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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
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19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
4438c4b7 21
748a9306 22Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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23L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
24disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
25See L<warnings>.
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26
27Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 28just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
702d120d 29The symbols C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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30
31=over 4
32
33=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
34
35(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
36to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
37if you want to localize a package variable.
38
9fbbe825 39=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
2ba9eb46 40
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41(W) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the current scope or statement,
42effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost
43always a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
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44until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
45destroyed.
46
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47=item "no" not allowed in expression
48
49(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
50no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
51
52=item "use" not allowed in expression
53
54(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
55no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
56
f61d411c 57=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
60See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
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62=item # cannot take a count
63
64(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
65but you have also specified an explicit size for the string.
66See L<perlfunc/pack>.
67
68=item # must be followed by a, A or Z
69
70(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
71which must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z
72to indicate what sort of string is to be unpacked.
73See L<perlfunc/pack>.
74
75=item # must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
76
77(F) You had an pack template indicating a counted-length string,
78Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A* or Z*.
79See L<perlfunc/pack>.
80
81=item # must follow a numeric type
82
83(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#',
84but this did not follow some numeric unpack specification.
85See L<perlfunc/pack>.
86
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87=item % may only be used in unpack
88
5f05dabc 89(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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90checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
91way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
92
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93=item Repeat count in pack overflows
94
95(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
96your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
97
98=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
99
100(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
101your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
102
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103=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
104
105(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
106by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a
107C<'>-delimited regular expression.
108
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109=item %s (...) interpreted as function
110
111(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 112by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 113found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
a0d0e21e 114
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115=item %s() called too early to check prototype
116
117(W) You've called a function that has a prototype before the parser saw a
118definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check that the call
119conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an early prototype
120declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the subroutine
121definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype checking. Alternatively,
122if you are certain that you're calling the function correctly, you may put
123an ampersand before the name to avoid the warning. See L<perlsub>.
124
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125=item %s argument is not a HASH element
126
5f05dabc 127(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
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128
129 $foo{$bar}
130 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
131
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132=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
133
134(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
135
136 $foo{$bar}
137 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
138
139or a hash slice, such as
140
141 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
142 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
143
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144=item %s did not return a true value
145
146(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
147it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
148traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
149do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
150
151=item %s found where operator expected
152
153(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
154sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
155it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
156delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
157
f86702cc 158=item %s had compilation errors
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159
160(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
161
f86702cc 162=item %s has too many errors
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163
164(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
165Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
166
167=item %s matches null string many times
168
169(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
170regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
171
172=item %s never introduced
173
174(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
175before it could possibly have been used.
176
177=item %s syntax OK
178
179(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
180
f86702cc 181=item %s: Command not found
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182
183(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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184of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
185Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 186
f86702cc 187=item %s: Expression syntax
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188
189(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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190of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
191Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 192
f86702cc 193=item %s: Undefined variable
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194
195(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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196of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
197Perl yourself.
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198
199=item %s: not found
200
8b1a09fc 201(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 202instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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203into Perl yourself.
204
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205=item (in cleanup) %s
206
207(W) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
208the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by
209the system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
210number of times, the warning is issued only once for any number
211of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
212repeated.
213
214Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag
215could also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
216
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217=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
218
219(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
220found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
221the previous line just because you saw this message.
222
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223=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
224
225(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
226which provides a race condition that breaks security.
227
228=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
229
230(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
231know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
232
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233=item C<-p> destination: %s
234
235(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
236command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
237redirected it with select().)
238
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239=item 500 Server error
240
241See Server error.
242
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243=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
244
245(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
246if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
247
248=item @ outside of string
249
2ba9eb46 250(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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251the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
252
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253=item <> should be quotes
254
255(F) You wrote C<require E<lt>fileE<gt>> when you should have written
256C<require 'file'>.
257
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258=item accept() on closed fd
259
260(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
261the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
262
263=item Allocation too large: %lx
264
54310121 265(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 266
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267=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
268
2c268ad5 269(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
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270operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
271or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
272length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
273that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
274L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
275
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276=item Arg too short for msgsnd
277
278(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
279
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280=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
281
282(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
283you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 284a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 285
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286=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
287
288(W) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
289and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
290other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
291not imported.
292
293To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
294before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
295Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
296imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
297
298To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
299on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
300to be an object method (see L<attrs>).
301
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302=item Args must match #! line
303
304(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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305with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
306impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
307for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 308
f86702cc 309=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
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310
311(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
312expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
313will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
314
315=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
316
317(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
318is now heavily deprecated.
319
320=item assertion botched: %s
321
322(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
323
324=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
325
326(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
327
328=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
329
330(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
331must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
332know which context to supply to the right side.
333
334=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
335
336(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
337be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
338of those arenas.
339
54310121 340=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
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341
342(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
343optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
344indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
345that can no longer be found in the table.
346
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347=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
348
349(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
350routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
351the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
352routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
353it.
354
355=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
356
357(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
358
359=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
360
361(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
362would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
363and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
364could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
365SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
366when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
367
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368=item Attempt to join self
369
370(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
371impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may
372need to move the join() to some other thread.
373
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374=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
375
376(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
377function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
378means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
379invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
380literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
381avoid this warning.
382
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383=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
384
385(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 386as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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387dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
388
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389=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
390
391(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 392shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 393S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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394S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
395
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396=item Bad filehandle: %s
397
398(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
399has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
400did it in another package.
401
402=item Bad free() ignored
403
404(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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405malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
406setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
407
408This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
409"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
410C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
411system malloc().
a0d0e21e 412
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413=item Bad hash
414
415(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
416
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417=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
418
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419(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
420pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
421See L<perlref>.
57079c46 422
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423=item Bad name after %s::
424
425(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
426finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
427so
428
429 $var = 'myvar';
430 $sym = mypack::$var;
431
432is not the same as
433
434 $var = 'myvar';
435 $sym = "mypack::$var";
436
437=item Bad symbol for array
438
439(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
440wasn't a symbol table entry.
441
442=item Bad symbol for filehandle
443
444(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
445wasn't a symbol table entry.
446
447=item Bad symbol for hash
448
449(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
450wasn't a symbol table entry.
451
8b1a09fc 452=item Badly placed ()'s
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453
454(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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455of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
456Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 457
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458=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
459
460(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
d98d5fff 461subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 462Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 463
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464=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
465
466(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
467the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
468Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
469
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470=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
471
472(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
473Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
474
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475=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
476
477(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
478implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
479already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
480could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
481likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
482
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483=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
484
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485(W) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
486(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
487L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 488
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489=item bind() on closed fd
490
491(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
492the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
493
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494=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
495
496(W) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
497
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498=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
499
500(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
501
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502=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
503
504(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to iterate over
505%ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
506so it was truncated to the string shown.
