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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
de2902a6 7perlaix - Perl version 5 on IBM AIX (UNIX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of IBM's UNIX operating
12system AIX that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl)
a318903f 13is compiled and/or runs.
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14
15=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
16
016af039 17For information on compilers on older versions of AIX, see L</Compiling
c5252117 18Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3>.
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19
20When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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21an ANSI compliant C compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
22gcc for AIX are widely available. A version of gcc is also included in
23the AIX Toolbox which is shipped with AIX.
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24
25=head2 Supported Compilers
26
27Currently all versions of IBM's "xlc", "xlc_r", "cc", "cc_r" or
c5252117 28"vac" ANSI/C compiler will work for building Perl if that compiler
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29works on your system.
30
c5252117 31If you plan to link Perl to any module that requires thread-support,
e1051f11 32like DBD::Oracle, it is better to use the _r version of the compiler.
c5252117 33This will not build a threaded Perl, but a thread-enabled Perl. See
016af039 34also L</Threaded Perl> later on.
e1051f11 35
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36As of writing (2010-09) only the I<IBM XL C for AIX> or I<IBM XL C/C++
37for AIX> compiler is supported by IBM on AIX 5L/6.1/7.1.
7fabfece 38
f19b8045 39The following compiler versions are currently supported by IBM:
7fabfece 40
1a7c1a8a 41 IBM XL C and IBM XL C/C++ V8, V9, V10, V11
7fabfece 42
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43The XL C for AIX is integrated in the XL C/C++ for AIX compiler and
44therefore also supported.
7fabfece 45
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46If you choose XL C/C++ V9 you need APAR IZ35785 installed
47otherwise the integrated SDBM_File do not compile correctly due
48to an optimization bug. You can circumvent this problem by
49adding -qipa to the optimization flags (-Doptimize='-O -qipa').
50The PTF for APAR IZ35785 which solves this problem is available
e3c125ff 51from IBM (April 2009 PTF for XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX, V9.0).
7fabfece 52
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53If you choose XL C/C++ V11 you need the April 2010 PTF (or newer)
54installed otherwise you will not get a working Perl version.
618c9ef5 55
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56Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
57The former is recommended, as not only it can compile Perl with no
58difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later
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59that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
60
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61If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
62complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
63details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the
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64development team.
65
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66=head2 Incompatibility with AIX Toolbox lib gdbm
67
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68If the AIX Toolbox version of lib gdbm < 1.8.3-5 is installed on your
69system then Perl will not work. This library contains the header files
70/opt/freeware/include/gdbm/dbm.h|ndbm.h which conflict with the AIX
71system versions. The lib gdbm will be automatically removed from the
72wanted libraries if the presence of one of these two header files is
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73detected. If you want to build Perl with GDBM support then please install
74at least gdbm-devel-1.8.3-5 (or higher).
75
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76=head2 Perl 5 was successfully compiled and tested on:
77
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78 Perl | AIX Level | Compiler Level | w th | w/o th
79 -------+---------------------+-------------------------+------+-------
80 5.12.2 |5.1 TL9 32 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
81 5.12.2 |5.1 TL9 64 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
82 5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
83 5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | gcc 3.2.2 | OK | OK
84 5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
85 5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
86 5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | gcc 4.2.4 | OK | OK
87 5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
88 5.12.2 |5.3 TL10 SP3 32 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Apr 2010 | OK | OK
89 5.12.2 |5.3 TL10 SP3 64 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Apr 2010 | OK | OK
90 5.12.2 |6.1 TL1 SP7 32 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
91 5.12.2 |6.1 TL1 SP7 64 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
92 5.13 |7.1 TL0 SP1 32 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Jul 2010 | OK | OK
93 5.13 |7.1 TL0 SP1 64 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Jul 2010 | OK | OK
94
95 w th = with thread support
96 w/o th = without thread support
97 OK = tested
fe5460cc 98
f19b8045 99Successfully tested means that all "make test" runs finish with a
e37e7c83 100result of 100% OK. All tests were conducted with -Duseshrplib set.
fe5460cc 101
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102All tests were conducted on the oldest supported AIX technology level
103with the latest support package applied. If the tested AIX version is
104out of support (AIX 4.3.3, 5.1, 5.2) then the last available support
105level was used.
106
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107=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
108
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109Starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.x / 5.10.x / 5.12.x)
110and AIX 4.3 or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface
111in the so called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface
112that was used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases
1134.2 and earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with
114compiled modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make
115Perl more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
116using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of
117C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions,
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118which was not possible using the emulated interface.
119
120It is highly recommended to use the new interface.
121
122=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
123
124Should yield no problems.
125
126=head2 Threaded Perl
127
1a7c1a8a 128Should yield no problems with AIX 5.1 / 5.2 / 5.3 / 6.1 / 7.1.
