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1=head1 NAME
2
3POSIX - Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1
4
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5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
7 use POSIX;
8 use POSIX qw(setsid);
9 use POSIX qw(:errno_h :fcntl_h);
10
11 printf "EINTR is %d\n", EINTR;
12
13 $sess_id = POSIX::setsid();
14
15 $fd = POSIX::open($path, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_WRONLY, 0644);
16 # note: that's a filedescriptor, *NOT* a filehandle
17
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18=head1 DESCRIPTION
19
20The POSIX module permits you to access all (or nearly all) the standard
21POSIX 1003.1 identifiers. Many of these identifiers have been given Perl-ish
22interfaces. Things which are C<#defines> in C, like EINTR or O_NDELAY, are
23automatically exported into your namespace. All functions are only exported
24if you ask for them explicitly. Most likely people will prefer to use the
25fully-qualified function names.
26
27This document gives a condensed list of the features available in the POSIX
28module. Consult your operating system's manpages for general information on
29most features. Consult L<perlfunc> for functions which are noted as being
30identical to Perl's builtin functions.
31
32The first section describes POSIX functions from the 1003.1 specification.
33The second section describes some classes for signal objects, TTY objects,
34and other miscellaneous objects. The remaining sections list various
35constants and macros in an organization which roughly follows IEEE Std
361003.1b-1993.
37
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38=head1 NOTE
39
40The POSIX module is probably the most complex Perl module supplied with
41the standard distribution. It incorporates autoloading, namespace games,
42and dynamic loading of code that's in Perl, C, or both. It's a great
43source of wisdom.
44
45=head1 CAVEATS
46
47A few functions are not implemented because they are C specific. If you
48attempt to call these, they will print a message telling you that they
49aren't implemented, and suggest using the Perl equivalent should one
50exist. For example, trying to access the setjmp() call will elicit the
51message "setjmp() is C-specific: use eval {} instead".
52
53Furthermore, some evil vendors will claim 1003.1 compliance, but in fact
54are not so: they will not pass the PCTS (POSIX Compliance Test Suites).
55For example, one vendor may not define EDEADLK, or the semantics of the
56errno values set by open(2) might not be quite right. Perl does not
57attempt to verify POSIX compliance. That means you can currently
58successfully say "use POSIX", and then later in your program you find
59that your vendor has been lax and there's no usable ICANON macro after
60all. This could be construed to be a bug.
61
62=head1 FUNCTIONS
63
64=over 8
65
66=item _exit
67
68This is identical to the C function C<_exit()>.
69
70=item abort
71
72This is identical to the C function C<abort()>.
73
74=item abs
75
76This is identical to Perl's builtin C<abs()> function.
77
78=item access
79
80Determines the accessibility of a file.
81
82 if( POSIX::access( "/", &POSIX::R_OK ) ){
83 print "have read permission\n";
84 }
85
86Returns C<undef> on failure.
87
88=item acos
89
90This is identical to the C function C<acos()>.
91
92=item alarm
93
94This is identical to Perl's builtin C<alarm()> function.
95
96=item asctime
97
98This is identical to the C function C<asctime()>.
99
100=item asin
101
102This is identical to the C function C<asin()>.
103
104=item assert
105
cb1a09d0 106Unimplemented.
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107
108=item atan
109
110This is identical to the C function C<atan()>.
111
112=item atan2
113
114This is identical to Perl's builtin C<atan2()> function.
115
116=item atexit
117
118atexit() is C-specific: use END {} instead.
119
120=item atof
121
122atof() is C-specific.
123
124=item atoi
125
126atoi() is C-specific.
127
128=item atol
129
130atol() is C-specific.
131
132=item bsearch
133
134bsearch() not supplied.
135
136=item calloc
137
138calloc() is C-specific.
139
140=item ceil
141
142This is identical to the C function C<ceil()>.
143
144=item chdir
145
146This is identical to Perl's builtin C<chdir()> function.
147
148=item chmod
149
150This is identical to Perl's builtin C<chmod()> function.
151
152=item chown
153
154This is identical to Perl's builtin C<chown()> function.
155
156=item clearerr
157
28757baa 158Use method C<IO::Handle::clearerr()> instead.
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159
160=item clock
161
162This is identical to the C function C<clock()>.
163
164=item close
165
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166Close the file. This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling
167C<POSIX::open>.
168
169 $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
170 POSIX::close( $fd );
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171
172Returns C<undef> on failure.
173
174=item closedir
175
176This is identical to Perl's builtin C<closedir()> function.
177
178=item cos
179
180This is identical to Perl's builtin C<cos()> function.
181
182=item cosh
183
184This is identical to the C function C<cosh()>.
185
186=item creat
187
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188Create a new file. This returns a file descriptor like the ones returned by
189C<POSIX::open>. Use C<POSIX::close> to close the file.
190
191 $fd = POSIX::creat( "foo", 0611 );
192 POSIX::close( $fd );
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193
194=item ctermid
195
cb1a09d0 196Generates the path name for the controlling terminal.
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197
198 $path = POSIX::ctermid();
199
200=item ctime
201
202This is identical to the C function C<ctime()>.
203
204=item cuserid
205
206Get the character login name of the user.
207
208 $name = POSIX::cuserid();
209
210=item difftime
211
212This is identical to the C function C<difftime()>.
213
214=item div
215
216div() is C-specific.
217
218=item dup
219
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220This is similar to the C function C<dup()>.
221
222This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling
223C<POSIX::open>.
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224
225Returns C<undef> on failure.
226
227=item dup2
228
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229This is similar to the C function C<dup2()>.
230
231This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling
232C<POSIX::open>.
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233
234Returns C<undef> on failure.
235
236=item errno
237
238Returns the value of errno.
239
240 $errno = POSIX::errno();
241
242=item execl
243
244execl() is C-specific.
245
246=item execle
247
248execle() is C-specific.
249
250=item execlp
251
252execlp() is C-specific.
253
254=item execv
255
256execv() is C-specific.
257
258=item execve
259
260execve() is C-specific.
261
262=item execvp
263
264execvp() is C-specific.
265
266=item exit
267
268This is identical to Perl's builtin C<exit()> function.