507
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508=item Callback called exit
509
510(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
511exited by calling exit.
512
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513=item Can't "goto" outside a block
514
515(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
516like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
517occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
518is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
519
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520=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
521
522(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
523foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
524
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525=item Can't "last" outside a block
526
527(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
528except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
529current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
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530"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can usually double
531the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies
532will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
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533
534=item Can't "next" outside a block
535
536(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
537there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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538count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
539usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 540curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
a0d0e21e 541
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542=item Can't read CRTL environ
543
544(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
545from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
546missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
547or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not searched.
548
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549=item Can't "redo" outside a block
550
551(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
552there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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553count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
554usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 555curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
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556
557=item Can't bless non-reference value
558
559(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
560encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
561
562=item Can't break at that line
563
54310121 564(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
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565the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
566be stopped at.
567
568=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
569
570(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
571functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
572in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
573
574=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
575
54310121 576(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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577ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
578you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
579an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
580
581=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
582
583(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
584object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
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GS
585a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
586Something like this will reproduce the error:
587
588 $BADREF = 42;
589 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
590 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
591
592=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
593
594(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
595object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
a0d0e21e
LW
596Something like this will reproduce the error:
597
598 $BADREF = undef;
599 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
600 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
601
602=item Can't chdir to %s
603
604(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
605that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
606
104d25b7
JH
607=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s"
608
609(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.
610
a0d0e21e
LW
611=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
612
613(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 614(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
615say things like:
616
617 *foo += 1;
618
619You CAN say
620
621 $foo = *foo;
622 $foo += 1;
623
624but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
625
626=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
627
628(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 629(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
630
631=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
632
633(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 634(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 635
57079c46
GA
636=item Can't coerce array into hash
637
638(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
639information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
640only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
641
a0d0e21e
LW
642=item Can't create pipe mailbox
643
748a9306
LW
644(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
645or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e
LW
646
647=item Can't declare %s in my
648
5f05dabc 649(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
a0d0e21e
LW
650They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
651
652=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
653
654(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
655
54310121 656=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 657
54310121 658(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 659from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
a0d0e21e
LW
660such.
661
8b1a09fc 662=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
a0d0e21e
LW
663
664(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
665
666=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
667
668(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
669/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
670
671=item Can't do setegid!
672
673(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
674of suidperl.
675
676=item Can't do seteuid!
677
678(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
679
680=item Can't do setuid
681
682(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
683do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
684form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
685under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
686If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
687your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
688
689=item Can't do waitpid with flags
690
691(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
692without flags is emulated.
693
8b1a09fc 694=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
a0d0e21e
LW
695
696(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
697your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
698
699=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
700
701(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
702For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
703
704=item Can't exec "%s": %s
705
5f05dabc 706(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
707program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
708were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
709executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
710#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
711similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
712
713=item Can't exec %s
714
715(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
716what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
717mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
718
719=item Can't execute %s
720
2a92aaa0
GS
721(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
722in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
723
724=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
725
726(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
727in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
728exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
729
730=item Can't find %s on PATH
731
a0d0e21e 732(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 733in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
734
735=item Can't find label %s
736
737(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
738for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
739
740=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
741
742(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 743the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
744levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
745
fb73857a
PP
746 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
747
748If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
749included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
750programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
751
752=item Can't fork
753
754(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
755
748a9306
LW
756=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
757
758(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
759access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
760access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
761that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
762assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
763it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
764retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
765but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 766routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
767appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
768returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
769knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
770see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
771code takes stat buffers lightly.)
772
a0d0e21e
LW
773=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
774
748a9306
LW
775(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
776can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
777
778=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
779
748a9306
LW
780(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
781mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
782
783=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
784
785(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
786call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 787you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
788L<perlfunc/goto>.
789
b150fb22
RH
790=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
791
792(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
793(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
794
706a304b 795=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 796
706a304b
SM
797(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
798handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
799pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
800sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 801
748a9306
LW
802=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
803
2ba9eb46 804(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
805lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
806localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
807package name.
808
0ebe0038
SM
809=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
810
811(F) You said something like C<local $ar-E<gt>{'key'}>, where $ar is
812a reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but
813you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
814element directly -- C<local $ar-E<gt>[$ar-E<gt>[0]{'key'}]>.
815
4727527e
IZ
816=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
817
818(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
819but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
820in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
821doing C<make install>.
822
ec889f3a
GS
823=item Can't locate %s
824
825(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
826found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
827unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
828to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra
829library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or
830maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>
831and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e
LW
832
833=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
834
835(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
836functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 837method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
838
839=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
840
841(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
842to exist.
843
3e3baf6d
TB
844=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
845
846(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
847
a0d0e21e
LW
848=item Can't modify %s in %s
849
850(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 851change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 852
54310121 853=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
854
855(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
856a NULL.
857
5f05dabc 858=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 859
5f05dabc 860(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
861buffer.
862
863=item Can't open %s: %s
864
08e9d68e
DD
865(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
866filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
867switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
868is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
869on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
870
871=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
872
873(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
874try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 875IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
876and then read it in under a different file handle.
877
748a9306
LW
878=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
879
880(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
881couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
882command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
883
884=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
885
886(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 887couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
888
889=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
890
891(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
892couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
893line for writing.
748a9306
LW
894
895=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
896
897(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
898couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
899
a0d0e21e
LW
900=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
901
902(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
903
7bac28a0
PP
904=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
905
906(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
907pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
908was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
909this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
910
a0d0e21e
LW
911=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
912
913(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
914you don't have write permission to the directory.
915
748a9306
LW
916=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
917
918(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
919reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
920
a0d0e21e
LW
921=item Can't reswap uid and euid
922
923(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
924of suidperl.
925
926=item Can't return outside a subroutine
927
928(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
929there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
930
931=item Can't stat script "%s"
932
933(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
934it open already. Bizarre.
935
936=item Can't swap uid and euid
937
938(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
939of suidperl.
940
941=item Can't take log of %g
942
fb73857a
PP
943(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
944negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
945standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
946the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
947
948=item Can't take sqrt of %g
949
950(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
951negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
952with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
953
954=item Can't undef active subroutine
955
956(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
957however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
958redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
959
960=item Can't unshift
961
962(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
963as the main Perl stack.
