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1=head1 NAME
2
3perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7An exploration of some of the issues facing Perl programmers
8on EBCDIC based computers. We do not cover localization,
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9internationalization, or multi byte character set issues other
10than some discussion of UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC.
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11
12Portions that are still incomplete are marked with XXX.
13
14=head1 COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
15
16=head2 ASCII
17
18The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a set of
19integers running from 0 to 127 (decimal) that imply character
20interpretation by the display and other system(s) of computers.
51b5cecb 21The range 0..127 can be covered by setting the bits in a 7-bit binary
d396a558 22digit, hence the set is sometimes referred to as a "7-bit ASCII".
51b5cecb 23ASCII was described by the American National Standards Institute
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24document ANSI X3.4-1986. It was also described by ISO 646:1991
25(with localization for currency symbols). The full ASCII set is
26given in the table below as the first 128 elements. Languages that
27can be written adequately with the characters in ASCII include
28English, Hawaiian, Indonesian, Swahili and some Native American
29languages.
30
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31There are many character sets that extend the range of integers
32from 0..2**7-1 up to 2**8-1, or 8 bit bytes (octets if you prefer).
33One common one is the ISO 8859-1 character set.
34
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35=head2 ISO 8859
36
37The ISO 8859-$n are a collection of character code sets from the
38International Organization for Standardization (ISO) each of which
39adds characters to the ASCII set that are typically found in European
40languages many of which are based on the Roman, or Latin, alphabet.
41
42=head2 Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
43
44A particular 8-bit extension to ASCII that includes grave and acute
45accented Latin characters. Languages that can employ ISO 8859-1
46include all the languages covered by ASCII as well as Afrikaans,
47Albanian, Basque, Catalan, Danish, Faroese, Finnish, Norwegian,
3958b146 48Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish. Dutch is covered albeit without
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49the ij ligature. French is covered too but without the oe ligature.
50German can use ISO 8859-1 but must do so without German-style
51quotation marks. This set is based on Western European extensions
52to ASCII and is commonly encountered in world wide web work.
53In IBM character code set identification terminology ISO 8859-1 is
51b5cecb 54also known as CCSID 819 (or sometimes 0819 or even 00819).
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55
56=head2 EBCDIC
57
395f5a0c 58The Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code refers to a
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59large collection of slightly different single and multi byte
60coded character sets that are different from ASCII or ISO 8859-1
61and typically run on host computers. The EBCDIC encodings derive
62from 8 bit byte extensions of Hollerith punched card encodings.
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63The layout on the cards was such that high bits were set for the
64upper and lower case alphabet characters [a-z] and [A-Z], but there
65were gaps within each latin alphabet range.
66
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67Some IBM EBCDIC character sets may be known by character code set
68identification numbers (CCSID numbers) or code page numbers. Leading
69zero digits in CCSID numbers within this document are insignificant.
70E.g. CCSID 0037 may be referred to as 37 in places.
71
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72=head2 13 variant characters
73
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74Among IBM EBCDIC character code sets there are 13 characters that
75are often mapped to different integer values. Those characters
76are known as the 13 "variant" characters and are:
d396a558 77
51b5cecb 78 \ [ ] { } ^ ~ ! # | $ @ `
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79
80=head2 0037
81
82Character code set ID 0037 is a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1
83characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 0037 is used
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84in North American English locales on the OS/400 operating system
85that runs on AS/400 computers. CCSID 37 differs from ISO 8859-1
86in 237 places, in other words they agree on only 19 code point values.
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87
88=head2 1047
89
90Character code set ID 1047 is also a mapping of the ASCII plus
91Latin-1 characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 1047 is
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92used under Unix System Services for OS/390 or z/OS, and OpenEdition
93for VM/ESA. CCSID 1047 differs from CCSID 0037 in eight places.
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94
95=head2 POSIX-BC
96
97The EBCDIC code page in use on Siemens' BS2000 system is distinct from
981047 and 0037. It is identified below as the POSIX-BC set.
99
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100=head2 Unicode and UTF
101
102UTF is a Unicode Transformation Format. UTF-8 is a Unicode conforming
103representation of the Unicode standard that looks very much like ASCII.
104UTF-EBCDIC is an attempt to represent Unicode characters in an EBCDIC
105transparent manner.
106
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107=head1 SINGLE OCTET TABLES
108
109The following tables list the ASCII and Latin 1 ordered sets including
110the subsets: C0 controls (0..31), ASCII graphics (32..7e), delete (7f),
111C1 controls (80..9f), and Latin-1 (a.k.a. ISO 8859-1) (a0..ff). In the
112table non-printing control character names as well as the Latin 1
113extensions to ASCII have been labelled with character names roughly
395f5a0c 114corresponding to I<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> albeit with
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115substitutions such as s/LATIN// and s/VULGAR// in all cases,
116s/CAPITAL LETTER// in some cases, and s/SMALL LETTER ([A-Z])/\l$1/
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117in some other cases (the C<charnames> pragma names unfortunately do
118not list explicit names for the C0 or C1 control characters). The
119"names" of the C1 control set (128..159 in ISO 8859-1) listed here are
120somewhat arbitrary. The differences between the 0037 and 1047 sets are
121flagged with ***. The differences between the 1047 and POSIX-BC sets
122are flagged with ###. All ord() numbers listed are decimal. If you
123would rather see this table listing octal values then run the table
124(that is, the pod version of this document since this recipe may not
125work with a pod2_other_format translation) through:
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126
127=over 4
128
129=item recipe 0
130
131=back
132
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133 perldoc -m perlebcdic | \
134 perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
135 -e '{printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}'
136
137Or, as a script, called like C<perldoc -m perlebcdic | extract.pl>:
138
139 my $regex = qr/
140 (.{33}) # any 33 characters
141
142 (\d+)\s+ # capture some digits, discard spaces
143 (\d+)\s+ # ".."
144 (\d+)\s+ # ".."