269
270=item exp
271
272This is identical to Perl's builtin C<exp()> function.
273
274=item fabs
275
276This is identical to Perl's builtin C<abs()> function.
277
278=item fclose
279
28757baa 280Use method C<IO::Handle::close()> instead.
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281
282=item fcntl
283
284This is identical to Perl's builtin C<fcntl()> function.
285
286=item fdopen
287
28757baa 288Use method C<IO::Handle::new_from_fd()> instead.
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289
290=item feof
291
28757baa 292Use method C<IO::Handle::eof()> instead.
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293
294=item ferror
295
28757baa 296Use method C<IO::Handle::error()> instead.
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297
298=item fflush
299
28757baa 300Use method C<IO::Handle::flush()> instead.
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301
302=item fgetc
303
28757baa 304Use method C<IO::Handle::getc()> instead.
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305
306=item fgetpos
307
28757baa 308Use method C<IO::Seekable::getpos()> instead.
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309
310=item fgets
311
28757baa 312Use method C<IO::Handle::gets()> instead.
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313
314=item fileno
315
28757baa 316Use method C<IO::Handle::fileno()> instead.
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317
318=item floor
319
320This is identical to the C function C<floor()>.
321
322=item fmod
323
324This is identical to the C function C<fmod()>.
325
326=item fopen
327
28757baa 328Use method C<IO::File::open()> instead.
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329
330=item fork
331
332This is identical to Perl's builtin C<fork()> function.
333
334=item fpathconf
335
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336Retrieves the value of a configurable limit on a file or directory. This
337uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling C<POSIX::open>.
338
339The following will determine the maximum length of the longest allowable
340pathname on the filesystem which holds C</tmp/foo>.
341
342 $fd = POSIX::open( "/tmp/foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
343 $path_max = POSIX::fpathconf( $fd, &POSIX::_PC_PATH_MAX );
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344
345Returns C<undef> on failure.
346
347=item fprintf
348
349fprintf() is C-specific--use printf instead.
350
351=item fputc
352
353fputc() is C-specific--use print instead.
354
355=item fputs
356
357fputs() is C-specific--use print instead.
358
359=item fread
360
361fread() is C-specific--use read instead.
362
363=item free
364
365free() is C-specific.
366
367=item freopen
368
369freopen() is C-specific--use open instead.
370
371=item frexp
372
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373Return the mantissa and exponent of a floating-point number.
374
375 ($mantissa, $exponent) = POSIX::frexp( 3.14 );
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376
377=item fscanf
378
379fscanf() is C-specific--use <> and regular expressions instead.
380
381=item fseek
382
28757baa 383Use method C<IO::Seekable::seek()> instead.
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384
385=item fsetpos
386
28757baa 387Use method C<IO::Seekable::setpos()> instead.
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388
389=item fstat
390
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391Get file status. This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by
392calling C<POSIX::open>. The data returned is identical to the data from
393Perl's builtin C<stat> function.
394
395 $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
396 @stats = POSIX::fstat( $fd );
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397
398=item ftell
399
28757baa 400Use method C<IO::Seekable::tell()> instead.
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401
402=item fwrite
403
404fwrite() is C-specific--use print instead.
405
406=item getc
407
408This is identical to Perl's builtin C<getc()> function.
409
410=item getchar
411
412Returns one character from STDIN.
413
414=item getcwd
415
416Returns the name of the current working directory.
417
418=item getegid
419
420Returns the effective group id.
421
422=item getenv
423
424Returns the value of the specified enironment variable.
425
426=item geteuid
427
428Returns the effective user id.
429
430=item getgid
431
432Returns the user's real group id.
433
434=item getgrgid
435
436This is identical to Perl's builtin C<getgrgid()> function.
437
438=item getgrnam
439
440This is identical to Perl's builtin C<getgrnam()> function.
441
442=item getgroups
443
444Returns the ids of the user's supplementary groups.
445
446=item getlogin
447
448This is identical to Perl's builtin C<getlogin()> function.
449
450=item getpgrp
451
452This is identical to Perl's builtin C<getpgrp()> function.
453
454=item getpid
455
456Returns the process's id.
457
458=item getppid
459
460This is identical to Perl's builtin C<getppid()> function.
461
462=item getpwnam
463
464This is identical to Perl's builtin C<getpwnam()> function.
465
466=item getpwuid
467
468This is identical to Perl's builtin C<getpwuid()> function.
469
470=item gets
471
472Returns one line from STDIN.
473
474=item getuid
475
476Returns the user's id.
477
478=item gmtime
479
480This is identical to Perl's builtin C<gmtime()> function.
481
482=item isalnum
483
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484This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single
485character or to a whole string.
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486
487=item isalpha
488
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489This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single
490character or to a whole string.
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491
492=item isatty
493
494Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified filehandle is connected
495to a tty.
496
497=item iscntrl
498
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499This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single
500character or to a whole string.
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501
502=item isdigit
503
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504This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single
505character or to a whole string.
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506
507=item isgraph
508
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509This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single
510character or to a whole string.
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511
512=item islower
513
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514This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single
515character or to a whole string.
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516
517=item isprint
518
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519This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single
520character or to a whole string.
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521
522=item ispunct
523
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524This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single
525character or to a whole string.
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526
527=item isspace
528
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529This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single
530character or to a whole string.
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531
532=item isupper
533
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534This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single
535character or to a whole string.
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536
537=item isxdigit
538
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539This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single
540character or to a whole string.
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541
542=item kill
543
544This is identical to Perl's builtin C<kill()> function.
545
546=item labs
547
548labs() is C-specific, use abs instead.
549
550=item ldexp
551
552This is identical to the C function C<ldexp()>.
553
554=item ldiv
555
556ldiv() is C-specific, use / and int instead.
557
558=item link
559
560This is identical to Perl's builtin C<link()> function.
561
562=item localeconv
563
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564Get numeric formatting information. Returns a reference to a hash
565containing the current locale formatting values.
566
567The database for the B<de> (Deutsch or German) locale.