964
965=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
966
967(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
968it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
969so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
970message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
971
972=item Can't upgrade to undef
973
974(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
975of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
976code calling sv_upgrade.
977
1d2dff63
GS
978=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
979
980(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
981Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
982provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
983
c07a80fd
PP
984=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
985
986(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 987You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
988and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
989Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
990lexical variable.
991
e9fa98b2
HS
992=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
993
994(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
995substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
996most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
997
a0d0e21e
LW
998=item Can't use %s for loop variable
999
1000(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
1001
1002=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1003
1004(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1005reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1006test the type of the reference, if need be.
1007
748a9306
LW
1008=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
1009
1010(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
1011a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 1012to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
1013Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
1014out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
1015
44a8e56a
PP
1016=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
1017
1018(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1019are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1020
748a9306 1021=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
1022
1023(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1024are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1025
1026=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1027
1028(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 1029be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 1030
a0d0e21e
LW
1031=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1032
1033(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 1034not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
1035the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
1036variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
1037weren't.
1038
748a9306
LW
1039=item Can't use subscript on %s
1040
1041(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1042subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1043didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1044
810b8aa5
GS
1045=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1046
1047(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1048references can be weakened.
1049
5f05dabc 1050=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
1051
1052(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
1053an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
1054Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1055
3f4520fe 1056=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
b6c543e3
IZ
1057
1058(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
1059there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
1060
3f4520fe 1061=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
e7ea3e70
IZ
1062
1063(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1064opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1065package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
1066
b8c5462f 1067=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
4599a1de 1068
b8c5462f 1069(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.
4599a1de 1070
b8c5462f
JH
1071=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1072
1073(W) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
644a2880
JH
1074I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct,
1075for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that the last two constructs
1076are not currently implemented, they are placeholders for future extensions.
b8c5462f 1077
644a2880 1078=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de
JH
1079
1080(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
b8c5462f 1081with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
4599a1de
JH
1082If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1083expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
b8c5462f 1084backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1085
1086=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1087
1088(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
1089beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
1090If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1091expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1092backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
1093
a0d0e21e
LW
1094=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
1095
1096(W) A novice will sometimes say
1097
1098 chmod 777, $filename
1099
1100not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
1101to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
1102
8b1a09fc 1103=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1104
1105(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1106
7a2e2cd6
PP
1107=item Compilation failed in require
1108
1109(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
1110Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
1111were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
1112
c3464db5
DD
1113=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1114
1115(W) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations
1116where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited to 32766,
1117or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1118arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1119recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1120under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather
1121than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular
1122expression so that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook>
1123for information on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
1124
a0d0e21e
LW
1125=item connect() on closed fd
1126
1127(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1128the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
1129
779c5bc9
GS
1130=item Constant is not %s reference
1131
1132(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
1133is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference. The
1134message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This usually
1135indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
1136See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1137
4cee8e80
CS
1138=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1139
1140(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1141inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1142workarounds.
1143
9607fc9c
PP
1144=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1145
1146(S) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
1147inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1148workarounds.
1149
423cee85
JH
1150=item constant(%s): %%^H is not localized
1151
1152(F) When setting compile-time-lexicalized hash %^H one should set the
1153corresponding bit of $^H as well.
1154
1155=item constant(%s): %s
1156
1157(F) Compile-time-substitutions (such as overloaded constants and
1158character names) were not correctly set up.
1159
e7ea3e70
IZ
1160=item Copy method did not return a reference
1161
1162(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1163
a0d0e21e
LW
1164=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1165
1166(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1167
1168=item corrupted regexp pointers
1169
1170(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1171expression compiler gave it.
1172
1173=item corrupted regexp program
1174
1175(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1176a valid magic number.
1177
1178=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1179
1180(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1181times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1182recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1183case it indicates something else.
1184
f10b0346 1185=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1186
1187(D) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
1188undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the array is empty,
1189just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1190
f10b0346 1191=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1192
1193(D) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it checks for an
1194undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash is empty,
1195just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
1196
fc36a67e
PP
1197=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1198
1199(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1200C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1201twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1202
4633a7c4
LW
1203=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1204
1205(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1206
748a9306 1207=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1208
748a9306
LW
1209(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1210On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1211
7e1af8bc 1212=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1213
1214(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1215you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1216
54310121 1217=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1218
1219(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1220found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1221name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1222because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1223"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1224referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1225to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1226can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1227declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
1228
1229=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1230
1231(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1232
1233=item do_study: out of memory
1234
1235(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1236
1237=item Duplicate free() ignored
1238
1239(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1240been freed.
1241
4633a7c4
LW
1242=item elseif should be elsif
1243
1244(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1245ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1246named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1247unlikely to be what you want.
1248
a0d0e21e
LW
1249=item END failed--cleanup aborted
1250
1251(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
1252The interpreter is immediately exited.
1253
85ab1d1d 1254=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1255
85ab1d1d 1256(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1257effective uids or gids failed.
1258
748a9306
LW
1259=item Error converting file specification %s
1260
5f05dabc 1261(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1262specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1263single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1264passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1265case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1266
e4d48cc9
GS
1267=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1268
1269(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1270that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1271See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1272
1273=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1274
1275(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1276but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1277in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1278
1279=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1280
1281(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1282zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1283interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1284If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1285from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1286See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1287
fc36a67e
PP
1288=item Excessively long <> operator
1289
1290(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1291Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1292filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1293variable and glob that.
1294
f86702cc 1295=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1296
1297(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1298
1299=item Exiting eval via %s
1300
8b1a09fc 1301(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1302a goto, or a loop control statement.
1303
0a753a76
PP
1304=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1305
1306(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1307subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1308statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1309
a0d0e21e
LW
1310=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1311
8b1a09fc 1312(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1313a goto, or a loop control statement.
1314
1315=item Exiting substitution via %s
1316
8b1a09fc 1317(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1318a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1319
7b8d334a
GS
1320=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1321
1322(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1323the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1324usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
ae6c4aac 1325package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1326
748a9306 1327=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1328
748a9306
LW
1329(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1330service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1331filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1332the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1333
1334=item fcntl is not implemented
1335
1336(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1337PDP-11 or something?
1338
1339=item Filehandle %s never opened
1340
1341(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1342You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1343the FileHandle package.
1344
af8c498a 1345=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e
LW
1346
1347(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1348intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1349"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1350you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1351L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1352
af8c498a 1353=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1354
af8c498a 1355(W) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If you
a0d0e21e 1356intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1357"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
af8c498a 1358you intended only to read from the file, use "E<lt>". See
8b1a09fc 1359L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1360
1361=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1362
1363(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1364a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1365that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1366the name.
