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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
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4
5=head1 NAME
6
d66be8f9 7README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
12(HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
13compiled and/or runs.
f2a260d6 14
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15=head2 Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
16
17As of application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is shipped with
210b36aa 18perl-5.6.1 in /opt/perl. The first occurrence is on CD 5012-7954 and
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19can be installed using
20
21 swinstall -s /cdrom perl
22
23assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom. In this version the
24following modules are installed:
25
26 ActivePerl::DocTools-0.04 HTML::Parser-3.19 XML::DOM-1.25
27 Archive::Tar-0.072 HTML::Tagset-3.03 XML::Parser-2.27
28 Compress::Zlib-1.08 MIME::Base64-2.11 XML::Simple-1.05
29 Convert::ASN1-0.10 Net-1.07 XML::XPath-1.09
30 Digest::MD5-2.11 PPM-2.1.5 XML::XSLT-0.32
31 File::CounterFile-0.12 SOAP::Lite-0.46 libwww-perl-5.51
32 Font::AFM-1.18 Storable-1.011 libxml-perl-0.07
33 HTML-Tree-3.11 URI-1.11 perl-ldap-0.23
34
35The build is a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large
36files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112
37
38If you perform a new installation, then Perl will be installed
39automatically.
40
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41=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
42
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43When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. The C compiler
44that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
45used to build new kernels.
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46
47Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The
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48former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
49difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
50require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
f2a260d6 51
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52If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
53complete, and be sure to read the Perl README file for more gcc-specific
54details.
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55
56=head2 PA-RISC
57
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58HP's current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
59(PA-RISC) chip. HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
60chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
61document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
62Motorola chipset.
f2a260d6 63
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64The most recent version of PA-RISC at the time of this document's last
65update is 2.0.
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66
67=head2 PA-RISC 1.0
68
69The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with this chip.
70
13e84f2c 71The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
f2a260d6 72
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73 600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850,
74 852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
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75
76=head2 PA-RISC 1.1
77
78An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many different
79system.
80
81The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
82
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83 705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745,
84 747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811,
85 813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849,
86 851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C,
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87 B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120,
88 C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350,
89 D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30,
90 G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60,
91 I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410,
92 K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520
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93
94=head2 PA-RISC 2.0
95
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96The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
9764-bit integer data.
f2a260d6 98
60ed1d8c 99As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
d464cda8 100contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips:
f2a260d6 101
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102 700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889,
103 893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160,
104 C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270,
105 D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410,
106 J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
107 K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000,
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108 L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, RP2400, RP2430, RP2450, RP2470,
109 RP5400, RP5430, RP5450, RP5470, RP7400, RP7410, RP8400, SD16000,
110 SD32000, SD64000, T540, T600, V2000, V2200, V2250, V2500, V2600
1a4e8251 111
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112Just before HP took over Compaq, some systems were renamed. Visit
113http://www.hp.com/products1/servers/server_names.html to see what
114the changes are, or will be.
115
116 HP 9000 A-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp2400 series.
117 HP 9000 N-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp7400.
118 HP 9000 L-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp5400 series.
119
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120=head2 Itanium
121
122HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). As of the
123date of this document's last update, the following systems contain
124Itanium chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
125
969db73b 126 RX2600, RX4610, RX5670, RX9610
f2a260d6 127
d66be8f9 128A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
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129/opt/langtools/lib/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the
130output of the "uname -m" command (without the leading "9000/"). The
131second column is the PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact
42be3f00 132chip type used. (Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)
d66be8f9 133
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134=head2 Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
135
136An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
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137PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
138HP-UX. If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want that
d1be9408 139Perl to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable and
60ed1d8c 140+DS32 should be used.
f2a260d6 141
60ed1d8c 142It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
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143the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms. The command-line flags are accepted,
144but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
1451.0 system.
146
a83b6f46 147=head2 Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX
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148
149HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor. This requires the use
150of a different version of HP-UX (currently 11.20), and with the exception
151of a few differences detailed below and in later sections, Perl should
152compile with no problems.
153
154Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
155attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system. This is
156because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
157while running a PA-RISC executable.
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158
159=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
160
161HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
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162Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl. On Itanium systems,
163they end with the suffix .so.
f2a260d6 164
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165Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC
166version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
167default. However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using the
168same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
169mentioned above).
f2a260d6 170
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171Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on
172a PA-RISC platform. Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform
173can only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
174that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library. A PA-RISC shared
175library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.