568
569 $loc = POSIX::setlocale( &POSIX::LC_ALL, "de" );
570 print "Locale = $loc\n";
571 $lconv = POSIX::localeconv();
572 print "decimal_point = ", $lconv->{decimal_point}, "\n";
573 print "thousands_sep = ", $lconv->{thousands_sep}, "\n";
574 print "grouping = ", $lconv->{grouping}, "\n";
575 print "int_curr_symbol = ", $lconv->{int_curr_symbol}, "\n";
576 print "currency_symbol = ", $lconv->{currency_symbol}, "\n";
577 print "mon_decimal_point = ", $lconv->{mon_decimal_point}, "\n";
578 print "mon_thousands_sep = ", $lconv->{mon_thousands_sep}, "\n";
579 print "mon_grouping = ", $lconv->{mon_grouping}, "\n";
580 print "positive_sign = ", $lconv->{positive_sign}, "\n";
581 print "negative_sign = ", $lconv->{negative_sign}, "\n";
582 print "int_frac_digits = ", $lconv->{int_frac_digits}, "\n";
583 print "frac_digits = ", $lconv->{frac_digits}, "\n";
584 print "p_cs_precedes = ", $lconv->{p_cs_precedes}, "\n";
585 print "p_sep_by_space = ", $lconv->{p_sep_by_space}, "\n";
586 print "n_cs_precedes = ", $lconv->{n_cs_precedes}, "\n";
587 print "n_sep_by_space = ", $lconv->{n_sep_by_space}, "\n";
588 print "p_sign_posn = ", $lconv->{p_sign_posn}, "\n";
589 print "n_sign_posn = ", $lconv->{n_sign_posn}, "\n";
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590
591=item localtime
592
593This is identical to Perl's builtin C<localtime()> function.
594
595=item log
596
597This is identical to Perl's builtin C<log()> function.
598
599=item log10
600
601This is identical to the C function C<log10()>.
602
603=item longjmp
604
605longjmp() is C-specific: use die instead.
606
607=item lseek
608
8903cb82 609Move the file's read/write position. This uses file descriptors such as
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610those obtained by calling C<POSIX::open>.
611
612 $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
613 $off_t = POSIX::lseek( $fd, 0, &POSIX::SEEK_SET );
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614
615Returns C<undef> on failure.
616
617=item malloc
618
619malloc() is C-specific.
620
621=item mblen
622
cb1a09d0 623This is identical to the C function C<mblen()>.
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624
625=item mbstowcs
626
cb1a09d0 627This is identical to the C function C<mbstowcs()>.
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628
629=item mbtowc
630
cb1a09d0 631This is identical to the C function C<mbtowc()>.
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632
633=item memchr
634
635memchr() is C-specific, use index() instead.
636
637=item memcmp
638
639memcmp() is C-specific, use eq instead.
640
641=item memcpy
642
643memcpy() is C-specific, use = instead.
644
645=item memmove
646
647memmove() is C-specific, use = instead.
648
649=item memset
650
651memset() is C-specific, use x instead.
652
653=item mkdir
654
655This is identical to Perl's builtin C<mkdir()> function.
656
657=item mkfifo
658
cb1a09d0 659This is similar to the C function C<mkfifo()>.
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660
661Returns C<undef> on failure.
662
663=item mktime
664
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665Convert date/time info to a calendar time.
666
667Synopsis:
668
669 mktime(sec, min, hour, mday, mon, year, wday = 0, yday = 0, isdst = 0)
670
671The month (C<mon>), weekday (C<wday>), and yearday (C<yday>) begin at zero.
672I.e. January is 0, not 1; Sunday is 0, not 1; January 1st is 0, not 1. The
673year (C<year>) is given in years since 1900. I.e. The year 1995 is 95; the
674year 2001 is 101. Consult your system's C<mktime()> manpage for details
675about these and the other arguments.
676
677Calendar time for December 12, 1995, at 10:30 am.
678
679 $time_t = POSIX::mktime( 0, 30, 10, 12, 11, 95 );
680 print "Date = ", POSIX::ctime($time_t);
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681
682Returns C<undef> on failure.
683
684=item modf
685
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686Return the integral and fractional parts of a floating-point number.
687
688 ($fractional, $integral) = POSIX::modf( 3.14 );
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689
690=item nice
691
cb1a09d0 692This is similar to the C function C<nice()>.
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693
694Returns C<undef> on failure.
695
696=item offsetof
697
698offsetof() is C-specific.
699
700=item open
701
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702Open a file for reading for writing. This returns file descriptors, not
703Perl filehandles. Use C<POSIX::close> to close the file.
704
705Open a file read-only with mode 0666.
706
707 $fd = POSIX::open( "foo" );
708
709Open a file for read and write.
710
711 $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDWR );
712
713Open a file for write, with truncation.
714
715 $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_WRONLY | &POSIX::O_TRUNC );
716
717Create a new file with mode 0640. Set up the file for writing.
718
719 $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_CREAT | &POSIX::O_WRONLY, 0640 );
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720
721Returns C<undef> on failure.
722
723=item opendir
724
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725Open a directory for reading.
726
727 $dir = POSIX::opendir( "/tmp" );
728 @files = POSIX::readdir( $dir );
729 POSIX::closedir( $dir );
730
731Returns C<undef> on failure.
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732
733=item pathconf
734
735Retrieves the value of a configurable limit on a file or directory.
736
737The following will determine the maximum length of the longest allowable
738pathname on the filesystem which holds C</tmp>.
739
740 $path_max = POSIX::pathconf( "/tmp", &POSIX::_PC_PATH_MAX );
741
742Returns C<undef> on failure.
743
744=item pause
745
746This is similar to the C function C<pause()>.
747
748Returns C<undef> on failure.
749
750=item perror
751
752This is identical to the C function C<perror()>.
753
754=item pipe
755
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756Create an interprocess channel. This returns file descriptors like those
757returned by C<POSIX::open>.
758
759 ($fd0, $fd1) = POSIX::pipe();
760 POSIX::write( $fd0, "hello", 5 );
761 POSIX::read( $fd1, $buf, 5 );
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762
763=item pow
764
765Computes $x raised to the power $exponent.
766
767 $ret = POSIX::pow( $x, $exponent );
768
769=item printf
770
771Prints the specified arguments to STDOUT.
772
773=item putc
774
775putc() is C-specific--use print instead.
776
777=item putchar
778
779putchar() is C-specific--use print instead.