1367
1368=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1369
1370(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1371a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1372that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1373the name.
1374
1375=item Format %s redefined
1376
1377(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1378
1379 {
4438c4b7 1380 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1381 eval "format NAME =...";
1382 }
1383
1384=item Format not terminated
1385
1386(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1387to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1388
1389=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1390
1391(W) You said
1392
1393 if ($foo = 123)
1394
1395when you meant
1396
1397 if ($foo == 123)
1398
1399(or something like that).
1400
1401=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1402
1403(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1404
1405=item gethostent not implemented
1406
1407(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1408because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1409on the Internet.
1410
1411=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1412
1413(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1414Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1415
748a9306
LW
1416=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1417
1418(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1419C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1420
a0d0e21e
LW
1421=item Glob not terminated
1422
1423(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1424a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1425finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1426the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1427
1428=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1429
68dc0745
PP
1430(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1431must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
a0d0e21e
LW
1432say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1433
1434=item goto must have label
1435
1436(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1437unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1438
1439=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1440
1441(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1442existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1443an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1444
1445=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1446
1447(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1448is now heavily deprecated.
1449
252aa082
JH
1450=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1451
9e24b6e2
JH
1452(W) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
1453(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1454L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1455
8903cb82
PP
1456=item Identifier too long
1457
1458(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1459about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1460names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1461versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1462
f675dbe5
CB
1463=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
1464
1465(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
1466environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=> delimiter
1467used to spearate keys from values. The element is ignored.
1468
1469=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
a0d0e21e 1470
f675dbe5
CB
1471(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical name
1472or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1473didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the
1474line was ignored.
a0d0e21e 1475
4fdae800
PP
1476=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1477
1478(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1479error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121
PP
1480multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1481
1482Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1483either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1484transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745
PP
1485properly converting the text file format.
1486
1487Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1488text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1489handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1490
1491In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1492converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1493executed.
4fdae800 1494
a0d0e21e
LW
1495=item Illegal division by zero
1496
1497(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1498logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1499
1500=item Illegal modulus zero
1501
1502(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1503don't take to this kindly.
1504
399388f4
GS
1505=item Illegal binary digit %s
1506
1507(F) You used a digit other than 0 and 1 in a binary number.
1508
1509=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1510
1511(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1512
399388f4
GS
1513=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
1514
1515(W) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
1516Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.
1517
1518=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306
LW
1519
1520(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1521of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1522
651978e7 1523=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
6ff81951 1524
252aa082
JH
1525(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f
1526in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
6ff81951
GS
1527before the illegal character.
1528
81e118e0
JH
1529=item Illegal number of bits in vec
1530
0a1cd687 1531(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
c5a0f51a 1532two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
81e118e0 1533
54310121
PP
1534=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1535
1536(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1537following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1538
9607fc9c
PP
1539=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1540
1541(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1542array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1543used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1544instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1545indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1546program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1547that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1548
a0d0e21e
LW
1549=item Insecure dependency in %s
1550
8b1a09fc 1551(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1552The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1553or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1554labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1555who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1556used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1557for more information.
1558
1559=item Insecure directory in %s
1560
1561(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1562script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1563See L<perlsec>.
1564
62f468fc 1565=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1566
1567(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1568setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1569C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1570potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1571known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1572
a7ae9550
GS
1573=item Integer overflow in %s number
1574
9e24b6e2
JH
1575(W) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified either
1576as a literal in your code or as a scalar is too big for your
1577architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number. On a
157832-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
1579representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
15800b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1581transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1582internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1583operations.
bbce6d69 1584
748a9306
LW
1585=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1586
1587(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1588of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1589whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
b687b08b 1590script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count
748a9306
LW
1591has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1592this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1593and execute the specified command.
1594
a0d0e21e
LW
1595=item internal disaster in regexp
1596
1597(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1598
4eb79ab5
GS
1599=item glob failed (%s)
1600
1601(W) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1602and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
1603pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
1604status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit resulted in a
1605coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is broken. If so,
1606you should change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh: If you
1607have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
1608C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all empty (except that
1609C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will think csh is missing.
1610In either case, after editing config.sh, run C<./Configure -S> and
1611rebuild Perl.
5cd24f17 1612
a0d0e21e
LW
1613=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1614
1615(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1616
1617=item invalid [] range in regexp
1618
1619(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
93733859
JH
1620greater than the maximum character, or the range didn't start/end with
1621a literal character. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 1622
c635e13b
PP
1623=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1624
878e08df 1625(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1626See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1627
96e4d5b1
PP
1628=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1629
8903cb82 1630(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1631(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1632ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1633
1634=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1635
8903cb82 1636(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1637(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1638ignored.
96e4d5b1 1639
a0d0e21e
LW
1640=item ioctl is not implemented
1641
1642(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1643strange for a machine that supports C.
1644
1645=item junk on end of regexp
1646
1647(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1648
1649=item Label not found for "last %s"
1650
1651(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1652loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1653See L<perlfunc/last>.
1654
1655=item Label not found for "next %s"
1656
1657(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1658that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1659L<perlfunc/last>.
1660
1661=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1662
1663(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1664that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1665L<perlfunc/last>.
1666
85ab1d1d 1667=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1668
85ab1d1d 1669(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1670effective uids or gids failed.
1671
a0d0e21e
LW
1672=item listen() on closed fd
1673
1674(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1675the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1676
a0d0e21e
LW
1677=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1678
1679(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1680doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1681
1682=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1683
1684(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1685by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1686ended earlier on the current line.
1687
1688=item Misplaced _ in number
1689
1690(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1691
1692=item Missing $ on loop variable
1693
8b1a09fc
PP
1694(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1695mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1696one line to the next.
1697
423cee85
JH
1698=item Missing %sbrace%s on \C{}
1699
1700(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\C{charname}> within
1701double-quotish context.
1702
a0d0e21e
LW
1703=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1704
1705(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1706"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1707
06eaf0bc
GS
1708=item Missing command in piped open
1709
1710(W) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or C<open(FH, "command |")>
1711construction, but the command was missing or blank.
1712
748a9306
LW
1713=item Missing operator before %s?
1714
1715(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1716found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1717
d98d5fff 1718=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1719
d98d5fff
GS
1720(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
1721closing ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place
1722you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1723
a0d0e21e
LW
1724=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1725
1726(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1727constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1728catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1729
1730 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1731 mod(2);
1732
1733Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1734
4fe4fdb3 1735=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1736
1737(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1738subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1739backwards.
