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Deprecate isFOO_utf8() macros
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a0ed51b3
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1/* utf8.c
2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
b94e2f88 4 * by Larry Wall and others
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5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
4ac71550
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12 * 'What a fix!' said Sam. 'That's the one place in all the lands we've ever
13 * heard of that we don't want to see any closer; and that's the one place
14 * we're trying to get to! And that's just where we can't get, nohow.'
15 *
cdad3b53 16 * [p.603 of _The Lord of the Rings_, IV/I: "The Taming of Sméagol"]
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17 *
18 * 'Well do I understand your speech,' he answered in the same language;
19 * 'yet few strangers do so. Why then do you not speak in the Common Tongue,
4ac71550 20 * as is the custom in the West, if you wish to be answered?'
cdad3b53 21 * --Gandalf, addressing Théoden's door wardens
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22 *
23 * [p.508 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
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24 *
25 * ...the travellers perceived that the floor was paved with stones of many
26 * hues; branching runes and strange devices intertwined beneath their feet.
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27 *
28 * [p.512 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
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29 */
30
31#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 32#define PERL_IN_UTF8_C
a0ed51b3 33#include "perl.h"
b992490d 34#include "invlist_inline.h"
a0ed51b3 35
806547a7 36static const char malformed_text[] = "Malformed UTF-8 character";
27da23d5 37static const char unees[] =
806547a7 38 "Malformed UTF-8 character (unexpected end of string)";
760c7c2f 39static const char cp_above_legal_max[] =
147e3846 40 "Use of code point 0x%" UVXf " is deprecated; the permissible max is 0x%" UVXf;
760c7c2f 41
114d9c4d 42#define MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP ((UV) (IV_MAX))
901b21bf 43
48ef279e 44/*
ccfc67b7 45=head1 Unicode Support
7fefc6c1 46These are various utility functions for manipulating UTF8-encoded
72d33970 47strings. For the uninitiated, this is a method of representing arbitrary
61296642 48Unicode characters as a variable number of bytes, in such a way that
56da48f7
DM
49characters in the ASCII range are unmodified, and a zero byte never appears
50within non-zero characters.
166f8a29 51
eaf7a4d2
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52=cut
53*/
54
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55void
56Perl__force_out_malformed_utf8_message(pTHX_
57 const U8 *const p, /* First byte in UTF-8 sequence */
58 const U8 * const e, /* Final byte in sequence (may include
59 multiple chars */
60 const U32 flags, /* Flags to pass to utf8n_to_uvchr(),
61 usually 0, or some DISALLOW flags */
62 const bool die_here) /* If TRUE, this function does not return */
63{
64 /* This core-only function is to be called when a malformed UTF-8 character
65 * is found, in order to output the detailed information about the
66 * malformation before dieing. The reason it exists is for the occasions
67 * when such a malformation is fatal, but warnings might be turned off, so
68 * that normally they would not be actually output. This ensures that they
69 * do get output. Because a sequence may be malformed in more than one
70 * way, multiple messages may be generated, so we can't make them fatal, as
71 * that would cause the first one to die.
72 *
73 * Instead we pretend -W was passed to perl, then die afterwards. The
74 * flexibility is here to return to the caller so they can finish up and
75 * die themselves */
76 U32 errors;
77
78 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__FORCE_OUT_MALFORMED_UTF8_MESSAGE;
79
80 ENTER;
81 SAVESPTR(PL_dowarn);
82 SAVESPTR(PL_curcop);
83
84 PL_dowarn = G_WARN_ALL_ON|G_WARN_ON;
85 if (PL_curcop) {
86 PL_curcop->cop_warnings = pWARN_ALL;
87 }
88
89 (void) utf8n_to_uvchr_error(p, e - p, NULL, flags & ~UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, &errors);
90
91 LEAVE;
92
93 if (! errors) {
94 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: _force_out_malformed_utf8_message should"
95 " be called only when there are errors found");
96 }
97
98 if (die_here) {
99 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-8 character (fatal)");
100 }
101}
102
eaf7a4d2 103/*
378516de 104=for apidoc uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags
eebe1485 105
a27992cc 106THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED CIRCUMSTANCES.
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107Instead, B<Almost all code should use L</uvchr_to_utf8> or
108L</uvchr_to_utf8_flags>>.
a27992cc 109
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110This function is like them, but the input is a strict Unicode
111(as opposed to native) code point. Only in very rare circumstances should code
112not be using the native code point.
949cf498 113
efa9cd84 114For details, see the description for L</uvchr_to_utf8_flags>.
949cf498 115
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116=cut
117*/
118
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119#define HANDLE_UNICODE_SURROGATE(uv, flags) \
120 STMT_START { \
121 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE) { \
122 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE), \
147e3846 123 "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04" UVXf, uv); \
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124 } \
125 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) { \
126 return NULL; \
127 } \
128 } STMT_END;
129
130#define HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags) \
131 STMT_START { \
132 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR) { \
133 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR), \
147e3846 134 "Unicode non-character U+%04" UVXf " is not " \
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135 "recommended for open interchange", uv); \
136 } \
137 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) { \
138 return NULL; \
139 } \
140 } STMT_END;
141
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142/* Use shorter names internally in this file */
143#define SHIFT UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT
144#undef MARK
145#define MARK UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK
146#define MASK UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK
147
dfe13c55 148U8 *
378516de 149Perl_uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)
a0ed51b3 150{
378516de 151 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UVOFFUNI_TO_UTF8_FLAGS;
7918f24d 152
2d1545e5 153 if (OFFUNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
4c8cd605 154 *d++ = LATIN1_TO_NATIVE(uv);
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155 return d;
156 }
facc1dc2 157
3ea68d71 158 if (uv <= MAX_UTF8_TWO_BYTE) {
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159 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv >> SHIFT) | UTF_START_MARK(2));
160 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv & MASK) | MARK);
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161 return d;
162 }
d9432125 163
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164 /* Not 2-byte; test for and handle 3-byte result. In the test immediately
165 * below, the 16 is for start bytes E0-EF (which are all the possible ones
166 * for 3 byte characters). The 2 is for 2 continuation bytes; these each
167 * contribute SHIFT bits. This yields 0x4000 on EBCDIC platforms, 0x1_0000
168 * on ASCII; so 3 bytes covers the range 0x400-0x3FFF on EBCDIC;
169 * 0x800-0xFFFF on ASCII */
170 if (uv < (16 * (1U << (2 * SHIFT)))) {
171 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv >> ((3 - 1) * SHIFT)) | UTF_START_MARK(3));
172 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(((uv >> ((2 - 1) * SHIFT)) & MASK) | MARK);
173 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv /* (1 - 1) */ & MASK) | MARK);
174
175#ifndef EBCDIC /* These problematic code points are 4 bytes on EBCDIC, so
176 aren't tested here */
177 /* The most likely code points in this range are below the surrogates.
178 * Do an extra test to quickly exclude those. */
179 if (UNLIKELY(uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST)) {
180 if (UNLIKELY( UNICODE_IS_32_CONTIGUOUS_NONCHARS(uv)
181 || UNICODE_IS_END_PLANE_NONCHAR_GIVEN_NOT_SUPER(uv)))
182 {
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183 HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags);
184 }
185 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv))) {
186 HANDLE_UNICODE_SURROGATE(uv, flags);
760c7c2f 187 }
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188 }
189#endif
190 return d;
191 }
192
193 /* Not 3-byte; that means the code point is at least 0x1_0000 on ASCII
194 * platforms, and 0x4000 on EBCDIC. There are problematic cases that can
195 * happen starting with 4-byte characters on ASCII platforms. We unify the
196 * code for these with EBCDIC, even though some of them require 5-bytes on
197 * those, because khw believes the code saving is worth the very slight
198 * performance hit on these high EBCDIC code points. */
199
200 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv))) {
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201 if ( UNLIKELY(uv > MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP)
202 && ckWARN_d(WARN_DEPRECATED))
203 {
204 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_DEPRECATED),
205 cp_above_legal_max, uv, MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP);
206 }
207 if ( (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SUPER)
208 || ( UNICODE_IS_ABOVE_31_BIT(uv)
209 && (flags & UNICODE_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT)))
210 {
211 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
212
213 /* Choose the more dire applicable warning */
214 (UNICODE_IS_ABOVE_31_BIT(uv))
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215 ? "Code point 0x%" UVXf " is not Unicode, and not portable"
216 : "Code point 0x%" UVXf " is not Unicode, may not be portable",
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217 uv);
218 }
219 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER
220 || ( UNICODE_IS_ABOVE_31_BIT(uv)
221 && (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT)))
222 {
223 return NULL;
224 }
225 }
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226 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_END_PLANE_NONCHAR_GIVEN_NOT_SUPER(uv))) {
227 HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags);
507b9800 228 }
d9432125 229
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230 /* Test for and handle 4-byte result. In the test immediately below, the
231 * 8 is for start bytes F0-F7 (which are all the possible ones for 4 byte
232 * characters). The 3 is for 3 continuation bytes; these each contribute
233 * SHIFT bits. This yields 0x4_0000 on EBCDIC platforms, 0x20_0000 on
234 * ASCII, so 4 bytes covers the range 0x4000-0x3_FFFF on EBCDIC;
235 * 0x1_0000-0x1F_FFFF on ASCII */
236 if (uv < (8 * (1U << (3 * SHIFT)))) {
237 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv >> ((4 - 1) * SHIFT)) | UTF_START_MARK(4));
238 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(((uv >> ((3 - 1) * SHIFT)) & MASK) | MARK);
239 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(((uv >> ((2 - 1) * SHIFT)) & MASK) | MARK);
240 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv /* (1 - 1) */ & MASK) | MARK);
241
242#ifdef EBCDIC /* These were handled on ASCII platforms in the code for 3-byte
243 characters. The end-plane non-characters for EBCDIC were
244 handled just above */
245 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_32_CONTIGUOUS_NONCHARS(uv))) {
246 HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags);
d528804a 247 }
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248 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv))) {
249 HANDLE_UNICODE_SURROGATE(uv, flags);
250 }
251#endif
252
253 return d;
254 }
255
256 /* Not 4-byte; that means the code point is at least 0x20_0000 on ASCII
257 * platforms, and 0x4000 on EBCDIC. At this point we switch to a loop
258 * format. The unrolled version above turns out to not save all that much
259 * time, and at these high code points (well above the legal Unicode range
260 * on ASCII platforms, and well above anything in common use in EBCDIC),
261 * khw believes that less code outweighs slight performance gains. */
262
d9432125 263 {
5aaebcb3 264 STRLEN len = OFFUNISKIP(uv);
1d72bdf6
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265 U8 *p = d+len-1;
266 while (p > d) {
4c8cd605 267 *p-- = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8((uv & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK) | UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK);
1d72bdf6
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268 uv >>= UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT;
269 }
4c8cd605 270 *p = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8((uv & UTF_START_MASK(len)) | UTF_START_MARK(len));
1d72bdf6
NIS
271 return d+len;
272 }
a0ed51b3 273}
a5bf80e0 274
646ca15d 275/*
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276=for apidoc uvchr_to_utf8
277
bcb1a2d4 278Adds the UTF-8 representation of the native code point C<uv> to the end
f2fc1b45 279of the string C<d>; C<d> should have at least C<UVCHR_SKIP(uv)+1> (up to
c749c9fd
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280C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1>) free bytes available. The return value is the pointer to
281the byte after the end of the new character. In other words,
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282
283 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);
284
285is the recommended wide native character-aware way of saying
286
287 *(d++) = uv;
288
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289This function accepts any UV as input, but very high code points (above
290C<IV_MAX> on the platform) will raise a deprecation warning. This is
291typically 0x7FFF_FFFF in a 32-bit word.
292
293It is possible to forbid or warn on non-Unicode code points, or those that may
294be problematic by using L</uvchr_to_utf8_flags>.
de69f3af 295
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296=cut
297*/
298
de69f3af
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299/* This is also a macro */
300PERL_CALLCONV U8* Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv);
301
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302U8 *
303Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv)
304{
de69f3af 305 return uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);
07693fe6
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306}
307
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308/*
309=for apidoc uvchr_to_utf8_flags
310
311Adds the UTF-8 representation of the native code point C<uv> to the end
f2fc1b45 312of the string C<d>; C<d> should have at least C<UVCHR_SKIP(uv)+1> (up to
c749c9fd
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313C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1>) free bytes available. The return value is the pointer to
314the byte after the end of the new character. In other words,
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315
316 d = uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);
317
318or, in most cases,
319
320 d = uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);
321
322This is the Unicode-aware way of saying
323
324 *(d++) = uv;
325
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326If C<flags> is 0, this function accepts any UV as input, but very high code
327points (above C<IV_MAX> for the platform) will raise a deprecation warning.
328This is typically 0x7FFF_FFFF in a 32-bit word.
329
330Specifying C<flags> can further restrict what is allowed and not warned on, as
331follows:
de69f3af 332
796b6530 333If C<uv> is a Unicode surrogate code point and C<UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE> is set,
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334the function will raise a warning, provided UTF8 warnings are enabled. If
335instead C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE> is set, the function will fail and return
336NULL. If both flags are set, the function will both warn and return NULL.
de69f3af 337
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338Similarly, the C<UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR> and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR> flags
339affect how the function handles a Unicode non-character.
93e6dbd6 340
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341And likewise, the C<UNICODE_WARN_SUPER> and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER> flags
342affect the handling of code points that are above the Unicode maximum of
3430x10FFFF. Languages other than Perl may not be able to accept files that
344contain these.
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345
346The flag C<UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE> selects all three of
347the above WARN flags; and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE> selects all
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348three DISALLOW flags. C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE> restricts the
349allowed inputs to the strict UTF-8 traditionally defined by Unicode.
350Similarly, C<UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE> and
351C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE> are shortcuts to select the
352above-Unicode and surrogate flags, but not the non-character ones, as
353defined in
354L<Unicode Corrigendum #9|http://www.unicode.org/versions/corrigendum9.html>.
355See L<perlunicode/Noncharacter code points>.
93e6dbd6 356
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357Code points above 0x7FFF_FFFF (2**31 - 1) were never specified in any standard,
358so using them is more problematic than other above-Unicode code points. Perl
359invented an extension to UTF-8 to represent the ones above 2**36-1, so it is
360likely that non-Perl languages will not be able to read files that contain
361these that written by the perl interpreter; nor would Perl understand files
362written by something that uses a different extension. For these reasons, there
363is a separate set of flags that can warn and/or disallow these extremely high
364code points, even if other above-Unicode ones are accepted. These are the
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365C<UNICODE_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT> and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> flags. These
366are entirely independent from the deprecation warning for code points above
367C<IV_MAX>. On 32-bit machines, it will eventually be forbidden to have any
368code point that needs more than 31 bits to represent. When that happens,
369effectively the C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> flag will always be set on
37032-bit machines. (Of course C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER> will treat all
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371above-Unicode code points, including these, as malformations; and
372C<UNICODE_WARN_SUPER> warns on these.)
373
374On EBCDIC platforms starting in Perl v5.24, the Perl extension for representing
375extremely high code points kicks in at 0x3FFF_FFFF (2**30 -1), which is lower
376than on ASCII. Prior to that, code points 2**31 and higher were simply
377unrepresentable, and a different, incompatible method was used to represent
378code points between 2**30 and 2**31 - 1. The flags C<UNICODE_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT>
379and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> have the same function as on ASCII
380platforms, warning and disallowing 2**31 and higher.
de69f3af 381
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382=cut
383*/
384
385/* This is also a macro */
386PERL_CALLCONV U8* Perl_uvchr_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags);
387
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388U8 *
389Perl_uvchr_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)
390{
de69f3af 391 return uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);
07693fe6
KW
392}
393
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394PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
395S_is_utf8_cp_above_31_bits(const U8 * const s, const U8 * const e)
396{
397 /* Returns TRUE if the first code point represented by the Perl-extended-
398 * UTF-8-encoded string starting at 's', and looking no further than 'e -
399 * 1' doesn't fit into 31 bytes. That is, that if it is >= 2**31.
400 *
401 * The function handles the case where the input bytes do not include all
402 * the ones necessary to represent a full character. That is, they may be
403 * the intial bytes of the representation of a code point, but possibly
404 * the final ones necessary for the complete representation may be beyond
405 * 'e - 1'.
406 *
407 * The function assumes that the sequence is well-formed UTF-8 as far as it
408 * goes, and is for a UTF-8 variant code point. If the sequence is
409 * incomplete, the function returns FALSE if there is any well-formed
410 * UTF-8 byte sequence that can complete it in such a way that a code point
411 * < 2**31 is produced; otherwise it returns TRUE.
412 *
413 * Getting this exactly right is slightly tricky, and has to be done in
414 * several places in this file, so is centralized here. It is based on the
415 * following table:
416 *
417 * U+7FFFFFFF (2 ** 31 - 1)
418 * ASCII: \xFD\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF
419 * IBM-1047: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42\x73\x73\x73\x73\x73\x73
420 * IBM-037: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42\x72\x72\x72\x72\x72\x72
421 * POSIX-BC: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42\x75\x75\x75\x75\x75\x75
422 * I8: \xFF\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA1\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF
423 * U+80000000 (2 ** 31):
424 * ASCII: \xFE\x82\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80
425 * [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] 10 11 12 13
426 * IBM-1047: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x43\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41
427 * IBM-037: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x43\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41
428 * POSIX-BC: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x43\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41
429 * I8: \xFF\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA2\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0
430 */
431
432#ifdef EBCDIC
433
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434 /* [0] is start byte [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] */
435 const U8 prefix[] = "\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42";
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436 const STRLEN prefix_len = sizeof(prefix) - 1;
437 const STRLEN len = e - s;
f880f78a 438 const STRLEN cmp_len = MIN(prefix_len, len - 1);
83dc0f42
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439
440#else
441
442 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(e);
443
444#endif
445
446 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CP_ABOVE_31_BITS;
447
448 assert(! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s));
449
450#ifndef EBCDIC
451
452 /* Technically, a start byte of FE can be for a code point that fits into
453 * 31 bytes, but not for well-formed UTF-8: doing that requires an overlong
454 * malformation. */
455 return (*s >= 0xFE);
456
457#else
458
459 /* On the EBCDIC code pages we handle, only 0xFE can mean a 32-bit or
460 * larger code point (0xFF is an invariant). For 0xFE, we need at least 2
461 * bytes, and maybe up through 8 bytes, to be sure if the value is above 31
462 * bits. */
463 if (*s != 0xFE || len == 1) {
464 return FALSE;
465 }
466
467 /* Note that in UTF-EBCDIC, the two lowest possible continuation bytes are
468 * \x41 and \x42. */
469 return cBOOL(memGT(s + 1, prefix, cmp_len));
470
471#endif
472
473}
474
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475PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
476S_does_utf8_overflow(const U8 * const s, const U8 * e)
477{
478 const U8 *x;
479 const U8 * y = (const U8 *) HIGHEST_REPRESENTABLE_UTF8;
480
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481#if ! defined(UV_IS_QUAD) && ! defined(EBCDIC)
482
483 const STRLEN len = e - s;
484
485#endif
486
12a4bed3
KW
487 /* Returns a boolean as to if this UTF-8 string would overflow a UV on this
488 * platform, that is if it represents a code point larger than the highest
489 * representable code point. (For ASCII platforms, we could use memcmp()
490 * because we don't have to convert each byte to I8, but it's very rare
491 * input indeed that would approach overflow, so the loop below will likely
492 * only get executed once.