780
781=item puts
782
783puts() is C-specific--use print instead.
784
785=item qsort
786
787qsort() is C-specific, use sort instead.
788
789=item raise
790
791Sends the specified signal to the current process.
792
793=item rand
794
795rand() is non-portable, use Perl's rand instead.
796
797=item read
798
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799Read from a file. This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by
800calling C<POSIX::open>. If the buffer C<$buf> is not large enough for the
801read then Perl will extend it to make room for the request.
802
803 $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
804 $bytes = POSIX::read( $fd, $buf, 3 );
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805
806Returns C<undef> on failure.
807
808=item readdir
809
810This is identical to Perl's builtin C<readdir()> function.
811
812=item realloc
813
814realloc() is C-specific.
815
816=item remove
817
818This is identical to Perl's builtin C<unlink()> function.
819
820=item rename
821
822This is identical to Perl's builtin C<rename()> function.
823
824=item rewind
825
826Seeks to the beginning of the file.
827
828=item rewinddir
829
830This is identical to Perl's builtin C<rewinddir()> function.
831
832=item rmdir
833
834This is identical to Perl's builtin C<rmdir()> function.
835
836=item scanf
837
838scanf() is C-specific--use <> and regular expressions instead.
839
840=item setgid
841
842Sets the real group id for this process.
843
844=item setjmp
845
846setjmp() is C-specific: use eval {} instead.
847
848=item setlocale
849
c26abfa6
JH
850Modifies and queries program's locale. The following examples assume
851
852 use POSIX qw(setlocale LC_ALL LC_CTYPE);
853
854has been issued.
37120919 855
8966fa01
JH
856The following will set the traditional UNIX system locale behavior
857(the second argument C<"C">).
37120919 858
c26abfa6 859 $loc = setlocale( LC_ALL, "C" );
37120919 860
c26abfa6
JH
861The following will query the current LC_CTYPE category. (No second
862argument means 'query'.)
8966fa01 863
c26abfa6 864 $loc = setlocale( LC_CTYPE );
8966fa01
JH
865
866The following will set the LC_CTYPE behaviour according to the locale
867environment variables (the second argument C<"">).
868Please see your systems L<setlocale(3)> documentation for the locale
71be2cbc 869environment variables' meaning or consult L<perllocale>.
8966fa01 870
c26abfa6 871 $loc = setlocale( LC_CTYPE, "" );
8966fa01
JH
872
873The following will set the LC_COLLATE behaviour to Argentinian
874Spanish. B<NOTE>: The naming and availability of locales depends on
71be2cbc 875your operating system. Please consult L<perllocale> for how to find
8966fa01
JH
876out which locales are available in your system.
877
c26abfa6 878 $loc = setlocale( LC_ALL, "es_AR.ISO8859-1" );
8966fa01 879
37120919
AD
880=item setpgid
881
cb1a09d0 882This is similar to the C function C<setpgid()>.
37120919
AD
883
884Returns C<undef> on failure.
885
886=item setsid
887
888This is identical to the C function C<setsid()>.
889
890=item setuid
891
892Sets the real user id for this process.
893
894=item sigaction
895
cb1a09d0
AD
896Detailed signal management. This uses C<POSIX::SigAction> objects for the
897C<action> and C<oldaction> arguments. Consult your system's C<sigaction>
898manpage for details.
899
900Synopsis:
901
902 sigaction(sig, action, oldaction = 0)
37120919
AD
903
904Returns C<undef> on failure.
905
906=item siglongjmp
907
908siglongjmp() is C-specific: use die instead.
909
910=item sigpending
911
cb1a09d0
AD
912Examine signals that are blocked and pending. This uses C<POSIX::SigSet>
913objects for the C<sigset> argument. Consult your system's C<sigpending>
914manpage for details.
915
916Synopsis:
917
918 sigpending(sigset)
37120919
AD
919
920Returns C<undef> on failure.
921
922=item sigprocmask
923
cb1a09d0
AD
924Change and/or examine calling process's signal mask. This uses
925C<POSIX::SigSet> objects for the C<sigset> and C<oldsigset> arguments.
926Consult your system's C<sigprocmask> manpage for details.
927
928Synopsis:
929
930 sigprocmask(how, sigset, oldsigset = 0)
37120919
AD
931
932Returns C<undef> on failure.
933
934=item sigsetjmp
935
936sigsetjmp() is C-specific: use eval {} instead.
937
938=item sigsuspend
939
cb1a09d0
AD
940Install a signal mask and suspend process until signal arrives. This uses
941C<POSIX::SigSet> objects for the C<signal_mask> argument. Consult your
942system's C<sigsuspend> manpage for details.
943
944Synopsis:
945
946 sigsuspend(signal_mask)
37120919
AD
947
948Returns C<undef> on failure.
949
950=item sin
951
952This is identical to Perl's builtin C<sin()> function.
953
954=item sinh
955
956This is identical to the C function C<sinh()>.
957
958=item sleep
959
960This is identical to Perl's builtin C<sleep()> function.
961
962=item sprintf
963
cb1a09d0 964This is identical to Perl's builtin C<sprintf()> function.
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AD
965
966=item sqrt
967
968This is identical to Perl's builtin C<sqrt()> function.
969
970=item srand
971
972srand().
973
974=item sscanf
975
976sscanf() is C-specific--use regular expressions instead.
977
978=item stat
979
980This is identical to Perl's builtin C<stat()> function.
981
982=item strcat
983
984strcat() is C-specific, use .= instead.
985
986=item strchr
987
988strchr() is C-specific, use index() instead.
989
990=item strcmp
991
992strcmp() is C-specific, use eq instead.
993
994=item strcoll
995
996This is identical to the C function C<strcoll()>.
997
998=item strcpy
999
1000strcpy() is C-specific, use = instead.
1001
1002=item strcspn
1003
1004strcspn() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead.
1005
1006=item strerror
1007
1008Returns the error string for the specified errno.
1009
1010=item strftime
1011
cb1a09d0
AD
1012Convert date and time information to string. Returns the string.
1013
1014Synopsis:
1015
e44f695e 1016 strftime(fmt, sec, min, hour, mday, mon, year, wday = -1, yday = -1, isdst = -1)
cb1a09d0
AD
1017
1018The month (C<mon>), weekday (C<wday>), and yearday (C<yday>) begin at zero.