1740
4fe4fdb3 1741=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1742
19a09eb8 1743(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
a0d0e21e
LW
1744be created for some peculiar reason.
1745
1746=item Module name must be constant
1747
1748(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1749
1750=item msg%s not implemented
1751
1752(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1753
1754=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1755
8b1a09fc
PP
1756(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1757like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1758
1759=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1760
68dc0745
PP
1761(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1762If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
1763it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<use vars> pragma is
1764provided for just this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1765
1766=item Negative length
1767
1768(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1769that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1770
1771=item nested *?+ in regexp
1772
5f05dabc 1773(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1774things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1775
5f05dabc 1776Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1777to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1778
1779=item No #! line
1780
1781(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1782even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1783
1784=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1785
1786(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1787script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1788another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1789See L<perlsec>.
1790
1791=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1792
1793(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1794
1795=item No comma allowed after %s
1796
1797(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1798allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1799Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1800
0a753a76
PP
1801One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1802constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1803importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1804does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1805explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1806L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1807would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1808remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1809constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1810list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1811this error was triggered?
1812
748a9306
LW
1813=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1814
1815(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1816and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1817want to pipe the output from this command.
1818
a0d0e21e
LW
1819=item No DB::DB routine defined
1820
1821(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1822but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1823didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1824statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1825automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1826right.
1827
1828=item No dbm on this machine
1829
1830(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1831supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1832
1833=item No DBsub routine
1834
1835(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1836but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1837didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1838ordinary subroutine call.
1839
8b1a09fc 1840=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1841
1842(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1843and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1844the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1845
8b1a09fc 1846=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1847
1848(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1849and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1850from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1851
8b1a09fc 1852=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1853
1854(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1855and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1856where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1857
8b1a09fc 1858=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1859
1860(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1861and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1862name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1863
a0d0e21e
LW
1864=item No Perl script found in input
1865
1866(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1867with #! and containing the word "perl".
1868
1869=item No setregid available
1870
1871(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1872your system.
1873
1874=item No setreuid available
1875
1876(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1877your system.
1878
1879=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1880
1881(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1882intervening space.
1883
57079c46
GA
1884=item No such array field
1885
1886(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
1887not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
1888array indices for that to work.
1889
f1192cee
GA
1890=item No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
1891
1892(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
1893does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
1894the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
1895is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
1896
748a9306
LW
1897=item No such pipe open
1898
1899(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1900close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1901an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1902
a0d0e21e
LW
1903=item No such signal: SIG%s
1904
1905(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1906Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1907
bd3fa61c
CB
1908=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
1909
db7c17d7 1910(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
f675dbe5
CB
1911timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
1912to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
1913to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
1914get local time.
1915
a0d0e21e
LW
1916=item Not a CODE reference
1917
1918(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1919subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1920use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1921See also L<perlref>.
1922
1923=item Not a format reference
1924
1925(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1926format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1927
1928=item Not a GLOB reference
1929
55497cff 1930(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1931a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1932something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1933what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1934
1935=item Not a HASH reference
1936
1937(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1938found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1939function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1940
1941=item Not a perl script
1942
1943(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1944even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1945mention perl.
1946
1947=item Not a SCALAR reference
1948
1949(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1950found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1951function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1952
1953=item Not a subroutine reference
1954
1955(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1956subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1957use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1958See also L<perlref>.
1959
e7ea3e70 1960=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
1961
1962(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1963doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1964
1965=item Not an ARRAY reference
1966
1967(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
1968found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1969function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1970
1971=item Not enough arguments for %s
1972
1973(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
1974
1975=item Not enough format arguments
1976
1977(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
1978See L<perlform>.
1979
1980=item Null filename used
1981
5f05dabc 1982(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
1983that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
1984
55497cff
PP
1985=item Null picture in formline
1986
1987(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
1988specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
1989supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
1990
a0d0e21e
LW
1991=item NULL OP IN RUN
1992
1993(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
1994
1995=item Null realloc
1996
1997(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
1998
1999=item NULL regexp argument
2000
5f05dabc 2001(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2002
2003=item NULL regexp parameter
2004
2005(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2006
fc36a67e
PP
2007=item Number too long
2008
2009(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
2010about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
2011Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
2012try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
2013
252aa082
JH
2014=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2015
9e24b6e2
JH
2016(W) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295)
2017and therefore non-portable between systems. See L<perlport> for more
2018on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2019
2020See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2021
1930e939 2022=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2023
1930e939
TP
2024(S) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
2025is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2026
bbce6d69
PP
2027=item Offset outside string
2028
2029(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
2030pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
2031The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
2032will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
2033
a0d0e21e
LW
2034=item oops: oopsAV
2035
2036(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2037
2038=item oops: oopsHV
2039
2040(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2041
56f7f34b 2042=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2043
e7ea3e70
IZ
2044(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
2045no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
2046terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
2047operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
2048true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2049
748a9306
LW
2050=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2051
2052(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
2053expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
2054to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
2055For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
2056if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
2057
a0d0e21e
LW
2058=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2059
2060(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
2061but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
2062
1b979e0a 2063=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2064
55497cff 2065(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 2066remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2067
2068The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2069depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
2070However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
2071an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
2072error is trappable I<once>.
2073
1b979e0a 2074=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
2075
2076(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2077remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
2078the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
2079a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
2080
1b979e0a
IZ
2081=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2082
2083(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
2084is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
2085instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
2086
a0d0e21e
LW
2087=item page overflow
2088
2089(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
2090See L<perlform>.
2091
2092=item panic: ck_grep
2093
2094(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2095
2096=item panic: ck_split
2097
2098(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2099
2100=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2101
2102(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
2103are in the savestack.
2104
810b8aa5
GS
2105=item panic: del_backref
2106
2107(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2108reference.
2109
a0d0e21e
LW
2110=item panic: die %s
2111
2112(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2113it wasn't an eval context.
2114
2115=item panic: do_match
2116
2117(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2118
2119=item panic: do_split
2120
2121(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2122
2123=item panic: do_subst
2124
2125(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2126
2127=item panic: do_trans
2128
2129(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2130
c635e13b
PP
2131=item panic: frexp
2132
2133(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2134
a0d0e21e
LW
2135=item panic: goto
2136
2137(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2138and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2139
2140=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2141
2142(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2143
2144=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2145
2146(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2147
e446cec8
IZ
2148=item panic: kid popen errno read
2149
2150(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2151
a0d0e21e
LW
2152=item panic: last
2153
2154(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2155it wasn't a block context.