493 *
494 * 'e' must not be beyond a full character. If it is less than a full
495 * character, the function returns FALSE if there is any input beyond 'e'
496 * that could result in a non-overflowing code point */
497
498 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DOES_UTF8_OVERFLOW;
b0b342d4
KW
499 assert(s <= e && s + UTF8SKIP(s) >= e);
500
501#if ! defined(UV_IS_QUAD) && ! defined(EBCDIC)
502
503 /* On 32 bit ASCII machines, many overlongs that start with FF don't
504 * overflow */
505
c551bb01 506 if (isFF_OVERLONG(s, len)) {
b0b342d4
KW
507 const U8 max_32_bit_overlong[] = "\xFF\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x84";
508 return memGE(s, max_32_bit_overlong,
c551bb01 509 MIN(len, sizeof(max_32_bit_overlong) - 1));
b0b342d4
KW
510 }
511
512#endif
12a4bed3
KW
513
514 for (x = s; x < e; x++, y++) {
515
516 /* If this byte is larger than the corresponding highest UTF-8 byte, it
517 * overflows */
518 if (UNLIKELY(NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*x) > *y)) {
519 return TRUE;
520 }
521
522 /* If not the same as this byte, it must be smaller, doesn't overflow */
523 if (LIKELY(NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*x) != *y)) {
524 return FALSE;
525 }
526 }
527
528 /* Got to the end and all bytes are the same. If the input is a whole
529 * character, it doesn't overflow. And if it is a partial character,
530 * there's not enough information to tell, so assume doesn't overflow */
531 return FALSE;
532}
533
534PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
535S_is_utf8_overlong_given_start_byte_ok(const U8 * const s, const STRLEN len)
536{
537 /* Overlongs can occur whenever the number of continuation bytes
538 * changes. That means whenever the number of leading 1 bits in a start
539 * byte increases from the next lower start byte. That happens for start
540 * bytes C0, E0, F0, F8, FC, FE, and FF. On modern perls, the following
541 * illegal start bytes have already been excluded, so don't need to be
542 * tested here;
543 * ASCII platforms: C0, C1
544 * EBCDIC platforms C0, C1, C2, C3, C4, E0
545 *
546 * At least a second byte is required to determine if other sequences will
547 * be an overlong. */
548
549 const U8 s0 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[0]);
550 const U8 s1 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[1]);
551
552 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_OVERLONG_GIVEN_START_BYTE_OK;
553 assert(len > 1 && UTF8_IS_START(*s));
554
555 /* Each platform has overlongs after the start bytes given above (expressed
556 * in I8 for EBCDIC). What constitutes an overlong varies by platform, but
557 * the logic is the same, except the E0 overlong has already been excluded
558 * on EBCDIC platforms. The values below were found by manually
559 * inspecting the UTF-8 patterns. See the tables in utf8.h and
560 * utfebcdic.h. */
561
562# ifdef EBCDIC
563# define F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xB0
564# define F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xA8
565# define FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xA4
566# define FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xA2
567# define FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX "\xfe\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41"
568 /* I8(0xfe) is FF */
569# else
570
571 if (s0 == 0xE0 && UNLIKELY(s1 < 0xA0)) {
572 return TRUE;
573 }
574
575# define F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x90
576# define F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x88
577# define FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x84
578# define FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x82
579# define FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX "\xff\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80"
580# endif
581
582
583 if ( (s0 == 0xF0 && UNLIKELY(s1 < F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG))
584 || (s0 == 0xF8 && UNLIKELY(s1 < F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG))
585 || (s0 == 0xFC && UNLIKELY(s1 < FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG))
586 || (s0 == 0xFE && UNLIKELY(s1 < FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG)))
587 {
588 return TRUE;
589 }
590
b0b342d4
KW
591 /* Check for the FF overlong */
592 return isFF_OVERLONG(s, len);
593}
594
595PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
596S_isFF_OVERLONG(const U8 * const s, const STRLEN len)
597{
598 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_ISFF_OVERLONG;
12a4bed3
KW
599
600 /* Check for the FF overlong. This happens only if all these bytes match;
601 * what comes after them doesn't matter. See tables in utf8.h,
b0b342d4 602 * utfebcdic.h. */
12a4bed3 603
b0b342d4
KW
604 return len >= sizeof(FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX) - 1
605 && UNLIKELY(memEQ(s, FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX,
606 sizeof(FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX) - 1));
12a4bed3
KW
607}
608
609#undef F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG
610#undef F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG
611#undef FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG
612#undef FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG
613#undef FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX
614
35f8c9bd 615STRLEN
edc2c47a 616Perl__is_utf8_char_helper(const U8 * const s, const U8 * e, const U32 flags)
35f8c9bd 617{
2b479609 618 STRLEN len;
12a4bed3 619 const U8 *x;
35f8c9bd 620
2b479609
KW
621 /* A helper function that should not be called directly.
622 *
623 * This function returns non-zero if the string beginning at 's' and
624 * looking no further than 'e - 1' is well-formed Perl-extended-UTF-8 for a
625 * code point; otherwise it returns 0. The examination stops after the
626 * first code point in 's' is validated, not looking at the rest of the
627 * input. If 'e' is such that there are not enough bytes to represent a
628 * complete code point, this function will return non-zero anyway, if the
629 * bytes it does have are well-formed UTF-8 as far as they go, and aren't
630 * excluded by 'flags'.
631 *
632 * A non-zero return gives the number of bytes required to represent the
633 * code point. Be aware that if the input is for a partial character, the
634 * return will be larger than 'e - s'.
635 *
636 * This function assumes that the code point represented is UTF-8 variant.
637 * The caller should have excluded this possibility before calling this
638 * function.
639 *
640 * 'flags' can be 0, or any combination of the UTF8_DISALLOW_foo flags
641 * accepted by L</utf8n_to_uvchr>. If non-zero, this function will return
642 * 0 if the code point represented is well-formed Perl-extended-UTF-8, but
643 * disallowed by the flags. If the input is only for a partial character,
644 * the function will return non-zero if there is any sequence of
645 * well-formed UTF-8 that, when appended to the input sequence, could
646 * result in an allowed code point; otherwise it returns 0. Non characters
647 * cannot be determined based on partial character input. But many of the
648 * other excluded types can be determined with just the first one or two
649 * bytes.
650 *
651 */
652
653 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_CHAR_HELPER;
654
655 assert(0 == (flags & ~(UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE
656 |UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT)));
657 assert(! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s));
35f8c9bd 658
2b479609 659 /* A variant char must begin with a start byte */
35f8c9bd
KW
660 if (UNLIKELY(! UTF8_IS_START(*s))) {
661 return 0;
662 }
663
edc2c47a
KW
664 /* Examine a maximum of a single whole code point */
665 if (e - s > UTF8SKIP(s)) {
666 e = s + UTF8SKIP(s);
667 }
668
2b479609
KW
669 len = e - s;
670
671 if (flags && isUTF8_POSSIBLY_PROBLEMATIC(*s)) {
672 const U8 s0 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[0]);
35f8c9bd 673
2b479609
KW
674 /* The code below is derived from this table. Keep in mind that legal
675 * continuation bytes range between \x80..\xBF for UTF-8, and
676 * \xA0..\xBF for I8. Anything above those aren't continuation bytes.
677 * Hence, we don't have to test the upper edge because if any of those
678 * are encountered, the sequence is malformed, and will fail elsewhere
679 * in this function.
680 * UTF-8 UTF-EBCDIC I8
681 * U+D800: \xED\xA0\x80 \xF1\xB6\xA0\xA0 First surrogate
682 * U+DFFF: \xED\xBF\xBF \xF1\xB7\xBF\xBF Final surrogate
683 * U+110000: \xF4\x90\x80\x80 \xF9\xA2\xA0\xA0\xA0 First above Unicode
684 *
685 */
686
687#ifdef EBCDIC /* On EBCDIC, these are actually I8 bytes */
688# define FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER 0xFA
19794540 689# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xF9 && (s1) >= 0xA2)
2b479609 690
19794540
KW
691# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xF1 \
692 /* B6 and B7 */ \
693 && ((s1) & 0xFE ) == 0xB6)
2b479609
KW
694#else
695# define FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER 0xF5
19794540
KW
696# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xF4 && (s1) >= 0x90)
697# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xED && (s1) >= 0xA0)
2b479609
KW
698#endif
699
700 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER)
ddb65933
KW
701 && UNLIKELY(s0 >= FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER))
702 {
2b479609
KW
703 return 0; /* Above Unicode */
704 }
705
706 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT)
707 && UNLIKELY(is_utf8_cp_above_31_bits(s, e)))
708 {
709 return 0; /* Above 31 bits */
710 }
711
712 if (len > 1) {
713 const U8 s1 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[1]);
714
715 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER)
19794540 716 && UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(s0, s1)))
2b479609
KW
717 {
718 return 0; /* Above Unicode */
719 }
720
721 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE)
19794540 722 && UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(s0, s1)))
2b479609
KW
723 {
724 return 0; /* Surrogate */
725 }
726
727 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR)
728 && UNLIKELY(UTF8_IS_NONCHAR(s, e)))
729 {
730 return 0; /* Noncharacter code point */
731 }
732 }
733 }
734
735 /* Make sure that all that follows are continuation bytes */
35f8c9bd
KW
736 for (x = s + 1; x < e; x++) {
737 if (UNLIKELY(! UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*x))) {
738 return 0;
739 }
740 }
741
af13dd8a 742 /* Here is syntactically valid. Next, make sure this isn't the start of an
12a4bed3
KW
743 * overlong. */
744 if (len > 1 && is_utf8_overlong_given_start_byte_ok(s, len)) {
745 return 0;
af13dd8a
KW
746 }
747
12a4bed3
KW
748 /* And finally, that the code point represented fits in a word on this
749 * platform */
750 if (does_utf8_overflow(s, e)) {
751 return 0;
35f8c9bd
KW
752 }
753
2b479609 754 return UTF8SKIP(s);
35f8c9bd
KW
755}
756
7cf8d05d
KW
757STATIC char *
758S__byte_dump_string(pTHX_ const U8 * s, const STRLEN len)
759{
760 /* Returns a mortalized C string that is a displayable copy of the 'len'
761 * bytes starting at 's', each in a \xXY format. */
762
763 const STRLEN output_len = 4 * len + 1; /* 4 bytes per each input, plus a
764 trailing NUL */
765 const U8 * const e = s + len;
766 char * output;
767 char * d;
768
769 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__BYTE_DUMP_STRING;
770
771 Newx(output, output_len, char);
772 SAVEFREEPV(output);
773
774 d = output;
775 for (; s < e; s++) {
776 const unsigned high_nibble = (*s & 0xF0) >> 4;
777 const unsigned low_nibble = (*s & 0x0F);
778
779 *d++ = '\\';
780 *d++ = 'x';
781
782 if (high_nibble < 10) {
783 *d++ = high_nibble + '0';
784 }
785 else {
786 *d++ = high_nibble - 10 + 'a';
787 }
788
789 if (low_nibble < 10) {
790 *d++ = low_nibble + '0';
791 }
792 else {
793 *d++ = low_nibble - 10 + 'a';
794 }
795 }
796
797 *d = '\0';
798 return output;
799}
800
806547a7 801PERL_STATIC_INLINE char *
7cf8d05d
KW
802S_unexpected_non_continuation_text(pTHX_ const U8 * const s,
803
804 /* How many bytes to print */
3cc6a05e 805 STRLEN print_len,
7cf8d05d
KW
806
807 /* Which one is the non-continuation */
808 const STRLEN non_cont_byte_pos,
809
810 /* How many bytes should there be? */
811 const STRLEN expect_len)
806547a7
KW
812{
813 /* Return the malformation warning text for an unexpected continuation
814 * byte. */
815
7cf8d05d 816 const char * const where = (non_cont_byte_pos == 1)
806547a7 817 ? "immediately"
7cf8d05d
KW
818 : Perl_form(aTHX_ "%d bytes",
819 (int) non_cont_byte_pos);
3cc6a05e 820 unsigned int i;
806547a7
KW
821
822 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UNEXPECTED_NON_CONTINUATION_TEXT;
823
7cf8d05d
KW
824 /* We don't need to pass this parameter, but since it has already been
825 * calculated, it's likely faster to pass it; verify under DEBUGGING */
826 assert(expect_len == UTF8SKIP(s));
827
3cc6a05e
KW
828 /* It is possible that utf8n_to_uvchr() was called incorrectly, with a
829 * length that is larger than is actually available in the buffer. If we
830 * print all the bytes based on that length, we will read past the buffer
831 * end. Often, the strings are NUL terminated, so to lower the chances of
832 * this happening, print the malformed bytes only up through any NUL. */
833 for (i = 1; i < print_len; i++) {
834 if (*(s + i) == '\0') {
835 print_len = i + 1; /* +1 gets the NUL printed */
836 break;
837 }
838 }
839
7cf8d05d
KW
840 return Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s: %s (unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x,"
841 " %s after start byte 0x%02x; need %d bytes, got %d)",
842 malformed_text,
843 _byte_dump_string(s, print_len),
844 *(s + non_cont_byte_pos),
845 where,
846 *s,
847 (int) expect_len,
848 (int) non_cont_byte_pos);
806547a7
KW
849}
850
35f8c9bd
KW
851/*
852
de69f3af 853=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvchr
378516de
KW
854
855THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED CIRCUMSTANCES.
de69f3af 856Most code should use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>() rather than call this directly.
67e989fb 857
9041c2e3 858Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.
de69f3af 859Returns the native code point value of the first character in the string C<s>,
746afd53
KW
860which is assumed to be in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) encoding, and no longer than
861C<curlen> bytes; C<*retlen> (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) will be set to
862the length, in bytes, of that character.
949cf498
KW
863
864The value of C<flags> determines the behavior when C<s> does not point to a
2b5e7bc2
KW
865well-formed UTF-8 character. If C<flags> is 0, encountering a malformation
866causes zero to be returned and C<*retlen> is set so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>)
867is the next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed
868character. Also, if UTF-8 warnings haven't been lexically disabled, a warning
869is raised. Some UTF-8 input sequences may contain multiple malformations.
870This function tries to find every possible one in each call, so multiple
871warnings can be raised for each sequence.
949cf498
KW
872
873Various ALLOW flags can be set in C<flags> to allow (and not warn on)
874individual types of malformations, such as the sequence being overlong (that
875is, when there is a shorter sequence that can express the same code point;
876overlong sequences are expressly forbidden in the UTF-8 standard due to
877potential security issues). Another malformation example is the first byte of
878a character not being a legal first byte. See F<utf8.h> for the list of such
94953955
KW
879flags. Even if allowed, this function generally returns the Unicode
880REPLACEMENT CHARACTER when it encounters a malformation. There are flags in
881F<utf8.h> to override this behavior for the overlong malformations, but don't
882do that except for very specialized purposes.
949cf498 883
796b6530 884The C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY> flag overrides the behavior when a non-allowed (by other
949cf498
KW
885flags) malformation is found. If this flag is set, the routine assumes that
886the caller will raise a warning, and this function will silently just set
d088425d
KW
887C<retlen> to C<-1> (cast to C<STRLEN>) and return zero.
888
75200dff 889Note that this API requires disambiguation between successful decoding a C<NUL>
796b6530 890character, and an error return (unless the C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY> flag is set), as
111fa700
KW
891in both cases, 0 is returned, and, depending on the malformation, C<retlen> may
892be set to 1. To disambiguate, upon a zero return, see if the first byte of
893C<s> is 0 as well. If so, the input was a C<NUL>; if not, the input had an
f9380377 894error. Or you can use C<L</utf8n_to_uvchr_error>>.
949cf498
KW
895
896Certain code points are considered problematic. These are Unicode surrogates,
746afd53 897Unicode non-characters, and code points above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF.
949cf498 898By default these are considered regular code points, but certain situations
ecc1615f
KW
899warrant special handling for them, which can be specified using the C<flags>
900parameter. If C<flags> contains C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE>, all
901three classes are treated as malformations and handled as such. The flags
902C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE>, C<UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR>, and
903C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER> (meaning above the legal Unicode maximum) can be set to
904disallow these categories individually. C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE>
905restricts the allowed inputs to the strict UTF-8 traditionally defined by
906Unicode. Use C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE> to use the strictness
907definition given by
908L<Unicode Corrigendum #9|http://www.unicode.org/versions/corrigendum9.html>.
909The difference between traditional strictness and C9 strictness is that the
910latter does not forbid non-character code points. (They are still discouraged,
911however.) For more discussion see L<perlunicode/Noncharacter code points>.
912
913The flags C<UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE>,
914C<UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE>, C<UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE>,
796b6530
KW
915C<UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR>, and C<UTF8_WARN_SUPER> will cause warning messages to be
916raised for their respective categories, but otherwise the code points are
917considered valid (not malformations). To get a category to both be treated as
918a malformation and raise a warning, specify both the WARN and DISALLOW flags.
949cf498 919(But note that warnings are not raised if lexically disabled nor if
796b6530 920C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY> is also specified.)