145 (\d+) # capture some digits
146 /x;
147
148 while ( <> ) {
149 if ( $_ =~ $regex ) {
150 printf(
151 "%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",
152 $1, $2, $3, $4, $5,
153 );
154 }
155 }
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156
157If you want to retain the UTF-x code points then in script form you
158might want to write:
159
160=over 4
161
162=item recipe 1
163
164=back
165
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166 my $regex = qr/
167 (.{33}) # $1: any 33 characters
168
169 (\d+)\s+ # $2, $3, $4, $5:
170 (\d+)\s+ # capture some digits, discard spaces
171 (\d+)\s+ # 4 times
172 (\d+)\s+
173
174 (\d+) # $6: capture some digits,
175 \.? # there may be a period,
176 (\d*) # $7: capture some digits if they're there,
177 \s+ # discard spaces
178
179 (\d+) # $8: capture some digits
180 \.? # there may be a period,
181 (\d*) # $9: capture some digits if they're there,
182 /x;
183
184 open( FH, 'perldoc -m perlebcdic |' ) ||
185 die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
186 while ( <FH> ) {
187 if ( $_ =~ $regex ) {
188 if ( $7 ne '' && $9 ne '' ) {
189 printf(
190 "%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%-3o.%o\n",
191 $1, $2, $3, $4, $5, $6, $7, $8, $9
192 );
193 } elsif ( $7 ne '' ) {
194 printf(
195 "%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%o\n",
196 $1, $2, $3, $4, $5, $6, $7, $8
197 );
198 } else {
199 printf(
200 "%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",
201 $1, $2, $3, $4, $5, $6, $8
202 );
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203 }
204 }
205 }
769c2898 206 close FH;
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207
208If you would rather see this table listing hexadecimal values then
209run the table through:
210
211=over 4
212
395f5a0c 213=item recipe 2
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214
215=back
216
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217 perldoc -m perlebcdic | \
218 perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
219 -e '{printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}'
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220
221Or, in order to retain the UTF-x code points in hexadecimal:
222
223=over 4
224
225=item recipe 3
226
227=back
228
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229 my $regex = qr/
230 (.{33}) # $1: any 33 characters
231
232 (\d+)\s+ # $2, $3, $4, $5:
233 (\d+)\s+ # capture some digits, discard spaces
234 (\d+)\s+ # 4 times
235 (\d+)\s+
236
237 (\d+) # $6: capture some digits,
238 \.? # there may be a period,
239 (\d*) # $7: capture some digits if they're there,
240 \s+ # discard spaces
241
242 (\d+) # $8: capture some digits
243 \.? # there may be a period,
244 (\d*) # $9: capture some digits if they're there,
245 /x;
246
247 open( FH, 'perldoc -m perlebcdic |' ) ||
248 die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
395f5a0c 249 while (<FH>) {
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250 if ( $_ =~ $regex ) {
251 if ( $7 ne '' && $9 ne '' ) {
252 printf(
253 "%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%-2X.%X\n",
254 $1, $2, $3, $4, $5, $6, $7, $8, $9
255 );
395f5a0c 256 }
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257 elsif ( $7 ne '' ) {
258 printf(
259 "%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%X\n",
260 $1, $2, $3, $4, $5, $6, $7, $8
261 );
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262 }
263 else {
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264 printf(
265 "%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",
266 $1, $2, $3, $4, $5, $6, $8
267 );
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268 }
269 }
270 }
271
769c2898 272=head2 THE SINGLE OCTET TABLE
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273
274 incomp- incomp-
275 8859-1 lete lete
276 chr 0819 0037 1047 POSIX-BC UTF-8 UTF-EBCDIC
277 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
278 <NULL> 0 0 0 0 0 0
279 <START OF HEADING> 1 1 1 1 1 1
280 <START OF TEXT> 2 2 2 2 2 2
281 <END OF TEXT> 3 3 3 3 3 3
282 <END OF TRANSMISSION> 4 55 55 55 4 55
283 <ENQUIRY> 5 45 45 45 5 45
284 <ACKNOWLEDGE> 6 46 46 46 6 46
285 <BELL> 7 47 47 47 7 47
286 <BACKSPACE> 8 22 22 22 8 22
287 <HORIZONTAL TABULATION> 9 5 5 5 9 5
288 <LINE FEED> 10 37 21 21 10 21 ***
289 <VERTICAL TABULATION> 11 11 11 11 11 11
290 <FORM FEED> 12 12 12 12 12 12
291 <CARRIAGE RETURN> 13 13 13 13 13 13
292 <SHIFT OUT> 14 14 14 14 14 14
293 <SHIFT IN> 15 15 15 15 15 15
294 <DATA LINK ESCAPE> 16 16 16 16 16 16
295 <DEVICE CONTROL ONE> 17 17 17 17 17 17
296 <DEVICE CONTROL TWO> 18 18 18 18 18 18
297 <DEVICE CONTROL THREE> 19 19 19 19 19 19
298 <DEVICE CONTROL FOUR> 20 60 60 60 20 60
299 <NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE> 21 61 61 61 21 61
300 <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE> 22 50 50 50 22 50
301 <END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK> 23 38 38 38 23 38
302 <CANCEL> 24 24 24 24 24 24
303 <END OF MEDIUM> 25 25 25 25 25 25
304 <SUBSTITUTE> 26 63 63 63 26 63
305 <ESCAPE> 27 39 39 39 27 39
306 <FILE SEPARATOR> 28 28 28 28 28 28
307 <GROUP SEPARATOR> 29 29 29 29 29 29
308 <RECORD SEPARATOR> 30 30 30 30 30 30
309 <UNIT SEPARATOR> 31 31 31 31 31 31
310 <SPACE> 32 64 64 64 32 64
311 ! 33 90 90 90 33 90
312 " 34 127 127 127 34 127
313 # 35 123 123 123 35 123
314 $ 36 91 91 91 36 91
315 % 37 108 108 108 37 108
316 & 38 80 80 80 38 80
317 ' 39 125 125 125 39 125
318 ( 40 77 77 77 40 77
319 ) 41 93 93 93 41 93
320 * 42 92 92 92 42 92
321 + 43 78 78 78 43 78
322 , 44 107 107 107 44 107
323 - 45 96 96 96 45 96
324 . 46 75 75 75 46 75
325 / 47 97 97 97 47 97
326 0 48 240 240 240 48 240
327 1 49 241 241 241 49 241
328 2 50 242 242 242 50 242
329 3 51 243 243 243 51 243
330 4 52 244 244 244 52 244
331 5 53 245 245 245 53 245
332 6 54 246 246 246 54 246
333 7 55 247 247 247 55 247
334 8 56 248 248 248 56 248
335 9 57 249 249 249 57 249
336 : 58 122 122 122 58 122
337 ; 59 94 94 94 59 94
338 < 60 76 76 76 60 76
339 = 61 126 126 126 61 126
340 > 62 110 110 110 62 110
341 ? 63 111 111 111 63 111
342 @ 64 124 124 124 64 124
343 A 65 193 193 193 65 193
344 B 66 194 194 194 66 194
345 C 67 195 195 195 67 195
346 D 68 196 196 196 68 196
347 E 69 197 197 197 69 197
348 F 70 198 198 198 70 198
349 G 71 199 199 199 71 199
350 H 72 200 200 200 72 200
351 I 73 201 201 201 73 201
352 J 74 209 209 209 74 209
353 K 75 210 210 210 75 210
354 L 76 211 211 211 76 211
355 M 77 212 212 212 77 212
356 N 78 213 213 213 78 213
357 O 79 214 214 214 79 214
358 P 80 215 215 215 80 215
359 Q 81 216 216 216 81 216
360 R 82 217 217 217 82 217
361 S 83 226 226 226 83 226
362 T 84 227 227 227 84 227
363 U 85 228 228 228 85 228
364 V 86 229 229 229 86 229
365 W 87 230 230 230 87 230
366 X 88 231 231 231 88 231
367 Y 89 232 232 232 89 232
368 Z 90 233 233 233 90 233
369 [ 91 186 173 187 91 173 *** ###
370 \ 92 224 224 188 92 224 ###
371 ] 93 187 189 189 93 189 ***
372 ^ 94 176 95 106 94 95 *** ###
373 _ 95 109 109 109 95 109
374 ` 96 121 121 74 96 121 ###
375 a 97 129 129 129 97 129
376 b 98 130 130 130 98 130
377 c 99 131 131 131 99 131
378 d 100 132 132 132 100 132
379 e 101 133 133 133 101 133
380 f 102 134 134 134 102 134