2156
2157=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2158
5f05dabc 2159(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2160
2161=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2162
2163(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2164invalid enum on the top of it.
2165
2166=item panic: malloc
2167
2168(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2169
810b8aa5
GS
2170=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2171
2172(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2173references to an object.
2174
a0d0e21e
LW
2175=item panic: mapstart
2176
2177(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2178
2179=item panic: null array
2180
2181(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2182
2183=item panic: pad_alloc
2184
2185(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2186and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2187
2188=item panic: pad_free curpad
2189
2190(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2191and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2192
2193=item panic: pad_free po
2194
2195(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2196
2197=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2198
2199(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2200and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2201
2202=item panic: pad_sv po
2203
2204(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2205
2206=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2207
2208(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2209and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2210
2211=item panic: pad_swipe po
2212
2213(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2214
2215=item panic: pp_iter
2216
2217(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2218
2219=item panic: realloc
2220
2221(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2222
2223=item panic: restartop
2224
2225(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2226didn't supply the destination.
2227
2228=item panic: return
2229
2230(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2231then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2232
2233=item panic: scan_num
2234
2235(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2236
2237=item panic: sv_insert
2238
2239(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2240was string.
2241
2242=item panic: top_env
2243
6224f72b 2244(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2245
2246=item panic: yylex
2247
2248(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2249
7b8d334a 2250=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
2251
2252(W) You said something like
2253
2254 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2255
2256when you meant
2257
2258 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2259
2260Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
2261
2262=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2263
2264(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2265than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2266anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2267
2268=item Permission denied
2269
2270(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2271
bd3fa61c 2272=item pid %x not a child
748a9306
LW
2273
2274(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
2275isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2276perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2277
a0d0e21e
LW
2278=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2279
2280(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
2281the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2282
bbce6d69
PP
2283=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2284
774d564b
PP
2285(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
2286strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2287as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2288parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2289
774d564b
PP
2290You probably wrote something like this:
2291
54310121 2292 @list = qw(
774d564b 2293 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2294 b # another comment
774d564b 2295 );
bbce6d69
PP
2296
2297when you should have written this:
2298
774d564b 2299 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2300 a
2301 b
774d564b
PP
2302 );
2303
2304If you really want comments, build your list the
2305old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2306
2307 @list = (
2308 'a', # a comment
2309 'b', # another comment
2310 );
bbce6d69
PP
2311
2312=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2313
774d564b 2314(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2315aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2316delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2317used.)
bbce6d69 2318
54310121 2319You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2320
774d564b
PP
2321 qw! a, b, c !;
2322
2323which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2324commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2325
774d564b 2326 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2327
a0d0e21e
LW
2328=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2329
2330(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2331Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2332end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2333Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2334
2335=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2336
2337(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2338
a0d0e21e
LW
2339 open FOO || die;
2340
2341is now misinterpreted as
2342
2343 open(FOO || die);
2344
68dc0745
PP
2345because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2346and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2347put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2348instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
2349
2350=item print on closed filehandle %s
2351
2352(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2353Check your logic flow.
2354
2355=item printf on closed filehandle %s
2356
2357(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2358Check your logic flow.
2359
2360=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2361
54310121 2362(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2363which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2364last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2365
2366 open FOO || die;
2367
3fe9a6f1 2368=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2369
3fe9a6f1
PP
2370(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2371or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2372
89ea2908
GA
2373=item Range iterator outside integer range
2374
2375(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2376are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2377One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2378increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2379
af8c498a 2380=item Read on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2381
2382(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2383Check your logic flow.
2384
2385=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2386
54310121 2387(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2388
2389=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2390
2391(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2392desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2393which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2394
3e0ccd42 2395=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2396
2397(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2398an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2399
3e0ccd42
JP
2400=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2401
2402(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2403method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2404
1930e939
TP
2405=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2406
2407(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2408an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2409usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2410to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2411
2412 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2413 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2414 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2415 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2416
810b8aa5
GS
2417=item Reference is already weak
2418
2419(W) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
2420Doing so has no effect.
2421
a0d0e21e
LW
2422=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2423
2424(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2425reference count of other than 1.
2426
fb73857a
PP
2427=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2428
2429(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2430could match an empty string.
2431
a0d0e21e
LW
2432=item regexp memory corruption
2433
2434(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2435expression compiler gave it.
2436
2437=item regexp out of space
2438
2439(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2440
a0d0e21e
LW
2441=item Reversed %s= operator
2442
2443(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2444comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2445
2446=item Runaway format
2447
2448(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2449produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2450199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2451themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2452shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2453
2454=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2455
a6006777 2456(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2457an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2458The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2459assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2460like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2461subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2462
748a9306 2463On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2464element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2465Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2466L<perlref>.
2467
a6006777
PP
2468=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2469
2470(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2471a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2472The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2473assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2474like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2475subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2476
2477On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2478element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2479Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2480L<perlref>.
2481
a0d0e21e
LW
2482=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2483
54310121
PP
2484(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2485or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2486
2487=item Search pattern not terminated
2488
2489(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2490construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2491Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2492
96e4d5b1 2493=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2494
96e4d5b1
PP
2495(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2496was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2497
2498=item select not implemented
2499
2500(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2501
2502=item sem%s not implemented
2503
2504(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2505
2506=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2507
2508(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2509that had previously been marked as free.
2510
2511=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2512
2513(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2514or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2515
2516=item Send on closed socket
2517
2518(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
2519Check your logic flow.
2520
1b1626e4 2521=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2522
1b1626e4
G
2523(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2524See L<perlre>.
2525
a0d0e21e
LW
2526=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2527
2528(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2529parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2530
2531=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2532
2533(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2534but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2535
2536=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2537
2538(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2539See L<perlre>.
2540
a5f75d66
AD
2541=item Server error
2542
9607fc9c
PP
2543Also known as "500 Server error".
2544
2545B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2546
2547You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2548CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2549tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2550from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2551server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2552for more information:
2553
be94a901
GS
2554 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2555 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2556 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2557 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2558 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2559
be94a901
GS
2560You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2561
a0d0e21e
LW
2562=item setegid() not implemented
2563
8b1a09fc 2564(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2565the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2566think so.
2567
2568=item seteuid() not implemented
2569
8b1a09fc 2570(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2571the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2572think so.
2573
2574=item setrgid() not implemented
2575
8b1a09fc 2576(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2577the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2578think so.