949cf498 921
760c7c2f
KW
922It is now deprecated to have very high code points (above C<IV_MAX> on the
923platforms) and this function will raise a deprecation warning for these (unless
d5944cab 924such warnings are turned off). This value is typically 0x7FFF_FFFF (2**31 -1)
760c7c2f 925in a 32-bit word.
ab8e6d41
KW
926
927Code points above 0x7FFF_FFFF (2**31 - 1) were never specified in any standard,
928so using them is more problematic than other above-Unicode code points. Perl
929invented an extension to UTF-8 to represent the ones above 2**36-1, so it is
930likely that non-Perl languages will not be able to read files that contain
aff2be59 931these; nor would Perl understand files
ab8e6d41
KW
932written by something that uses a different extension. For these reasons, there
933is a separate set of flags that can warn and/or disallow these extremely high
934code points, even if other above-Unicode ones are accepted. These are the
760c7c2f
KW
935C<UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT> and C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> flags. These
936are entirely independent from the deprecation warning for code points above
937C<IV_MAX>. On 32-bit machines, it will eventually be forbidden to have any
938code point that needs more than 31 bits to represent. When that happens,
939effectively the C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> flag will always be set on
94032-bit machines. (Of course C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER> will treat all
ab8e6d41
KW
941above-Unicode code points, including these, as malformations; and
942C<UTF8_WARN_SUPER> warns on these.)
943
944On EBCDIC platforms starting in Perl v5.24, the Perl extension for representing
945extremely high code points kicks in at 0x3FFF_FFFF (2**30 -1), which is lower
946than on ASCII. Prior to that, code points 2**31 and higher were simply
947unrepresentable, and a different, incompatible method was used to represent
948code points between 2**30 and 2**31 - 1. The flags C<UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT>
949and C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> have the same function as on ASCII
950platforms, warning and disallowing 2**31 and higher.
949cf498
KW
951
952All other code points corresponding to Unicode characters, including private
953use and those yet to be assigned, are never considered malformed and never
954warn.
67e989fb 955
37607a96 956=cut
f9380377
KW
957
958Also implemented as a macro in utf8.h
959*/
960
961UV
962Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s,
963 STRLEN curlen,
964 STRLEN *retlen,
965 const U32 flags)
966{
967 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVCHR;
968
969 return utf8n_to_uvchr_error(s, curlen, retlen, flags, NULL);
970}
971
972/*
973
974=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvchr_error
975
976THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED CIRCUMSTANCES.
977Most code should use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>() rather than call this directly.
978
979This function is for code that needs to know what the precise malformation(s)
980are when an error is found.
981
982It is like C<L</utf8n_to_uvchr>> but it takes an extra parameter placed after
983all the others, C<errors>. If this parameter is 0, this function behaves
984identically to C<L</utf8n_to_uvchr>>. Otherwise, C<errors> should be a pointer
985to a C<U32> variable, which this function sets to indicate any errors found.
986Upon return, if C<*errors> is 0, there were no errors found. Otherwise,
987C<*errors> is the bit-wise C<OR> of the bits described in the list below. Some
988of these bits will be set if a malformation is found, even if the input
7a65503b 989C<flags> parameter indicates that the given malformation is allowed; those
f9380377
KW
990exceptions are noted:
991
992=over 4
993
994=item C<UTF8_GOT_ABOVE_31_BIT>
995
996The code point represented by the input UTF-8 sequence occupies more than 31
997bits.
998This bit is set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
999C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> or the C<UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT> flags.
1000
1001=item C<UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION>
1002
1003The input sequence was malformed in that the first byte was a a UTF-8
1004continuation byte.
1005
1006=item C<UTF8_GOT_EMPTY>
1007
1008The input C<curlen> parameter was 0.
1009
1010=item C<UTF8_GOT_LONG>
1011
1012The input sequence was malformed in that there is some other sequence that
1013evaluates to the same code point, but that sequence is shorter than this one.
1014
1015=item C<UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR>
1016
1017The code point represented by the input UTF-8 sequence is for a Unicode
1018non-character code point.
1019This bit is set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
1020C<UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR> or the C<UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR> flags.
1021
1022=item C<UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION>
1023
1024The input sequence was malformed in that a non-continuation type byte was found
1025in a position where only a continuation type one should be.
1026
1027=item C<UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW>
1028
1029The input sequence was malformed in that it is for a code point that is not
1030representable in the number of bits available in a UV on the current platform.
1031
1032=item C<UTF8_GOT_SHORT>
1033
1034The input sequence was malformed in that C<curlen> is smaller than required for
1035a complete sequence. In other words, the input is for a partial character
1036sequence.
1037
1038=item C<UTF8_GOT_SUPER>
1039
1040The input sequence was malformed in that it is for a non-Unicode code point;
1041that is, one above the legal Unicode maximum.
1042This bit is set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
1043C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER> or the C<UTF8_WARN_SUPER> flags.
1044
1045=item C<UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE>
1046
1047The input sequence was malformed in that it is for a -Unicode UTF-16 surrogate
1048code point.
1049This bit is set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
1050C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE> or the C<UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE> flags.
1051
1052=back
1053
133551d8
KW
1054To do your own error handling, call this function with the C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY>
1055flag to suppress any warnings, and then examine the C<*errors> return.
1056
f9380377 1057=cut
37607a96 1058*/
67e989fb 1059
a0ed51b3 1060UV
f9380377
KW
1061Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr_error(pTHX_ const U8 *s,
1062 STRLEN curlen,
1063 STRLEN *retlen,
1064 const U32 flags,
1065 U32 * errors)
a0ed51b3 1066{
d4c19fe8 1067 const U8 * const s0 = s;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1068 U8 * send = NULL; /* (initialized to silence compilers' wrong
1069 warning) */
1070 U32 possible_problems = 0; /* A bit is set here for each potential problem
1071 found as we go along */
eb83ed87 1072 UV uv = *s;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1073 STRLEN expectlen = 0; /* How long should this sequence be?
1074 (initialized to silence compilers' wrong
1075 warning) */
e308b348 1076 STRLEN avail_len = 0; /* When input is too short, gives what that is */
f9380377
KW
1077 U32 discard_errors = 0; /* Used to save branches when 'errors' is NULL;
1078 this gets set and discarded */
a0dbb045 1079
2b5e7bc2
KW
1080 /* The below are used only if there is both an overlong malformation and a
1081 * too short one. Otherwise the first two are set to 's0' and 'send', and
1082 * the third not used at all */
1083 U8 * adjusted_s0 = (U8 *) s0;
5ec712b1
KW
1084 U8 * adjusted_send = NULL; /* (Initialized to silence compilers' wrong
1085 warning) */
2b5e7bc2 1086 UV uv_so_far = 0; /* (Initialized to silence compilers' wrong warning) */
7918f24d 1087
f9380377
KW
1088 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVCHR_ERROR;
1089
1090 if (errors) {
1091 *errors = 0;
1092 }
1093 else {
1094 errors = &discard_errors;
1095 }
a0dbb045 1096
eb83ed87
KW
1097 /* The order of malformation tests here is important. We should consume as
1098 * few bytes as possible in order to not skip any valid character. This is
1099 * required by the Unicode Standard (section 3.9 of Unicode 6.0); see also
1100 * http://unicode.org/reports/tr36 for more discussion as to why. For
1101 * example, once we've done a UTF8SKIP, we can tell the expected number of
1102 * bytes, and could fail right off the bat if the input parameters indicate
1103 * that there are too few available. But it could be that just that first
1104 * byte is garbled, and the intended character occupies fewer bytes. If we
1105 * blindly assumed that the first byte is correct, and skipped based on
1106 * that number, we could skip over a valid input character. So instead, we
1107 * always examine the sequence byte-by-byte.
1108 *
1109 * We also should not consume too few bytes, otherwise someone could inject
1110 * things. For example, an input could be deliberately designed to
1111 * overflow, and if this code bailed out immediately upon discovering that,
e2660c54 1112 * returning to the caller C<*retlen> pointing to the very next byte (one
eb83ed87
KW
1113 * which is actually part of of the overflowing sequence), that could look
1114 * legitimate to the caller, which could discard the initial partial
2b5e7bc2
KW
1115 * sequence and process the rest, inappropriately.
1116 *
1117 * Some possible input sequences are malformed in more than one way. This
1118 * function goes to lengths to try to find all of them. This is necessary
1119 * for correctness, as the inputs may allow one malformation but not
1120 * another, and if we abandon searching for others after finding the
1121 * allowed one, we could allow in something that shouldn't have been.
1122 */
eb83ed87 1123
b5b9af04 1124 if (UNLIKELY(curlen == 0)) {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1125 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_EMPTY;
1126 curlen = 0;
5a48568d 1127 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
2b5e7bc2 1128 goto ready_to_handle_errors;
0c443dc2
JH
1129 }
1130
eb83ed87
KW
1131 expectlen = UTF8SKIP(s);
1132
1133 /* A well-formed UTF-8 character, as the vast majority of calls to this
1134 * function will be for, has this expected length. For efficiency, set
1135 * things up here to return it. It will be overriden only in those rare
1136 * cases where a malformation is found */
1137 if (retlen) {
1138 *retlen = expectlen;
1139 }
1140
1141 /* An invariant is trivially well-formed */
1d72bdf6 1142 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
de69f3af 1143 return uv;
a0ed51b3 1144 }
67e989fb 1145
eb83ed87 1146 /* A continuation character can't start a valid sequence */
b5b9af04 1147 if (UNLIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(uv))) {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1148 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION;
1149 curlen = 1;
1150 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
1151 goto ready_to_handle_errors;
ba210ebe 1152 }
9041c2e3 1153
dcd27b3c 1154 /* Here is not a continuation byte, nor an invariant. The only thing left
ddb65933
KW
1155 * is a start byte (possibly for an overlong). (We can't use UTF8_IS_START
1156 * because it excludes start bytes like \xC0 that always lead to
1157 * overlongs.) */
dcd27b3c 1158
534752c1
KW
1159 /* Convert to I8 on EBCDIC (no-op on ASCII), then remove the leading bits
1160 * that indicate the number of bytes in the character's whole UTF-8
1161 * sequence, leaving just the bits that are part of the value. */
1162 uv = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(uv) & UTF_START_MASK(expectlen);
ba210ebe 1163
e308b348
KW
1164 /* Setup the loop end point, making sure to not look past the end of the
1165 * input string, and flag it as too short if the size isn't big enough. */
1166 send = (U8*) s0;
1167 if (UNLIKELY(curlen < expectlen)) {
1168 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SHORT;
1169 avail_len = curlen;
1170 send += curlen;
1171 }
1172 else {
1173 send += expectlen;
1174 }
1175 adjusted_send = send;
1176
eb83ed87 1177 /* Now, loop through the remaining bytes in the character's sequence,
e308b348 1178 * accumulating each into the working value as we go. */
eb83ed87 1179 for (s = s0 + 1; s < send; s++) {
b5b9af04 1180 if (LIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))) {
8850bf83 1181 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
2b5e7bc2
KW
1182 continue;
1183 }
1184
1185 /* Here, found a non-continuation before processing all expected bytes.
1186 * This byte indicates the beginning of a new character, so quit, even
1187 * if allowing this malformation. */
2b5e7bc2 1188 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION;
e308b348 1189 break;
eb83ed87
KW
1190 } /* End of loop through the character's bytes */
1191
1192 /* Save how many bytes were actually in the character */
1193 curlen = s - s0;
1194
e308b348
KW
1195 /* A convenience macro that matches either of the too-short conditions. */
1196# define UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT (UTF8_GOT_SHORT|UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION)
2f8f112e 1197
e308b348 1198 if (UNLIKELY(possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT)) {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1199 uv_so_far = uv;
1200 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
eb83ed87
KW
1201 }
1202
2b5e7bc2
KW
1203 /* Note that there are two types of too-short malformation. One is when
1204 * there is actual wrong data before the normal termination of the
1205 * sequence. The other is that the sequence wasn't complete before the end
1206 * of the data we are allowed to look at, based on the input 'curlen'.
1207 * This means that we were passed data for a partial character, but it is
1208 * valid as far as we saw. The other is definitely invalid. This
1209 * distinction could be important to a caller, so the two types are kept
1210 * separate. */
1211
1212 /* Check for overflow */
1213 if (UNLIKELY(does_utf8_overflow(s0, send))) {
1214 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW;
1215 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
eb83ed87 1216 }
eb83ed87 1217
2b5e7bc2
KW
1218 /* Check for overlong. If no problems so far, 'uv' is the correct code
1219 * point value. Simply see if it is expressible in fewer bytes. Otherwise
1220 * we must look at the UTF-8 byte sequence itself to see if it is for an
1221 * overlong */
1222 if ( ( LIKELY(! possible_problems)
1223 && UNLIKELY(expectlen > (STRLEN) OFFUNISKIP(uv)))
1224 || ( UNLIKELY( possible_problems)
1225 && ( UNLIKELY(! UTF8_IS_START(*s0))
1226 || ( curlen > 1
1227 && UNLIKELY(is_utf8_overlong_given_start_byte_ok(s0,
1228 send - s0))))))
2f8f112e 1229 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1230 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_LONG;
1231
2b5e7bc2
KW
1232 if (UNLIKELY(possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT)) {
1233 UV min_uv = uv_so_far;
1234 STRLEN i;
1235
1236 /* Here, the input is both overlong and is missing some trailing
1237 * bytes. There is no single code point it could be for, but there
1238 * may be enough information present to determine if what we have
1239 * so far is for an unallowed code point, such as for a surrogate.
1240 * The code below has the intelligence to determine this, but just
1241 * for non-overlong UTF-8 sequences. What we do here is calculate
1242 * the smallest code point the input could represent if there were
1243 * no too short malformation. Then we compute and save the UTF-8
1244 * for that, which is what the code below looks at instead of the
1245 * raw input. It turns out that the smallest such code point is
1246 * all we need. */
1247 for (i = curlen; i < expectlen; i++) {
1248 min_uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(min_uv,
1249 I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK));
1250 }
1251
1252 Newx(adjusted_s0, OFFUNISKIP(min_uv) + 1, U8);
1253 SAVEFREEPV((U8 *) adjusted_s0); /* Needed because we may not get
1254 to free it ourselves if
1255 warnings are made fatal */
1256 adjusted_send = uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(adjusted_s0, min_uv, 0);
1257 }
eb83ed87
KW
1258 }
1259
2b5e7bc2
KW
1260 /* Now check that the input isn't for a problematic code point not allowed
1261 * by the input parameters. */
1262 /* isn't problematic if < this */
1263 if ( ( ( LIKELY(! possible_problems) && uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST)
1264 || ( UNLIKELY(possible_problems)
d60baaa7
KW
1265
1266 /* if overflow, we know without looking further
1267 * precisely which of the problematic types it is,
1268 * and we deal with those in the overflow handling
1269 * code */
1270 && LIKELY(! (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW))
2b5e7bc2 1271 && isUTF8_POSSIBLY_PROBLEMATIC(*adjusted_s0)))
760c7c2f
KW
1272 && ((flags & ( UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR
1273 |UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE
1274 |UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER
1275 |UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT
1276 |UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR
1277 |UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE
1278 |UTF8_WARN_SUPER
1279 |UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT))
2b5e7bc2
KW
1280 /* In case of a malformation, 'uv' is not valid, and has
1281 * been changed to something in the Unicode range.
1282 * Currently we don't output a deprecation message if there
1283 * is already a malformation, so we don't have to special
1284 * case the test immediately below */
760c7c2f
KW
1285 || ( UNLIKELY(uv > MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP)
1286 && ckWARN_d(WARN_DEPRECATED))))
eb83ed87 1287 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1288 /* If there were no malformations, or the only malformation is an
1289 * overlong, 'uv' is valid */
1290 if (LIKELY(! (possible_problems & ~UTF8_GOT_LONG))) {
1291 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv))) {
1292 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
1293 }
1294 else if (UNLIKELY(uv > PERL_UNICODE_MAX)) {
1295 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1296 }
1297 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv))) {
1298 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
1299 }
1300 }
1301 else { /* Otherwise, need to look at the source UTF-8, possibly
1302 adjusted to be non-overlong */
1303
1304 if (UNLIKELY(NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*adjusted_s0)
1305 >= FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER))
ea5ced44 1306 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1307 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1308 }
1309 else if (curlen > 1) {
1310 if (UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(
1311 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*adjusted_s0),
1312 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*(adjusted_s0 + 1)))))
ea5ced44 1313 {
2b5e7bc2 1314 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
ea5ced44 1315 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1316 else if (UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(
1317 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*adjusted_s0),
1318 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*(adjusted_s0 + 1)))))
1319 {
1320 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
ea5ced44
KW
1321 }
1322 }
c0236afe 1323
2b5e7bc2
KW
1324 /* We need a complete well-formed UTF-8 character to discern
1325 * non-characters, so can't look for them here */
1326 }
1327 }
949cf498 1328
2b5e7bc2
KW
1329 ready_to_handle_errors:
1330
1331 /* At this point:
1332 * curlen contains the number of bytes in the sequence that
1333 * this call should advance the input by.
e308b348
KW
1334 * avail_len gives the available number of bytes passed in, but
1335 * only if this is less than the expected number of
1336 * bytes, based on the code point's start byte.
2b5e7bc2
KW
1337 * possible_problems' is 0 if there weren't any problems; otherwise a bit
1338 * is set in it for each potential problem found.
1339 * uv contains the code point the input sequence
1340 * represents; or if there is a problem that prevents
1341 * a well-defined value from being computed, it is
1342 * some subsitute value, typically the REPLACEMENT
1343 * CHARACTER.
1344 * s0 points to the first byte of the character
1345 * send points to just after where that (potentially
1346 * partial) character ends
1347 * adjusted_s0 normally is the same as s0, but in case of an
1348 * overlong for which the UTF-8 matters below, it is
1349 * the first byte of the shortest form representation
1350 * of the input.