1019I.e. January is 0, not 1; Sunday is 0, not 1; January 1st is 0, not 1. The
e44f695e 1020year (C<year>) is given in years since 1900. I.e., the year 1995 is 95; the
cb1a09d0 1021year 2001 is 101. Consult your system's C<strftime()> manpage for details
659b4938
DD
1022about these and the other arguments.
1023If you want your code to be portable, your format (C<fmt>) argument
1024should use only the conversion specifiers defined by the ANSI C
1025standard. These are C<aAbBcdHIjmMpSUwWxXyYZ%>.
371b7e1a 1026On platforms that need it, the given arguments are made consistent
e44f695e 1027by calling C<mktime()> before calling your system's C<strftime()> function.
cb1a09d0
AD
1028
1029The string for Tuesday, December 12, 1995.
1030
1031 $str = POSIX::strftime( "%A, %B %d, %Y", 0, 0, 0, 12, 11, 95, 2 );
1032 print "$str\n";
37120919
AD
1033
1034=item strlen
1035
1036strlen() is C-specific, use length instead.
1037
1038=item strncat
1039
1040strncat() is C-specific, use .= instead.
1041
1042=item strncmp
1043
1044strncmp() is C-specific, use eq instead.
1045
1046=item strncpy
1047
1048strncpy() is C-specific, use = instead.
1049
1050=item stroul
1051
1052stroul() is C-specific.
1053
1054=item strpbrk
1055
1056strpbrk() is C-specific.
1057
1058=item strrchr
1059
1060strrchr() is C-specific, use rindex() instead.
1061
1062=item strspn
1063
1064strspn() is C-specific.
1065
1066=item strstr
1067
1068This is identical to Perl's builtin C<index()> function.
1069
1070=item strtod
1071
a89d8a78
DH
1072String to double translation. Returns the parsed number and the number
1073of characters in the unparsed portion of the string. Truly
1074POSIX-compliant systems set $! ($ERRNO) to indicate a translation
1075error, so clear $! before calling strtod. However, non-POSIX systems
1076may not check for overflow, and therefore will never set $!.
1077
1078strtod should respect any POSIX I<setlocale()> settings.
1079
1080To parse a string $str as a floating point number use
1081
1082 $! = 0;
1083 ($num, $n_unparsed) = POSIX::strtod($str);
1084
1085The second returned item and $! can be used to check for valid input:
1086
1087 if (($str eq '') || ($n_unparsed != 0) || !$!) {
1088 die "Non-numeric input $str" . $! ? ": $!\n" : "\n";
1089 }
1090
1091When called in a scalar context strtod returns the parsed number.
37120919
AD
1092
1093=item strtok
1094
1095strtok() is C-specific.
1096
1097=item strtol
1098
a89d8a78
DH
1099String to (long) integer translation. Returns the parsed number and
1100the number of characters in the unparsed portion of the string. Truly
1101POSIX-compliant systems set $! ($ERRNO) to indicate a translation
1102error, so clear $! before calling strtol. However, non-POSIX systems
1103may not check for overflow, and therefore will never set $!.
1104
1105strtol should respect any POSIX I<setlocale()> settings.
1106
1107To parse a string $str as a number in some base $base use
1108
1109 $! = 0;
1110 ($num, $n_unparsed) = POSIX::strtol($str, $base);
1111
1112The base should be zero or between 2 and 36, inclusive. When the base
1113is zero or omitted strtol will use the string itself to determine the
1114base: a leading "0x" or "0X" means hexadecimal; a leading "0" means
1115octal; any other leading characters mean decimal. Thus, "1234" is
1116parsed as a decimal number, "01234" as an octal number, and "0x1234"
1117as a hexadecimal number.
1118
1119The second returned item and $! can be used to check for valid input:
1120
1121 if (($str eq '') || ($n_unparsed != 0) || !$!) {
1122 die "Non-numeric input $str" . $! ? ": $!\n" : "\n";
1123 }
1124
1125When called in a scalar context strtol returns the parsed number.
1126
1127=item strtoul
1128
1129String to unsigned (long) integer translation. strtoul is identical
1130to strtol except that strtoul only parses unsigned integers. See
1131I<strtol> for details.
1132
1133Note: Some vendors supply strtod and strtol but not strtoul.
1134Other vendors that do suply strtoul parse "-1" as a valid value.
37120919
AD
1135
1136=item strxfrm
1137
cb1a09d0
AD
1138String transformation. Returns the transformed string.
1139
1140 $dst = POSIX::strxfrm( $src );
37120919
AD
1141
1142=item sysconf
1143
1144Retrieves values of system configurable variables.
1145
1146The following will get the machine's clock speed.
1147
1148 $clock_ticks = POSIX::sysconf( &POSIX::_SC_CLK_TCK );
1149
1150Returns C<undef> on failure.
1151
1152=item system
1153
1154This is identical to Perl's builtin C<system()> function.
1155
1156=item tan
1157
1158This is identical to the C function C<tan()>.
1159
1160=item tanh
1161
1162This is identical to the C function C<tanh()>.
1163
1164=item tcdrain
1165
cb1a09d0 1166This is similar to the C function C<tcdrain()>.
37120919
AD
1167
1168Returns C<undef> on failure.
1169
1170=item tcflow
1171
cb1a09d0 1172This is similar to the C function C<tcflow()>.
37120919
AD
1173
1174Returns C<undef> on failure.
1175
1176=item tcflush
1177
cb1a09d0 1178This is similar to the C function C<tcflush()>.
37120919
AD
1179
1180Returns C<undef> on failure.
1181
1182=item tcgetpgrp
1183
1184This is identical to the C function C<tcgetpgrp()>.
1185
1186=item tcsendbreak
1187
cb1a09d0 1188This is similar to the C function C<tcsendbreak()>.
37120919
AD
1189
1190Returns C<undef> on failure.
1191
1192=item tcsetpgrp
1193
cb1a09d0 1194This is similar to the C function C<tcsetpgrp()>.
37120919
AD
1195
1196Returns C<undef> on failure.