2579
2580=item setruid() not implemented
2581
1f8d2005 2582(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2583the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2584think so.
2585
2586=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2587
2588(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2589because the world might have written on it already.
2590
2591=item shm%s not implemented
2592
2593(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2594
2595=item shutdown() on closed fd
2596
2597(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2598
f86702cc 2599=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2600
2601(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2602put it into the wrong package?
2603
2604=item sort is now a reserved word
2605
2606(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2607But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2608
2609=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2610
2611(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2612it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2613See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2614
2615=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2616
2617(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2618or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2619
2cdd06f7
IZ
2620=item split /^/ better written as split /^/m
2621
2622(W) Implicit translation of /^/ to mean /^/m in split is deprecated.
2623
a0d0e21e
LW
2624=item Split loop
2625
2626(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2627more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2628See L<perlfunc/split>.
2629
8b1a09fc 2630=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2631
2632(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2633on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2634
2635=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2636
2637(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2638This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2639there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2640which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2641by itself.
2642
17feb5d5
DD
2643=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2644
2645(W) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it
2646makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.
2647Try putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example,
2648the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three
2649repetitions of "xyz" is C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
2650
e7ea3e70
IZ
2651=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2652
2653(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2654Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2655may break this.
2656
a0d0e21e
LW
2657=item Subroutine %s redefined
2658
2659(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2660
2661 {
4438c4b7 2662 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
2663 eval "sub name { ... }";
2664 }
2665
2666=item Substitution loop
2667
2668(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2669substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2670input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2671L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2672
2673=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2674
2675(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2676construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2677Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2678
2679=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2680
2681(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2682construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2683Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2684
2685=item substr outside of string
2686
3e3baf6d
TB
2687(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2688string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2689length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2690mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2691of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2692
f86702cc 2693=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2694
2695(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2696version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2697
85ab1d1d
JH
2698=item switching effective %s is not implemented
2699
2700(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the
2701real and effective uids or gids.
2702
a0d0e21e
LW
2703=item syntax error
2704
2705(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2706
2707 A keyword is misspelled.
2708 A semicolon is missing.
2709 A comma is missing.
2710 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2711 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2712 A closing quote is missing.
2713
2714Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2715error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2716The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2717it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2718before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2719Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2720the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2721C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2722if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2723
cb1a09d0
AD
2724=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2725
8b1a09fc 2726(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2727instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2728into Perl yourself.
2729
6087ac44 2730=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 2731
6087ac44
JH
2732(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
2733"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
2734machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
2735unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e
LW
2736
2737=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2738
2739(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2740Check your logic flow.
2741
fc36a67e
PP
2742=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2743
2744(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2745nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2746
8903cb82 2747=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2748
8903cb82
PP
2749(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2750never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2751
8b1a09fc 2752=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2753
2754(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2755open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2756
2757=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2758
8b1a09fc 2759(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2760a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2761
2762 $[ = 0;
2763 $[ = 1;
2764 ...
2765 local $[ = 0;
2766 local $[ = 1;
2767 ...
2768
2769This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2770out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2771
2772=item The %s function is unimplemented
2773
2774The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2775to the probings of Configure.
2776
f86702cc 2777=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2778
2779(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2780probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2781think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2782will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2783will deny it.
2784
2785=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2786
2787(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2788if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2789the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2790
f675dbe5
CB
2791=item This Perl can't reset CRTL eviron elements (%s)
2792
2793=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
2794
2795(W) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an element
2796of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't
2797built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll need to
2798rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see
2799L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the target of the change to
2800%ENV which produced the warning.
2801
a0d0e21e
LW
2802=item times not implemented
2803
2804(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2805you're not running on Unix.
2806
2807=item Too few args to syscall
2808
2809(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2810system call to call, silly dilly.
2811
9607fc9c
PP
2812=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2813
2814(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2815B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2816This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2817script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2818So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2819
9607fc9c
PP
2820If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2821mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2822by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2823first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2824
9607fc9c
PP
2825If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2826B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2827
8cc95fdb
PP
2828=item Too late for "-%s" option
2829
2830(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2831B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2832are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2833
cb1a09d0
AD
2834=item Too many ('s
2835
2836=item Too many )'s
2837
2838(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2839of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2840Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2841
a0d0e21e
LW
2842=item Too many args to syscall
2843
5f05dabc 2844(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2845
2846=item Too many arguments for %s
2847
2848(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2849
2850=item trailing \ in regexp
2851
2852(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2853it. See L<perlre>.
2854
2c268ad5 2855=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2856
2857(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
2858or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
2859C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2860
2c268ad5 2861=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2862
2863(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2864construct.
2865
2866=item truncate not implemented
2867
2868(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2869Configure knows about.
2870
2871=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2872
2873(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2874certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2875%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2876{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2877
2878=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2879
eec2d3df
GS
2880(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
2881literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2882
2883=item umask not implemented
2884
2885(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried
2886to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 2887
4633a7c4
LW
2888=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2889
2890(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2891
a0d0e21e
LW
2892=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2893
2894(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2895contexts were entered and left.
2896
2897=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2898
2899(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2900values were temporarily localized.
2901
2902=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2903
2904(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2905were entered and left.
2906
2907=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2908
2909(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2910scalars were allocated and freed.
2911
2912=item Undefined format "%s" called
2913
2914(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2915another package? See L<perlform>.
2916
2917=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2918
2919(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2920it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2921
2922=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2923
2924(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2925has since been undefined.
2926
2927=item Undefined subroutine called
2928
2929(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2930or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2931
2932=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2933
2934(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2935have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2936
4633a7c4
LW
2937=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2938
2939(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2940another package? See L<perlform>.
2941
20408e3c
GS
2942=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
2943
2944(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
2945This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
2946
a0d0e21e
LW
2947=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2948
2949(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2950representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2951
2952=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2953
5f05dabc 2954(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e 2955
6170680b
IZ
2956=item Unknown open() mode '%s'
2957
2958(F) The second argument of 3-arguments open is not one from the list
2959of C<L<lt>>, C<L<gt>>, C<E<gt>E<gt>>, C<+L<lt>>, C<+L<gt>>,
2960C<+E<gt>E<gt>>, C<-|>, C<|-> of possible open() modes.
2961
f675dbe5
CB
2962=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
2963
2964(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
2965iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
2966data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
2967subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
2968
a0d0e21e
LW
2969=item unmatched () in regexp
2970
2971(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
2972expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 2973the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2974
d98d5fff 2975=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 2976
d98d5fff
GS
2977(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
2978opening ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.