7fabfece 129
81189653 130IBM uses the AIX system Perl (V5.6.0 on AIX 5.1 and V5.8.2 on
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131AIX 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1; V5.8.8 on AIX 5.3 TL11 and AIX 6.1 TL4; V5.10.1
132on AIX 7.1) for some AIX system scripts. If you switch the links in
133/usr/bin from the AIX system Perl (/usr/opt/perl5) to the newly build
134Perl then you get the same features as with the IBM AIX system Perl if
135the threaded options are used.
7fabfece 136
c5252117 137The threaded Perl build works also on AIX 5.1 but the IBM Perl
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138build (Perl v5.6.0) is not threaded on AIX 5.1.
139
1a7c1a8a 140Perl 5.12 an newer is not compatible with the IBM fileset perl.libext.
f19b8045 141
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142=head2 64-bit Perl
143
144If your AIX system is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
145configurations to work. If you want to use 64-bit Perl on AIX 6.1
f19b8045 146you need an APAR for a libc.a bug which affects (n)dbm_XXX functions.
81189653 147The APAR number for this problem is IZ39077.
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148
149If you need more memory (larger data segment) for your Perl programs you
150can set:
151
152 /etc/security/limits
153 default: (or your user)
e3c125ff 154 data = -1 (default is 262144 * 512 byte)
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155
156With the default setting the size is limited to 128MB.
f19b8045 157The -1 removes this limit. If the "make test" fails please change
e37e7c83 158your /etc/security/limits as stated above.
7fabfece 159
10495b9c 160=head2 Long doubles
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161
162IBM calls its implementation of long doubles 128-bit, but it is not
163the IEEE 128-bit ("quadruple precision") which would give 116 bit of
164mantissa (nor it is implemented in hardware), instead it's a special
165software implementation called "double-double", which gives 106 bits
166of mantissa.
167
168There seem to be various problems in this long double implementation.
169If Configure detects this brokenness, it will disable the long double support.
ab473f03 170This can be overridden with explicit C<-Duselongdouble> (or C<-Dusemorebits>,
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171which enables both long doubles and 64 bit integers). If you decide to
172enable long doubles, for most of the broken things Perl has implemented
173workarounds, but the handling of the special values infinity and NaN
174remains badly broken: for example infinity plus zero results in NaN.
175
1a7c1a8a 176=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (threaded/32-bit)
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177
178With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
179passes all make tests in threaded 32-bit mode, which is the default
c5252117 180configuration for the Perl builds that AIX ships with.
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181
182 rm config.sh
183 ./Configure \
184 -d \
185 -Dcc=cc_r \
186 -Duseshrplib \
187 -Dusethreads \
188 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
189
fe5460cc 190The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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191IBM AIX system Perl installation.
192
1a7c1a8a 193=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (32-bit)
7fabfece 194
fe5460cc 195With the following options you get a Perl version which passes
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196all make tests in 32-bit mode.
197
198 rm config.sh
199 ./Configure \
200 -d \
201 -Dcc=cc_r \
202 -Duseshrplib \
203 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
204
205The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
206IBM AIX system Perl installation.
207
1a7c1a8a 208=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (threaded/64-bit)
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209
210With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
211passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
212
f185f654 213 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
7fabfece 214
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215 rm config.sh
216 ./Configure \
217 -d \
218 -Dcc=cc_r \
219 -Duseshrplib \
220 -Dusethreads \
221 -Duse64bitall \
222 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
7fabfece 223
1a7c1a8a 224=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (64-bit)
7fabfece 225
f19b8045 226With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all
fe5460cc 227make tests in 64-bit mode.
7fabfece 228
f185f654 229 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
e3c125ff 230
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231 rm config.sh
232 ./Configure \
233 -d \
234 -Dcc=cc_r \
235 -Duseshrplib \
236 -Duse64bitall \
237 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
7fabfece 238
f19b8045 239The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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240IBM AIX system Perl installation.
241
f19b8045 242If you choose gcc to compile 64-bit Perl then you need to add the
e37e7c83 243following option:
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244
245 -Dcc='gcc -maix64'
246
247
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248=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on AIX 7.1.0
249
250A regression in AIX 7 causes a failure in make test in Time::Piece during
251daylight savings time. APAR IV16514 provides the fix for this. A quick
252test to see if it's required, assuming it is currently daylight savings
253in Eastern Time, would be to run C< TZ=EST5 date +%Z >. This will come
254back with C<EST> normally, but nothing if you have the problem.
255
256
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257=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3
258
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259Due to the fact that AIX 4.3.3 reached end-of-service in December 31,
2602003 this information is provided as is. The Perl versions prior to
261Perl 5.8.9 could be compiled on AIX up to 4.3.3 with the following
fe5460cc 262settings (your mileage may vary):
7fabfece 263
d5d9880c 264When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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265an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
266gcc for AIX are widely available.