1197
1198=item time
1199
1200This is identical to Perl's builtin C<time()> function.
1201
1202=item times
1203
1204The times() function returns elapsed realtime since some point in the past
1205(such as system startup), user and system times for this process, and user
1206and system times used by child processes. All times are returned in clock
1207ticks.
1208
1209 ($realtime, $user, $system, $cuser, $csystem) = POSIX::times();
1210
1211Note: Perl's builtin C<times()> function returns four values, measured in
1212seconds.
1213
1214=item tmpfile
1215
28757baa 1216Use method C<IO::File::new_tmpfile()> instead.
37120919
AD
1217
1218=item tmpnam
1219
1220Returns a name for a temporary file.
1221
1222 $tmpfile = POSIX::tmpnam();
1223
1224=item tolower
1225
1226This is identical to Perl's builtin C<lc()> function.
1227
1228=item toupper
1229
1230This is identical to Perl's builtin C<uc()> function.
1231
1232=item ttyname
1233
cb1a09d0 1234This is identical to the C function C<ttyname()>.
37120919
AD
1235
1236=item tzname
1237
cb1a09d0
AD
1238Retrieves the time conversion information from the C<tzname> variable.
1239
1240 POSIX::tzset();
1241 ($std, $dst) = POSIX::tzname();
37120919
AD
1242
1243=item tzset
1244
1245This is identical to the C function C<tzset()>.
1246
1247=item umask
1248
1249This is identical to Perl's builtin C<umask()> function.
1250
1251=item uname
1252
cb1a09d0
AD
1253Get name of current operating system.
1254
1255 ($sysname, $nodename, $release, $version, $machine ) = POSIX::uname();
37120919
AD
1256
1257=item ungetc
1258
28757baa 1259Use method C<IO::Handle::ungetc()> instead.
37120919
AD
1260
1261=item unlink
1262
1263This is identical to Perl's builtin C<unlink()> function.
1264
1265=item utime
1266
1267This is identical to Perl's builtin C<utime()> function.
1268
1269=item vfprintf
1270
1271vfprintf() is C-specific.
1272
1273=item vprintf
1274
1275vprintf() is C-specific.
1276
1277=item vsprintf
1278
1279vsprintf() is C-specific.
1280
1281=item wait
1282
cb1a09d0 1283This is identical to Perl's builtin C<wait()> function.
37120919
AD
1284
1285=item waitpid
1286
cb1a09d0
AD
1287Wait for a child process to change state. This is identical to Perl's
1288builtin C<waitpid()> function.
1289
1290 $pid = POSIX::waitpid( -1, &POSIX::WNOHANG );
1291 print "status = ", ($? / 256), "\n";
37120919
AD
1292
1293=item wcstombs
1294
cb1a09d0 1295This is identical to the C function C<wcstombs()>.
37120919
AD
1296
1297=item wctomb
1298
cb1a09d0 1299This is identical to the C function C<wctomb()>.
37120919
AD
1300
1301=item write
1302
cb1a09d0
AD
1303Write to a file. This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by
1304calling C<POSIX::open>.
1305
1306 $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_WRONLY );
1307 $buf = "hello";
1308 $bytes = POSIX::write( $b, $buf, 5 );
37120919
AD
1309
1310Returns C<undef> on failure.
1311
1312=back
1313
1314=head1 CLASSES
1315
37120919
AD
1316=head2 POSIX::SigAction
1317
1318=over 8
1319
1320=item new
1321
cb1a09d0
AD
1322Creates a new C<POSIX::SigAction> object which corresponds to the C
1323C<struct sigaction>. This object will be destroyed automatically when it is
1324no longer needed. The first parameter is the fully-qualified name of a sub
1325which is a signal-handler. The second parameter is a C<POSIX::SigSet>
28757baa
PP
1326object, it defaults to the empty set. The third parameter contains the
1327C<sa_flags>, it defaults to 0.
cb1a09d0 1328
28757baa 1329 $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new(SIGINT, SIGQUIT);
cb1a09d0
AD
1330 $sigaction = POSIX::SigAction->new( 'main::handler', $sigset, &POSIX::SA_NOCLDSTOP );
1331
1332This C<POSIX::SigAction> object should be used with the C<POSIX::sigaction()>
1333function.
37120919
AD
1334
1335=back
1336
1337=head2 POSIX::SigSet
1338
1339=over 8
1340
1341=item new
1342
1343Create a new SigSet object. This object will be destroyed automatically
1344when it is no longer needed. Arguments may be supplied to initialize the
1345set.
1346
1347Create an empty set.
1348
1349 $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new;
1350
1351Create a set with SIGUSR1.
1352
1353 $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new( &POSIX::SIGUSR1 );
1354
1355=item addset
1356
1357Add a signal to a SigSet object.
1358
1359 $sigset->addset( &POSIX::SIGUSR2 );
1360
1361Returns C<undef> on failure.
1362
1363=item delset
1364
1365Remove a signal from the SigSet object.
1366
1367 $sigset->delset( &POSIX::SIGUSR2 );
1368
1369Returns C<undef> on failure.
1370
1371=item emptyset
1372
1373Initialize the SigSet object to be empty.
1374
1375 $sigset->emptyset();
1376
1377Returns C<undef> on failure.
1378
1379=item fillset
1380
1381Initialize the SigSet object to include all signals.
1382
1383 $sigset->fillset();
1384
1385Returns C<undef> on failure.
1386
1387=item ismember
1388
1389Tests the SigSet object to see if it contains a specific signal.
1390
1391 if( $sigset->ismember( &POSIX::SIGUSR1 ) ){
1392 print "contains SIGUSR1\n";
1393 }
1394
1395=back
1396
1397=head2 POSIX::Termios
1398
1399=over 8
1400
1401=item new
1402
1403Create a new Termios object. This object will be destroyed automatically
55d729e4
GS
1404when it is no longer needed. A Termios object corresponds to the termios
1405C struct. new() mallocs a new one, getattr() fills it from a file descriptor,
1406and setattr() sets a file descriptor's parameters to match Termios' contents.
37120919
AD
1407
1408 $termios = POSIX::Termios->new;
1409
1410=item getattr
1411
cb1a09d0
AD
1412Get terminal control attributes.
