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Teach B::Concise about OPpFT_STACKING
[perl5.git] / ext / B / B / Concise.pm
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c99ca59a 1package B::Concise;
c27ea44e 2# Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Stephen McCamant. All rights reserved.
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3# This program is free software; you can redistribute and/or modify it
4# under the same terms as Perl itself.
5
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6# Note: we need to keep track of how many use declarations/BEGIN
7# blocks this module uses, so we can avoid printing them when user
8# asks for the BEGIN blocks in her program. Update the comments and
9# the count in concise_specials if you add or delete one. The
10# -MO=Concise counts as use #1.
78ad9108 11
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12use strict; # use #2
13use warnings; # uses #3 and #4, since warnings uses Carp
78ad9108 14
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15use Exporter (); # use #5
16
e664e0a4 17our $VERSION = "0.86";
78ad9108 18our @ISA = qw(Exporter);
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19our @EXPORT_OK = qw( set_style set_style_standard add_callback
20 concise_subref concise_cv concise_main
21 add_style walk_output compile reset_sequence );
22our %EXPORT_TAGS =
23 ( io => [qw( walk_output compile reset_sequence )],
24 style => [qw( add_style set_style_standard )],
25 cb => [qw( add_callback )],
26 mech => [qw( concise_subref concise_cv concise_main )], );
78ad9108 27
8ec8fbef 28# use #6
c99ca59a 29use B qw(class ppname main_start main_root main_cv cstring svref_2object
6a077020 30 SVf_IOK SVf_NOK SVf_POK SVf_IVisUV SVf_FAKE OPf_KIDS OPf_SPECIAL
4df7f6af 31 CVf_ANON PAD_FAKELEX_ANON PAD_FAKELEX_MULTI SVf_ROK);
c99ca59a 32
f95e3c3c 33my %style =
c99ca59a 34 ("terse" =>
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35 ["(?(#label =>\n)?)(*( )*)#class (#addr) #name (?([#targ])?) "
36 . "#svclass~(?((#svaddr))?)~#svval~(?(label \"#coplabel\")?)\n",
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37 "(*( )*)goto #class (#addr)\n",
38 "#class pp_#name"],
39 "concise" =>
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40 ["#hyphseq2 (*( (x( ;)x))*)<#classsym> #exname#arg(?([#targarglife])?)"
41 . "~#flags(?(/#private)?)(?(:#hints)?)(x(;~->#next)x)\n"
cc02ea56 42 , " (*( )*) goto #seq\n",
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43 "(?(<#seq>)?)#exname#arg(?([#targarglife])?)"],
44 "linenoise" =>
45 ["(x(;(*( )*))x)#noise#arg(?([#targarg])?)(x( ;\n)x)",
46 "gt_#seq ",
47 "(?(#seq)?)#noise#arg(?([#targarg])?)"],
48 "debug" =>
49 ["#class (#addr)\n\top_next\t\t#nextaddr\n\top_sibling\t#sibaddr\n\t"
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50 . "op_ppaddr\tPL_ppaddr[OP_#NAME]\n\top_type\t\t#typenum\n" .
51 ($] > 5.009 ? '' : "\top_seq\t\t#seqnum\n")
d5ec2987 52 . "\top_flags\t#flagval\n\top_private\t#privval\t#hintsval\n"
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53 . "(?(\top_first\t#firstaddr\n)?)(?(\top_last\t\t#lastaddr\n)?)"
54 . "(?(\top_sv\t\t#svaddr\n)?)",
55 " GOTO #addr\n",
56 "#addr"],
57 "env" => [$ENV{B_CONCISE_FORMAT}, $ENV{B_CONCISE_GOTO_FORMAT},
58 $ENV{B_CONCISE_TREE_FORMAT}],
59 );
60
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61# Renderings, ie how Concise prints, is controlled by these vars
62# primary:
63our $stylename; # selects current style from %style
64my $order = "basic"; # how optree is walked & printed: basic, exec, tree
65
66# rendering mechanics:
67# these 'formats' are the line-rendering templates
68# they're updated from %style when $stylename changes
69my ($format, $gotofmt, $treefmt);
70
71# lesser players:
72my $base = 36; # how <sequence#> is displayed
73my $big_endian = 1; # more <sequence#> display
74my $tree_style = 0; # tree-order details
75my $banner = 1; # print banner before optree is traversed
cc02ea56 76my $do_main = 0; # force printing of main routine
f18deeb9 77my $show_src; # show source code
724aa791 78
cc02ea56 79# another factor: can affect all styles!