1351 * adjusted_send normally is the same as 'send', but if adjusted_s0
1352 * is set to something other than s0, this points one
1353 * beyond its end
1354 */
eb83ed87 1355
2b5e7bc2
KW
1356 if (UNLIKELY(possible_problems)) {
1357 bool disallowed = FALSE;
1358 const U32 orig_problems = possible_problems;
1359
1360 while (possible_problems) { /* Handle each possible problem */
1361 UV pack_warn = 0;
1362 char * message = NULL;
1363
1364 /* Each 'if' clause handles one problem. They are ordered so that
1365 * the first ones' messages will be displayed before the later
1366 * ones; this is kinda in decreasing severity order */
1367 if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW) {
1368
1369 /* Overflow means also got a super and above 31 bits, but we
1370 * handle all three cases here */
1371 possible_problems
1372 &= ~(UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW|UTF8_GOT_SUPER|UTF8_GOT_ABOVE_31_BIT);
f9380377
KW
1373 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW;
1374
1375 /* But the API says we flag all errors found */
1376 if (flags & (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER)) {
1377 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1378 }
ddb65933
KW
1379 if (flags
1380 & (UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT|UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT))
1381 {
f9380377
KW
1382 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_ABOVE_31_BIT;
1383 }
2b5e7bc2 1384
d60baaa7
KW
1385 /* Disallow if any of the three categories say to */
1386 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_OVERFLOW)
1387 || (flags & ( UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER
1388 |UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT)))
1389 {
1390 disallowed = TRUE;
1391 }
1392
1393
1394 /* Likewise, warn if any say to, plus if deprecation warnings
1395 * are on, because this code point is above IV_MAX */
1396 if ( ckWARN_d(WARN_DEPRECATED)
1397 || ! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_OVERFLOW)
1398 || (flags & (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT)))
1399 {
2b5e7bc2 1400
ddb65933
KW
1401 /* The warnings code explicitly says it doesn't handle the
1402 * case of packWARN2 and two categories which have
1403 * parent-child relationship. Even if it works now to
1404 * raise the warning if either is enabled, it wouldn't
1405 * necessarily do so in the future. We output (only) the
1406 * most dire warning*/
1407 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1408 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8)) {
1409 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1410 }
1411 else if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
1412 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE);
1413 }
1414 if (pack_warn) {
1415 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s: %s (overflows)",
1416 malformed_text,
1417 _byte_dump_string(s0, send - s0));
1418 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1419 }
1420 }
1421 }
1422 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_EMPTY) {
1423 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_EMPTY;
f9380377 1424 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_EMPTY;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1425
1426 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY)) {
d1f8d421
KW
1427
1428 /* This so-called malformation is now treated as a bug in
1429 * the caller. If you have nothing to decode, skip calling
1430 * this function */
1431 assert(0);
1432
2b5e7bc2
KW
1433 disallowed = TRUE;
1434 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1435 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1436 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s (empty string)",
1437 malformed_text);
1438 }
1439 }
1440 }
1441 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION) {
1442 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION;
f9380377 1443 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1444
1445 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_CONTINUATION)) {
1446 disallowed = TRUE;
1447 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1448 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1449 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1450 "%s: %s (unexpected continuation byte 0x%02x,"
1451 " with no preceding start byte)",
1452 malformed_text,
1453 _byte_dump_string(s0, 1), *s0);
1454 }
1455 }
1456 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1457 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_SHORT) {
1458 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_SHORT;
f9380377 1459 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SHORT;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1460
1461 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_SHORT)) {
1462 disallowed = TRUE;
1463 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1464 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1465 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
9a6c9c81 1466 "%s: %s (too short; %d byte%s available, need %d)",
2b5e7bc2
KW
1467 malformed_text,
1468 _byte_dump_string(s0, send - s0),
e308b348
KW
1469 (int)avail_len,
1470 avail_len == 1 ? "" : "s",
2b5e7bc2
KW
1471 (int)expectlen);
1472 }
1473 }
ba210ebe 1474
2b5e7bc2 1475 }
e308b348
KW
1476 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION) {
1477 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION;
1478 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION;
1479
1480 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_NON_CONTINUATION)) {
1481 disallowed = TRUE;
1482 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1483 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1484 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s",
1485 unexpected_non_continuation_text(s0,
1486 send - s0,
1487 s - s0,
1488 (int) expectlen));
1489 }
1490 }
1491 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1492 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_LONG) {
1493 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_LONG;
f9380377 1494 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_LONG;
2b5e7bc2 1495
94953955
KW
1496 if (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_LONG) {
1497
1498 /* We don't allow the actual overlong value, unless the
1499 * special extra bit is also set */
1500 if (! (flags & ( UTF8_ALLOW_LONG_AND_ITS_VALUE
1501 & ~UTF8_ALLOW_LONG)))
1502 {
1503 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
1504 }
1505 }
1506 else {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1507 disallowed = TRUE;
1508
1509 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1510 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1511
1512 /* These error types cause 'uv' to be something that
1513 * isn't what was intended, so can't use it in the
1514 * message. The other error types either can't
1515 * generate an overlong, or else the 'uv' is valid */
1516 if (orig_problems &
1517 (UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT|UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW))
1518 {
1519 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1520 "%s: %s (any UTF-8 sequence that starts"
1521 " with \"%s\" is overlong which can and"
1522 " should be represented with a"
1523 " different, shorter sequence)",
1524 malformed_text,
1525 _byte_dump_string(s0, send - s0),
1526 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen));
1527 }
1528 else {
1529 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
1530 const U8 * const e = uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(tmpbuf,
1531 uv, 0);
1532 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1533 "%s: %s (overlong; instead use %s to represent"
147e3846 1534 " U+%0*" UVXf ")",
2b5e7bc2
KW
1535 malformed_text,
1536 _byte_dump_string(s0, send - s0),
1537 _byte_dump_string(tmpbuf, e - tmpbuf),
1538 ((uv < 256) ? 2 : 4), /* Field width of 2 for
1539 small code points */
1540 uv);
1541 }
1542 }
1543 }
1544 }
1545 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE) {
1546 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
1547
f9380377
KW
1548 if (flags & UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE) {
1549 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
1550
1551 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
1552 && ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE))
1553 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1554 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE);
1555
1556 /* These are the only errors that can occur with a
1557 * surrogate when the 'uv' isn't valid */
1558 if (orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT) {
1559 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1560 "UTF-16 surrogate (any UTF-8 sequence that"
1561 " starts with \"%s\" is for a surrogate)",
1562 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen));
1563 }
1564 else {
1565 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
147e3846 1566 "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04" UVXf, uv);
2b5e7bc2 1567 }
f9380377 1568 }
2b5e7bc2 1569 }
ba210ebe 1570
2b5e7bc2
KW
1571 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
1572 disallowed = TRUE;
f9380377 1573 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1574 }
1575 }
1576 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_SUPER) {
1577 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
949cf498 1578
f9380377
KW
1579 if (flags & UTF8_WARN_SUPER) {
1580 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1581
1582 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
1583 && ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE))
1584 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1585 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE);
1586
1587 if (orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT) {
1588 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1589 "Any UTF-8 sequence that starts with"
1590 " \"%s\" is for a non-Unicode code point,"
1591 " may not be portable",
1592 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen));
1593 }
1594 else {
1595 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
147e3846 1596 "Code point 0x%04" UVXf " is not"
2b5e7bc2
KW
1597 " Unicode, may not be portable",
1598 uv);
1599 }
f9380377 1600 }
2b5e7bc2 1601 }
ba210ebe 1602
2b5e7bc2
KW
1603 /* The maximum code point ever specified by a standard was
1604 * 2**31 - 1. Anything larger than that is a Perl extension
1605 * that very well may not be understood by other applications
1606 * (including earlier perl versions on EBCDIC platforms). We
1607 * test for these after the regular SUPER ones, and before
1608 * possibly bailing out, so that the slightly more dire warning
1609 * will override the regular one. */
1610 if ( (flags & (UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT
1611 |UTF8_WARN_SUPER
1612 |UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT))
1613 && ( ( UNLIKELY(orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT)
1614 && UNLIKELY(is_utf8_cp_above_31_bits(
1615 adjusted_s0,
1616 adjusted_send)))
1617 || ( LIKELY(! (orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT))
1618 && UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_ABOVE_31_BIT(uv)))))
1619 {
1620 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
1621 && (flags & (UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT|UTF8_WARN_SUPER))
1622 && ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8))
1623 {
1624 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1625
1626 if (orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT) {
1627 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1628 "Any UTF-8 sequence that starts with"
1629 " \"%s\" is for a non-Unicode code"
1630 " point, and is not portable",
1631 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen));
1632 }
1633 else {
1634 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
147e3846 1635 "Code point 0x%" UVXf " is not Unicode,"
2b5e7bc2
KW
1636 " and not portable",
1637 uv);
1638 }
1639 }
1640
ddb65933
KW
1641 if (flags & ( UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT
1642 |UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT))
1643 {
f9380377
KW
1644 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_ABOVE_31_BIT;
1645
1646 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT) {
1647 disallowed = TRUE;
1648 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1649 }
1650 }
eb83ed87 1651
2b5e7bc2 1652 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER) {
f9380377 1653 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1654 disallowed = TRUE;
1655 }
eb83ed87 1656
2b5e7bc2
KW
1657 /* The deprecated warning overrides any non-deprecated one. If
1658 * there are other problems, a deprecation message is not
1659 * really helpful, so don't bother to raise it in that case.
1660 * This also keeps the code from having to handle the case
1661 * where 'uv' is not valid. */
1662 if ( ! (orig_problems
1663 & (UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT|UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW))
1664 && UNLIKELY(uv > MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP)
1665 && ckWARN_d(WARN_DEPRECATED))
1666 {
1667 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ cp_above_legal_max,
1668 uv, MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP);
1669 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_DEPRECATED);
1670 }
1671 }
1672 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR) {
1673 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
ba210ebe 1674
f9380377
KW
1675 if (flags & UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR) {
1676 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
1677
1678 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
1679 && ckWARN_d(WARN_NONCHAR))
1680 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1681 /* The code above should have guaranteed that we don't
1682 * get here with errors other than overlong */
1683 assert (! (orig_problems
1684 & ~(UTF8_GOT_LONG|UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR)));
1685
1686 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR);
1687 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ "Unicode non-character"
147e3846 1688 " U+%04" UVXf " is not recommended"
2b5e7bc2 1689 " for open interchange", uv);
f9380377 1690 }
2b5e7bc2 1691 }
5b311467 1692
2b5e7bc2
KW
1693 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
1694 disallowed = TRUE;
f9380377 1695 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1696 }
1697 } /* End of looking through the possible flags */
1698
1699 /* Display the message (if any) for the problem being handled in
1700 * this iteration of the loop */
1701 if (message) {
1702 if (PL_op)
1703 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s in %s", message,
1704 OP_DESC(PL_op));
1705 else
1706 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s", message);
1707 }
ddb65933 1708 } /* End of 'while (possible_problems)' */
a0dbb045 1709
2b5e7bc2
KW
1710 /* Since there was a possible problem, the returned length may need to
1711 * be changed from the one stored at the beginning of this function.
1712 * Instead of trying to figure out if that's needed, just do it. */
1713 if (retlen) {
1714 *retlen = curlen;
1715 }
a0dbb045 1716
2b5e7bc2
KW
1717 if (disallowed) {
1718 if (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY && retlen) {
1719 *retlen = ((STRLEN) -1);
1720 }
1721 return 0;
1722 }
eb83ed87 1723 }
ba210ebe 1724
2b5e7bc2 1725 return UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
a0ed51b3
LW
1726}
1727
8e84507e 1728/*
ec5f19d0
KW
1729=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr_buf
1730
1731Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s> which
1732is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
524080c4 1733C<*retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
ec5f19d0 1734
524080c4
KW
1735If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
1736enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
796b6530 1737C<NULL>) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value, if well-defined
173db420 1738(or the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER if not), is silently returned, and
796b6530 1739C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't C<NULL>) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is
173db420 1740the next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
de69f3af 1741See L</utf8n_to_uvchr> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is
173db420 1742returned.
ec5f19d0 1743
760c7c2f
KW
1744Code points above the platform's C<IV_MAX> will raise a deprecation warning,
1745unless those are turned off.
1746
ec5f19d0 1747=cut
52be2536
KW
1748
1749Also implemented as a macro in utf8.h
1750
ec5f19d0
KW
1751*/
1752
1753
1754UV
1755Perl_utf8_to_uvchr_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
1756{
ec5f19d0
KW
1757 assert(s < send);
1758
1759 return utf8n_to_uvchr(s, send - s, retlen,
ddb65933 1760 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
ec5f19d0
KW
1761}
1762
52be2536
KW
1763/* This is marked as deprecated
1764 *
ec5f19d0
KW
1765=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni_buf
1766
de69f3af
KW
1767Only in very rare circumstances should code need to be dealing in Unicode
1768(as opposed to native) code points. In those few cases, use
1769C<L<NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8_to_uvchr_buf(...))|/utf8_to_uvchr_buf>> instead.
4f83cdcd
KW
1770
1771Returns the Unicode (not-native) code point of the first character in the
1772string C<s> which
ec5f19d0
KW
1773is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
1774C<retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
1775
524080c4
KW
1776If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
1777enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
1778NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
1779the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
1780is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
1781next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
de69f3af 1782See L</utf8n_to_uvchr> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
ec5f19d0 1783
760c7c2f
KW
1784Code points above the platform's C<IV_MAX> will raise a deprecation warning,
1785unless those are turned off.
1786
ec5f19d0
KW
1787=cut
1788*/
1789
1790UV
1791Perl_utf8_to_uvuni_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
1792{
1793 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI_BUF;
1794
1795 assert(send > s);
1796
5962d97e
KW
1797 /* Call the low level routine, asking for checks */
1798 return NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, send, retlen));
ec5f19d0
KW
1799}
1800
b76347f2 1801/*
87cea99e 1802=for apidoc utf8_length
b76347f2
JH
1803
1804Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string C<s> in characters.
02eb7b47
JH
1805Stops at C<e> (inclusive). If C<e E<lt> s> or if the scan would end
1806up past C<e>, croaks.
b76347f2
JH
1807
1808=cut
1809*/
1810
1811STRLEN
35a4481c 1812Perl_utf8_length(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *e)
b76347f2
JH
1813{
1814 STRLEN len = 0;
1815
7918f24d
NC
1816 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_LENGTH;
1817
8850bf83
JH
1818 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g.
1819 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
1820 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
1821
a3b680e6
AL
1822 if (e < s)
1823 goto warn_and_return;
b76347f2 1824 while (s < e) {
4cbf4130 1825 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
8e91ec7f
AV
1826 len++;
1827 }
1828
1829 if (e != s) {
1830 len--;
1831 warn_and_return:
9b387841
NC
1832 if (PL_op)
1833 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1834 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1835 else
61a12c31 1836 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
b76347f2
JH
1837 }
1838
1839 return len;
1840}
1841
b06226ff 1842/*
fed3ba5d
NC
1843=for apidoc bytes_cmp_utf8
1844
a1433954 1845Compares the sequence of characters (stored as octets) in C<b>, C<blen> with the
72d33970
FC
1846sequence of characters (stored as UTF-8)
1847in C<u>, C<ulen>. Returns 0 if they are
fed3ba5d
NC
1848equal, -1 or -2 if the first string is less than the second string, +1 or +2
1849if the first string is greater than the second string.
1850
1851-1 or +1 is returned if the shorter string was identical to the start of the
72d33970
FC
1852longer string. -2 or +2 is returned if
1853there was a difference between characters
fed3ba5d
NC
1854within the strings.
1855
1856=cut
1857*/
1858
1859int
1860Perl_bytes_cmp_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *b, STRLEN blen, const U8 *u, STRLEN ulen)
1861{
1862 const U8 *const bend = b + blen;
1863 const U8 *const uend = u + ulen;
1864
1865 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_CMP_UTF8;
fed3ba5d
NC
1866
1867 while (b < bend && u < uend) {
1868 U8 c = *u++;
1869 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1870 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c)) {
1871 if (u < uend) {
1872 U8 c1 = *u++;
1873 if (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c1)) {
a62b247b 1874 c = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(c, c1);
fed3ba5d 1875 } else {
2b5e7bc2 1876 /* diag_listed_as: Malformed UTF-8 character%s */
fed3ba5d 1877 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
806547a7 1878 "%s %s%s",
7cf8d05d 1879 unexpected_non_continuation_text(u - 1, 2, 1, 2),
806547a7
KW
1880 PL_op ? " in " : "",
1881 PL_op ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : "");
fed3ba5d
NC
1882 return -2;
1883 }
1884 } else {
1885 if (PL_op)
1886 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1887 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1888 else
61a12c31 1889 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
fed3ba5d
NC
1890 return -2; /* Really want to return undef :-) */
1891 }
1892 } else {
1893 return -2;
1894 }
1895 }
1896 if (*b != c) {
1897 return *b < c ? -2 : +2;
1898 }
1899 ++b;
1900 }
1901
1902 if (b == bend && u == uend)
1903 return 0;
1904
1905 return b < bend ? +1 : -1;
1906}
1907
1908/*
87cea99e 1909=for apidoc utf8_to_bytes
6940069f 1910
2bbc8d55 1911Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954
KW
1912Unlike L</bytes_to_utf8>, this over-writes the original string, and
1913updates C<len> to contain the new length.
67e989fb 1914Returns zero on failure, setting C<len> to -1.
6940069f 1915
a1433954 1916If you need a copy of the string, see L</bytes_from_utf8>.
