - binmode
6b49d266 550 doio.c - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
b4bcd662 551 pp_sys.c - do not define h_errno, pp_system with spawn
f8dbba82 552 mg.c - environ WORKAROUND
f8dbba82 553 unixish.h - environ WORKAROUND
6b49d266 554 util.c - environ WORKAROUND
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555
556=item Compiled Module Source
557
558 ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs - tzname defined externally
559 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
560 - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
561 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
562 - binary open
563
564=item Perl Modules/Scripts
565
6b49d266 566 lib/Cwd.pm - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
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567 lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
568 - require MM_Cygwin.pm
569 lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
570 - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
497711e7 571 lib/File/Find.pm - on remote drives stat() always sets st_nlink to 1
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572 lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
573 lib/perl5db.pl - use stdin not /dev/tty
574 utils/perlcc.PL - DynaLoader.a in compile, -DUSEIMPORTLIB
575 utils/perldoc.PL - version comment
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576
577=back
f89d6eaa 578
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579=head1 BUGS
580
b4bcd662 581When I<make> starts, it warns about overriding commands for F<perlmain.o>.
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582
583`C<make clean>' does not remove library F<.def> and F<.exe.stackdump>
584files.
585
586The I<ld2> script contains references to the source directory. You should
b4bcd662 587change these to $installbin after `C<make install>'.
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588
589=head1 AUTHORS
590
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591Charles Wilson <cwilson@ece.gatech.edu>,
592Eric Fifer <efifer@sanwaint.com>,
593alexander smishlajev <als@turnhere.com>,
594Steven Morlock <newspost@morlock.net>,
595Sebastien Barre <Sebastien.Barre@utc.fr>,
596Teun Burgers <burgers@ecn.nl>.
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597
598=head1 HISTORY
599
497711e7 600Last updated: 20 June 2000