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80our @callbacks; # allow external management
81
82set_style_standard("concise");
83
c99ca59a 84my $curcv;
c27ea44e 85my $cop_seq_base;
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86
87sub set_style {
88 ($format, $gotofmt, $treefmt) = @_;
724aa791 89 #warn "set_style: deprecated, use set_style_standard instead\n"; # someday
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90 die "expecting 3 style-format args\n" unless @_ == 3;
91}
92
93sub add_style {
94 my ($newstyle,@args) = @_;
95 die "style '$newstyle' already exists, choose a new name\n"
96 if exists $style{$newstyle};
97 die "expecting 3 style-format args\n" unless @args == 3;
98 $style{$newstyle} = [@args];
724aa791 99 $stylename = $newstyle; # update rendering state
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100}
101
31b49ad4 102sub set_style_standard {
724aa791 103 ($stylename) = @_; # update rendering state
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104 die "err: style '$stylename' unknown\n" unless exists $style{$stylename};
105 set_style(@{$style{$stylename}});
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106}
107
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108sub add_callback {
109 push @callbacks, @_;
110}
c99ca59a 111
f95e3c3c 112# output handle, used with all Concise-output printing
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113our $walkHandle; # public for your convenience
114BEGIN { $walkHandle = \*STDOUT }
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115
116sub walk_output { # updates $walkHandle
117 my $handle = shift;
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118 return $walkHandle unless $handle; # allow use as accessor
119
f95e3c3c 120 if (ref $handle eq 'SCALAR') {
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121 require Config;
122 die "no perlio in this build, can't call walk_output (\\\$scalar)\n"
123 unless $Config::Config{useperlio};
f95e3c3c 124 # in 5.8+, open(FILEHANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE) writes to string
2ce64696 125 open my $tmp, '>', $handle; # but cant re-set existing STDOUT
f95e3c3c 126 $walkHandle = $tmp; # so use my $tmp as intermediate var
cc02ea56 127 return $walkHandle;
f95e3c3c 128 }
cc02ea56 129 my $iotype = ref $handle;
f95e3c3c 130 die "expecting argument/object that can print\n"
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131 unless $iotype eq 'GLOB' or $iotype and $handle->can('print');
132 $walkHandle = $handle;
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133}
134
8ec8fbef 135sub concise_subref {
c0939cee 136 my($order, $coderef, $name) = @_;
f95e3c3c 137 my $codeobj = svref_2object($coderef);
cc02ea56 138
c0939cee 139 return concise_stashref(@_)
cc02ea56 140 unless ref $codeobj eq 'B::CV';
c0939cee 141 concise_cv_obj($order, $codeobj, $name);
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142}
143
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144sub concise_stashref {
145 my($order, $h) = @_;
6cc5d258 146 local *s;
cc02ea56 147 foreach my $k (sort keys %$h) {
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148 next unless defined $h->{$k};
149 *s = $h->{$k};
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150 my $coderef = *s{CODE} or next;
151 reset_sequence();
152 print "FUNC: ", *s, "\n";
153 my $codeobj = svref_2object($coderef);
154 next unless ref $codeobj eq 'B::CV';
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155 eval { concise_cv_obj($order, $codeobj, $k) };
156 warn "err $@ on $codeobj" if $@;
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157 }
158}
159
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160# This should have been called concise_subref, but it was exported
161# under this name in versions before 0.56
c0939cee 162*concise_cv = \&concise_subref;
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163
164sub concise_cv_obj {
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165 my ($order, $cv, $name) = @_;
166 # name is either a string, or a CODE ref (copy of $cv arg??)
167
c99ca59a 168 $curcv = $cv;
d51cf0c9 169
2018a5c3 170 if (ref($cv->XSUBANY) =~ /B::(\w+)/) {
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171 print $walkHandle "$name is a constant sub, optimized to a $1\n";
172 return;
173 }
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174 if ($cv->XSUB) {
175 print $walkHandle "$name is XS code\n";
176 return;
177 }
178 if (class($cv->START) eq "NULL") {
179 no strict 'refs';
180 if (ref $name eq 'CODE') {
181 print $walkHandle "coderef $name has no START\n";
182 }
183 elsif (exists &$name) {
e75702e9 184 print $walkHandle "$name exists in stash, but has no START\n";
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185 }
186 else {
187 print $walkHandle "$name not in symbol table\n";
188 }
189 return;
190 }
c27ea44e 191 sequence($cv->START);
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192 if ($order eq "exec") {
193 walk_exec($cv->START);
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194 }
195 elsif ($order eq "basic") {
196 # walk_topdown($cv->ROOT, sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
197 my $root = $cv->ROOT;
198 unless (ref $root eq 'B::NULL') {
199 walk_topdown($root, sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
200 } else {
201 print $walkHandle "B::NULL encountered doing ROOT on $cv. avoiding disaster\n";
202 }
c99ca59a 203 } else {
f95e3c3c 204 print $walkHandle tree($cv->ROOT, 0);
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205 }
206}
207
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208sub concise_main {
209 my($order) = @_;
210 sequence(main_start);
211 $curcv = main_cv;
212 if ($order eq "exec") {
213 return if class(main_start) eq "NULL";
214 walk_exec(main_start);
215 } elsif ($order eq "tree") {
216 return if class(main_root) eq "NULL";
f95e3c3c 217 print $walkHandle tree(main_root, 0);
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218 } elsif ($order eq "basic") {
219 return if class(main_root) eq "NULL";
220 walk_topdown(main_root,
221 sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
222 }
223}
224
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225sub concise_specials {
226 my($name, $order, @cv_s) = @_;
227 my $i = 1;
228 if ($name eq "BEGIN") {
c0939cee 229 splice(@cv_s, 0, 8); # skip 7 BEGIN blocks in this file. NOW 8 ??