2979As a general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the
2980place you were last editing.
a0d0e21e
LW
2981
2982=item unmatched [] in regexp
2983
2984(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
2985include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
2986See L<perlre>.
2987
2988=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2989
54310121 2990(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
2991It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
2992an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
2993
54310121 2994=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 2995
54310121
PP
2996(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
2997in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
2998script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 2999
c9f97d15
IZ
3000=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
3001
3002(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
3003by Perl.
3004
a0d0e21e
LW
3005=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
3006
3007(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
3008Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
3009
90248788 3010=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
3011
3012(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
3013(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
3014supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
3015
3016=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
3017
3018(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
3019failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 3020because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3021
3022=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
3023
3024(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
3025
54310121
PP
3026=item Unsupported function fork
3027
3028(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
3029
3030Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
3031Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
3032the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
3033
a0d0e21e
LW
3034=item Unsupported function %s
3035
7b8d334a 3036(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
3037At least, Configure doesn't think so.
3038
3039=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
3040
3041(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
3042least that's what Configure thought.
3043
8b1a09fc 3044=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
3045
3046(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
3047a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
3048finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
3049the line, and you really meant a "less than".
3050
3051=item Use of $# is deprecated
3052
8b1a09fc 3053(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
3054Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
3055
3056=item Use of $* is deprecated
3057
4a6725af 3058(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
3059you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
3060use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
3061action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
3062
748a9306
LW
3063=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
3064
5f05dabc
PP
3065(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
3066only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 3067
8b1a09fc 3068=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
3069
3070(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 3071wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 3072
a0d0e21e
LW
3073=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
3074
3075(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
3076subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
3077a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
3078
dc848c6f
PP
3079=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
3080
5cd24f17
PP
3081(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
3082up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
3083be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 3084as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
3085
3086This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
3087only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
3088of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
3089interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
3090use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
3091
3092The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
3093non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
3094depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
3095C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
3096
fb73857a
PP
3097In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
3098should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 3099C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 3100
85b81015
LW
3101=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
3102
3103(D) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
3104may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
3105the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
3106different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
3107names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
3108e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
3109
dc848c6f
PP
3110=item Use of %s is deprecated
3111
3112(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
3113because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
3114bad side effects.
3115
a0d0e21e
LW
3116=item Use of uninitialized value
3117
3118(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
3119interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
5311ebfa 3120warning assign a defined value to your variables.
a0d0e21e 3121
8202fd39
G
3122=item Useless use of "re" pragma
3123
3124(W) You did C<use re;> without any arguments. That isn't very useful.
3125
a0d0e21e
LW
3126=item Useless use of %s in void context
3127
3128(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
3129with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
3130from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
3131this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
3132your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
3133if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
3134
3135 $one, $two = 1, 2;
3136
3137when you meant to say
3138
3139 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
3140
748a9306
LW
3141Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
3142reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
3143example, if you say
3144
3145 $array = (1,2);
3146
3147when you should have said
3148
3149 $array = [1,2];
3150
3151The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
3152while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
3153a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
3154throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
3155L<perlref> for more on this.
3156
55497cff
PP
3157=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
3158
3159(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
3160valid when C<untie> was called.
3161
68dc0745 3162=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 3163
68dc0745
PP
3164(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
3165or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
3166value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
3167probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
3168expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 3169
f675dbe5
CB
3170=item Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
3171
3172(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV
3173element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer
3174than 1024 characters. The return value has been truncated to 1024
3175characters.
3176
9607fc9c 3177=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
3178
3179(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
3180that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
3181something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
3182by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
3183on the front of your variable.
3184
44a8e56a
PP
3185=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
3186
3187(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
3188subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
3189(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
3190the outermost subroutine. For example:
3191
3192 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
3193
3194If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
3195indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
3196as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
3197referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
3198the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
3199*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
3200you want.
3201
3202In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
3203subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
3204support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
3205subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
3206
3207=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
3208
3209(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
3210variable defined in an outer subroutine.
3211
3212When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
3213the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
3214*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
3215call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
3216subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
3217other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
3218
3219Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
3220lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
3221will I<never> share the given variable.
3222
3223This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
3224anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
3225reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 3226they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
3227variables.
3228
f86702cc 3229=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
3230
3231(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3232of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3233Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3234
3e6e419a
JH
3235=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3236
3237(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3238
3239 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3240 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3241 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3242 LANG = (unset)
3243 are supported and installed on your system.
3244 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3245
3246Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3247settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
3248This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
3249administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
3250not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
3251is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
3252script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
3253will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
3254fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
3255
7e1af8bc 3256=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
3257
3258(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
3259you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
3260
f86702cc 3261=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 3262
8b1a09fc 3263(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 3264close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 3265
5f05dabc 3266=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
3267
3268(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
3269binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
3270unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
3271has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
3272
3273 rand + 5;
3274
3275you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
3276
3277 rand() + 5;
3278
3279but in actual fact, you got
3280
3281 rand(+5);
3282
5f05dabc 3283So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e 3284
af8c498a 3285=item Write on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3286
3287(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
3288Check your logic flow.
3289
3290=item X outside of string
3291
3292(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
3293the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3294
3295=item x outside of string
3296
3297(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
3298the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3299
3300=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
3301
3302(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3303
3304=item Xsub called in sort
3305
3306(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3307
3308=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
3309
3310(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
3311already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
3312Use a filename instead.
3313
3314=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
3315
5f05dabc 3316(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
3317sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
3318about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
3319the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
3320
3321=item You need to quote "%s"
3322
3323(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
3324already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
3325will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
3326probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
3327
3328=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
3329
3330(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
3331Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
3332See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
3333
3334=item \1 better written as $1
3335
3336(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 3337of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
3338substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
3339because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
3340if there are more than 9 backreferences.
3341
8b1a09fc 3342=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3343
3344(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3345found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 3346'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 3347
8b1a09fc 3348=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3349
3350(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3351thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
3352command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
3353from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
3354streams, such as
3355
3356 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
3357 while (<STDIN>) {
3358 print;
3359 print OUT;
3360 }
3361 close OUT;
3362
774d564b 3363=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 3364
774d564b
PP
3365(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
3366version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3367
3368=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3369
dc848c6f 3370(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
3371
3372 prefix1;prefix2
3373
3374or
3375
3376 prefix1 prefix2
3377
dc848c6f
PP
3378with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3379of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3380may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3381"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3382
3383=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3384
54310121 3385(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3386C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3387
3388=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3389
3390(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3391applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3392port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3393L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3394in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3395
a0d0e21e
LW
3396=back
3397