95be277c 1917
6940069f
GS
1918=cut
1919*/
1920
1921U8 *
37607a96 1922Perl_utf8_to_bytes(pTHX_ U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1923{
d4c19fe8
AL
1924 U8 * const save = s;
1925 U8 * const send = s + *len;
6940069f 1926 U8 *d;
246fae53 1927
7918f24d 1928 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_BYTES;
81611534 1929 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
7918f24d 1930
1e54db1a 1931 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before updating string */
d4c19fe8 1932 while (s < send) {
d59937ca
KW
1933 if (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s)) {
1934 if (! UTF8_IS_NEXT_CHAR_DOWNGRADEABLE(s, send)) {
1935 *len = ((STRLEN) -1);
1936 return 0;
1937 }
1938 s++;
dcad2880 1939 }
d59937ca 1940 s++;
246fae53 1941 }
dcad2880
JH
1942
1943 d = s = save;
6940069f 1944 while (s < send) {
80e0b38f
KW
1945 U8 c = *s++;
1946 if (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1947 /* Then it is two-byte encoded */
a62b247b 1948 c = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(c, *s);
80e0b38f
KW
1949 s++;
1950 }
1951 *d++ = c;
6940069f
GS
1952 }
1953 *d = '\0';
246fae53 1954 *len = d - save;
6940069f
GS
1955 return save;
1956}
1957
1958/*
87cea99e 1959=for apidoc bytes_from_utf8
f9a63242 1960
2bbc8d55 1961Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954 1962Unlike L</utf8_to_bytes> but like L</bytes_to_utf8>, returns a pointer to
ef9edfd0
JH
1963the newly-created string, and updates C<len> to contain the new
1964length. Returns the original string if no conversion occurs, C<len>
72d33970 1965is unchanged. Do nothing if C<is_utf8> points to 0. Sets C<is_utf8> to
2bbc8d55 19660 if C<s> is converted or consisted entirely of characters that are invariant
4a4088c4 1967in UTF-8 (i.e., US-ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines).
f9a63242 1968
37607a96
PK
1969=cut
1970*/
f9a63242
JH
1971
1972U8 *
e1ec3a88 1973Perl_bytes_from_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)
f9a63242 1974{
f9a63242 1975 U8 *d;
e1ec3a88
AL
1976 const U8 *start = s;
1977 const U8 *send;
f9a63242
JH
1978 I32 count = 0;
1979
7918f24d 1980 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_FROM_UTF8;
96a5add6 1981 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
f9a63242 1982 if (!*is_utf8)
73d840c0 1983 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242 1984
1e54db1a 1985 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before converting string */
f9a63242 1986 for (send = s + *len; s < send;) {
d59937ca
KW
1987 if (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s)) {
1988 if (! UTF8_IS_NEXT_CHAR_DOWNGRADEABLE(s, send)) {
73d840c0 1989 return (U8 *)start;
d59937ca
KW
1990 }
1991 count++;
1992 s++;
db42d148 1993 }
d59937ca 1994 s++;
f9a63242
JH
1995 }
1996
35da51f7 1997 *is_utf8 = FALSE;
f9a63242 1998
212542aa 1999 Newx(d, (*len) - count + 1, U8);
ef9edfd0 2000 s = start; start = d;
f9a63242
JH
2001 while (s < send) {
2002 U8 c = *s++;
1a91c45d 2003 if (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
c4d5f83a 2004 /* Then it is two-byte encoded */
a62b247b 2005 c = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(c, *s);
1a91c45d 2006 s++;
c4d5f83a
NIS
2007 }
2008 *d++ = c;
f9a63242
JH
2009 }
2010 *d = '\0';
2011 *len = d - start;
73d840c0 2012 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242
JH
2013}
2014
2015/*
87cea99e 2016=for apidoc bytes_to_utf8
6940069f 2017
ff97e5cf
KW
2018Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> bytes from the native encoding into
2019UTF-8.
6662521e 2020Returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and sets C<len> to
ff97e5cf 2021reflect the new length in bytes.
6940069f 2022
75200dff 2023A C<NUL> character will be written after the end of the string.
2bbc8d55
SP
2024
2025If you want to convert to UTF-8 from encodings other than
2026the native (Latin1 or EBCDIC),
a1433954 2027see L</sv_recode_to_utf8>().
c9ada85f 2028
497711e7 2029=cut
6940069f
GS
2030*/
2031
c682ebef
FC
2032/* This logic is duplicated in sv_catpvn_flags, so any bug fixes will
2033 likewise need duplication. */
2034
6940069f 2035U8*
35a4481c 2036Perl_bytes_to_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 2037{
35a4481c 2038 const U8 * const send = s + (*len);
6940069f
GS
2039 U8 *d;
2040 U8 *dst;
7918f24d
NC
2041
2042 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_TO_UTF8;
96a5add6 2043 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
6940069f 2044
212542aa 2045 Newx(d, (*len) * 2 + 1, U8);
6940069f
GS
2046 dst = d;
2047
2048 while (s < send) {
55d09dc8
KW
2049 append_utf8_from_native_byte(*s, &d);
2050 s++;
6940069f
GS
2051 }
2052 *d = '\0';
6662521e 2053 *len = d-dst;
6940069f
GS
2054 return dst;
2055}
2056
a0ed51b3 2057/*
dea0fc0b 2058 * Convert native (big-endian) or reversed (little-endian) UTF-16 to UTF-8.
a0ed51b3
LW
2059 *
2060 * Destination must be pre-extended to 3/2 source. Do not use in-place.
2061 * We optimize for native, for obvious reasons. */
2062
2063U8*
dea0fc0b 2064Perl_utf16_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3 2065{
dea0fc0b
JH
2066 U8* pend;
2067 U8* dstart = d;
2068
7918f24d
NC
2069 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8;
2070
dea0fc0b 2071 if (bytelen & 1)
147e3846 2072 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen %" UVuf, (UV)bytelen);
dea0fc0b
JH
2073
2074 pend = p + bytelen;
2075
a0ed51b3 2076 while (p < pend) {
dea0fc0b
JH
2077 UV uv = (p[0] << 8) + p[1]; /* UTF-16BE */
2078 p += 2;
2d1545e5 2079 if (OFFUNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
56d37426 2080 *d++ = LATIN1_TO_NATIVE((U8) uv);
a0ed51b3
LW
2081 continue;
2082 }
56d37426
KW
2083 if (uv <= MAX_UTF8_TWO_BYTE) {
2084 *d++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv));
2085 *d++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv));
a0ed51b3
LW
2086 continue;
2087 }
46956fad
KW
2088#define FIRST_HIGH_SURROGATE UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST
2089#define LAST_HIGH_SURROGATE 0xDBFF
2090#define FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE 0xDC00
2091#define LAST_LOW_SURROGATE UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST
e23c50db
KW
2092
2093 /* This assumes that most uses will be in the first Unicode plane, not
2094 * needing surrogates */
2095 if (UNLIKELY(uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST
2096 && uv <= UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST))
2097 {
2098 if (UNLIKELY(p >= pend) || UNLIKELY(uv > LAST_HIGH_SURROGATE)) {
2099 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
2100 }
2101 else {
01ea242b 2102 UV low = (p[0] << 8) + p[1];
e23c50db
KW
2103 if ( UNLIKELY(low < FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE)
2104 || UNLIKELY(low > LAST_LOW_SURROGATE))
2105 {
01ea242b 2106 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
e23c50db
KW
2107 }
2108 p += 2;
46956fad
KW
2109 uv = ((uv - FIRST_HIGH_SURROGATE) << 10)
2110 + (low - FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE) + 0x10000;
01ea242b 2111 }
a0ed51b3 2112 }
56d37426
KW
2113#ifdef EBCDIC
2114 d = uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);
2115#else
a0ed51b3 2116 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
2117 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
2118 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
2119 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
2120 continue;
2121 }
2122 else {
eb160463
GS
2123 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
2124 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
2125 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
2126 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
2127 continue;
2128 }
56d37426 2129#endif
a0ed51b3 2130 }
dea0fc0b 2131 *newlen = d - dstart;
a0ed51b3
LW
2132 return d;
2133}
2134
2135/* Note: this one is slightly destructive of the source. */
2136
2137U8*
dea0fc0b 2138Perl_utf16_to_utf8_reversed(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3
LW
2139{
2140 U8* s = (U8*)p;
d4c19fe8 2141 U8* const send = s + bytelen;
7918f24d
NC
2142
2143 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8_REVERSED;
2144
e0ea5e2d 2145 if (bytelen & 1)
147e3846 2146 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8_reversed: odd bytelen %" UVuf,
e0ea5e2d
NC
2147 (UV)bytelen);
2148
a0ed51b3 2149 while (s < send) {
d4c19fe8 2150 const U8 tmp = s[0];
a0ed51b3
LW
2151 s[0] = s[1];
2152 s[1] = tmp;
2153 s += 2;
2154 }
dea0fc0b 2155 return utf16_to_utf8(p, d, bytelen, newlen);
a0ed51b3
LW
2156}
2157
922e8cb4
KW
2158bool
2159Perl__is_uni_FOO(pTHX_ const U8 classnum, const UV c)
2160{
2161 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
2162 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
da8c1a98 2163 return _is_utf8_FOO_with_len(classnum, tmpbuf, tmpbuf + sizeof(tmpbuf));
922e8cb4
KW
2164}
2165
f9ae8fb6
JD
2166/* Internal function so we can deprecate the external one, and call
2167 this one from other deprecated functions in this file */
2168
f2645549
KW
2169bool
2170Perl__is_utf8_idstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
61b19385 2171{
f2645549 2172 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_IDSTART;
61b19385
KW
2173
2174 if (*p == '_')
2175 return TRUE;
f25ce844 2176 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idstart, "IdStart", NULL);
61b19385
KW
2177}
2178
5092f92a 2179bool
eba68aa0
KW
2180Perl__is_uni_perl_idcont(pTHX_ UV c)
2181{
2182 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
2183 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
da8c1a98 2184 return _is_utf8_perl_idcont_with_len(tmpbuf, tmpbuf + sizeof(tmpbuf));
eba68aa0
KW
2185}
2186
2187bool
f91dcd13
KW
2188Perl__is_uni_perl_idstart(pTHX_ UV c)
2189{
2190 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
2191 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
da8c1a98 2192 return _is_utf8_perl_idstart_with_len(tmpbuf, tmpbuf + sizeof(tmpbuf));
f91dcd13
KW
2193}
2194
3a4c58c9
KW
2195UV
2196Perl__to_upper_title_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const char S_or_s)
2197{
2198 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
4a4088c4 2199 * those, converting the result to UTF-8. The only difference between upper
3a4c58c9
KW
2200 * and title case in this range is that LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S is
2201 * either "SS" or "Ss". Which one to use is passed into the routine in
2202 * 'S_or_s' to avoid a test */
2203
2204 UV converted = toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD(c);
2205
2206 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UPPER_TITLE_LATIN1;
2207
2208 assert(S_or_s == 'S' || S_or_s == 's');
2209
6f2d5cbc 2210 if (UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) { /* No difference between the two for
f4cd282c 2211 characters in this range */
3a4c58c9
KW
2212 *p = (U8) converted;
2213 *lenp = 1;
2214 return converted;
2215 }
2216
2217 /* toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD gives the correct results except for three outliers,
2218 * which it maps to one of them, so as to only have to have one check for
2219 * it in the main case */
2220 if (UNLIKELY(converted == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS)) {
2221 switch (c) {
2222 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS:
2223 converted = LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS;
2224 break;
2225 case MICRO_SIGN:
2226 converted = GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_MU;
2227 break;
79e064b9
KW
2228#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION > 2 \
2229 || (UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 2 && UNICODE_DOT_VERSION >= 1 \
2230 && UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION >= 8)
3a4c58c9
KW
2231 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S:
2232 *(p)++ = 'S';
2233 *p = S_or_s;
2234 *lenp = 2;
2235 return 'S';
79e064b9 2236#endif
3a4c58c9
KW
2237 default:
2238 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: to_upper_title_latin1 did not expect '%c' to map to '%c'", c, LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS);
e5964223 2239 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
3a4c58c9
KW
2240 }
2241 }
2242
2243 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
2244 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
2245 *lenp = 2;
2246
2247 return converted;
2248}
2249
50bda2c3
KW
2250/* Call the function to convert a UTF-8 encoded character to the specified case.
2251 * Note that there may be more than one character in the result.
2252 * INP is a pointer to the first byte of the input character
2253 * OUTP will be set to the first byte of the string of changed characters. It
2254 * needs to have space for UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes
2255 * LENP will be set to the length in bytes of the string of changed characters
2256 *
2257 * The functions return the ordinal of the first character in the string of OUTP */
b9992569
KW
2258#define CALL_UPPER_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp) _to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_toupper, "ToUc", "")
2259#define CALL_TITLE_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp) _to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_totitle, "ToTc", "")
2260#define CALL_LOWER_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp) _to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_tolower, "ToLc", "")
50bda2c3 2261
b9992569
KW
2262/* This additionally has the input parameter 'specials', which if non-zero will
2263 * cause this to use the specials hash for folding (meaning get full case
50bda2c3 2264 * folding); otherwise, when zero, this implies a simple case fold */
b9992569 2265#define CALL_FOLD_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp, specials) _to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_tofold, "ToCf", (specials) ? "" : NULL)
c3fd2246 2266
84afefe6
JH
2267UV
2268Perl_to_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 2269{
a1433954
KW
2270 /* Convert the Unicode character whose ordinal is <c> to its uppercase
2271 * version and store that in UTF-8 in <p> and its length in bytes in <lenp>.
2272 * Note that the <p> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
c3fd2246
KW
2273 * the changed version may be longer than the original character.
2274 *
2275 * The ordinal of the first character of the changed version is returned
2276 * (but note, as explained above, that there may be more.) */
2277
7918f24d
NC
2278 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_UPPER;
2279
3a4c58c9
KW
2280 if (c < 256) {
2281 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 'S');
2282 }
2283
0ebc6274 2284 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2285 return CALL_UPPER_CASE(c, p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
2286}
2287
84afefe6
JH
2288UV
2289Perl_to_uni_title(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 2290{
7918f24d
NC
2291 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_TITLE;
2292
3a4c58c9
KW
2293 if (c < 256) {
2294 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 's');
2295 }
2296
0ebc6274 2297 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2298 return CALL_TITLE_CASE(c, p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
2299}
2300
afc16117 2301STATIC U8
eaf412bf 2302S_to_lower_latin1(const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const char dummy)
afc16117
KW
2303{
2304 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
4a4088c4 2305 * those, converting the result to UTF-8. Since the result is always just
a1433954 2306 * one character, we allow <p> to be NULL */
afc16117
KW
2307
2308 U8 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
2309
eaf412bf
KW
2310 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(dummy);
2311
afc16117 2312 if (p != NULL) {
6f2d5cbc 2313 if (NATIVE_BYTE_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
afc16117
KW
2314 *p = converted;
2315 *lenp = 1;
2316 }
2317 else {
430c9760
KW
2318 /* Result is known to always be < 256, so can use the EIGHT_BIT
2319 * macros */
2320 *p = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(converted);
2321 *(p+1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(converted);
afc16117
KW
2322 *lenp = 2;
2323 }
2324 }
2325 return converted;
2326}
2327
84afefe6
JH
2328UV
2329Perl_to_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 2330{
7918f24d
NC
2331 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_LOWER;
2332
afc16117 2333 if (c < 256) {
eaf412bf 2334 return to_lower_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 0 /* 0 is a dummy arg */ );
bca00c02
KW
2335 }
2336
afc16117 2337 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2338 return CALL_LOWER_CASE(c, p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
2339}
2340
84afefe6 2341UV
51910141 2342Perl__to_fold_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const unsigned int flags)
a1dde8de 2343{
51910141 2344 /* Corresponds to to_lower_latin1(); <flags> bits meanings:
1ca267a5 2345 * FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII iff non-ASCII to ASCII folds are prohibited
51910141 2346 * FOLD_FLAGS_FULL iff full folding is to be used;
1ca267a5
KW
2347 *
2348 * Not to be used for locale folds
51910141 2349 */
f673fad4 2350
a1dde8de
KW
2351 UV converted;
2352
2353 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_FOLD_LATIN1;
81611534 2354 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
a1dde8de 2355
1ca267a5
KW
2356 assert (! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE));
2357
659a7c2d 2358 if (UNLIKELY(c == MICRO_SIGN)) {
a1dde8de
KW
2359 converted = GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_MU;
2360 }
9b63e895
KW
2361#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION > 3 /* no multifolds in early Unicode */ \
2362 || (UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 && ( UNICODE_DOT_VERSION > 0) \
2363 || UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION > 0)
659a7c2d
KW
2364 else if ( (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL)
2365 && UNLIKELY(c == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S))
2366 {
1ca267a5
KW
2367 /* If can't cross 127/128 boundary, can't return "ss"; instead return
2368 * two U+017F characters, as fc("\df") should eq fc("\x{17f}\x{17f}")
2369 * under those circumstances. */
2370 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII) {
2371 *lenp = 2 * sizeof(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8) - 2;
2372 Copy(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8 LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8,
2373 p, *lenp, U8);
2374 return LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S;
2375 }
2376 else {
4f489194
KW
2377 *(p)++ = 's';
2378 *p = 's';
2379 *lenp = 2;
2380 return 's';
1ca267a5 2381 }
a1dde8de 2382 }
9b63e895 2383#endif
a1dde8de
KW
2384 else { /* In this range the fold of all other characters is their lower
2385 case */
2386 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
2387 }
2388
6f2d5cbc 2389 if (UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
a1dde8de
KW
2390 *p = (U8) converted;
2391 *lenp = 1;
2392 }
2393 else {
2394 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
2395 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
2396 *lenp = 2;
2397 }
2398
2399 return converted;
2400}
2401
2402UV
31f05a37 2403Perl__to_uni_fold_flags(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, U8 flags)
84afefe6 2404{
4b593389 2405
a0270393
KW
2406 /* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change
2407 * <flags> bits meanings:
2408 * FOLD_FLAGS_FULL iff full folding is to be used;
31f05a37
KW
2409 * FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE is set iff the rules from the current underlying
2410 * locale are to be used.
a0270393
KW
2411 * FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII iff non-ASCII to ASCII folds are prohibited
2412 */
4b593389 2413
36bb2ab6 2414 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UNI_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2415
780fcc9f
KW
2416 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2417 /* Treat a UTF-8 locale as not being in locale at all */
2418 if (IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE) {
2419 flags &= ~FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE;
2420 }
2421 else {
2422 _CHECK_AND_WARN_PROBLEMATIC_LOCALE;
e7b7ac46 2423 goto needs_full_generality;
780fcc9f 2424 }
31f05a37
KW
2425 }
2426
a1dde8de 2427 if (c < 256) {
e7b7ac46 2428 return _to_fold_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp,
31f05a37 2429 flags & (FOLD_FLAGS_FULL | FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII));
a1dde8de
KW
2430 }
2431
2f306ab9 2432 /* Here, above 255. If no special needs, just use the macro */
a0270393
KW
2433 if ( ! (flags & (FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE|FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))) {
2434 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2435 return CALL_FOLD_CASE(c, p, p, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
a0270393
KW
2436 }
2437 else { /* Otherwise, _to_utf8_fold_flags has the intelligence to deal with
2438 the special flags. */
2439 U8 utf8_c[UTF8_MAXBYTES + 1];
e7b7ac46
KW
2440
2441 needs_full_generality:
a0270393 2442 uvchr_to_utf8(utf8_c, c);
445bf929 2443 return _to_utf8_fold_flags(utf8_c, p, lenp, flags);
a0270393 2444 }
84afefe6
JH
2445}
2446
26483009 2447PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
5141f98e 2448S_is_utf8_common(pTHX_ const U8 *const p, SV **swash,
f25ce844 2449 const char *const swashname, SV* const invlist)
bde6a22d 2450{
ea317ccb
KW
2451 /* returns a boolean giving whether or not the UTF8-encoded character that
2452 * starts at <p> is in the swash indicated by <swashname>. <swash>
2453 * contains a pointer to where the swash indicated by <swashname>
2454 * is to be stored; which this routine will do, so that future calls will
f25ce844
KW
2455 * look at <*swash> and only generate a swash if it is not null. <invlist>
2456 * is NULL or an inversion list that defines the swash. If not null, it
2457 * saves time during initialization of the swash.
ea317ccb
KW
2458 *
2459 * Note that it is assumed that the buffer length of <p> is enough to
2460 * contain all the bytes that comprise the character. Thus, <*p> should
2461 * have been checked before this call for mal-formedness enough to assure
2462 * that. */
2463
7918f24d
NC
2464 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_COMMON;
2465
492a624f 2466 /* The API should have included a length for the UTF-8 character in <p>,
28123549 2467 * but it doesn't. We therefore assume that p has been validated at least
492a624f
KW
2468 * as far as there being enough bytes available in it to accommodate the
2469 * character without reading beyond the end, and pass that number on to the
2470 * validating routine */
6302f837 2471 if (! isUTF8_CHAR(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p))) {
86ae6e94
KW
2472 _force_out_malformed_utf8_message(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p),
2473 0,
2474 1 /* Die */ );
2475 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
28123549 2476 }
86ae6e94 2477
87367d5f
KW
2478 if (!*swash) {
2479 U8 flags = _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST;
f25ce844
KW
2480 *swash = _core_swash_init("utf8",
2481
2482 /* Only use the name if there is no inversion
2483 * list; otherwise will go out to disk */
2484 (invlist) ? "" : swashname,
2485
2486 &PL_sv_undef, 1, 0, invlist, &flags);
87367d5f 2487 }
28123549 2488
bde6a22d
NC
2489 return swash_fetch(*swash, p, TRUE) != 0;
2490}
2491
da8c1a98
KW
2492PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
2493S_is_utf8_common_with_len(pTHX_ const U8 *const p, const U8 * const e, SV **swash,
2494 const char *const swashname, SV* const invlist)
2495{
2496 /* returns a boolean giving whether or not the UTF8-encoded character that
2497 * starts at <p>, and extending no further than <e - 1> is in the swash
2498 * indicated by <swashname>. <swash> contains a pointer to where the swash
2499 * indicated by <swashname> is to be stored; which this routine will do, so
2500 * that future calls will look at <*swash> and only generate a swash if it
2501 * is not null. <invlist> is NULL or an inversion list that defines the
2502 * swash. If not null, it saves time during initialization of the swash.