381 g 103 135 135 135 103 135
382 h 104 136 136 136 104 136
383 i 105 137 137 137 105 137
384 j 106 145 145 145 106 145
385 k 107 146 146 146 107 146
386 l 108 147 147 147 108 147
387 m 109 148 148 148 109 148
388 n 110 149 149 149 110 149
389 o 111 150 150 150 111 150
390 p 112 151 151 151 112 151
391 q 113 152 152 152 113 152
392 r 114 153 153 153 114 153
393 s 115 162 162 162 115 162
394 t 116 163 163 163 116 163
395 u 117 164 164 164 117 164
396 v 118 165 165 165 118 165
397 w 119 166 166 166 119 166
398 x 120 167 167 167 120 167
399 y 121 168 168 168 121 168
400 z 122 169 169 169 122 169
401 { 123 192 192 251 123 192 ###
402 | 124 79 79 79 124 79
403 } 125 208 208 253 125 208 ###
404 ~ 126 161 161 255 126 161 ###
405 <DELETE> 127 7 7 7 127 7
406 <C1 0> 128 32 32 32 194.128 32
407 <C1 1> 129 33 33 33 194.129 33
408 <C1 2> 130 34 34 34 194.130 34
409 <C1 3> 131 35 35 35 194.131 35
410 <C1 4> 132 36 36 36 194.132 36
411 <C1 5> 133 21 37 37 194.133 37 ***
412 <C1 6> 134 6 6 6 194.134 6
413 <C1 7> 135 23 23 23 194.135 23
414 <C1 8> 136 40 40 40 194.136 40
415 <C1 9> 137 41 41 41 194.137 41
416 <C1 10> 138 42 42 42 194.138 42
417 <C1 11> 139 43 43 43 194.139 43
418 <C1 12> 140 44 44 44 194.140 44
419 <C1 13> 141 9 9 9 194.141 9
420 <C1 14> 142 10 10 10 194.142 10
421 <C1 15> 143 27 27 27 194.143 27
422 <C1 16> 144 48 48 48 194.144 48
423 <C1 17> 145 49 49 49 194.145 49
424 <C1 18> 146 26 26 26 194.146 26
425 <C1 19> 147 51 51 51 194.147 51
426 <C1 20> 148 52 52 52 194.148 52
427 <C1 21> 149 53 53 53 194.149 53
428 <C1 22> 150 54 54 54 194.150 54
429 <C1 23> 151 8 8 8 194.151 8
430 <C1 24> 152 56 56 56 194.152 56
431 <C1 25> 153 57 57 57 194.153 57
432 <C1 26> 154 58 58 58 194.154 58
433 <C1 27> 155 59 59 59 194.155 59
434 <C1 28> 156 4 4 4 194.156 4
435 <C1 29> 157 20 20 20 194.157 20
436 <C1 30> 158 62 62 62 194.158 62
437 <C1 31> 159 255 255 95 194.159 255 ###
438 <NON-BREAKING SPACE> 160 65 65 65 194.160 128.65
439 <INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK> 161 170 170 170 194.161 128.66
440 <CENT SIGN> 162 74 74 176 194.162 128.67 ###
441 <POUND SIGN> 163 177 177 177 194.163 128.68
442 <CURRENCY SIGN> 164 159 159 159 194.164 128.69
443 <YEN SIGN> 165 178 178 178 194.165 128.70
444 <BROKEN BAR> 166 106 106 208 194.166 128.71 ###
445 <SECTION SIGN> 167 181 181 181 194.167 128.72
446 <DIAERESIS> 168 189 187 121 194.168 128.73 *** ###
447 <COPYRIGHT SIGN> 169 180 180 180 194.169 128.74
448 <FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR> 170 154 154 154 194.170 128.81
449 <LEFT POINTING GUILLEMET> 171 138 138 138 194.171 128.82
450 <NOT SIGN> 172 95 176 186 194.172 128.83 *** ###
451 <SOFT HYPHEN> 173 202 202 202 194.173 128.84
452 <REGISTERED TRADE MARK SIGN> 174 175 175 175 194.174 128.85
453 <MACRON> 175 188 188 161 194.175 128.86 ###
454 <DEGREE SIGN> 176 144 144 144 194.176 128.87
455 <PLUS-OR-MINUS SIGN> 177 143 143 143 194.177 128.88
456 <SUPERSCRIPT TWO> 178 234 234 234 194.178 128.89
457 <SUPERSCRIPT THREE> 179 250 250 250 194.179 128.98
458 <ACUTE ACCENT> 180 190 190 190 194.180 128.99
459 <MICRO SIGN> 181 160 160 160 194.181 128.100
460 <PARAGRAPH SIGN> 182 182 182 182 194.182 128.101
461 <MIDDLE DOT> 183 179 179 179 194.183 128.102
462 <CEDILLA> 184 157 157 157 194.184 128.103
463 <SUPERSCRIPT ONE> 185 218 218 218 194.185 128.104
464 <MASC. ORDINAL INDICATOR> 186 155 155 155 194.186 128.105
465 <RIGHT POINTING GUILLEMET> 187 139 139 139 194.187 128.106
466 <FRACTION ONE QUARTER> 188 183 183 183 194.188 128.112
467 <FRACTION ONE HALF> 189 184 184 184 194.189 128.113
468 <FRACTION THREE QUARTERS> 190 185 185 185 194.190 128.114
469 <INVERTED QUESTION MARK> 191 171 171 171 194.191 128.115
470 <A WITH GRAVE> 192 100 100 100 195.128 138.65
471 <A WITH ACUTE> 193 101 101 101 195.129 138.66
472 <A WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 194 98 98 98 195.130 138.67
473 <A WITH TILDE> 195 102 102 102 195.131 138.68
474 <A WITH DIAERESIS> 196 99 99 99 195.132 138.69
475 <A WITH RING ABOVE> 197 103 103 103 195.133 138.70
476 <CAPITAL LIGATURE AE> 198 158 158 158 195.134 138.71
477 <C WITH CEDILLA> 199 104 104 104 195.135 138.72
478 <E WITH GRAVE> 200 116 116 116 195.136 138.73
479 <E WITH ACUTE> 201 113 113 113 195.137 138.74
480 <E WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 202 114 114 114 195.138 138.81
481 <E WITH DIAERESIS> 203 115 115 115 195.139 138.82
482 <I WITH GRAVE> 204 120 120 120 195.140 138.83
483 <I WITH ACUTE> 205 117 117 117 195.141 138.84
484 <I WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 206 118 118 118 195.142 138.85
485 <I WITH DIAERESIS> 207 119 119 119 195.143 138.86
486 <CAPITAL LETTER ETH> 208 172 172 172 195.144 138.87
487 <N WITH TILDE> 209 105 105 105 195.145 138.88
488 <O WITH GRAVE> 210 237 237 237 195.146 138.89
489 <O WITH ACUTE> 211 238 238 238 195.147 138.98
490 <O WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 212 235 235 235 195.148 138.99
491 <O WITH TILDE> 213 239 239 239 195.149 138.100
492 <O WITH DIAERESIS> 214 236 236 236 195.150 138.101
493 <MULTIPLICATION SIGN> 215 191 191 191 195.151 138.102
494 <O WITH STROKE> 216 128 128 128 195.152 138.103
495 <U WITH GRAVE> 217 253 253 224 195.153 138.104 ###
496 <U WITH ACUTE> 218 254 254 254 195.154 138.105
497 <U WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 219 251 251 221 195.155 138.106 ###
498 <U WITH DIAERESIS> 220 252 252 252 195.156 138.112
499 <Y WITH ACUTE> 221 173 186 173 195.157 138.113 *** ###
500 <CAPITAL LETTER THORN> 222 174 174 174 195.158 138.114
501 <SMALL LETTER SHARP S> 223 89 89 89 195.159 138.115
502 <a WITH GRAVE> 224 68 68 68 195.160 139.65
503 <a WITH ACUTE> 225 69 69 69 195.161 139.66
504 <a WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 226 66 66 66 195.162 139.67
505 <a WITH TILDE> 227 70 70 70 195.163 139.68
506 <a WITH DIAERESIS> 228 67 67 67 195.164 139.69
507 <a WITH RING ABOVE> 229 71 71 71 195.165 139.70
508 <SMALL LIGATURE ae> 230 156 156 156 195.166 139.71
509 <c WITH CEDILLA> 231 72 72 72 195.167 139.72
510 <e WITH GRAVE> 232 84 84 84 195.168 139.73
511 <e WITH ACUTE> 233 81 81 81 195.169 139.74
512 <e WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 234 82 82 82 195.170 139.81
513 <e WITH DIAERESIS> 235 83 83 83 195.171 139.82
514 <i WITH GRAVE> 236 88 88 88 195.172 139.83
515 <i WITH ACUTE> 237 85 85 85 195.173 139.84
516 <i WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 238 86 86 86 195.174 139.85
517 <i WITH DIAERESIS> 239 87 87 87 195.175 139.86
518 <SMALL LETTER eth> 240 140 140 140 195.176 139.87
519 <n WITH TILDE> 241 73 73 73 195.177 139.88
520 <o WITH GRAVE> 242 205 205 205 195.178 139.89
521 <o WITH ACUTE> 243 206 206 206 195.179 139.98
522 <o WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 244 203 203 203 195.180 139.99
523 <o WITH TILDE> 245 207 207 207 195.181 139.100
524 <o WITH DIAERESIS> 246 204 204 204 195.182 139.101
525 <DIVISION SIGN> 247 225 225 225 195.183 139.102
526 <o WITH STROKE> 248 112 112 112 195.184 139.103
527 <u WITH GRAVE> 249 221 221 192 195.185 139.104 ###
528 <u WITH ACUTE> 250 222 222 222 195.186 139.105
529 <u WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 251 219 219 219 195.187 139.106
530 <u WITH DIAERESIS> 252 220 220 220 195.188 139.112