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230 } elsif ($name eq "CHECK") {
231 pop @cv_s; # skip the CHECK block that calls us
232 }
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233 for my $cv (@cv_s) {
234 print $walkHandle "$name $i:\n";
8ec8fbef 235 $i++;
c0939cee 236 concise_cv_obj($order, $cv, $name);
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237 }
238}
239
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240my $start_sym = "\e(0"; # "\cN" sometimes also works
241my $end_sym = "\e(B"; # "\cO" respectively
242
f95e3c3c 243my @tree_decorations =
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244 ([" ", "--", "+-", "|-", "| ", "`-", "-", 1],
245 [" ", "-", "+", "+", "|", "`", "", 0],
246 [" ", map("$start_sym$_$end_sym", "qq", "wq", "tq", "x ", "mq", "q"), 1],
247 [" ", map("$start_sym$_$end_sym", "q", "w", "t", "x", "m"), "", 0],
248 );
78ad9108 249
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250my @render_packs; # collect -stash=<packages>
251
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252sub compileOpts {
253 # set rendering state from options and args
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254 my (@options,@args);
255 if (@_) {
256 @options = grep(/^-/, @_);
257 @args = grep(!/^-/, @_);
258 }
c99ca59a 259 for my $o (@options) {
cc02ea56 260 # mode/order
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261 if ($o eq "-basic") {
262 $order = "basic";
263 } elsif ($o eq "-exec") {
264 $order = "exec";
265 } elsif ($o eq "-tree") {
266 $order = "tree";
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267 }
268 # tree-specific
269 elsif ($o eq "-compact") {
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270 $tree_style |= 1;
271 } elsif ($o eq "-loose") {
272 $tree_style &= ~1;
273 } elsif ($o eq "-vt") {
274 $tree_style |= 2;
275 } elsif ($o eq "-ascii") {
276 $tree_style &= ~2;
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277 }
278 # sequence numbering
279 elsif ($o =~ /^-base(\d+)$/) {
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280 $base = $1;
281 } elsif ($o eq "-bigendian") {
282 $big_endian = 1;
283 } elsif ($o eq "-littleendian") {
284 $big_endian = 0;
cc02ea56 285 }
9e0f9750 286 # miscellaneous, presentation
cc02ea56 287 elsif ($o eq "-nobanner") {
724aa791 288 $banner = 0;
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289 } elsif ($o eq "-banner") {
290 $banner = 1;
291 }
292 elsif ($o eq "-main") {
293 $do_main = 1;
294 } elsif ($o eq "-nomain") {
295 $do_main = 0;
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296 } elsif ($o eq "-src") {
297 $show_src = 1;
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298 }
299 elsif ($o =~ /^-stash=(.*)/) {
300 my $pkg = $1;
301 no strict 'refs';
902fde96 302 if (! %{$pkg.'::'}) {
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303 eval "require $pkg";
304 } else {
305 require Config;
306 if (!$Config::Config{usedl}
307 && keys %{$pkg.'::'} == 1
308 && $pkg->can('bootstrap')) {
b7b1e41b 309 # It is something that we're statically linked to, but hasn't
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310 # yet been used.
311 eval "require $pkg";
312 }
313 }
9e0f9750 314 push @render_packs, $pkg;
724aa791 315 }
cc02ea56 316 # line-style options
724aa791 317 elsif (exists $style{substr($o, 1)}) {
f95e3c3c 318 $stylename = substr($o, 1);
724aa791 319 set_style_standard($stylename);
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320 } else {
321 warn "Option $o unrecognized";
322 }
323 }
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324 return (@args);
325}
326
327sub compile {
328 my (@args) = compileOpts(@_);
c27ea44e 329 return sub {
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330 my @newargs = compileOpts(@_); # accept new rendering options
331 warn "disregarding non-options: @newargs\n" if @newargs;
332
333 for my $objname (@args) {
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334 next unless $objname; # skip null args to avoid noisy responses
335
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336 if ($objname eq "BEGIN") {
337 concise_specials("BEGIN", $order,
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338 B::begin_av->isa("B::AV") ?
339 B::begin_av->ARRAY : ());
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340 } elsif ($objname eq "INIT") {
341 concise_specials("INIT", $order,
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342 B::init_av->isa("B::AV") ?
343 B::init_av->ARRAY : ());
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344 } elsif ($objname eq "CHECK") {
345 concise_specials("CHECK", $order,
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346 B::check_av->isa("B::AV") ?
347 B::check_av->ARRAY : ());
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348 } elsif ($objname eq "UNITCHECK") {
349 concise_specials("UNITCHECK", $order,
350 B::unitcheck_av->isa("B::AV") ?
351 B::unitcheck_av->ARRAY : ());
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352 } elsif ($objname eq "END") {
353 concise_specials("END", $order,
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354 B::end_av->isa("B::AV") ?