2503 */
2504
2505 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_COMMON_WITH_LEN;
2506
2507 if (! isUTF8_CHAR(p, e)) {
2508 _force_out_malformed_utf8_message(p, e, 0, 1);
2509 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
2510 }
2511
2512 if (!*swash) {
2513 U8 flags = _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST;
2514 *swash = _core_swash_init("utf8",
2515
2516 /* Only use the name if there is no inversion
2517 * list; otherwise will go out to disk */
2518 (invlist) ? "" : swashname,
2519
2520 &PL_sv_undef, 1, 0, invlist, &flags);
2521 }
2522
2523 return swash_fetch(*swash, p, TRUE) != 0;
2524}
2525
34aeb2e9
KW
2526STATIC void
2527S_warn_on_first_deprecated_use(pTHX_ const char * const name,
2528 const char * const alternative,
2529 const bool use_locale,
2530 const char * const file,
2531 const unsigned line)
2532{
2533 const char * key;
2534
2535 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_WARN_ON_FIRST_DEPRECATED_USE;
2536
2537 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_DEPRECATED)) {
2538
2539 key = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s;%d;%s;%d", name, use_locale, file, line);
2540 if (! hv_fetch(PL_seen_deprecated_macro, key, strlen(key), 0)) {
2541 if (! PL_seen_deprecated_macro) {
2542 PL_seen_deprecated_macro = newHV();
2543 }
2544 if (! hv_store(PL_seen_deprecated_macro, key,
2545 strlen(key), &PL_sv_undef, 0))
2546 {
2547 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
2548 }
2549
2550 Perl_warner(aTHX_ WARN_DEPRECATED,
2551 "In %s, line %d, starting in Perl v5.30, %s() will"
2552 " require an additional parameter. Avoid this"
2553 " message by converting to use %s().\n",
2554 file, line, name, alternative);
2555 }
2556 }
2557}
2558
bde6a22d 2559bool
34aeb2e9
KW
2560Perl__is_utf8_FOO(pTHX_ U8 classnum,
2561 const U8 *p,
2562 const char * const name,
2563 const char * const alternative,
2564 const bool use_utf8,
2565 const bool use_locale,
2566 const char * const file,
2567 const unsigned line)
922e8cb4 2568{
922e8cb4
KW
2569 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_FOO;
2570
34aeb2e9
KW
2571 warn_on_first_deprecated_use(name, alternative, use_locale, file, line);
2572
2573 if (use_utf8 && UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1(*p)) {
2574 SV * invlist;
2575
2576 switch (classnum) {
2577 case _CC_WORDCHAR:
2578 case _CC_DIGIT:
2579 case _CC_ALPHA:
2580 case _CC_LOWER:
2581 case _CC_UPPER:
2582 case _CC_PUNCT:
2583 case _CC_PRINT:
2584 case _CC_ALPHANUMERIC:
2585 case _CC_GRAPH:
2586 case _CC_CASED:
2587
2588 return is_utf8_common(p,
2589 &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[classnum],
2590 swash_property_names[classnum],
2591 PL_XPosix_ptrs[classnum]);
2592
2593 case _CC_SPACE:
2594 return is_XPERLSPACE_high(p);
2595 case _CC_BLANK:
2596 return is_HORIZWS_high(p);
2597 case _CC_XDIGIT:
2598 return is_XDIGIT_high(p);
2599 case _CC_CNTRL:
2600 return 0;
2601 case _CC_ASCII:
2602 return 0;
2603 case _CC_VERTSPACE:
2604 return is_VERTWS_high(p);
2605 case _CC_IDFIRST:
2606 if (! PL_utf8_perl_idstart) {
2607 invlist = _new_invlist_C_array(_Perl_IDStart_invlist);
2608 }
2609 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idstart, "_Perl_IDStart", invlist);
2610 case _CC_IDCONT:
2611 if (! PL_utf8_perl_idcont) {
2612 invlist = _new_invlist_C_array(_Perl_IDCont_invlist);
2613 }
2614 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idcont, "_Perl_IDCont", invlist);
2615 }
2616 }
2617
2618 /* idcont is the same as wordchar below 256 */
2619 if (classnum == _CC_IDCONT) {
2620 classnum = _CC_WORDCHAR;
2621 }
2622 else if (classnum == _CC_IDFIRST) {
2623 if (*p == '_') {
2624 return TRUE;
2625 }
2626 classnum = _CC_ALPHA;
2627 }
2628
2629 if (! use_locale) {
2630 if (! use_utf8 || UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
2631 return _generic_isCC(*p, classnum);
2632 }
922e8cb4 2633
34aeb2e9
KW
2634 return _generic_isCC(EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*p, *(p + 1 )), classnum);
2635 }
2636 else {
2637 if (! use_utf8 || UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
2638 return isFOO_lc(classnum, *p);
2639 }
2640
2641 return isFOO_lc(classnum, EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*p, *(p + 1 )));
2642 }
2643
2644 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
922e8cb4
KW
2645}
2646
2647bool
da8c1a98
KW
2648Perl__is_utf8_FOO_with_len(pTHX_ const U8 classnum, const U8 *p,
2649 const U8 * const e)
2650{
2651 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_FOO_WITH_LEN;
2652
2653 assert(classnum < _FIRST_NON_SWASH_CC);
2654
2655 return is_utf8_common_with_len(p,
2656 e,
2657 &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[classnum],
2658 swash_property_names[classnum],
2659 PL_XPosix_ptrs[classnum]);
2660}
2661
2662bool
da8c1a98
KW
2663Perl__is_utf8_perl_idstart_with_len(pTHX_ const U8 *p, const U8 * const e)
2664{
2665 SV* invlist = NULL;
2666
2667 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_PERL_IDSTART_WITH_LEN;
2668
2669 if (! PL_utf8_perl_idstart) {
2670 invlist = _new_invlist_C_array(_Perl_IDStart_invlist);
2671 }
2672 return is_utf8_common_with_len(p, e, &PL_utf8_perl_idstart,
2673 "_Perl_IDStart", invlist);
2674}
2675
2676bool
f2645549 2677Perl__is_utf8_xidstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
c11ff943 2678{
f2645549 2679 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_XIDSTART;
c11ff943
KW
2680
2681 if (*p == '_')
2682 return TRUE;
f25ce844 2683 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_xidstart, "XIdStart", NULL);
c11ff943
KW
2684}
2685
2686bool
da8c1a98
KW
2687Perl__is_utf8_perl_idcont_with_len(pTHX_ const U8 *p, const U8 * const e)
2688{
2689 SV* invlist = NULL;
2690
2691 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_PERL_IDCONT_WITH_LEN;
2692
2693 if (! PL_utf8_perl_idcont) {
2694 invlist = _new_invlist_C_array(_Perl_IDCont_invlist);
2695 }
2696 return is_utf8_common_with_len(p, e, &PL_utf8_perl_idcont,
2697 "_Perl_IDCont", invlist);
2698}
2699
2700bool
f2645549 2701Perl__is_utf8_idcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
82686b01 2702{
f2645549 2703 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_IDCONT;
7918f24d 2704
f25ce844 2705 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "IdContinue", NULL);
a0ed51b3
LW
2706}
2707
2708bool
f2645549 2709Perl__is_utf8_xidcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
c11ff943 2710{
f2645549 2711 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_XIDCONT;
c11ff943 2712
f25ce844 2713 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "XIdContinue", NULL);
c11ff943
KW
2714}
2715
2716bool
7dbf68d2
KW
2717Perl__is_utf8_mark(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2718{
7dbf68d2
KW
2719 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_MARK;
2720
f25ce844 2721 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_mark, "IsM", NULL);
7dbf68d2
KW
2722}
2723
6b5c0936 2724/*
87cea99e 2725=for apidoc to_utf8_case
6b5c0936 2726
9da1e7cb
KW
2727Instead use the appropriate one of L</toUPPER_utf8>,
2728L</toTITLE_utf8>,
2729L</toLOWER_utf8>,
2730or L</toFOLD_utf8>.
2731
6fae5207 2732C<p> contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding
a1433954
KW
2733the character that is being converted. This routine assumes that the character
2734at C<p> is well-formed.
6b5c0936 2735
6fae5207
KW
2736C<ustrp> is a pointer to the character buffer to put the
2737conversion result to. C<lenp> is a pointer to the length
6b5c0936
JH
2738of the result.
2739
6fae5207 2740C<swashp> is a pointer to the swash to use.
6b5c0936 2741
a1433954 2742Both the special and normal mappings are stored in F<lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl>,
796b6530 2743and loaded by C<SWASHNEW>, using F<lib/utf8_heavy.pl>. C<special> (usually,
0134edef 2744but not always, a multicharacter mapping), is tried first.
6b5c0936 2745
4a8240a3
KW
2746C<special> is a string, normally C<NULL> or C<"">. C<NULL> means to not use
2747any special mappings; C<""> means to use the special mappings. Values other
2748than these two are treated as the name of the hash containing the special
2749mappings, like C<"utf8::ToSpecLower">.
6b5c0936 2750
796b6530
KW
2751C<normal> is a string like C<"ToLower"> which means the swash
2752C<%utf8::ToLower>.
0134edef 2753
760c7c2f
KW
2754Code points above the platform's C<IV_MAX> will raise a deprecation warning,
2755unless those are turned off.
2756
0134edef 2757=cut */
6b5c0936 2758
2104c8d9 2759UV
9a957fbc
AL
2760Perl_to_utf8_case(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp,
2761 SV **swashp, const char *normal, const char *special)
a0ed51b3 2762{
b9992569
KW
2763 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UTF8_CASE;
2764
2765 return _to_utf8_case(valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, NULL), p, ustrp, lenp, swashp, normal, special);
2766}
2767
2768 /* change namve uv1 to 'from' */
6a4a25f4 2769STATIC UV
b9992569
KW
2770S__to_utf8_case(pTHX_ const UV uv1, const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp,
2771 SV **swashp, const char *normal, const char *special)
2772{
0134edef 2773 STRLEN len = 0;
7918f24d 2774
b9992569 2775 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_CASE;
7918f24d 2776
36eaa811
KW
2777 /* For code points that don't change case, we already know that the output
2778 * of this function is the unchanged input, so we can skip doing look-ups
2779 * for them. Unfortunately the case-changing code points are scattered
2780 * around. But there are some long consecutive ranges where there are no
2781 * case changing code points. By adding tests, we can eliminate the lookup
2782 * for all the ones in such ranges. This is currently done here only for
2783 * just a few cases where the scripts are in common use in modern commerce
2784 * (and scripts adjacent to those which can be included without additional
2785 * tests). */
2786
2787 if (uv1 >= 0x0590) {
2788 /* This keeps from needing further processing the code points most
2789 * likely to be used in the following non-cased scripts: Hebrew,
2790 * Arabic, Syriac, Thaana, NKo, Samaritan, Mandaic, Devanagari,
2791 * Bengali, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada,
2792 * Malayalam, Sinhala, Thai, Lao, Tibetan, Myanmar */
2793 if (uv1 < 0x10A0) {
2794 goto cases_to_self;
2795 }
2796
2797 /* The following largish code point ranges also don't have case
2798 * changes, but khw didn't think they warranted extra tests to speed
2799 * them up (which would slightly slow down everything else above them):
2800 * 1100..139F Hangul Jamo, Ethiopic
2801 * 1400..1CFF Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, Ogham, Runic,
2802 * Tagalog, Hanunoo, Buhid, Tagbanwa, Khmer, Mongolian,
2803 * Limbu, Tai Le, New Tai Lue, Buginese, Tai Tham,
2804 * Combining Diacritical Marks Extended, Balinese,
2805 * Sundanese, Batak, Lepcha, Ol Chiki
2806 * 2000..206F General Punctuation
2807 */
2808
2809 if (uv1 >= 0x2D30) {
2810
2811 /* This keeps the from needing further processing the code points
2812 * most likely to be used in the following non-cased major scripts:
2813 * CJK, Katakana, Hiragana, plus some less-likely scripts.