531 <y WITH ACUTE> 253 141 141 141 195.189 139.113
532 <SMALL LETTER thorn> 254 142 142 142 195.190 139.114
533 <y WITH DIAERESIS> 255 223 223 223 195.191 139.115
d396a558 534
769c2898 535
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536If you would rather see the above table in CCSID 0037 order rather than
537ASCII + Latin-1 order then run the table through:
538
539=over 4
540
395f5a0c 541=item recipe 4
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542
543=back
544
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545 perldoc -m perlebcdic | \
546 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)' \
547 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
548 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
549 -e 'sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
550 -e 'map{[$_,substr($_,42,3)]}@l;}'
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551
552If you would rather see it in CCSID 1047 order then change the digit
55342 in the last line to 51, like this:
554
555=over 4
556
395f5a0c 557=item recipe 5
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558
559=back
560
769c2898
CW
561 perldoc -m perlebcdic | \
562 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)' \
563 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
564 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
565 -e 'sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
566 -e 'map{[$_,substr($_,51,3)]}@l;}'
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567
568If you would rather see it in POSIX-BC order then change the digit
56951 in the last line to 60, like this:
570
571=over 4
572
395f5a0c 573=item recipe 6
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574
575=back
576
769c2898
CW
577 perldoc -m perlebcdic | \
578 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)' \
579 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
580 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
581 -e 'sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
582 -e 'map{[$_,substr($_,60,3)]}@l;}'
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583
584
585=head1 IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
586
587To determine the character set you are running under from perl one
588could use the return value of ord() or chr() to test one or more
589character values. For example:
590
769c2898
CW
591 my $is_ascii = "A" eq chr(65);
592 my $is_ebcdic = "A" eq chr(193);
d396a558 593
51b5cecb 594Also, "\t" is a C<HORIZONTAL TABULATION> character so that:
d396a558 595
769c2898
CW
596 my $is_ascii = ord("\t") == 9;
597 my $is_ebcdic = ord("\t") == 5;
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598
599To distinguish EBCDIC code pages try looking at one or more of
600the characters that differ between them. For example:
601
769c2898
CW
602 my $is_ebcdic_37 = "\n" eq chr(37);
603 my $is_ebcdic_1047 = "\n" eq chr(21);
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604
605Or better still choose a character that is uniquely encoded in any
606of the code sets, e.g.:
607
769c2898
CW
608 my $is_ascii = ord('[') == 91;
609 my $is_ebcdic_37 = ord('[') == 186;
610 my $is_ebcdic_1047 = ord('[') == 173;
611 my $is_ebcdic_POSIX_BC = ord('[') == 187;
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612
613However, it would be unwise to write tests such as:
614
769c2898
CW
615 my $is_ascii = "\r" ne chr(13); # WRONG
616 my $is_ascii = "\n" ne chr(10); # ILL ADVISED
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617
618Obviously the first of these will fail to distinguish most ASCII machines
769c2898
CW
619from either a CCSID 0037, a 1047, or a POSIX-BC EBCDIC machine since "\r" eq
620chr(13) under all of those coded character sets. But note too that
621because "\n" is chr(13) and "\r" is chr(10) on the MacIntosh (which is an
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622ASCII machine) the second C<$is_ascii> test will lead to trouble there.
623
769c2898 624To determine whether or not perl was built under an EBCDIC
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625code page you can use the Config module like so:
626
627 use Config;
769c2898 628 my $is_ebcdic = $Config{'ebcdic'} eq 'define';
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629
630=head1 CONVERSIONS
631
1e054b24
PP
632=head2 tr///
633
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634In order to convert a string of characters from one character set to
635another a simple list of numbers, such as in the right columns in the
636above table, along with perl's tr/// operator is all that is needed.
637The data in the table are in ASCII order hence the EBCDIC columns
638provide easy to use ASCII to EBCDIC operations that are also easily
639reversed.
640
769c2898
CW
641For example, to convert ASCII to code page 037 take the output of the second
642column from the output of recipe 0 (modified to add \\ characters) and use
d5d9880c 643it in tr/// like so:
d396a558 644
769c2898
CW
645 my $cp_037 = join '',
646 qq[\000\001\002\003\234\011\206\177\227\215\216\013\014\015\016\017],
647 qq[\020\021\022\023\235\205\010\207\030\031\222\217\034\035\036\037],
648 qq[\200\201\202\203\204\012\027\033\210\211\212\213\214\005\006\007],
649 qq[\220\221\026\223\224\225\226\004\230\231\232\233\024\025\236\032],
650 qq[\040\240\342\344\340\341\343\345\347\361\242\056\074\050\053\174],
651 qq[\046\351\352\353\350\355\356\357\354\337\041\044\052\051\073\254],
652 qq[\055\057\302\304\300\301\303\305\307\321\246\054\045\137\076\077],
653 qq[\370\311\312\313\310\315\316\317\314\140\072\043\100\047\075\042],
654 qq[\330\141\142\143\144\145\146\147\150\151\253\273\360\375\376\261],
655 qq[\260\152\153\154\155\156\157\160\161\162\252\272\346\270\306\244],
656 qq[\265\176\163\164\165\166\167\170\171\172\241\277\320\335\336\256],
657 qq[\136\243\245\267\251\247\266\274\275\276\133\135\257\250\264\327],
658 qq[\173\101\102\103\104\105\106\107\110\111\255\364\366\362\363\365],
659 qq[\175\112\113\114\115\116\117\120\121\122\271\373\374\371\372\377],
660 qq[\134\367\123\124\125\126\127\130\131\132\262\324\326\322\323\325],
661 qq[\060\061\062\063\064\065\066\067\070\071\263\333\334\331\332\237];
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662
663 my $ebcdic_string = $ascii_string;
769c2898 664
1e054b24 665 eval '$ebcdic_string =~ tr/\000-\377/' . $cp_037 . '/';
d396a558 666
d5d9880c 667To convert from EBCDIC 037 to ASCII just reverse the order of the tr///
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668arguments like so:
669
670 my $ascii_string = $ebcdic_string;
d5d9880c
PK
671 eval '$ascii_string = tr/' . $cp_037 . '/\000-\377/';
672
673Similarly one could take the output of the third column from recipe 0 to
674obtain a C<$cp_1047> table. The fourth column of the output from recipe
6750 could provide a C<$cp_posix_bc> table suitable for transcoding as well.
1e054b24
PP
676
677=head2 iconv
d396a558 678
d5d9880c 679XPG operability often implies the presence of an I<iconv> utility
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680available from the shell or from the C library. Consult your system's
681documentation for information on iconv.