355 B::end_av->ARRAY : ());
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356 }
357 else {
358 # convert function names to subrefs
359 my $objref;
360 if (ref $objname) {
361 print $walkHandle "B::Concise::compile($objname)\n"
362 if $banner;
363 $objref = $objname;
8ec8fbef 364 } else {
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365 $objname = "main::" . $objname unless $objname =~ /::/;
366 print $walkHandle "$objname:\n";
367 no strict 'refs';
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368 unless (exists &$objname) {
369 print $walkHandle "err: unknown function ($objname)\n";
370 return;
371 }
cc02ea56 372 $objref = \&$objname;
8ec8fbef 373 }
c0939cee 374 concise_subref($order, $objref, $objname);
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375 }
376 }
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377 for my $pkg (@render_packs) {
378 no strict 'refs';
379 concise_stashref($order, \%{$pkg.'::'});
380 }
381
382 if (!@args or $do_main or @render_packs) {
f95e3c3c 383 print $walkHandle "main program:\n" if $do_main;
31b49ad4 384 concise_main($order);
c99ca59a 385 }
cc02ea56 386 return @args; # something
c99ca59a
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387 }
388}
389
390my %labels;
724aa791 391my $lastnext; # remembers op-chain, used to insert gotos
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392
393my %opclass = ('OP' => "0", 'UNOP' => "1", 'BINOP' => "2", 'LOGOP' => "|",
394 'LISTOP' => "@", 'PMOP' => "/", 'SVOP' => "\$", 'GVOP' => "*",
051f02e9 395 'PVOP' => '"', 'LOOP' => "{", 'COP' => ";", 'PADOP' => "#");
c99ca59a 396
8ec8fbef 397no warnings 'qw'; # "Possible attempt to put comments..."; use #7
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398my @linenoise =
399 qw'# () sc ( @? 1 $* gv *{ m$ m@ m% m? p/ *$ $ $# & a& pt \\ s\\ rf bl
c99ca59a
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400 ` *? <> ?? ?/ r/ c/ // qr s/ /c y/ = @= C sC Cp sp df un BM po +1 +I
401 -1 -I 1+ I+ 1- I- ** * i* / i/ %$ i% x + i+ - i- . " << >> < i<
402 > i> <= i, >= i. == i= != i! <? i? s< s> s, s. s= s! s? b& b^ b| -0 -i
403 ! ~ a2 si cs rd sr e^ lg sq in %x %o ab le ss ve ix ri sf FL od ch cy
404 uf lf uc lc qm @ [f [ @[ eh vl ky dl ex % ${ @{ uk pk st jn ) )[ a@
405 a% sl +] -] [- [+ so rv GS GW MS MW .. f. .f && || ^^ ?: &= |= -> s{ s}
406 v} ca wa di rs ;; ; ;d }{ { } {} f{ it {l l} rt }l }n }r dm }g }e ^o
407 ^c ^| ^# um bm t~ u~ ~d DB db ^s se ^g ^r {w }w pf pr ^O ^K ^R ^W ^d ^v
408 ^e ^t ^k t. fc ic fl .s .p .b .c .l .a .h g1 s1 g2 s2 ?. l? -R -W -X -r
409 -w -x -e -o -O -z -s -M -A -C -S -c -b -f -d -p -l -u -g -k -t -T -B cd
410 co cr u. cm ut r. l@ s@ r@ mD uD oD rD tD sD wD cD f$ w$ p$ sh e$ k$ g3
411 g4 s4 g5 s5 T@ C@ L@ G@ A@ S@ Hg Hc Hr Hw Mg Mc Ms Mr Sg Sc So rq do {e
412 e} {t t} g6 G6 6e g7 G7 7e g8 G8 8e g9 G9 9e 6s 7s 8s 9s 6E 7E 8E 9E Pn
c27ea44e 413 Pu GP SP EP Gn Gg GG SG EG g0 c$ lk t$ ;s n> // /= CO';
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414
415my $chars = "0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
416
19e169bf 417sub op_flags { # common flags (see BASOP.op_flags in op.h)
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418 my($x) = @_;
419 my(@v);
420 push @v, "v" if ($x & 3) == 1;
421 push @v, "s" if ($x & 3) == 2;
422 push @v, "l" if ($x & 3) == 3;
423 push @v, "K" if $x & 4;
424 push @v, "P" if $x & 8;
425 push @v, "R" if $x & 16;
426 push @v, "M" if $x & 32;
427 push @v, "S" if $x & 64;
428 push @v, "*" if $x & 128;
429 return join("", @v);
430}
431
432sub base_n {
433 my $x = shift;
434 return "-" . base_n(-$x) if $x < 0;
435 my $str = "";
436 do { $str .= substr($chars, $x % $base, 1) } while $x = int($x / $base);
437 $str = reverse $str if $big_endian;
438 return $str;
439}
440
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441my %sequence_num;
442my $seq_max = 1;
443
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444sub reset_sequence {
445 # reset the sequence
446 %sequence_num = ();