176
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177To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
178
179 1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
180 which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC). The linker will
181 tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
182
183 2. Link the shared library using the -b flag. If the code calls
184 any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
185 be included on this line.
186
187(Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the extension's
188Makefile).
189
190If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
191time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when the
192library is loaded.
193
a75f7dba 194You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
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195may be either an archive library or a shared library. If this second
196library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library". The
197dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
198is not linked into the shared library. Instead, it is loaded when the
199main shared library is loaded. This can cause problems if you build an
200extension on one system and move it to another system where the
201libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
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202
203If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
204simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC). These
205modules are then linked into the shared library.
206
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207Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
208library that is already linked into perl.
f2a260d6 209
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210Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
211libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
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212are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you
213run into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase.
214HP is aware of this problem. Search the HP-UX cxx-dev forums for
215discussions about the subject. The short answer is that B<everything>
216(all libraries, everything) must be compiled with C<+z> or C<+Z> to be
217PIC (position independent code). In HP-UX 11.00 or newer the linker
218error message should tell the name of the offending object file.
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219
220A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example for
221the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's libdb.sl:
222
223 # cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
224 # vi Makefile
225 ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
226 CFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
227 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
228 CXXFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
229 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
230
231 # make clean
232 # make
233 # mkdir tmp
234 # cd tmp
235 # ar x ../libdb.a
236 # ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o
237 # mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib
238 # rm *.o
239 # cd /usr/local/lib
240 # rm -f libdb.sl
241 # ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl
242
243 # cd .../DB_File-1.76
244 # make distclean
245 # perl Makefile.PL
246 # make
247 # make test
248 # make install
249
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250It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
251though the command-line flags are still present).
252
253PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable. Although
254you may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC
255object files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using
256an Itanium link editor.
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257
258=head2 The HP ANSI C Compiler
259
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260When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
261flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
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262file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
263recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set automatically.
f2a260d6 264
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265=head2 The GNU C Compiler
266
267When you are going to use the GNU C compiler (gcc), and you don't have
268gcc yet, you can either build it yourself from the sources (available
269from e.g. http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/software/gcc/releases.html) or fetch
270a prebuilt binary from the HP porting center. There are two places where
271gcc prebuilds can be fetched the first and best (for HP-UX 11 only) is
272http://h21007.www2.hp.com/dspp/tech/tech_TechSoftwareDetailPage_IDX/1,1703,547,00.html
273the second is http://hpux.cs.utah.edu/hppd/hpux/Gnu/ where you can also
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274find the GNU binutils package. (Browse through the list, because there
275are often multiple versions of the same package available).
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276
277Building a 64bit capable gcc from source is possible only when you have
278the HP C-ANSI C compiler available, which you should use anyway when
279building perl.
280
a83b6f46 281=head2 Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 282
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283Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
284may be created and manipulated. Three separate methods of doing this
285are available. Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to compile
286using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure. This causes Perl to be
287compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits wide,
288rather than 32 bits wide. (Note that this will only work with HP's ANSI
289C compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get
2be3a552 290a version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations. See above for
f3e4a94e 291where to find it.)
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292
293There are some drawbacks to this approach. One is that any extension
294which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
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295(just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install"
296procedure).
60ed1d8c 297
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298The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
299creat, fgetpos, fopen,
300freopen, fsetpos, fstat,
301fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev, ftruncate,
302ftw, lockf, lseek,
303lstat, mmap, nftw,
304open, prealloc, stat,
305statvfs, statvfsdev, tmpfile,
306truncate, getrlimit, setrlimit
f2a260d6 307
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308Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0. This
309drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
310and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
311
312It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run
313Configure. If you do not do this, but later answer the question about
314large files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that
315cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
316
a83b6f46 317=head2 Threaded Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 318
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319It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
320HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
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321HP-UX 11.00 at least.
322
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323To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of
324Configure. Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
325automatically added to the list of flags. Also make sure that -lpthread
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326is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl with. The
327hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard to get
328this right for you.