682
3958b146 683On OS/390 or z/OS see the iconv(1) manpage. One way to invoke the iconv
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684shell utility from within perl would be to:
685
395f5a0c 686 # OS/390 or z/OS example
769c2898 687 my $ascii_data = `echo '$ebcdic_data'| iconv -f IBM-1047 -t ISO8859-1`
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688
689or the inverse map:
690
395f5a0c 691 # OS/390 or z/OS example
769c2898 692 my $ebcdic_data = `echo '$ascii_data'| iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t IBM-1047`
d396a558 693
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694For other perl based conversion options see the Convert::* modules on CPAN.
695
1e054b24
PP
696=head2 C RTL
697
395f5a0c 698The OS/390 and z/OS C run time libraries provide _atoe() and _etoa() functions.
1e054b24 699
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700=head1 OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
701
702The C<..> range operator treats certain character ranges with
703care on EBCDIC machines. For example the following array
704will have twenty six elements on either an EBCDIC machine
705or an ASCII machine:
706
769c2898 707 my @alphabet = ( 'A'..'Z' ); # $#alphabet == 25
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708
709The bitwise operators such as & ^ | may return different results
710when operating on string or character data in a perl program running
711on an EBCDIC machine than when run on an ASCII machine. Here is
712an example adapted from the one in L<perlop>:
713
714 # EBCDIC-based examples
769c2898
CW
715 print "j p \n" ^ " a h"; # prints "JAPH\n"
716 print "JA" | " ph\n"; # prints "japh\n"
717 print "JAPH\nJunk" & "\277\277\277\277\277"; # prints "japh\n"
718 print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n"; # prints "Perl\n"
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719
720An interesting property of the 32 C0 control characters
721in the ASCII table is that they can "literally" be constructed
51b5cecb
PP
722as control characters in perl, e.g. C<(chr(0) eq "\c@")>
723C<(chr(1) eq "\cA")>, and so on. Perl on EBCDIC machines has been
724ported to take "\c@" to chr(0) and "\cA" to chr(1) as well, but the
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725thirty three characters that result depend on which code page you are
726using. The table below uses the character names from the previous table
51b5cecb 727but with substitutions such as s/START OF/S.O./; s/END OF /E.O./;
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728s/TRANSMISSION/TRANS./; s/TABULATION/TAB./; s/VERTICAL/VERT./;
729s/HORIZONTAL/HORIZ./; s/DEVICE CONTROL/D.C./; s/SEPARATOR/SEP./;
730s/NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE/NEG. ACK./;. The POSIX-BC and 1047 sets are
731identical throughout this range and differ from the 0037 set at only
51b5cecb
PP
732one spot (21 decimal). Note that the C<LINE FEED> character
733may be generated by "\cJ" on ASCII machines but by "\cU" on 1047 or POSIX-BC
734machines and cannot be generated as a C<"\c.letter."> control character on
7350037 machines. Note also that "\c\\" maps to two characters
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736not one.
737
738 chr ord 8859-1 0037 1047 && POSIX-BC
739 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
740 "\c?" 127 <DELETE> " " ***><
741 "\c@" 0 <NULL> <NULL> <NULL> ***><
742 "\cA" 1 <S.O. HEADING> <S.O. HEADING> <S.O. HEADING>
743 "\cB" 2 <S.O. TEXT> <S.O. TEXT> <S.O. TEXT>
744 "\cC" 3 <E.O. TEXT> <E.O. TEXT> <E.O. TEXT>
745 "\cD" 4 <E.O. TRANS.> <C1 28> <C1 28>
746 "\cE" 5 <ENQUIRY> <HORIZ. TAB.> <HORIZ. TAB.>
747 "\cF" 6 <ACKNOWLEDGE> <C1 6> <C1 6>
748 "\cG" 7 <BELL> <DELETE> <DELETE>
749 "\cH" 8 <BACKSPACE> <C1 23> <C1 23>
750 "\cI" 9 <HORIZ. TAB.> <C1 13> <C1 13>
751 "\cJ" 10 <LINE FEED> <C1 14> <C1 14>
752 "\cK" 11 <VERT. TAB.> <VERT. TAB.> <VERT. TAB.>
753 "\cL" 12 <FORM FEED> <FORM FEED> <FORM FEED>
754 "\cM" 13 <CARRIAGE RETURN> <CARRIAGE RETURN> <CARRIAGE RETURN>
755 "\cN" 14 <SHIFT OUT> <SHIFT OUT> <SHIFT OUT>
756 "\cO" 15 <SHIFT IN> <SHIFT IN> <SHIFT IN>
757 "\cP" 16 <DATA LINK ESCAPE> <DATA LINK ESCAPE> <DATA LINK ESCAPE>
758 "\cQ" 17 <D.C. ONE> <D.C. ONE> <D.C. ONE>
759 "\cR" 18 <D.C. TWO> <D.C. TWO> <D.C. TWO>
760 "\cS" 19 <D.C. THREE> <D.C. THREE> <D.C. THREE>
761 "\cT" 20 <D.C. FOUR> <C1 29> <C1 29>
762 "\cU" 21 <NEG. ACK.> <C1 5> <LINE FEED> ***
763 "\cV" 22 <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE> <BACKSPACE> <BACKSPACE>
764 "\cW" 23 <E.O. TRANS. BLOCK> <C1 7> <C1 7>
765 "\cX" 24 <CANCEL> <CANCEL> <CANCEL>
766 "\cY" 25 <E.O. MEDIUM> <E.O. MEDIUM> <E.O. MEDIUM>
767 "\cZ" 26 <SUBSTITUTE> <C1 18> <C1 18>
768 "\c[" 27 <ESCAPE> <C1 15> <C1 15>
769 "\c\\" 28 <FILE SEP.>\ <FILE SEP.>\ <FILE SEP.>\
770 "\c]" 29 <GROUP SEP.> <GROUP SEP.> <GROUP SEP.>
771 "\c^" 30 <RECORD SEP.> <RECORD SEP.> <RECORD SEP.> ***><
772 "\c_" 31 <UNIT SEP.> <UNIT SEP.> <UNIT SEP.> ***><
773
774
775=head1 FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
776
777=over 8
778
779=item chr()
780
781chr() must be given an EBCDIC code number argument to yield a desired
782character return value on an EBCDIC machine. For example:
783
769c2898 784 my $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = chr(193);
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785
786=item ord()
787
788ord() will return EBCDIC code number values on an EBCDIC machine.
789For example:
790
769c2898 791 my $the_number_193 = ord("A");
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792
793=item pack()
794
795The c and C templates for pack() are dependent upon character set
796encoding. Examples of usage on EBCDIC include:
797
769c2898 798 my $foo;
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799 $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
800 # $foo eq "ABCD"
769c2898 801 $foo = pack("C4", 193,194,195,196);
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802 # same thing
803
804 $foo = pack("ccxxcc",193,194,195,196);
805 # $foo eq "AB\0\0CD"
806
807=item print()
808
809One must be careful with scalars and strings that are passed to
810print that contain ASCII encodings. One common place
811for this to occur is in the output of the MIME type header for
812CGI script writing. For example, many perl programming guides
813recommend something similar to:
814
815 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\015\012\015\012";
816 # this may be wrong on EBCDIC
817
395f5a0c
PK
818Under the IBM OS/390 USS Web Server or WebSphere on z/OS for example
819you should instead write that as:
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820
821 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\r\n\r\n"; # OK for DGW et alia
822
823That is because the translation from EBCDIC to ASCII is done
824by the web server in this case (such code will not be appropriate for
825the Macintosh however). Consult your web server's documentation for
826further details.
827
828=item printf()
829
830The formats that can convert characters to numbers and vice versa
831will be different from their ASCII counterparts when executed
832on an EBCDIC machine. Examples include:
833
834 printf("%c%c%c",193,194,195); # prints ABC
835
836=item sort()
837
838EBCDIC sort results may differ from ASCII sort results especially for
839mixed case strings. This is discussed in more detail below.