447 $seq_max = 1;
cc02ea56 448 $lastnext = 0;
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449}
450
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451sub seq {
452 my($op) = @_;
453 return "-" if not exists $sequence_num{$$op};
454 return base_n($sequence_num{$$op});
455}
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456
457sub walk_topdown {
458 my($op, $sub, $level) = @_;
459 $sub->($op, $level);
460 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
461 for (my $kid = $op->first; $$kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
462 walk_topdown($kid, $sub, $level + 1);
463 }
464 }
98517ccb 465 if (class($op) eq "PMOP") {
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466 my $maybe_root = $op->pmreplroot;
467 if (ref($maybe_root) and $maybe_root->isa("B::OP")) {
468 # It really is the root of the replacement, not something
469 # else stored here for lack of space elsewhere
470 walk_topdown($maybe_root, $sub, $level + 1);
471 }
c99ca59a
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472 }
473}
474
475sub walklines {
476 my($ar, $level) = @_;
477 for my $l (@$ar) {
478 if (ref($l) eq "ARRAY") {
479 walklines($l, $level + 1);
480 } else {
481 $l->concise($level);
482 }
483 }
484}
485
486sub walk_exec {
487 my($top, $level) = @_;
488 my %opsseen;
489 my @lines;
490 my @todo = ([$top, \@lines]);
491 while (@todo and my($op, $targ) = @{shift @todo}) {
492 for (; $$op; $op = $op->next) {
493 last if $opsseen{$$op}++;
494 push @$targ, $op;
495 my $name = $op->name;
62e36f8a 496 if (class($op) eq "LOGOP") {
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497 my $ar = [];
498 push @$targ, $ar;
499 push @todo, [$op->other, $ar];
500 } elsif ($name eq "subst" and $ {$op->pmreplstart}) {
501 my $ar = [];
502 push @$targ, $ar;
503 push @todo, [$op->pmreplstart, $ar];
504 } elsif ($name =~ /^enter(loop|iter)$/) {
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505 if ($] > 5.009) {
506 $labels{${$op->nextop}} = "NEXT";
507 $labels{${$op->lastop}} = "LAST";
508 $labels{${$op->redoop}} = "REDO";
509 } else {
510 $labels{$op->nextop->seq} = "NEXT";
511 $labels{$op->lastop->seq} = "LAST";
512 $labels{$op->redoop->seq} = "REDO";
513 }
c99ca59a
SM
514 }
515 }
516 }
517 walklines(\@lines, 0);
518}
519
c27ea44e
SM
520# The structure of this routine is purposely modeled after op.c's peep()
521sub sequence {
522 my($op) = @_;
523 my $oldop = 0;
524 return if class($op) eq "NULL" or exists $sequence_num{$$op};
525 for (; $$op; $op = $op->next) {
526 last if exists $sequence_num{$$op};
527 my $name = $op->name;
528 if ($name =~ /^(null|scalar|lineseq|scope)$/) {
529 next if $oldop and $ {$op->next};
530 } else {
531 $sequence_num{$$op} = $seq_max++;
532 if (class($op) eq "LOGOP") {
533 my $other = $op->other;
534 $other = $other->next while $other->name eq "null";
535 sequence($other);
536 } elsif (class($op) eq "LOOP") {
537 my $redoop = $op->redoop;
538 $redoop = $redoop->next while $redoop->name eq "null";
539 sequence($redoop);
540 my $nextop = $op->nextop;
541 $nextop = $nextop->next while $nextop->name eq "null";
542 sequence($nextop);
543 my $lastop = $op->lastop;
544 $lastop = $lastop->next while $lastop->name eq "null";
545 sequence($lastop);
546 } elsif ($name eq "subst" and $ {$op->pmreplstart}) {
547 my $replstart = $op->pmreplstart;
548 $replstart = $replstart->next while $replstart->name eq "null";
549 sequence($replstart);
550 }
551 }
552 $oldop = $op;
553 }
554}
555
724aa791 556sub fmt_line { # generate text-line for op.
cc02ea56
JC
557 my($hr, $op, $text, $level) = @_;
558
559 $_->($hr, $op, \$text, \$level, $stylename) for @callbacks;
560
724aa791 561 return '' if $hr->{SKIP}; # suppress line if a callback said so
cc02ea56 562 return '' if $hr->{goto} and $hr->{goto} eq '-'; # no goto nowhere
f95e3c3c 563
cc02ea56 564 # spec: (?(text1#varText2)?)
c99ca59a 565 $text =~ s/\(\?\(([^\#]*?)\#(\w+)([^\#]*?)\)\?\)/
f95e3c3c
JC
566 $hr->{$2} ? $1.$hr->{$2}.$3 : ""/eg;
567