1413
1414Obtain the attributes for stdin.
1415
1416 $termios->getattr()
1417
1418Obtain the attributes for stdout.
1419
1420 $termios->getattr( 1 )
37120919
AD
1421
1422Returns C<undef> on failure.
1423
1424=item getcc
1425
1426Retrieve a value from the c_cc field of a termios object. The c_cc field is
1427an array so an index must be specified.
1428
1429 $c_cc[1] = $termios->getcc(1);
1430
1431=item getcflag
1432
1433Retrieve the c_cflag field of a termios object.
1434
1435 $c_cflag = $termios->getcflag;
1436
1437=item getiflag
1438
1439Retrieve the c_iflag field of a termios object.
1440
1441 $c_iflag = $termios->getiflag;
1442
1443=item getispeed
1444
1445Retrieve the input baud rate.
1446
1447 $ispeed = $termios->getispeed;
1448
1449=item getlflag
1450
1451Retrieve the c_lflag field of a termios object.
1452
1453 $c_lflag = $termios->getlflag;
1454
1455=item getoflag
1456
1457Retrieve the c_oflag field of a termios object.
1458
1459 $c_oflag = $termios->getoflag;
1460
1461=item getospeed
1462
1463Retrieve the output baud rate.
1464
1465 $ospeed = $termios->getospeed;
1466
1467=item setattr
1468
cb1a09d0
AD
1469Set terminal control attributes.
1470
1471Set attributes immediately for stdout.
1472
1473 $termios->setattr( 1, &POSIX::TCSANOW );
37120919
AD
1474
1475Returns C<undef> on failure.
1476
1477=item setcc
1478
1479Set a value in the c_cc field of a termios object. The c_cc field is an
1480array so an index must be specified.
1481
6b7a6f50 1482 $termios->setcc( &POSIX::VEOF, 1 );
37120919
AD
1483
1484=item setcflag
1485
1486Set the c_cflag field of a termios object.
1487
55d729e4 1488 $termios->setcflag( $c_cflag | &POSIX::CLOCAL );
37120919
AD
1489
1490=item setiflag
1491
1492Set the c_iflag field of a termios object.
1493
55d729e4 1494 $termios->setiflag( $c_iflag | &POSIX::BRKINT );
37120919
AD
1495
1496=item setispeed
1497
1498Set the input baud rate.
1499
1500 $termios->setispeed( &POSIX::B9600 );
1501
1502Returns C<undef> on failure.
1503
1504=item setlflag
1505
1506Set the c_lflag field of a termios object.
1507
55d729e4 1508 $termios->setlflag( $c_lflag | &POSIX::ECHO );
37120919
AD
1509
1510=item setoflag
1511
1512Set the c_oflag field of a termios object.
1513
55d729e4 1514 $termios->setoflag( $c_oflag | &POSIX::OPOST );
37120919
AD
1515
1516=item setospeed
1517
1518Set the output baud rate.
1519
1520 $termios->setospeed( &POSIX::B9600 );
1521
1522Returns C<undef> on failure.
1523
1524=item Baud rate values
1525
1526B38400 B75 B200 B134 B300 B1800 B150 B0 B19200 B1200 B9600 B600 B4800 B50 B2400 B110
1527
1528=item Terminal interface values
1529
1530TCSADRAIN TCSANOW TCOON TCIOFLUSH TCOFLUSH TCION TCIFLUSH TCSAFLUSH TCIOFF TCOOFF
1531
1532=item c_cc field values
1533
1534VEOF VEOL VERASE VINTR VKILL VQUIT VSUSP VSTART VSTOP VMIN VTIME NCCS
1535
1536=item c_cflag field values
1537
1538CLOCAL CREAD CSIZE CS5 CS6 CS7 CS8 CSTOPB HUPCL PARENB PARODD
1539
1540=item c_iflag field values
1541
1542BRKINT ICRNL IGNBRK IGNCR IGNPAR INLCR INPCK ISTRIP IXOFF IXON PARMRK
1543
1544=item c_lflag field values
1545
1546ECHO ECHOE ECHOK ECHONL ICANON IEXTEN ISIG NOFLSH TOSTOP
1547
1548=item c_oflag field values
1549
1550OPOST
1551
1552=back
1553
1554=head1 PATHNAME CONSTANTS
1555
1556=over 8
1557
1558=item Constants
1559
1560_PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED _PC_LINK_MAX _PC_MAX_CANON _PC_MAX_INPUT _PC_NAME_MAX _PC_NO_TRUNC _PC_PATH_MAX _PC_PIPE_BUF _PC_VDISABLE
1561
1562=back
1563
1564=head1 POSIX CONSTANTS
1565
1566=over 8
1567
1568=item Constants
1569
1570_POSIX_ARG_MAX _POSIX_CHILD_MAX _POSIX_CHOWN_RESTRICTED _POSIX_JOB_CONTROL _POSIX_LINK_MAX _POSIX_MAX_CANON _POSIX_MAX_INPUT _POSIX_NAME_MAX _POSIX_NGROUPS_MAX _POSIX_NO_TRUNC _POSIX_OPEN_MAX _POSIX_PATH_MAX _POSIX_PIPE_BUF _POSIX_SAVED_IDS _POSIX_SSIZE_MAX _POSIX_STREAM_MAX _POSIX_TZNAME_MAX _POSIX_VDISABLE _POSIX_VERSION
1571
1572=back
1573
1574=head1 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