840
841=item sprintf()
842
843See the discussion of printf() above. An example of the use
844of sprintf would be:
845
769c2898 846 my $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = sprintf("%c",193);
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847
848=item unpack()
849
850See the discussion of pack() above.
851
852=back
853
854=head1 REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
855
856As of perl 5.005_03 the letter range regular expression such as
857[A-Z] and [a-z] have been especially coded to not pick up gap
b3b6085d
PP
858characters. For example, characters such as E<ocirc> C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>
859that lie between I and J would not be matched by the
51b5cecb
PP
860regular expression range C</[H-K]/>.
861
862If you do want to match the alphabet gap characters in a single octet
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863regular expression try matching the hex or octal code such
864as C</\313/> on EBCDIC or C</\364/> on ASCII machines to
51b5cecb 865have your regular expression match C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>.
d396a558 866
51b5cecb 867Another construct to be wary of is the inappropriate use of hex or
d396a558
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868octal constants in regular expressions. Consider the following
869set of subs:
870
871 sub is_c0 {
872 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
873 $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
874 }
875
876 sub is_print_ascii {
877 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
878 $char =~ /[\040-\176]/;
879 }
880
881 sub is_delete {
882 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
883 $char eq "\177";
884 }
885
886 sub is_c1 {
887 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
888 $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
889 }
890
891 sub is_latin_1 {
892 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
893 $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
894 }
895
51b5cecb
PP
896The above would be adequate if the concern was only with numeric code points.
897However, the concern may be with characters rather than code points
898and on an EBCDIC machine it may be desirable for constructs such as
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899C<if (is_print_ascii("A")) {print "A is a printable character\n";}> to print
900out the expected message. One way to represent the above collection
901of character classification subs that is capable of working across the
902four coded character sets discussed in this document is as follows:
903
904 sub Is_c0 {
905 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
769c2898 906 if ( ord('^') == 94 ) { # ascii
d396a558 907 return $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
769c2898
CW
908 }
909 if ( ord('^') == 176 ) { # 37
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910 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\045\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
911 }
769c2898 912 if ( ord('^') == 95 || ord('^') == 106 ) { # 1047 || posix-bc
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913 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\025\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
914 }
915 }
916
917 sub Is_print_ascii {
918 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
919 $char =~ /[ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<=>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~]/;
920 }
921
922 sub Is_delete {
923 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
769c2898 924 if ( ord('^') == 94 ) { # ascii
d396a558 925 return $char eq "\177";
769c2898 926 } else { # ebcdic
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927 return $char eq "\007";
928 }
929 }
930
931 sub Is_c1 {
932 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
769c2898 933 if ( ord('^') == 94 ) { # ascii
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934 return $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
935 }
769c2898 936 if ( ord('^') == 176 ) { # 37
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937 return $char =~ /[\040-\044\025\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
938 }
769c2898 939 if ( ord('^') == 95 ) { # 1047
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940 return $char =~ /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
941 }
769c2898
CW
942 if ( ord('^') == 106 ) { # posix-bc
943 return $char =~
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944 /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\137]/;
945 }
946 }
947
948 sub Is_latin_1 {
949 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
769c2898 950 if ( ord('^') == 94 ) { # ascii
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951 return $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
952 }
769c2898
CW
953 if ( ord('^') == 176 ) { # 37
954 return $char =~
d396a558
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955 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\275\264\232\212\137\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
956 }
769c2898 957 if ( ord('^') == 95 ) { # 1047
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958 return $char =~
959 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\273\264\232\212\260\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\272\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
960 }
769c2898
CW
961 if ( ord('^') == 106 ) { # posix-bc
962 return $char =~
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963 /[\101\252\260\261\237\262\320\265\171\264\232\212\272\312\257\241\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\340\376\335\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\300\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
964 }
965 }
966
967Note however that only the C<Is_ascii_print()> sub is really independent
968of coded character set. Another way to write C<Is_latin_1()> would be
969to use the characters in the range explicitly:
970
971 sub Is_latin_1 {
972 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
973 $char =~ /[ ¡¢£¤¥¦§¨©ª«¬­®¯°±²³´µ¶·¸¹º»¼½¾¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚÛÜÝÞßàáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõö÷øùúûüýþÿ]/;
974 }
975
976Although that form may run into trouble in network transit (due to the
977presence of 8 bit characters) or on non ISO-Latin character sets.
d396a558
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978
979=head1 SOCKETS
980
981Most socket programming assumes ASCII character encodings in network
982byte order. Exceptions can include CGI script writing under a
983host web server where the server may take care of translation for you.
984Most host web servers convert EBCDIC data to ISO-8859-1 or Unicode on
985output.
986
987=head1 SORTING
988
989One big difference between ASCII based character sets and EBCDIC ones
990are the relative positions of upper and lower case letters and the
991letters compared to the digits. If sorted on an ASCII based machine the
992two letter abbreviation for a physician comes before the two letter
993for drive, that is:
994
769c2898
CW
995 my @sorted = sort(qw(Dr. dr.)); # @sorted holds ('Dr.','dr.') on ASCII,
996 # but ('dr.','Dr.') on EBCDIC
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997
998The property of lower case before uppercase letters in EBCDIC is
999even carried to the Latin 1 EBCDIC pages such as 0037 and 1047.
b3b6085d
PP
1000An example would be that E<Euml> C<E WITH DIAERESIS> (203) comes
1001before E<euml> C<e WITH DIAERESIS> (235) on an ASCII machine, but
51b5cecb 1002the latter (83) comes before the former (115) on an EBCDIC machine.
b3b6085d 1003(Astute readers will note that the upper case version of E<szlig>
51b5cecb 1004C<SMALL LETTER SHARP S> is simply "SS" and that the upper case version of
b3b6085d 1005E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> is not in the 0..255 range but it is
51b5cecb 1006at U+x0178 in Unicode, or C<"\x{178}"> in a Unicode enabled Perl).
d396a558
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1007
1008The sort order will cause differences between results obtained on
1009ASCII machines versus EBCDIC machines. What follows are some suggestions
1010on how to deal with these differences.
1011
51b5cecb 1012=head2 Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
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1013
1014This is the least computationally expensive strategy. It may require
1015some user education.
1016
51b5cecb 1017=head2 MONO CASE then sort data.
d396a558 1018
51b5cecb 1019In order to minimize the expense of mono casing mixed test try to
d396a558
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1020C<tr///> towards the character set case most employed within the data.
1021If the data are primarily UPPERCASE non Latin 1 then apply tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/
1022then sort(). If the data are primarily lowercase non Latin 1 then
1023apply tr/[A-Z]/[a-z]/ before sorting. If the data are primarily UPPERCASE
51b5cecb
PP
1024and include Latin-1 characters then apply:
1025
769c2898 1026 tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/;
51b5cecb 1027 tr/[àáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõöøùúûüýþ]/[ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖØÙÚÛÜÝÞ]/;
769c2898 1028 s/ß/SS/g;
d396a558 1029
51b5cecb 1030then sort(). Do note however that such Latin-1 manipulation does not
b3b6085d
PP
1031address the E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> character that will remain at
1032code point 255 on ASCII machines, but 223 on most EBCDIC machines
51b5cecb
PP
1033where it will sort to a place less than the EBCDIC numerals. With a
1034Unicode enabled Perl you might try:
d396a558 1035
51b5cecb
PP
1036 tr/^?/\x{178}/;
1037
1038The strategy of mono casing data before sorting does not preserve the case
1039of the data and may not be acceptable for that reason.
1040
1041=head2 Convert, sort data, then re convert.
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1042
1043This is the most expensive proposition that does not employ a network
1044connection.