267
268At the moment of writing, AIX supports two different native C compilers,
4951a6f9 269for which you have to pay: B<xlC> and B<vac>. If you decide to use either
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270of these two (which is quite a lot easier than using gcc), be sure to
271upgrade to the latest available patch level. Currently:
272
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273 xlC.C 3.1.4.10 or 3.6.6.0 or 4.0.2.2 or 5.0.2.9 or 6.0.0.3
274 vac.C 4.4.0.3 or 5.0.2.6 or 6.0.0.1
275
276note that xlC has the OS version in the name as of version 4.0.2.0, so
277you will find xlC.C for AIX-5.0 as package
278
279 xlC.aix50.rte 5.0.2.0 or 6.0.0.3
280
66a1b24b 281subversions are not the same "latest" on all OS versions. For example,
c67773d0 282the latest xlC-5 on aix41 is 5.0.2.9, while on aix43, it is 5.0.2.7.
20d11268 283
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284Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
285The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
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286difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
287require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
288
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289The IBM's compiler patch levels 5.0.0.0 and 5.0.1.0 have compiler
290optimization bugs that affect compiling perl.c and regcomp.c,
291respectively. If Perl's configuration detects those compiler patch
292levels, optimization is turned off for the said source code files.
293Upgrading to at least 5.0.2.0 is recommended.
294
20d11268 295If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
eed1f4d3 296complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
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297details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the development
298team.
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299
300=head2 OS level
301
302Before installing the patches to the IBM C-compiler you need to know the
303level of patching for the Operating System. IBM's command 'oslevel' will
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304show the base, but is not always complete (in this example oslevel shows
3054.3.NULL, whereas the system might run most of 4.3.THREE):
1a3e4d88 306
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307 # oslevel
308 4.3.0.0
309 # lslpp -l | grep 'bos.rte '
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310 bos.rte 4.3.3.75 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
311 bos.rte 4.3.2.0 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
312 #
313
c5252117 314The same might happen to AIX 5.1 or other OS levels. As a side note, Perl
64cb7701 315cannot be built without bos.adt.syscalls and bos.adt.libm installed
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316
317 # lslpp -l | egrep "syscalls|libm"
318 bos.adt.libm 5.1.0.25 COMMITTED Base Application Development
c67773d0 319 bos.adt.syscalls 5.1.0.36 COMMITTED System Calls Application
64cb7701 320 #
20d11268 321
f19b8045 322=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX E<lt> 5L
20d11268 323
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324AIX supports dynamically loadable objects as well as shared libraries.
325Shared libraries by convention end with the suffix .a, which is a bit
326misleading, as an archive can contain static as well as dynamic members.
c5252117 327For Perl dynamically loaded objects we use the .so suffix also used on
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328many other platforms.
329
330Note that starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.0) and AIX 4.3
331or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
332called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
333used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
334earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
c5252117 335modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
efc3b6b5 336more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
8218ea5d 337using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++
c5252117 338code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions, which
8218ea5d 339was not possible using the emulated interface.
12f54d27 340
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341=head2 The IBM ANSI C Compiler
342
343All defaults for Configure can be used.
344
345If you've chosen to use vac 4, be sure to run 4.4.0.3. Older versions
4951a6f9 346will turn up nasty later on. For vac 5 be sure to run at least 5.0.1.0,
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347but vac 5.0.2.6 or up is highly recommended. Note that since IBM has
348removed vac 5.0.2.1 through 5.0.2.5 from the software depot, these
349versions should be considered obsolete.
20d11268 350
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351Here's a brief lead of how to upgrade the compiler to the latest
352level. Of course this is subject to changes. You can only upgrade
353versions from ftp-available updates if the first three digit groups
354are the same (in where you can skip intermediate unlike the patches
c5252117 355in the developer snapshots of Perl), or to one version up where the
66a1b24b 356"base" is available. In other words, the AIX compiler patches are
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357cumulative.
358
359 vac.C.4.4.0.1 => vac.C.4.4.0.3 is OK (vac.C.4.4.0.2 not needed)
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360 xlC.C.3.1.3.3 => xlC.C.3.1.4.10 is NOT OK (xlC.C.3.1.4.0 is not
361 available)
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362
363 # ftp ftp.software.ibm.com
364 Connected to service.boulder.ibm.com.
365 : welcome message ...
366 Name (ftp.software.ibm.com:merijn): anonymous
367 331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
368 Password:
369 ... accepted login stuff
370 ftp> cd /aix/fixes/v4/
371 ftp> dir other other.ll
372 output to local-file: other.ll? y
373 200 PORT command successful.
374 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
375 226 Transfer complete.