2814 *
2815 * (0x2D30 above might have to be changed to 2F00 in the unlikely
2816 * event that Unicode eventually allocates the unused block as of
2817 * v8.0 2FE0..2FEF to code points that are cased. khw has verified
2818 * that the test suite will start having failures to alert you
2819 * should that happen) */
2820 if (uv1 < 0xA640) {
2821 goto cases_to_self;
2822 }
2823
2824 if (uv1 >= 0xAC00) {
2825 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv1))) {
5af9bc97
KW
2826 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE)) {
2827 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2828 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
147e3846 2829 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%04" UVXf, desc, uv1);
5af9bc97
KW
2830 }
2831 goto cases_to_self;
2832 }
36eaa811
KW
2833
2834 /* AC00..FAFF Catches Hangul syllables and private use, plus
2835 * some others */
2836 if (uv1 < 0xFB00) {
2837 goto cases_to_self;
2838
2839 }
2840
5af9bc97
KW
2841 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv1))) {
2842 if ( UNLIKELY(uv1 > MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP)
2843 && ckWARN_d(WARN_DEPRECATED))
2844 {
2845 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_DEPRECATED),
2846 cp_above_legal_max, uv1, MAX_NON_DEPRECATED_CP);
2847 }
2848 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
2849 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2850 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
147e3846 2851 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%04" UVXf, desc, uv1);
5af9bc97
KW
2852 }
2853 goto cases_to_self;
2854 }
3bfc1e70
KW
2855#ifdef HIGHEST_CASE_CHANGING_CP_FOR_USE_ONLY_BY_UTF8_DOT_C
2856 if (UNLIKELY(uv1
2857 > HIGHEST_CASE_CHANGING_CP_FOR_USE_ONLY_BY_UTF8_DOT_C))
2858 {
2859
2860 /* As of this writing, this means we avoid swash creation
2861 * for anything beyond low Plane 1 */
2862 goto cases_to_self;
2863 }
2864#endif
36eaa811
KW
2865 }
2866 }
9ae3ac1a 2867
36eaa811
KW
2868 /* Note that non-characters are perfectly legal, so no warning should
2869 * be given. There are so few of them, that it isn't worth the extra
2870 * tests to avoid swash creation */
9ae3ac1a
KW
2871 }
2872
0134edef 2873 if (!*swashp) /* load on-demand */
5ab9d2ef 2874 *swashp = _core_swash_init("utf8", normal, &PL_sv_undef, 4, 0, NULL, NULL);
0134edef 2875
a6f87d8c 2876 if (special) {
0134edef 2877 /* It might be "special" (sometimes, but not always,
2a37f04d 2878 * a multicharacter mapping) */
4a8240a3 2879 HV *hv = NULL;
b08cf34e
JH
2880 SV **svp;
2881
4a8240a3
KW
2882 /* If passed in the specials name, use that; otherwise use any
2883 * given in the swash */
2884 if (*special != '\0') {
2885 hv = get_hv(special, 0);
2886 }
2887 else {
2888 svp = hv_fetchs(MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*swashp)), "SPECIALS", 0);
2889 if (svp) {
2890 hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*svp));
2891 }
2892 }
2893
176fe009 2894 if (hv
5f560d8a 2895 && (svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)p, UVCHR_SKIP(uv1), FALSE))
176fe009
KW
2896 && (*svp))
2897 {
cfd0369c 2898 const char *s;
47654450 2899
cfd0369c 2900 s = SvPV_const(*svp, len);
47654450 2901 if (len == 1)
f4cd282c 2902 /* EIGHTBIT */
c80e42f3 2903 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, *(U8*)s) - ustrp;
2a37f04d 2904 else {
d2dcd0fb 2905 Copy(s, ustrp, len, U8);
29e98929 2906 }
983ffd37 2907 }
0134edef
JH
2908 }
2909
2910 if (!len && *swashp) {
4a4088c4 2911 const UV uv2 = swash_fetch(*swashp, p, TRUE /* => is UTF-8 */);
d4c19fe8 2912
0134edef
JH
2913 if (uv2) {
2914 /* It was "normal" (a single character mapping). */
f4cd282c 2915 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, uv2) - ustrp;
2a37f04d
JH
2916 }
2917 }
1feea2c7 2918
cbe07460
KW
2919 if (len) {
2920 if (lenp) {
2921 *lenp = len;
2922 }
2923 return valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ustrp, 0);
2924 }
2925
2926 /* Here, there was no mapping defined, which means that the code point maps
2927 * to itself. Return the inputs */
e24dfe9c 2928 cases_to_self:
bfdf22ec 2929 len = UTF8SKIP(p);
ca9fab46
KW
2930 if (p != ustrp) { /* Don't copy onto itself */
2931 Copy(p, ustrp, len, U8);
2932 }
0134edef 2933
2a37f04d
JH
2934 if (lenp)
2935 *lenp = len;
2936
f4cd282c 2937 return uv1;
cbe07460 2938
a0ed51b3
LW
2939}
2940
051a06d4 2941STATIC UV
357aadde 2942S_check_locale_boundary_crossing(pTHX_ const U8* const p, const UV result, U8* const ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)
051a06d4 2943{
4a4088c4 2944 /* This is called when changing the case of a UTF-8-encoded character above
31f05a37
KW
2945 * the Latin1 range, and the operation is in a non-UTF-8 locale. If the
2946 * result contains a character that crosses the 255/256 boundary, disallow
2947 * the change, and return the original code point. See L<perlfunc/lc> for
2948 * why;
051a06d4 2949 *
a1433954
KW
2950 * p points to the original string whose case was changed; assumed
2951 * by this routine to be well-formed
051a06d4
KW
2952 * result the code point of the first character in the changed-case string
2953 * ustrp points to the changed-case string (<result> represents its first char)
2954 * lenp points to the length of <ustrp> */
2955
2956 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
2957
2958 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CHECK_LOCALE_BOUNDARY_CROSSING;
2959
a4f12ed7 2960 assert(UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1(*p));
051a06d4
KW
2961
2962 /* We know immediately if the first character in the string crosses the
2963 * boundary, so can skip */
2964 if (result > 255) {
2965
2966 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
2967 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
2968 U8* s = ustrp + UTF8SKIP(ustrp);
2969 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
2970 while (s < e) {
a4f12ed7 2971 if (! UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1(*s)) {
051a06d4
KW
2972 goto bad_crossing;
2973 }
2974 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
2975 }
2976
613abc6d
KW
2977 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is, but we warn. */
2978 _CHECK_AND_OUTPUT_WIDE_LOCALE_UTF8_MSG(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p));
051a06d4
KW
2979 return result;
2980 }
2981
7b52d656 2982 bad_crossing:
051a06d4
KW
2983
2984 /* Failed, have to return the original */
4b88fb76 2985 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
ab0b796c
KW
2986
2987 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
2988 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
147e3846
KW
2989 "Can't do %s(\"\\x{%" UVXf "}\") on non-UTF-8 locale; "
2990 "resolved to \"\\x{%" UVXf "}\".",
357aadde 2991 OP_DESC(PL_op),
ab0b796c
KW
2992 original,
2993 original);
051a06d4
KW
2994 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
2995 return original;
2996}
2997
eaf412bf
KW
2998/* The process for changing the case is essentially the same for the four case
2999 * change types, except there are complications for folding. Otherwise the
3000 * difference is only which case to change to. To make sure that they all do
3001 * the same thing, the bodies of the functions are extracted out into the
3002 * following two macros. The functions are written with the same variable
3003 * names, and these are known and used inside these macros. It would be
3004 * better, of course, to have inline functions to do it, but since different
3005 * macros are called, depending on which case is being changed to, this is not
3006 * feasible in C (to khw's knowledge). Two macros are created so that the fold
3007 * function can start with the common start macro, then finish with its special
3008 * handling; while the other three cases can just use the common end macro.
3009 *
3010 * The algorithm is to use the proper (passed in) macro or function to change
3011 * the case for code points that are below 256. The macro is used if using
3012 * locale rules for the case change; the function if not. If the code point is
3013 * above 255, it is computed from the input UTF-8, and another macro is called
3014 * to do the conversion. If necessary, the output is converted to UTF-8. If
3015 * using a locale, we have to check that the change did not cross the 255/256
3016 * boundary, see check_locale_boundary_crossing() for further details.
3017 *
3018 * The macros are split with the correct case change for the below-256 case
3019 * stored into 'result', and in the middle of an else clause for the above-255
3020 * case. At that point in the 'else', 'result' is not the final result, but is
3021 * the input code point calculated from the UTF-8. The fold code needs to
3022 * realize all this and take it from there.
3023 *
3024 * If you read the two macros as sequential, it's easier to understand what's
3025 * going on. */
3026#define CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(locale_flags, LC_L1_change_macro, L1_func, \
3027 L1_func_extra_param) \
3028 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
3029 /* Treat a UTF-8 locale as not being in locale at all */ \
3030 if (IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE) { \
3031 flags &= ~(locale_flags); \
3032 } \
3033 else { \
3034 _CHECK_AND_WARN_PROBLEMATIC_LOCALE; \
3035 } \
3036 } \
3037 \
3038 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) { \
3039 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
3040 result = LC_L1_change_macro(*p); \
3041 } \
3042 else { \
3043 return L1_func(*p, ustrp, lenp, L1_func_extra_param); \
3044 } \
3045 } \
3046 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) { \
3047 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
3048 result = LC_L1_change_macro(EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*p, \
3049 *(p+1))); \
3050 } \
3051 else { \
3052 return L1_func(EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*p, *(p+1)), \
3053 ustrp, lenp, L1_func_extra_param); \
3054 } \
3055 } \
3056 else { /* malformed UTF-8 */ \
3057 result = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, NULL); \
3058
3059#define CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END(locale_flags, change_macro) \
3060 result = change_macro(result, p, ustrp, lenp); \
3061 \
3062 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
3063 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp); \
3064 } \
3065 return result; \
3066 } \
3067 \
3068 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to UTF-8 */ \
3069 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) { \
3070 *ustrp = (U8) result; \
3071 *lenp = 1; \
3072 } \
3073 else { \
3074 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI((U8) result); \
3075 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO((U8) result); \
3076 *lenp = 2; \
3077 } \
3078 \
3079 return result;
3080
d3e79532 3081/*
87cea99e 3082=for apidoc to_utf8_upper
d3e79532 3083
1f607577 3084Instead use L</toUPPER_utf8>.
a1433954 3085
d3e79532
JH
3086=cut */
3087
051a06d4 3088/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
31f05a37
KW
3089 * <flags> is set iff iff the rules from the current underlying locale are to
3090 * be used. */
051a06d4 3091
2104c8d9 3092UV
31f05a37 3093Perl__to_utf8_upper_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, bool flags)
a0ed51b3 3094{
051a06d4
KW
3095 UV result;
3096
3097 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_UPPER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3098
eaf412bf
KW
3099 /* ~0 makes anything non-zero in 'flags' mean we are using locale rules */
3100 /* 2nd char of uc(U+DF) is 'S' */
3101 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(~0, toUPPER_LC, _to_upper_title_latin1, 'S');
3102 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END (~0, CALL_UPPER_CASE);
983ffd37 3103}
a0ed51b3 3104
d3e79532 3105/*
87cea99e 3106=for apidoc to_utf8_title
d3e79532 3107
1f607577 3108Instead use L</toTITLE_utf8>.
a1433954 3109
d3e79532
JH
3110=cut */
3111
051a06d4 3112/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
31f05a37
KW
3113 * <flags> is set iff the rules from the current underlying locale are to be
3114 * used. Since titlecase is not defined in POSIX, for other than a
3115 * UTF-8 locale, uppercase is used instead for code points < 256.
445bf929 3116 */
051a06d4 3117
983ffd37 3118UV
31f05a37 3119Perl__to_utf8_title_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, bool flags)
983ffd37 3120{
051a06d4
KW
3121 UV result;
3122
3123 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_TITLE_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3124
eaf412bf
KW
3125 /* 2nd char of ucfirst(U+DF) is 's' */
3126 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(~0, toUPPER_LC, _to_upper_title_latin1, 's');
3127 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END (~0, CALL_TITLE_CASE);
a0ed51b3
LW
3128}
3129
d3e79532 3130/*
87cea99e 3131=for apidoc to_utf8_lower
d3e79532 3132
1f607577 3133Instead use L</toLOWER_utf8>.
a1433954 3134
d3e79532
JH
3135=cut */
3136
051a06d4 3137/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
31f05a37
KW
3138 * <flags> is set iff iff the rules from the current underlying locale are to
3139 * be used.
3140 */
051a06d4 3141
2104c8d9 3142UV
31f05a37 3143Perl__to_utf8_lower_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, bool flags)
a0ed51b3 3144{
051a06d4
KW
3145 UV result;
3146
051a06d4 3147 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_LOWER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3148
eaf412bf
KW
3149 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(~0, toLOWER_LC, to_lower_latin1, 0 /* 0 is dummy */)
3150 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END (~0, CALL_LOWER_CASE)
b4e400f9
JH
3151}
3152
d3e79532 3153/*
87cea99e 3154=for apidoc to_utf8_fold
d3e79532 3155
1f607577 3156Instead use L</toFOLD_utf8>.
a1433954 3157
d3e79532
JH
3158=cut */
3159
051a06d4
KW
3160/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change,
3161 * in <flags>
31f05a37
KW
3162 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE is set iff the rules from the current underlying
3163 * locale are to be used.
051a06d4
KW
3164 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_FULL is set iff full case folds are to be used;
3165 * otherwise simple folds
a0270393
KW
3166 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII is set iff folds of non-ASCII to ASCII are
3167 * prohibited
445bf929 3168 */
36bb2ab6 3169
b4e400f9 3170UV
445bf929 3171Perl__to_utf8_fold_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, U8 flags)
b4e400f9 3172{
051a06d4
KW
3173 UV result;
3174
36bb2ab6 3175 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3176
a0270393
KW
3177 /* These are mutually exclusive */
3178 assert (! ((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) && (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)));
3179
50ba90ff
KW
3180 assert(p != ustrp); /* Otherwise overwrites */
3181
eaf412bf
KW
3182 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE, toFOLD_LC, _to_fold_latin1,
3183 ((flags) & (FOLD_FLAGS_FULL | FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)));
31f05a37 3184
eaf412bf 3185 result = CALL_FOLD_CASE(result, p, ustrp, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
a1dde8de 3186
1ca267a5
KW
3187 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
3188
76f2ffcd 3189# define LONG_S_T LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_LONG_S_T_UTF8
0766489e
KW
3190 const unsigned int long_s_t_len = sizeof(LONG_S_T) - 1;
3191
3192# ifdef LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S_UTF8
3193# define CAP_SHARP_S LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S_UTF8
76f2ffcd
KW
3194
3195 const unsigned int cap_sharp_s_len = sizeof(CAP_SHARP_S) - 1;
76f2ffcd 3196
538e84ed
KW
3197 /* Special case these two characters, as what normally gets
3198 * returned under locale doesn't work */
76f2ffcd
KW
3199 if (UTF8SKIP(p) == cap_sharp_s_len
3200 && memEQ((char *) p, CAP_SHARP_S, cap_sharp_s_len))
1ca267a5 3201 {
ab0b796c
KW
3202 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
3203 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
3204 "Can't do fc(\"\\x{1E9E}\") on non-UTF-8 locale; "
3205 "resolved to \"\\x{17F}\\x{17F}\".");
1ca267a5
KW
3206 goto return_long_s;
3207 }
0766489e
KW
3208 else
3209#endif
3210 if (UTF8SKIP(p) == long_s_t_len
76f2ffcd 3211 && memEQ((char *) p, LONG_S_T, long_s_t_len))
9fc2026f 3212 {
ab0b796c
KW
3213 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
3214 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
3215 "Can't do fc(\"\\x{FB05}\") on non-UTF-8 locale; "
3216 "resolved to \"\\x{FB06}\".");
9fc2026f
KW
3217 goto return_ligature_st;
3218 }
74894415
KW
3219
3220#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 \
3221 && UNICODE_DOT_VERSION == 0 \
3222 && UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION == 1
3223# define DOTTED_I LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_I_WITH_DOT_ABOVE_UTF8
3224
3225 /* And special case this on this Unicode version only, for the same
3226 * reaons the other two are special cased. They would cross the
3227 * 255/256 boundary which is forbidden under /l, and so the code
3228 * wouldn't catch that they are equivalent (which they are only in
3229 * this release) */
3230 else if (UTF8SKIP(p) == sizeof(DOTTED_I) - 1
3231 && memEQ((char *) p, DOTTED_I, sizeof(DOTTED_I) - 1))
3232 {
3233 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
3234 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
3235 "Can't do fc(\"\\x{0130}\") on non-UTF-8 locale; "
3236 "resolved to \"\\x{0131}\".");
3237 goto return_dotless_i;
3238 }
3239#endif
3240
357aadde 3241 return check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 3242 }
a0270393
KW
3243 else if (! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)) {
3244 return result;
3245 }
3246 else {
4a4088c4 3247 /* This is called when changing the case of a UTF-8-encoded
9fc2026f
KW
3248 * character above the ASCII range, and the result should not
3249 * contain an ASCII character. */
a0270393
KW
3250
3251 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
3252
3253 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
3254 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
3255 U8* s = ustrp;
3256 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
3257 while (s < e) {
3258 if (isASCII(*s)) {
3259 /* Crossed, have to return the original */
3260 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
1ca267a5 3261
9fc2026f 3262 /* But in these instances, there is an alternative we can
1ca267a5 3263 * return that is valid */
0766489e
KW
3264 if (original == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S
3265#ifdef LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S /* not defined in early Unicode releases */
3266 || original == LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S
3267#endif
3268 ) {
1ca267a5
KW
3269 goto return_long_s;
3270 }
9fc2026f
KW
3271 else if (original == LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_LONG_S_T) {
3272 goto return_ligature_st;
3273 }
74894415
KW
3274#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 \
3275 && UNICODE_DOT_VERSION == 0 \
3276 && UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION == 1
3277
3278 else if (original == LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_I_WITH_DOT_ABOVE) {
3279 goto return_dotless_i;
3280 }
3281#endif
a0270393
KW
3282 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
3283 return original;
3284 }
3285 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
3286 }
051a06d4 3287
a0270393
KW
3288 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is */
3289 return result;
3290 }
051a06d4
KW
3291 }
3292
4a4088c4 3293 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to UTF-8 */
051a06d4
KW
3294 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
3295 *ustrp = (U8) result;
3296 *lenp = 1;
3297 }
3298 else {
62cb07ea
KW
3299 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI((U8) result);
3300 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO((U8) result);
051a06d4
KW
3301 *lenp = 2;
3302 }
3303
051a06d4 3304 return result;
1ca267a5
KW
3305
3306 return_long_s:
3307 /* Certain folds to 'ss' are prohibited by the options, but they do allow
3308 * folds to a string of two of these characters. By returning this
3309 * instead, then, e.g.,
3310 * fc("\x{1E9E}") eq fc("\x{17F}\x{17F}")
3311 * works. */
3312
3313 *lenp = 2 * sizeof(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8) - 2;
3314 Copy(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8 LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8,
3315 ustrp, *lenp, U8);
3316 return LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S;
9fc2026f
KW
3317
3318 return_ligature_st:
3319 /* Two folds to 'st' are prohibited by the options; instead we pick one and
3320 * have the other one fold to it */
3321
3322 *lenp = sizeof(LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_ST_UTF8) - 1;
3323 Copy(LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_ST_UTF8, ustrp, *lenp, U8);
3324 return LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_ST;
74894415
KW
3325
3326#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 \
3327 && UNICODE_DOT_VERSION == 0 \
3328 && UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION == 1
3329
3330 return_dotless_i:
3331 *lenp = sizeof(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_DOTLESS_I_UTF8) - 1;
3332 Copy(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_DOTLESS_I_UTF8, ustrp, *lenp, U8);
3333 return LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_DOTLESS_I;
3334
3335#endif
3336
a0ed51b3
LW
3337}
3338
711a919c 3339/* Note:
f90a9a02 3340 * Returns a "swash" which is a hash described in utf8.c:Perl_swash_fetch().
711a919c
ST
3341 * C<pkg> is a pointer to a package name for SWASHNEW, should be "utf8".
3342 * For other parameters, see utf8::SWASHNEW in lib/utf8_heavy.pl.
3343 */
c4a5db0c 3344
a0ed51b3 3345SV*
7fc63493 3346Perl_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none)
a0ed51b3 3347{
c4a5db0c
KW
3348 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_INIT;
3349
3350 /* Returns a copy of a swash initiated by the called function. This is the
3351 * public interface, and returning a copy prevents others from doing
3352 * mischief on the original */
3353
5d3d13d1 3354 return newSVsv(_core_swash_init(pkg, name, listsv, minbits, none, NULL, NULL));
c4a5db0c
KW
3355}
3356
3357SV*
5d3d13d1 3358Perl__core_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none, SV* invlist, U8* const flags_p)
c4a5db0c 3359{
2c1f00b9
YO
3360
3361 /*NOTE NOTE NOTE - If you want to use "return" in this routine you MUST
3362 * use the following define */
3363
3364#define CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN(x) \
3365 PL_curpm= old_PL_curpm; \
3366 return x
3367
c4a5db0c 3368 /* Initialize and return a swash, creating it if necessary. It does this
87367d5f
KW
3369 * by calling utf8_heavy.pl in the general case. The returned value may be
3370 * the swash's inversion list instead if the input parameters allow it.
3371 * Which is returned should be immaterial to callers, as the only
923b6d4e
KW
3372 * operations permitted on a swash, swash_fetch(), _get_swash_invlist(),
3373 * and swash_to_invlist() handle both these transparently.
c4a5db0c
KW
3374 *
3375 * This interface should only be used by functions that won't destroy or
3376 * adversely change the swash, as doing so affects all other uses of the
3377 * swash in the program; the general public should use 'Perl_swash_init'
3378 * instead.
3379 *
3380 * pkg is the name of the package that <name> should be in.
3381 * name is the name of the swash to find. Typically it is a Unicode
3382 * property name, including user-defined ones
3383 * listsv is a string to initialize the swash with. It must be of the form
3384 * documented as the subroutine return value in
3385 * L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
3386 * minbits is the number of bits required to represent each data element.