1575
1576=over 8
1577
1578=item Constants
1579
1580_SC_ARG_MAX _SC_CHILD_MAX _SC_CLK_TCK _SC_JOB_CONTROL _SC_NGROUPS_MAX _SC_OPEN_MAX _SC_SAVED_IDS _SC_STREAM_MAX _SC_TZNAME_MAX _SC_VERSION
1581
1582=back
1583
1584=head1 ERRNO
1585
1586=over 8
1587
1588=item Constants
1589
774d564b
PP
1590E2BIG EACCES EADDRINUSE EADDRNOTAVAIL EAFNOSUPPORT EAGAIN EALREADY EBADF
1591EBUSY ECHILD ECONNABORTED ECONNREFUSED ECONNRESET EDEADLK EDESTADDRREQ
1592EDOM EDQUOT EEXIST EFAULT EFBIG EHOSTDOWN EHOSTUNREACH EINPROGRESS EINTR
1593EINVAL EIO EISCONN EISDIR ELOOP EMFILE EMLINK EMSGSIZE ENAMETOOLONG
1594ENETDOWN ENETRESET ENETUNREACH ENFILE ENOBUFS ENODEV ENOENT ENOEXEC
1595ENOLCK ENOMEM ENOPROTOOPT ENOSPC ENOSYS ENOTBLK ENOTCONN ENOTDIR
1596ENOTEMPTY ENOTSOCK ENOTTY ENXIO EOPNOTSUPP EPERM EPFNOSUPPORT EPIPE
1597EPROCLIM EPROTONOSUPPORT EPROTOTYPE ERANGE EREMOTE ERESTART EROFS
1598ESHUTDOWN ESOCKTNOSUPPORT ESPIPE ESRCH ESTALE ETIMEDOUT ETOOMANYREFS
1599ETXTBSY EUSERS EWOULDBLOCK EXDEV
37120919
AD
1600
1601=back
1602
1603=head1 FCNTL
1604
1605=over 8
1606
1607=item Constants
1608
1609FD_CLOEXEC F_DUPFD F_GETFD F_GETFL F_GETLK F_OK F_RDLCK F_SETFD F_SETFL F_SETLK F_SETLKW F_UNLCK F_WRLCK O_ACCMODE O_APPEND O_CREAT O_EXCL O_NOCTTY O_NONBLOCK O_RDONLY O_RDWR O_TRUNC O_WRONLY
1610
1611=back
1612
1613=head1 FLOAT
1614
1615=over 8
1616
1617=item Constants
1618
1619DBL_DIG DBL_EPSILON DBL_MANT_DIG DBL_MAX DBL_MAX_10_EXP DBL_MAX_EXP DBL_MIN DBL_MIN_10_EXP DBL_MIN_EXP FLT_DIG FLT_EPSILON FLT_MANT_DIG FLT_MAX FLT_MAX_10_EXP FLT_MAX_EXP FLT_MIN FLT_MIN_10_EXP FLT_MIN_EXP FLT_RADIX FLT_ROUNDS LDBL_DIG LDBL_EPSILON LDBL_MANT_DIG LDBL_MAX LDBL_MAX_10_EXP LDBL_MAX_EXP LDBL_MIN LDBL_MIN_10_EXP LDBL_MIN_EXP
1620
1621=back
1622
1623=head1 LIMITS
1624
1625=over 8
1626
1627=item Constants
1628
1629ARG_MAX CHAR_BIT CHAR_MAX CHAR_MIN CHILD_MAX INT_MAX INT_MIN LINK_MAX LONG_MAX LONG_MIN MAX_CANON MAX_INPUT MB_LEN_MAX NAME_MAX NGROUPS_MAX OPEN_MAX PATH_MAX PIPE_BUF SCHAR_MAX SCHAR_MIN SHRT_MAX SHRT_MIN SSIZE_MAX STREAM_MAX TZNAME_MAX UCHAR_MAX UINT_MAX ULONG_MAX USHRT_MAX
1630
1631=back
1632
1633=head1 LOCALE
1634
1635=over 8
1636
1637=item Constants
1638
1639LC_ALL LC_COLLATE LC_CTYPE LC_MONETARY LC_NUMERIC LC_TIME
1640
1641=back
1642
1643=head1 MATH
1644
1645=over 8
1646
1647=item Constants
1648
1649HUGE_VAL
1650
1651=back
1652
1653=head1 SIGNAL
1654
1655=over 8
1656
1657=item Constants
1658
774d564b
PP
1659SA_NOCLDSTOP SA_NOCLDWAIT SA_NODEFER SA_ONSTACK SA_RESETHAND SA_RESTART
1660SA_SIGINFO SIGABRT SIGALRM SIGCHLD SIGCONT SIGFPE SIGHUP SIGILL SIGINT
1661SIGKILL SIGPIPE SIGQUIT SIGSEGV SIGSTOP SIGTERM SIGTSTP SIGTTIN SIGTTOU
1662SIGUSR1 SIGUSR2 SIG_BLOCK SIG_DFL SIG_ERR SIG_IGN SIG_SETMASK
1663SIG_UNBLOCK
37120919
AD
1664
1665=back
1666
1667=head1 STAT
1668
1669=over 8
1670
1671=item Constants
1672
1673S_IRGRP S_IROTH S_IRUSR S_IRWXG S_IRWXO S_IRWXU S_ISGID S_ISUID S_IWGRP S_IWOTH S_IWUSR S_IXGRP S_IXOTH S_IXUSR
1674
1675=item Macros
1676
1677S_ISBLK S_ISCHR S_ISDIR S_ISFIFO S_ISREG
1678
1679=back
1680
1681=head1 STDLIB
1682
1683=over 8
1684
1685=item Constants
1686
1687EXIT_FAILURE EXIT_SUCCESS MB_CUR_MAX RAND_MAX
1688
1689=back
1690
1691=head1 STDIO
1692
1693=over 8
1694
1695=item Constants
1696
c07a80fd 1697BUFSIZ EOF FILENAME_MAX L_ctermid L_cuserid L_tmpname TMP_MAX
37120919
AD
1698
1699=back
1700
1701=head1 TIME
1702
1703=over 8
1704
1705=item Constants
1706
1707CLK_TCK CLOCKS_PER_SEC
1708
1709=back
1710
1711=head1 UNISTD
1712
1713=over 8
1714
1715=item Constants
1716
1717R_OK SEEK_CUR SEEK_END SEEK_SET STDIN_FILENO STDOUT_FILENO STRERR_FILENO W_OK X_OK
1718
1719=back
1720
1721=head1 WAIT
1722
1723=over 8
1724
1725=item Constants
1726
1727WNOHANG WUNTRACED
1728
1729=item Macros
1730
1731WIFEXITED WEXITSTATUS WIFSIGNALED WTERMSIG WIFSTOPPED WSTOPSIG
1732
1733=back
1734
1735=head1 CREATION
1736
c07a80fd 1737This document generated by ./mkposixman.PL version 19960129.
37120919 1738