f2a260d6 329
210b36aa 330HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX
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331threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
332on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
333April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, available
334though worldwide HP-UX mirrors of precompiled packages
37a78d01 335(e.g. http://hpux.tn.tudelft.nl/hppd/hpux/)
c7d9b096 336
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337If you are going to use the HP DCE package, the library used for threading
338is /usr/lib/libcma.sl, but there have been multiple updates of that
339library over time. Perl will build with the first version, but it
340will not pass the test suite. Older Oracle versions might be a compelling
8e4bcd96 341reason not to update that library, otherwise please find a newer version
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342in one of the following patches: PHSS_19739, PHSS_20608, or PHSS_23672
343
344reformatted output:
345
346 d3:/usr/lib 106 > what libcma-*.1
347 libcma-00000.1:
348 HP DCE/9000 1.5 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
349 Date: Apr 29 1996 22:11:24
350 libcma-19739.1:
351 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_19739-40 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
352 Date: Sep 4 1999 01:59:07
353 libcma-20608.1:
354 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_20608 Module: libcma.1 (Export)
355 Date: Dec 8 1999 18:41:23
356 libcma-23672.1:
357 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_23672 Module: libcma.1 (Export)
358 Date: Apr 9 2001 10:01:06
359 d3:/usr/lib 107 >
360
361
a83b6f46 362=head2 64-bit Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 363
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364Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
365advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
366Pointers are 64 bits wide).
f2a260d6 367
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368Work is being performed on Perl to make it 64-bit compliant on all
369versions of Unix. Once this is complete, scalar variables will be able
370to hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.
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371
372As of the date of this document, Perl is not 64-bit compliant on HP-UX.
373
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374Should a user wish to experiment with compiling Perl in the LP64
375environment, use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure. This will force
376Perl to be compiled in a pure LP64 environment (via the +DD64 flag).
f74a9bd3 377
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378You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure. Although there
379are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
380the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl user's
381perspective.
f74a9bd3 382
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383In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
384you run Configure. If you do not use do this, but later answer the
385questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
386configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as
387expected.
f74a9bd3 388
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389(Note that these Configure flags will only work with HP's ANSI C
390compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get a
391version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
f2a260d6 392
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393=head2 Oracle on HP-UX
394
395Using perl to connect to Oracle databases through DBI and DBD::Oracle
396has caused a lot of people many headaches. Read README.hpux in the
397DBD::Oracle for much more information. The reason to mention it here
398is that Oracle requires a perl built with libcl and libpthread, the
399latter even when perl is build without threads. Building perl using
400all defaults, but still enabling to build DBD::Oracle later on can be
401achieved using
402
403 Configure -A prepend:libswanted='cl pthread ' ...
404
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405Do not forget the space before the trailing quote.
406
407Also note that this does not (yet) work with all configurations,
408it is known to fail with 64bit versions of GCC.
5df8692c 409
a83b6f46 410=head2 GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
d66be8f9 411
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412If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
413link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
414starts up. The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
415library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.
d66be8f9 416
a83b6f46 417=head2 NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
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418
419If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the test
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420io/fs.t may fail on test #18. This appears to be a bug in HP-UX and no
421fix is currently available.
d66be8f9 422
a83b6f46 423=head2 perl -P and // and HP-UX
183968aa 424
efdf3af0 425In HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if the
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426-P flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before
427perl sees it) is used. The problem is that C<//>, being a C++-style
428until-end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder
429of the line. This means that common Perl constructs like
430
efdf3af0 431 s/foo//;
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432
433will turn into illegal code
434
efdf3af0 435 s/foo
183968aa 436
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437The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than C<"/">,
438like for example C<"!">:
183968aa 439
efdf3af0 440 s!foo!!;
183968aa 441
a83b6f46 442=head2 HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
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443
444By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
44564MB. This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
446optimization levels. You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
447parameter through the use of SAM.
448
449When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
450icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon. Scroll down and select
451the maxdsiz line. From the Actions menu, select the Modify Configurable
452Parameter item. Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value box.
453Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot your
454system.
455
456In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
457Perl to compile at maximum optimization.
458
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459=head1 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
460
461You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent
462tests. If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like
463the following:
464
465 #0 0xc004216c in () from /usr/lib/libc.2
466 #1 0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
467 #2 0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
468 #3 0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
469 #4 0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
470 #5 0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
471 #6 0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
472 #7 0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
473 #8 0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
474 #9 0x2005c in main () from ./perl
475
476The key here is the C<nss_delete> call. One workaround for this
477bug seems to be to create add to the file F</etc/nsswitch.conf>
478(at least) the following lines
479
480 group: files
481 passwd: files
482
483Whether you are using NIS does not matter. Amazingly enough,
484the same bug affects also Solaris.
485
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486=head1 AUTHOR
487
488Jeff Okamoto <okamoto@corp.hp.com>
fa01be49 489H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@hccnet.nl>
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490
491With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.
492
493=head1 DATE
494
5df8692c 495Version 0.6.6: 2002-05-30
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496
497=cut