1045
1046=head2 Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
1047
1048This strategy can employ a network connection. As such
1049it would be computationally expensive.
1050
395f5a0c 1051=head1 TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
1e054b24
PP
1052
1053There are a variety of ways of transforming data with an intra character set
1054mapping that serve a variety of purposes. Sorting was discussed in the
1055previous section and a few of the other more popular mapping techniques are
1056discussed next.
1057
1058=head2 URL decoding and encoding
d396a558 1059
51b5cecb 1060Note that some URLs have hexadecimal ASCII code points in them in an
1e054b24
PP
1061attempt to overcome character or protocol limitation issues. For example
1062the tilde character is not on every keyboard hence a URL of the form:
d396a558
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1063
1064 http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/
1065
1066may also be expressed as either of:
1067
1068 http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/
1069
1070 http://www.pvhp.com/%7epvhp/
1071
51b5cecb 1072where 7E is the hexadecimal ASCII code point for '~'. Here is an example
d396a558
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1073of decoding such a URL under CCSID 1047:
1074
769c2898 1075 my $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/';
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1076 # this array assumes code page 1047
1077 my @a2e_1047 = (
1078 0, 1, 2, 3, 55, 45, 46, 47, 22, 5, 21, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1079 16, 17, 18, 19, 60, 61, 50, 38, 24, 25, 63, 39, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1080 64, 90,127,123, 91,108, 80,125, 77, 93, 92, 78,107, 96, 75, 97,
1081 240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,122, 94, 76,126,110,111,
1082 124,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,209,210,211,212,213,214,
1083 215,216,217,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,173,224,189, 95,109,
1084 121,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,145,146,147,148,149,150,
1085 151,152,153,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,192, 79,208,161, 7,
1086 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 6, 23, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 9, 10, 27,
1087 48, 49, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54, 8, 56, 57, 58, 59, 4, 20, 62,255,
1088 65,170, 74,177,159,178,106,181,187,180,154,138,176,202,175,188,
1089 144,143,234,250,190,160,182,179,157,218,155,139,183,184,185,171,
1090 100,101, 98,102, 99,103,158,104,116,113,114,115,120,117,118,119,
1091 172,105,237,238,235,239,236,191,128,253,254,251,252,186,174, 89,
1092 68, 69, 66, 70, 67, 71,156, 72, 84, 81, 82, 83, 88, 85, 86, 87,
1093 140, 73,205,206,203,207,204,225,112,221,222,219,220,141,142,223
1094 );
1095 $url =~ s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/pack("c",$a2e_1047[hex($1)])/ge;
1096
1e054b24
PP
1097Conversely, here is a partial solution for the task of encoding such
1098a URL under the 1047 code page:
1099
769c2898 1100 my $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/';
1e054b24
PP
1101 # this array assumes code page 1047
1102 my @e2a_1047 = (
1103 0, 1, 2, 3,156, 9,134,127,151,141,142, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1104 16, 17, 18, 19,157, 10, 8,135, 24, 25,146,143, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1105 128,129,130,131,132,133, 23, 27,136,137,138,139,140, 5, 6, 7,
1106 144,145, 22,147,148,149,150, 4,152,153,154,155, 20, 21,158, 26,
1107 32,160,226,228,224,225,227,229,231,241,162, 46, 60, 40, 43,124,
1108 38,233,234,235,232,237,238,239,236,223, 33, 36, 42, 41, 59, 94,
1109 45, 47,194,196,192,193,195,197,199,209,166, 44, 37, 95, 62, 63,
1110 248,201,202,203,200,205,206,207,204, 96, 58, 35, 64, 39, 61, 34,
1111 216, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,171,187,240,253,254,177,
1112 176,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,170,186,230,184,198,164,
1113 181,126,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,161,191,208, 91,222,174,
1114 172,163,165,183,169,167,182,188,189,190,221,168,175, 93,180,215,
1115 123, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,173,244,246,242,243,245,
1116 125, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,185,251,252,249,250,255,
1117 92,247, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,178,212,214,210,211,213,
1118 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,179,219,220,217,218,159
1119 );
769c2898 1120 # The following regular expression does not address the
1e054b24
PP
1121 # mappings for: ('.' => '%2E', '/' => '%2F', ':' => '%3A')
1122 $url =~ s/([\t "#%&\(\),;<=>\?\@\[\\\]^`{|}~])/sprintf("%%%02X",$e2a_1047[ord($1)])/ge;
1123
1124where a more complete solution would split the URL into components
1125and apply a full s/// substitution only to the appropriate parts.
1126
1127In the remaining examples a @e2a or @a2e array may be employed
1128but the assignment will not be shown explicitly. For code page 1047
1129you could use the @a2e_1047 or @e2a_1047 arrays just shown.
1130
1131=head2 uu encoding and decoding
1132
1133The C<u> template to pack() or unpack() will render EBCDIC data in EBCDIC
1134characters equivalent to their ASCII counterparts. For example, the
1135following will print "Yes indeed\n" on either an ASCII or EBCDIC computer:
1136
769c2898
CW
1137 my $all_byte_chrs = '';
1138
1139 $all_byte_chrs .= chr($_) foreach 0 .. 255;
1140
1141 my $uuencode_byte_chrs = pack('u', $all_byte_chrs);
1142
1143 (my $uu = <<' ENDOFHEREDOC') =~ s/^\s*//gm;
1e054b24
PP
1144 M``$"`P0%!@<("0H+#`T.#Q`1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL
1145 M+2XO,#$R,S0U-C<X.3H[/#T^/T!!0D-$149'2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA9
1146 M6EM<75Y?8&%B8V1E9F=H:6IK;&UN;W!Q<G-T=79W>'EZ>WQ]?G^`@8*#A(6&
1147 MAXB)BHN,C8Z/D)&2DY25EI>8F9J;G)V>GZ"AHJ.DI::GJ*FJJZRMKJ^PL;*S
1148 MM+6VM[BYNKN\O;Z_P,'"P\3%QL?(R<K+S,W.S]#1TM/4U=;7V-G:V]S=WM_@
1149 ?X>+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_P``
1150 ENDOFHEREDOC
769c2898 1151 if ( $uuencode_byte_chrs eq $uu ) {
1e054b24
PP
1152 print "Yes ";
1153 }
1154 $uudecode_byte_chrs = unpack('u', $uuencode_byte_chrs);
769c2898 1155 if ( $uudecode_byte_chrs eq $all_byte_chrs ) {
1e054b24
PP
1156 print "indeed\n";
1157 }
1158
1159Here is a very spartan uudecoder that will work on EBCDIC provided
1160that the @e2a array is filled in appropriately:
1161
769c2898
CW
1162 #!/usr/bin/perl
1163 my @e2a = (
1164 # this must be filled in
1165 );
1166 $_ = <> until my($mode,$file) = /^begin\s*(\d*)\s*(\S*)/;
1e054b24
PP
1167 open(OUT, "> $file") if $file ne "";
1168 while(<>) {
1169 last if /^end/;
1170 next if /[a-z]/;
1171 next unless int(((($e2a[ord()] - 32 ) & 077) + 2) / 3) ==
1172 int(length() / 4);
1173 print OUT unpack("u", $_);
1174 }
1175 close(OUT);
1176 chmod oct($mode), $file;
1177
1178
1179=head2 Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
1180
1181On ASCII encoded machines it is possible to strip characters outside of
1182the printable set using:
1183
1184 # This QP encoder works on ASCII only
769c2898 1185 my $qp_string =~ s/([=\x00-\x1F\x80-\xFF])/sprintf("=%02X",ord($1))/ge;
1e054b24
PP
1186
1187Whereas a QP encoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC machines
1188would look somewhat like the following (where the EBCDIC branch @e2a
1189array is omitted for brevity):
1190
1191 if (ord('A') == 65) { # ASCII
1192 $delete = "\x7F"; # ASCII
1193 @e2a = (0 .. 255) # ASCII to ASCII identity map
769c2898
CW
1194
1195 } else { # EBCDIC
1e054b24 1196 $delete = "\x07"; # EBCDIC
769c2898
CW
1197 @e2a = (
1198 # EBCDIC to ASCII map (as shown above)
1199 );
1e054b24 1200 }
769c2898 1201 my $qp_string =~
1e054b24
PP
1202 s/([^ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~$delete])/sprintf("=%02X",$e2a[ord($1)])/ge;
1203
1204(although in production code the substitutions might be done
1205in the EBCDIC branch with the @e2a array and separately in the
1206ASCII branch without the expense of the identity map).