cc02ea56 568 # spec: (x(exec_text;basic_text)x)
c99ca59a 569 $text =~ s/\(x\((.*?);(.*?)\)x\)/$order eq "exec" ? $1 : $2/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
570
571 # spec: (*(text)*)
c99ca59a 572 $text =~ s/\(\*\(([^;]*?)\)\*\)/$1 x $level/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
573
574 # spec: (*(text1;text2)*)
c99ca59a 575 $text =~ s/\(\*\((.*?);(.*?)\)\*\)/$1 x ($level - 1) . $2 x ($level>0)/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
576
577 # convert #Var to tag=>val form: Var\t#var
578 $text =~ s/\#([A-Z][a-z]+)(\d+)?/\t\u$1\t\L#$1$2/gs;
579
580 # spec: #varN
724aa791
JC
581 $text =~ s/\#([a-zA-Z]+)(\d+)/sprintf("%-$2s", $hr->{$1})/eg;
582
cc02ea56
JC
583 $text =~ s/\#([a-zA-Z]+)/$hr->{$1}/eg; # populate #var's
584 $text =~ s/[ \t]*~+[ \t]*/ /g; # squeeze tildes
f18deeb9
JC
585
586 $text = "# $hr->{src}\n$text" if $show_src and $hr->{src};
587
f95e3c3c 588 chomp $text;
efef081e 589 return "$text\n" if $text ne "" and $order ne "tree";
f95e3c3c 590 return $text; # suppress empty lines
c99ca59a
SM
591}
592
19e169bf
JC
593our %priv; # used to display each opcode's BASEOP.op_private values
594
c99ca59a
SM
595$priv{$_}{128} = "LVINTRO"
596 for ("pos", "substr", "vec", "threadsv", "gvsv", "rv2sv", "rv2hv", "rv2gv",
597 "rv2av", "rv2arylen", "aelem", "helem", "aslice", "hslice", "padsv",
52153b34 598 "padav", "padhv", "enteriter", "entersub");
c99ca59a
SM
599$priv{$_}{64} = "REFC" for ("leave", "leavesub", "leavesublv", "leavewrite");
600$priv{"aassign"}{64} = "COMMON";
461824dc 601$priv{"aassign"}{32} = $] < 5.009 ? "PHASH" : "STATE";
952306ac 602$priv{"sassign"}{32} = "STATE";
c99ca59a 603$priv{"sassign"}{64} = "BKWARD";
a264864d 604$priv{"sassign"}{128}= "CV2GV";
7abc42fc 605$priv{$_}{64} = "RTIME" for ("match", "subst", "substcont", "qr");
c99ca59a
SM
606@{$priv{"trans"}}{1,2,4,8,16,64} = ("<UTF", ">UTF", "IDENT", "SQUASH", "DEL",
607 "COMPL", "GROWS");
bb16bae8 608$priv{transr} = $priv{trans};
c99ca59a
SM
609$priv{"repeat"}{64} = "DOLIST";
610$priv{"leaveloop"}{64} = "CONT";
0824d667 611$priv{$_}{4} = "DREFed" for (qw(rv2sv rv2av rv2hv));
c99ca59a 612@{$priv{$_}}{32,64,96} = ("DREFAV", "DREFHV", "DREFSV")
314d4778 613 for (qw(rv2gv rv2sv padsv aelem helem));
a5911867 614$priv{$_}{16} = "STATE" for ("padav", "padhv", "padsv");
a1cbc68f 615$priv{rv2gv}{4} = "NOINIT";
6c5d4499 616@{$priv{"entersub"}}{1,4,16,32,64} = qw( INARGS TARG DBG DEREF );
52153b34 617@{$priv{rv2cv}}{1,8,128} = ("CONST","AMPER","NO()");
c99ca59a
SM
618$priv{"gv"}{32} = "EARLYCV";
619$priv{"aelem"}{16} = $priv{"helem"}{16} = "LVDEFER";
241416b8
DM
620$priv{$_}{16} = "OURINTR" for ("gvsv", "rv2sv", "rv2av", "rv2hv", "r2gv",
621 "enteriter");
6a8709a6
FC
622$priv{$_}{8} = 'LVSUB' for qw(rv2av rv2gv rv2hv padav padhv aelem helem
623 aslice hslice av2arylen keys rkeys substr pos vec);
c99ca59a
SM
624$priv{$_}{16} = "TARGMY"
625 for (map(($_,"s$_"),"chop", "chomp"),
626 map(($_,"i_$_"), "postinc", "postdec", "multiply", "divide", "modulo",
627 "add", "subtract", "negate"), "pow", "concat", "stringify",
628 "left_shift", "right_shift", "bit_and", "bit_xor", "bit_or",
629 "complement", "atan2", "sin", "cos", "rand", "exp", "log", "sqrt",
630 "int", "hex", "oct", "abs", "length", "index", "rindex", "sprintf",
631 "ord", "chr", "crypt", "quotemeta", "join", "push", "unshift", "flock",
632 "chdir", "chown", "chroot", "unlink", "chmod", "utime", "rename",
633 "link", "symlink", "mkdir", "rmdir", "wait", "waitpid", "system",
634 "exec", "kill", "getppid", "getpgrp", "setpgrp", "getpriority",
635 "setpriority", "time", "sleep");
ef3e5ea9 636$priv{$_}{4} = "REVERSED" for ("enteriter", "iter");
e1dccc0d 637@{$priv{"const"}}{4,8,16,64,128} = ("SHORT","STRICT","ENTERED","BARE","WARN");
c99ca59a
SM
638$priv{"flip"}{64} = $priv{"flop"}{64} = "LINENUM";
639$priv{"list"}{64} = "GUESSED";
640$priv{"delete"}{64} = "SLICE";
641$priv{"exists"}{64} = "SUB";
7b9ef140 642@{$priv{"sort"}}{1,2,4,8,16,32,64} = ("NUM", "INT", "REV", "INPLACE","DESC","QSORT","STABLE");