3387 * It is '1' for binary properties.
3388 * none I (khw) do not understand this one, but it is used only in tr///.
9a53f6cf 3389 * invlist is an inversion list to initialize the swash with (or NULL)
83199d38
KW
3390 * flags_p if non-NULL is the address of various input and output flag bits
3391 * to the routine, as follows: ('I' means is input to the routine;
3392 * 'O' means output from the routine. Only flags marked O are
3393 * meaningful on return.)
3394 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY indicates if the swash
3395 * came from a user-defined property. (I O)
5d3d13d1
KW
3396 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF indicates that instead of croaking
3397 * when the swash cannot be located, to simply return NULL. (I)
87367d5f
KW
3398 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST indicates that the caller will accept a
3399 * return of an inversion list instead of a swash hash if this routine
3400 * thinks that would result in faster execution of swash_fetch() later
3401 * on. (I)
9a53f6cf
KW
3402 *
3403 * Thus there are three possible inputs to find the swash: <name>,
3404 * <listsv>, and <invlist>. At least one must be specified. The result
3405 * will be the union of the specified ones, although <listsv>'s various
aabbdbda
KW
3406 * actions can intersect, etc. what <name> gives. To avoid going out to
3407 * disk at all, <invlist> should specify completely what the swash should
3408 * have, and <listsv> should be &PL_sv_undef and <name> should be "".
9a53f6cf
KW
3409 *
3410 * <invlist> is only valid for binary properties */
c4a5db0c 3411
2c1f00b9
YO
3412 PMOP *old_PL_curpm= PL_curpm; /* save away the old PL_curpm */
3413
c4a5db0c 3414 SV* retval = &PL_sv_undef;
83199d38 3415 HV* swash_hv = NULL;
87367d5f
KW
3416 const int invlist_swash_boundary =
3417 (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST)
3418 ? 512 /* Based on some benchmarking, but not extensive, see commit
3419 message */
3420 : -1; /* Never return just an inversion list */
9a53f6cf
KW
3421
3422 assert(listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "") || invlist);
3423 assert(! invlist || minbits == 1);
3424
2c1f00b9
YO
3425 PL_curpm= NULL; /* reset PL_curpm so that we dont get confused between the regex
3426 that triggered the swash init and the swash init perl logic itself.
3427 See perl #122747 */
3428
9a53f6cf
KW
3429 /* If data was passed in to go out to utf8_heavy to find the swash of, do
3430 * so */
3431 if (listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "")) {
69794297
KW
3432 dSP;
3433 const size_t pkg_len = strlen(pkg);
3434 const size_t name_len = strlen(name);
3435 HV * const stash = gv_stashpvn(pkg, pkg_len, 0);
3436 SV* errsv_save;
3437 GV *method;
3438
3439 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__CORE_SWASH_INIT;
3440
3441 PUSHSTACKi(PERLSI_MAGIC);
ce3b816e 3442 ENTER;
69794297 3443 SAVEHINTS();
2782061f 3444 save_re_context();
650f067c
JL
3445 /* We might get here via a subroutine signature which uses a utf8
3446 * parameter name, at which point PL_subname will have been set
3447 * but not yet used. */
3448 save_item(PL_subname);
69794297
KW
3449 if (PL_parser && PL_parser->error_count)
3450 SAVEI8(PL_parser->error_count), PL_parser->error_count = 0;
3451 method = gv_fetchmeth(stash, "SWASHNEW", 8, -1);
4a4088c4 3452 if (!method) { /* demand load UTF-8 */
69794297 3453 ENTER;
db2c6cb3
FC
3454 if ((errsv_save = GvSV(PL_errgv))) SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
3455 GvSV(PL_errgv) = NULL;
1a419e6b 3456#ifndef NO_TAINT_SUPPORT
69794297
KW
3457 /* It is assumed that callers of this routine are not passing in
3458 * any user derived data. */
2782061f
DM
3459 /* Need to do this after save_re_context() as it will set
3460 * PL_tainted to 1 while saving $1 etc (see the code after getrx:
3461 * in Perl_magic_get). Even line to create errsv_save can turn on
3462 * PL_tainted. */
284167a5
SM
3463 SAVEBOOL(TAINT_get);
3464 TAINT_NOT;
3465#endif
69794297
KW
3466 Perl_load_module(aTHX_ PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, newSVpvn(pkg,pkg_len),
3467 NULL);
eed484f9 3468 {
db2c6cb3
FC
3469 /* Not ERRSV, as there is no need to vivify a scalar we are
3470 about to discard. */
3471 SV * const errsv = GvSV(PL_errgv);
3472 if (!SvTRUE(errsv)) {
3473 GvSV(PL_errgv) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple(errsv_save);
3474 SvREFCNT_dec(errsv);
3475 }
eed484f9 3476 }
69794297
KW
3477 LEAVE;
3478 }
3479 SPAGAIN;
3480 PUSHMARK(SP);
3481 EXTEND(SP,5);
3482 mPUSHp(pkg, pkg_len);
3483 mPUSHp(name, name_len);
3484 PUSHs(listsv);
3485 mPUSHi(minbits);
3486 mPUSHi(none);
3487 PUTBACK;
db2c6cb3
FC
3488 if ((errsv_save = GvSV(PL_errgv))) SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
3489 GvSV(PL_errgv) = NULL;
69794297
KW
3490 /* If we already have a pointer to the method, no need to use
3491 * call_method() to repeat the lookup. */
c41800a8
KW
3492 if (method
3493 ? call_sv(MUTABLE_SV(method), G_SCALAR)
69794297
KW
3494 : call_sv(newSVpvs_flags("SWASHNEW", SVs_TEMP), G_SCALAR | G_METHOD))
3495 {
3496 retval = *PL_stack_sp--;
3497 SvREFCNT_inc(retval);
3498 }
eed484f9 3499 {
db2c6cb3
FC
3500 /* Not ERRSV. See above. */
3501 SV * const errsv = GvSV(PL_errgv);
3502 if (!SvTRUE(errsv)) {
3503 GvSV(PL_errgv) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple(errsv_save);
3504 SvREFCNT_dec(errsv);
3505 }
eed484f9 3506 }
ce3b816e 3507 LEAVE;
69794297
KW
3508 POPSTACK;
3509 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME) {
3510 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
3511 }
3512 if (!SvROK(retval) || SvTYPE(SvRV(retval)) != SVt_PVHV) {
d95e4a00 3513 if (SvPOK(retval)) {
69794297
KW
3514
3515 /* If caller wants to handle missing properties, let them */
5d3d13d1 3516 if (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF) {
2c1f00b9 3517 CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN(NULL);
69794297
KW
3518 }
3519 Perl_croak(aTHX_
147e3846 3520 "Can't find Unicode property definition \"%" SVf "\"",
69794297 3521 SVfARG(retval));
a25b5927 3522 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
d95e4a00 3523 }
69794297 3524 }
9a53f6cf 3525 } /* End of calling the module to find the swash */
36eb48b4 3526
83199d38
KW
3527 /* If this operation fetched a swash, and we will need it later, get it */
3528 if (retval != &PL_sv_undef
3529 && (minbits == 1 || (flags_p
3530 && ! (*flags_p
3531 & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY))))
3532 {
3533 swash_hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval));
3534
3535 /* If we don't already know that there is a user-defined component to
3536 * this swash, and the user has indicated they wish to know if there is
3537 * one (by passing <flags_p>), find out */
3538 if (flags_p && ! (*flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY)) {
3539 SV** user_defined = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "USER_DEFINED", FALSE);
3540 if (user_defined && SvUV(*user_defined)) {
3541 *flags_p |= _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY;
3542 }
3543 }
3544 }
3545
36eb48b4
KW
3546 /* Make sure there is an inversion list for binary properties */
3547 if (minbits == 1) {
3548 SV** swash_invlistsvp = NULL;
3549 SV* swash_invlist = NULL;
9a53f6cf 3550 bool invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
02c85471
FC
3551 bool swash_invlist_unclaimed = FALSE; /* whether swash_invlist has
3552 an unclaimed reference count */
36eb48b4 3553
9a53f6cf 3554 /* If this operation fetched a swash, get its already existing
83199d38 3555 * inversion list, or create one for it */
36eb48b4 3556
83199d38 3557 if (swash_hv) {
5c9f4bd2 3558 swash_invlistsvp = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "V", FALSE);
9a53f6cf
KW
3559 if (swash_invlistsvp) {
3560 swash_invlist = *swash_invlistsvp;
3561 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = TRUE;
3562 }
3563 else {
36eb48b4 3564 swash_invlist = _swash_to_invlist(retval);
02c85471 3565 swash_invlist_unclaimed = TRUE;
9a53f6cf
KW
3566 }
3567 }
3568
3569 /* If an inversion list was passed in, have to include it */
3570 if (invlist) {
3571
3572 /* Any fetched swash will by now have an inversion list in it;
3573 * otherwise <swash_invlist> will be NULL, indicating that we
3574 * didn't fetch a swash */
3575 if (swash_invlist) {
3576
3577 /* Add the passed-in inversion list, which invalidates the one
3578 * already stored in the swash */
3579 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
eee4c920 3580 SvREADONLY_off(swash_invlist); /* Turned on again below */
9a53f6cf
KW
3581 _invlist_union(invlist, swash_invlist, &swash_invlist);
3582 }
3583 else {
3584
87367d5f
KW
3585 /* Here, there is no swash already. Set up a minimal one, if
3586 * we are going to return a swash */
3587 if ((int) _invlist_len(invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary) {
971d486f 3588 swash_hv = newHV();
4aca0fe6 3589 retval = newRV_noinc(MUTABLE_SV(swash_hv));
87367d5f 3590 }
9a53f6cf
KW
3591 swash_invlist = invlist;
3592 }
9a53f6cf
KW
3593 }
3594
3595 /* Here, we have computed the union of all the passed-in data. It may
3596 * be that there was an inversion list in the swash which didn't get
538e84ed 3597 * touched; otherwise save the computed one */
87367d5f
KW
3598 if (! invlist_in_swash_is_valid
3599 && (int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary)
3600 {
5c9f4bd2 3601 if (! hv_stores(MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval)), "V", swash_invlist))
69794297
KW
3602 {
3603 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
3604 }
cc34d8c5
FC
3605 /* We just stole a reference count. */
3606 if (swash_invlist_unclaimed) swash_invlist_unclaimed = FALSE;
3607 else SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(swash_invlist);
9a53f6cf 3608 }
87367d5f 3609
ee3222e3 3610 /* The result is immutable. Forbid attempts to change it. */
dbfdbd26
KW
3611 SvREADONLY_on(swash_invlist);
3612
c41800a8 3613 /* Use the inversion list stand-alone if small enough */
87367d5f
KW
3614 if ((int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) <= invlist_swash_boundary) {
3615 SvREFCNT_dec(retval);
02c85471
FC
3616 if (!swash_invlist_unclaimed)
3617 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(swash_invlist);
3618 retval = newRV_noinc(swash_invlist);
87367d5f 3619 }
36eb48b4
KW
3620 }
3621
2c1f00b9
YO
3622 CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN(retval);
3623#undef CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN
a0ed51b3
LW
3624}
3625
035d37be
JH
3626
3627/* This API is wrong for special case conversions since we may need to
3628 * return several Unicode characters for a single Unicode character
3629 * (see lib/unicore/SpecCase.txt) The SWASHGET in lib/utf8_heavy.pl is
3630 * the lower-level routine, and it is similarly broken for returning
38684baa 3631 * multiple values. --jhi
b9992569 3632 * For those, you should use S__to_utf8_case() instead */
b0e3252e 3633/* Now SWASHGET is recasted into S_swatch_get in this file. */
680c470c
ST
3634
3635/* Note:
3636 * Returns the value of property/mapping C<swash> for the first character
3637 * of the string C<ptr>. If C<do_utf8> is true, the string C<ptr> is
4a4088c4 3638 * assumed to be in well-formed UTF-8. If C<do_utf8> is false, the string C<ptr>
3d0f8846 3639 * is assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding. Caches the swatch in C<swash>.
af2af982
KW
3640 *
3641 * A "swash" is a hash which contains initially the keys/values set up by
3642 * SWASHNEW. The purpose is to be able to completely represent a Unicode
3643 * property for all possible code points. Things are stored in a compact form
3644 * (see utf8_heavy.pl) so that calculation is required to find the actual
3645 * property value for a given code point. As code points are looked up, new
3646 * key/value pairs are added to the hash, so that the calculation doesn't have
3647 * to ever be re-done. Further, each calculation is done, not just for the
3648 * desired one, but for a whole block of code points adjacent to that one.
3649 * For binary properties on ASCII machines, the block is usually for 64 code
3650 * points, starting with a code point evenly divisible by 64. Thus if the
3651 * property value for code point 257 is requested, the code goes out and
3652 * calculates the property values for all 64 code points between 256 and 319,
3653 * and stores these as a single 64-bit long bit vector, called a "swatch",
3654 * under the key for code point 256. The key is the UTF-8 encoding for code
3655 * point 256, minus the final byte. Thus, if the length of the UTF-8 encoding
3656 * for a code point is 13 bytes, the key will be 12 bytes long. If the value
3657 * for code point 258 is then requested, this code realizes that it would be
3658 * stored under the key for 256, and would find that value and extract the
3659 * relevant bit, offset from 256.
3660 *
3661 * Non-binary properties are stored in as many bits as necessary to represent
3662 * their values (32 currently, though the code is more general than that), not
fc273927 3663 * as single bits, but the principle is the same: the value for each key is a
af2af982
KW
3664 * vector that encompasses the property values for all code points whose UTF-8
3665 * representations are represented by the key. That is, for all code points
3666 * whose UTF-8 representations are length N bytes, and the key is the first N-1
3667 * bytes of that.
680c470c 3668 */
a0ed51b3 3669UV
680c470c 3670Perl_swash_fetch(pTHX_ SV *swash, const U8 *ptr, bool do_utf8)
a0ed51b3 3671{
ef8f7699 3672 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
3568d838
JH
3673 U32 klen;
3674 U32 off;
9b56a019 3675 STRLEN slen = 0;
7d85a32c 3676 STRLEN needents;
cfd0369c 3677 const U8 *tmps = NULL;
979f2922 3678 SV *swatch;
08fb1ac5 3679 const U8 c = *ptr;
3568d838 3680
7918f24d
NC
3681 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_FETCH;
3682
87367d5f
KW
3683 /* If it really isn't a hash, it isn't really swash; must be an inversion
3684 * list */
3685 if (SvTYPE(hv) != SVt_PVHV) {
3686 return _invlist_contains_cp((SV*)hv,
3687 (do_utf8)
3688 ? valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ptr, NULL)
3689 : c);
3690 }
3691
08fb1ac5
KW
3692 /* We store the values in a "swatch" which is a vec() value in a swash
3693 * hash. Code points 0-255 are a single vec() stored with key length
3694 * (klen) 0. All other code points have a UTF-8 representation
3695 * 0xAA..0xYY,0xZZ. A vec() is constructed containing all of them which
3696 * share 0xAA..0xYY, which is the key in the hash to that vec. So the key
3697 * length for them is the length of the encoded char - 1. ptr[klen] is the
3698 * final byte in the sequence representing the character */
3699 if (!do_utf8 || UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
3700 klen = 0;
3701 needents = 256;
3702 off = c;
3568d838 3703 }
08fb1ac5
KW
3704 else if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c)) {
3705 klen = 0;
3706 needents = 256;
a62b247b 3707 off = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(c, *(ptr + 1));
979f2922
ST
3708 }
3709 else {
08fb1ac5
KW
3710 klen = UTF8SKIP(ptr) - 1;
3711
3712 /* Each vec() stores 2**UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT values. The offset into
3713 * the vec is the final byte in the sequence. (In EBCDIC this is
3714 * converted to I8 to get consecutive values.) To help you visualize
3715 * all this:
3716 * Straight 1047 After final byte
3717 * UTF-8 UTF-EBCDIC I8 transform
3718 * U+0400: \xD0\x80 \xB8\x41\x41 \xB8\x41\xA0
3719 * U+0401: \xD0\x81 \xB8\x41\x42 \xB8\x41\xA1
3720 * ...
3721 * U+0409: \xD0\x89 \xB8\x41\x4A \xB8\x41\xA9
3722 * U+040A: \xD0\x8A \xB8\x41\x51 \xB8\x41\xAA
3723 * ...
3724 * U+0412: \xD0\x92 \xB8\x41\x59 \xB8\x41\xB2
3725 * U+0413: \xD0\x93 \xB8\x41\x62 \xB8\x41\xB3
3726 * ...
3727 * U+041B: \xD0\x9B \xB8\x41\x6A \xB8\x41\xBB
3728 * U+041C: \xD0\x9C \xB8\x41\x70 \xB8\x41\xBC
3729 * ...
3730 * U+041F: \xD0\x9F \xB8\x41\x73 \xB8\x41\xBF
3731 * U+0420: \xD0\xA0 \xB8\x42\x41 \xB8\x42\x41
3732 *
3733 * (There are no discontinuities in the elided (...) entries.)
3734 * The UTF-8 key for these 33 code points is '\xD0' (which also is the
3735 * key for the next 31, up through U+043F, whose UTF-8 final byte is
3736 * \xBF). Thus in UTF-8, each key is for a vec() for 64 code points.
3737 * The final UTF-8 byte, which ranges between \x80 and \xBF, is an
3738 * index into the vec() swatch (after subtracting 0x80, which we
3739 * actually do with an '&').
3740 * In UTF-EBCDIC, each key is for a 32 code point vec(). The first 32
3741 * code points above have key '\xB8\x41'. The final UTF-EBCDIC byte has
3742 * dicontinuities which go away by transforming it into I8, and we
3743 * effectively subtract 0xA0 to get the index. */
979f2922 3744 needents = (1 << UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT);
bc3632a8 3745 off = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(ptr[klen]) & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK;
979f2922 3746 }
7d85a32c 3747
a0ed51b3 3748 /*
4a4088c4 3749 * This single-entry cache saves about 1/3 of the UTF-8 overhead in test
a0ed51b3
LW
3750 * suite. (That is, only 7-8% overall over just a hash cache. Still,
3751 * it's nothing to sniff at.) Pity we usually come through at least