1207
1208Such QP strings can be decoded with:
1209
1210 # This QP decoder is limited to ASCII only
1211 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr hex $1/ge;
1212 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1213
1214Whereas a QP decoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC machines
1215would look somewhat like the following (where the @a2e array is
1216omitted for brevity):
1217
1218 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr $a2e[hex $1]/ge;
1219 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1220
395f5a0c 1221=head2 Caesarian ciphers
1e054b24
PP
1222
1223The practice of shifting an alphabet one or more characters for encipherment
1224dates back thousands of years and was explicitly detailed by Gaius Julius
1225Caesar in his B<Gallic Wars> text. A single alphabet shift is sometimes
1226referred to as a rotation and the shift amount is given as a number $n after
1227the string 'rot' or "rot$n". Rot0 and rot26 would designate identity maps
1228on the 26 letter English version of the Latin alphabet. Rot13 has the
1229interesting property that alternate subsequent invocations are identity maps
1230(thus rot13 is its own non-trivial inverse in the group of 26 alphabet
1231rotations). Hence the following is a rot13 encoder and decoder that will
1232work on ASCII and EBCDIC machines:
1233
1234 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1235
769c2898 1236 while ( <> ) {
1e054b24
PP
1237 tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;
1238 print;
1239 }
1240
1241In one-liner form:
1242
769c2898 1243 perl -pe 'tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/'
1e054b24
PP
1244
1245
1246=head1 Hashing order and checksums
1247
395f5a0c
PK
1248To the extent that it is possible to write code that depends on
1249hashing order there may be differences between hashes as stored
1250on an ASCII based machine and hashes stored on an EBCDIC based machine.
1e054b24
PP
1251XXX
1252
d396a558
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1253=head1 I18N AND L10N
1254
1255Internationalization(I18N) and localization(L10N) are supported at least
1256in principle even on EBCDIC machines. The details are system dependent
1257and discussed under the L<perlebcdic/OS ISSUES> section below.
1258
1259=head1 MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
1260
395f5a0c
PK
1261Perl may work with an internal UTF-EBCDIC encoding form for wide characters
1262on EBCDIC platforms in a manner analogous to the way that it works with
1263the UTF-8 internal encoding form on ASCII based platforms.
1264
1265Legacy multi byte EBCDIC code pages XXX.
d396a558
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1266
1267=head1 OS ISSUES
1268
1269There may be a few system dependent issues
1270of concern to EBCDIC Perl programmers.
1271
1272=head2 OS/400
1273
51b5cecb
PP
1274The PASE environment.
1275
d396a558
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1276=over 8
1277
1278=item IFS access
1279
1280XXX.
1281
1282=back
1283
395f5a0c 1284=head2 OS/390, z/OS
d396a558 1285
51b5cecb
PP
1286Perl runs under Unix Systems Services or USS.
1287
d396a558
JH
1288=over 8
1289
51b5cecb
PP
1290=item chcp
1291
1e054b24
PP
1292B<chcp> is supported as a shell utility for displaying and changing
1293one's code page. See also L<chcp>.
51b5cecb 1294
d396a558
JH
1295=item dataset access
1296
1297For sequential data set access try:
1298
1299 my @ds_records = `cat //DSNAME`;
1300
1301or:
1302
1303 my @ds_records = `cat //'HLQ.DSNAME'`;
1304
1305See also the OS390::Stdio module on CPAN.
1306
395f5a0c 1307=item OS/390, z/OS iconv
51b5cecb 1308
1e054b24
PP
1309B<iconv> is supported as both a shell utility and a C RTL routine.
1310See also the iconv(1) and iconv(3) manual pages.
51b5cecb 1311
d396a558
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1312=item locales
1313
395f5a0c
PK
1314On OS/390 or z/OS see L<locale> for information on locales. The L10N files
1315are in F</usr/nls/locale>. $Config{d_setlocale} is 'define' on OS/390
1316or z/OS.
d396a558
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1317
1318=back
1319
1320=head2 VM/ESA?
1321
1322XXX.
1323
1324=head2 POSIX-BC?
1325
1326XXX.
1327
51b5cecb
PP
1328=head1 BUGS
1329
1330This pod document contains literal Latin 1 characters and may encounter
b1866b2d 1331translation difficulties. In particular one popular nroff implementation
51b5cecb
PP
1332was known to strip accented characters to their unaccented counterparts
1333while attempting to view this document through the B<pod2man> program
1334(for example, you may see a plain C<y> rather than one with a diaeresis
3958b146 1335as in E<yuml>). Another nroff truncated the resultant manpage at
395f5a0c 1336the first occurrence of 8 bit characters.
51b5cecb
PP
1337
1338Not all shells will allow multiple C<-e> string arguments to perl to
395f5a0c
PK
1339be concatenated together properly as recipes 0, 2, 4, 5, and 6 might
1340seem to imply.
51b5cecb 1341
b3b6085d
PP
1342=head1 SEE ALSO
1343
395f5a0c 1344L<perllocale>, L<perlfunc>, L<perlunicode>, L<utf8>.
b3b6085d 1345
d396a558
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1346=head1 REFERENCES
1347
1348http://anubis.dkuug.dk/i18n/charmaps
1349
d396a558
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1350http://www.unicode.org/
1351
1352http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/
1353
51b5cecb
PP
1354http://www.wps.com/texts/codes/
1355B<ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Infiltration> Tom Jennings,
1356September 1999.
1357
395f5a0c 1358B<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> The Unicode Consortium, Lisa Moore ed.,
51b5cecb
PP
1359ISBN 0-201-61633-5, Addison Wesley Developers Press, February 2000.
1360
d396a558
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1361B<CDRA: IBM - Character Data Representation Architecture -
1362Reference and Registry>, IBM SC09-2190-00, December 1996.
1363
1364"Demystifying Character Sets", Andrea Vine, Multilingual Computing
1365& Technology, B<#26 Vol. 10 Issue 4>, August/September 1999;
1366ISSN 1523-0309; Multilingual Computing Inc. Sandpoint ID, USA.
1367
1e054b24
PP
1368B<Codes, Ciphers, and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication>
1369Fred B. Wrixon, ISBN 1-57912-040-7, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers,
13701998.
1371
395f5a0c
PK
1372http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM
1373B<IBM - EBCDIC and the P-bit; The biggest Computer Goof Ever> Robert Bemer.
1374
1375=head1 HISTORY
1376
137715 April 2001: added UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC to main table, pvhp.
1378
d396a558
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1379=head1 AUTHOR
1380
b3b6085d 1381Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com wrote this in 1999 and 2000
d396a558 1382with CCSID 0819 and 0037 help from Chris Leach and
b3b6085d
PP
1383AndrE<eacute> Pirard A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be as well as POSIX-BC
1384help from Thomas Dorner Thomas.Dorner@start.de.
1e054b24
PP
1385Thanks also to Vickie Cooper, Philip Newton, William Raffloer, and
1386Joe Smith. Trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks and
1387registered service marks used in this document are the property of
1388their respective owners.