484c818f 643$priv{"reverse"}{8} = "INPLACE";
c99ca59a 644$priv{"threadsv"}{64} = "SVREFd";
c27ea44e
SM
645@{$priv{$_}}{16,32,64,128} = ("INBIN","INCR","OUTBIN","OUTCR")
646 for ("open", "backtick");
c99ca59a 647$priv{"exit"}{128} = "VMS";
feaeca78
JH
648$priv{$_}{2} = "FTACCESS"
649 for ("ftrread", "ftrwrite", "ftrexec", "fteread", "ftewrite", "fteexec");
7b9ef140 650$priv{"entereval"}{2} = "HAS_HH";
32454ac8
NC
651if ($] >= 5.009) {
652 # Stacked filetests are post 5.8.x
3324ed9f 653 @{$priv{$_}}{4,8} = ("FTSTACKED","FTSTACKING")
32454ac8
NC
654 for ("ftrread", "ftrwrite", "ftrexec", "fteread", "ftewrite", "fteexec",
655 "ftis", "fteowned", "ftrowned", "ftzero", "ftsize", "ftmtime",
656 "ftatime", "ftctime", "ftsock", "ftchr", "ftblk", "ftfile", "ftdir",
657 "ftpipe", "ftlink", "ftsuid", "ftsgid", "ftsvtx", "fttty", "fttext",
658 "ftbinary");
659 # Lexical $_ is post 5.8.x
660 $priv{$_}{2} = "GREPLEX"
661 for ("mapwhile", "mapstart", "grepwhile", "grepstart");
662}
93f0bc49 663$priv{$_}{128} = '+1' for qw "caller wantarray";
cb85b2db 664@{$priv{coreargs}}{1,2,64,128} = ('DREF1','DREF2','$MOD','MARK');
c99ca59a 665
d5ec2987
NC
666our %hints; # used to display each COP's op_hints values
667
668# strict refs, subs, vars
669@hints{2,512,1024} = ('$', '&', '*');
e1dccc0d
Z
670# integers, locale, bytes
671@hints{1,4,8,16} = ('i', 'l', 'b');
8b850bd5
NC
672# block scope, localise %^H, $^OPEN (in), $^OPEN (out)
673@hints{256,131072,262144,524288} = ('{','%','<','>');
d5ec2987
NC
674# overload new integer, float, binary, string, re
675@hints{4096,8192,16384,32768,65536} = ('I', 'F', 'B', 'S', 'R');
676# taint and eval
677@hints{1048576,2097152} = ('T', 'E');
584420f0
RGS
678# filetest access, UTF-8
679@hints{4194304,8388608} = ('X', 'U');
d5ec2987
NC
680
681sub _flags {
682 my($hash, $x) = @_;
c99ca59a 683 my @s;
d5ec2987
NC
684 for my $flag (sort {$b <=> $a} keys %$hash) {
685 if ($hash->{$flag} and $x & $flag and $x >= $flag) {
c99ca59a 686 $x -= $flag;
d5ec2987 687 push @s, $hash->{$flag};
c99ca59a
SM
688 }
689 }
690 push @s, $x if $x;
691 return join(",", @s);
692}
693
d5ec2987
NC
694sub private_flags {
695 my($name, $x) = @_;
696 _flags($priv{$name}, $x);
697}
698
699sub hints_flags {
700 my($x) = @_;
701 _flags(\%hints, $x);
702}
703
c27ea44e 704sub concise_sv {
2db5ca0a 705 my($sv, $hr, $preferpv) = @_;
c27ea44e 706 $hr->{svclass} = class($sv);
31b49ad4
SM
707 $hr->{svclass} = "UV"
708 if $hr->{svclass} eq "IV" and $sv->FLAGS & SVf_IVisUV;
5b493bdf 709 Carp::cluck("bad concise_sv: $sv") unless $sv and $$sv;
c27ea44e 710 $hr->{svaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $$sv);
50786ba8 711 if ($hr->{svclass} eq "GV" && $sv->isGV_with_GP()) {
c27ea44e 712 my $gv = $sv;
50786ba8 713 my $stash = $gv->STASH->NAME; if ($stash eq "main") {
c27ea44e
SM
714 $stash = "";
715 } else {
716 $stash = $stash . "::";
717 }
718 $hr->{svval} = "*$stash" . $gv->SAFENAME;
719 return "*$stash" . $gv->SAFENAME;
720 } else {
4df7f6af
NC
721 if ($] >= 5.011) {
722 while (class($sv) eq "IV" && $sv->FLAGS & SVf_ROK) {
723 $hr->{svval} .= "\\";
724 $sv = $sv->RV;
725 }
726 } else {
727 while (class($sv) eq "RV") {
728 $hr->{svval} .= "\\";
729 $sv = $sv->RV;
730 }
c27ea44e
SM
731 }
732 if (class($sv) eq "SPECIAL") {
40b5b14f 733 $hr->{svval} .= ["Null", "sv_undef", "sv_yes", "sv_no"]->[$$sv];
2db5ca0a
YST
734 } elsif ($preferpv && $sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
735 $hr->{svval} .= cstring($sv->PV);
c27ea44e 736 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_NOK) {
40b5b14f 737 $hr->{svval} .= $sv->NV;
c27ea44e 738 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_IOK) {
31b49ad4 739 $hr->{svval} .= $sv->int_value;
c27ea44e 740 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
40b5b14f 741 $hr->{svval} .= cstring($sv->PV);
31b49ad4
SM
742 } elsif (class($sv) eq "HV") {
743 $hr->{svval} .= 'HASH';
c27ea44e 744 }
cc02ea56
JC
745
746 $hr->{svval} = 'undef' unless defined $hr->{svval};