376 ftp> dir xlc xlc.ll
377 output to local-file: xlc.ll? y
378 200 PORT command successful.
379 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
380 226 Transfer complete.
381 ftp> bye
382 ... goodbye messages
383 # ls -l *.ll
384 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 1169432 Nov 2 17:29 other.ll
385 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 29170 Nov 2 17:29 xlc.ll
386
387On AIX 4.2 using xlC, we continue:
388
389 # lslpp -l | fgrep 'xlC.C '
390 xlC.C 3.1.4.9 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
391 xlC.C 3.1.4.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
392 # grep 'xlC.C.3.1.4.*.bff' xlc.ll
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393 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6286336 Jul 22 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.1.bff
394 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6173696 Aug 24 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
395 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6319104 Aug 14 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.2.bff
396 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6316032 Oct 21 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.3.bff
397 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6315008 Dec 20 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.4.bff
398 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6178816 Mar 28 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.5.bff
399 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6188032 May 22 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.6.bff
400 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6191104 Sep 5 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.7.bff
401 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6185984 Jan 13 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.8.bff
402 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6169600 May 27 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.9.bff
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403 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/xlc/xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
404 #
405
406On AIX 4.3 using vac, we continue:
407
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408 # lslpp -l | grep 'vac.C '
409 vac.C 5.0.2.2 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
410 vac.C 5.0.2.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
411 # grep 'vac.C.5.0.2.*.bff' other.ll
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412 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 13592576 Apr 16 2001 vac.C.5.0.2.0.bff
413 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14133248 Apr 9 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.3.bff
414 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14173184 May 20 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.4.bff
415 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14192640 Nov 22 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
c67773d0 416 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/other/vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
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417 #
418
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419Likewise on all other OS levels. Then execute the following command, and
420fill in its choices
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421
422 # smit install_update
423 -> Install and Update from LATEST Available Software
c67773d0 424 * INPUT device / directory for software [ vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff ]
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425 [ OK ]
426 [ OK ]
427
428Follow the messages ... and you're done.
429
8381f7b7 430If you like a more web-like approach, a good start point can be
4b05bc8e 431L<http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/downloadaz.jsp> and click
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432"C for AIX", and follow the instructions.
433
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434=head2 The usenm option
435
436If linking miniperl
437
438 cc -o miniperl ... miniperlmain.o opmini.o perl.o ... -lm -lc ...
439
440causes error like this
441
442 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .aintl
443 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .copysignl
444 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .syscall
445 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .eaccess
446 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresuid
447 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresgid
448 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setproctitle
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449 ld: 0711-345 Use the -bloadmap or -bnoquiet option to obtain more
450 information.
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451
452you could retry with
453
454 make realclean
455 rm config.sh
456 ./Configure -Dusenm ...
457
458which makes Configure to use the C<nm> tool when scanning for library
459symbols, which usually is not done in AIX.
460
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461Related to this, you probably should not use the C<-r> option of
462Configure in AIX, because that affects of how the C<nm> tool is used.
463
c5252117 464=head2 Using GNU's gcc for building Perl
20d11268 465
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466Using gcc-3.x (tested with 3.0.4, 3.1, and 3.2) now works out of the box,
467as do recent gcc-2.9 builds available directly from IBM as part of their
468Linux compatibility packages, available here:
818c4caa 469
4238f5a6 470 http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/
20d11268 471
f19b8045 472=head2 Using Large Files with Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 473
60ecc970 474Should yield no problems.
20d11268 475
f19b8045 476=head2 Threaded Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 477
60ecc970 478Threads seem to work OK, though at the moment not all tests pass when
1d69df2b 479threads are used in combination with 64-bit configurations.
20d11268 480
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481You may get a warning when doing a threaded build:
482
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483 "pp_sys.c", line 4640.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment
484 between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.
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485
486The exact line number may vary, but if the warning (W) comes from a line
487line this
488
489 hent = PerlSock_gethostbyaddr(addr, (Netdb_hlen_t) addrlen, addrtype);
490
491in the "pp_ghostent" function, you may ignore it safely. The warning
492is caused by the reentrant variant of gethostbyaddr() having a slightly
493different prototype than its non-reentrant variant, but the difference
494is not really significant here.
495
f19b8045 496=head2 64-bit Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 497
1d69df2b 498If your AIX is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
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499configurations to work. In combination with threads some tests might
500still fail.
20d11268 501
12f54d27 502=head2 AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
20d11268 503
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504In AIX 4.2 Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics
505may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized.
506In newer AIX releases this has been solved by linking Perl with
507the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library
508has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time
509(such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and
510therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against the libC_r.
20d11268 511
7fabfece 512=head1 AUTHORS
20d11268 513
7fabfece 514Rainer Tammer <tammer@tammer.net>
20d11268 515
20d11268 516=cut