747 my $out = $hr->{svclass};
748 return $out .= " $hr->{svval}" ;
c27ea44e
SM
749 }
750}
751
f18deeb9
JC
752my %srclines;
753
754sub fill_srclines {
9e0f9750
JC
755 my $fullnm = shift;
756 if ($fullnm eq '-e') {
757 $srclines{$fullnm} = [ $fullnm, "-src not supported for -e" ];
758 return;
6cc5d258 759 }
9e0f9750 760 open (my $fh, '<', $fullnm)
6cc5d258 761 or warn "# $fullnm: $!, (chdirs not supported by this feature yet)\n"
f18deeb9
JC
762 and return;
763 my @l = <$fh>;
764 chomp @l;
9e0f9750
JC
765 unshift @l, $fullnm; # like @{_<$fullnm} in debug, array starts at 1
766 $srclines{$fullnm} = \@l;
f18deeb9
JC
767}
768
c99ca59a
SM
769sub concise_op {
770 my ($op, $level, $format) = @_;
771 my %h;
772 $h{exname} = $h{name} = $op->name;
773 $h{NAME} = uc $h{name};
774 $h{class} = class($op);
775 $h{extarg} = $h{targ} = $op->targ;
776 $h{extarg} = "" unless $h{extarg};
777 if ($h{name} eq "null" and $h{targ}) {
8ec8fbef 778 # targ holds the old type
c99ca59a
SM
779 $h{exname} = "ex-" . substr(ppname($h{targ}), 3);
780 $h{extarg} = "";
8ec8fbef
SM
781 } elsif ($op->name =~ /^leave(sub(lv)?|write)?$/) {
782 # targ potentially holds a reference count
783 if ($op->private & 64) {
784 my $refs = "ref" . ($h{targ} != 1 ? "s" : "");
785 $h{targarglife} = $h{targarg} = "$h{targ} $refs";
786 }
c99ca59a
SM
787 } elsif ($h{targ}) {
788 my $padname = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[0]->ARRAY)[$h{targ}];
789 if (defined $padname and class($padname) ne "SPECIAL") {
0b40bd6d 790 $h{targarg} = $padname->PVX;
127212b2 791 if ($padname->FLAGS & SVf_FAKE) {
4ac6efe6
NC
792 if ($] < 5.009) {
793 $h{targarglife} = "$h{targarg}:FAKE";
794 } else {
795 # These changes relate to the jumbo closure fix.
796 # See changes 19939 and 20005
797 my $fake = '';
6c5e080d
NC
798 $fake .= 'a'
799 if $padname->PARENT_FAKELEX_FLAGS & PAD_FAKELEX_ANON;
800 $fake .= 'm'
801 if $padname->PARENT_FAKELEX_FLAGS & PAD_FAKELEX_MULTI;
809abb02
NC
802 $fake .= ':' . $padname->PARENT_PAD_INDEX
803 if $curcv->CvFLAGS & CVf_ANON;
4ac6efe6
NC
804 $h{targarglife} = "$h{targarg}:FAKE:$fake";
805 }
127212b2
DM
806 }
807 else {
809abb02
NC
808 my $intro = $padname->COP_SEQ_RANGE_LOW - $cop_seq_base;
809 my $finish = int($padname->COP_SEQ_RANGE_HIGH) - $cop_seq_base;
127212b2
DM
810 $finish = "end" if $finish == 999999999 - $cop_seq_base;
811 $h{targarglife} = "$h{targarg}:$intro,$finish";
812 }
c99ca59a
SM
813 } else {
814 $h{targarglife} = $h{targarg} = "t" . $h{targ};
815 }
816 }
817 $h{arg} = "";
818 $h{svclass} = $h{svaddr} = $h{svval} = "";
819 if ($h{class} eq "PMOP") {
820 my $precomp = $op->precomp;
7a9b44b9 821 if (defined $precomp) {
c27ea44e
SM
822 $precomp = cstring($precomp); # Escape literal control sequences
823 $precomp = "/$precomp/";
824 } else {
825 $precomp = "";
7a9b44b9 826 }
b2a3cfdd 827 my $pmreplroot = $op->pmreplroot;
34a48b4b 828 my $pmreplstart;
c6e79e55 829 if (ref($pmreplroot) eq "B::GV") {
b2a3cfdd 830 # with C<@stash_array = split(/pat/, str);>,
c6e79e55 831 # *stash_array is stored in /pat/'s pmreplroot.
b2a3cfdd 832 $h{arg} = "($precomp => \@" . $pmreplroot->NAME . ")";
c6e79e55
SM
833 } elsif (!ref($pmreplroot) and $pmreplroot) {
834 # same as the last case, except the value is actually a
835 # pad offset for where the GV is kept (this happens under
836 # ithreads)
837 my $gv = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$pmreplroot];
838 $h{arg} = "($precomp => \@" . $gv->NAME . ")";
b2a3cfdd 839 } elsif ($ {$op->pmreplstart}) {
c99ca59a
SM
840 undef $lastnext;
841 $pmreplstart = "replstart->" . seq($op->pmreplstart);
842 $h{arg} = "(" . join(" ", $precomp, $pmreplstart) . ")";
843 } else {
844 $h{arg} = "($precomp)";
845 }
bb16bae8 846 } elsif ($h{class} eq "PVOP" and $h{name} !~ '^transr?\z') {
c99ca59a
SM
847 $h{arg} = '("' . $op->pv . '")';
848 $h{svval} = '"' . $op->pv . '"';
849 } elsif ($h{class} eq "COP") {
850 my $label = $op->label;
c3caa09d 851 $h{coplabel} = $label;
c99ca59a
SM
852 $label = $label ? "$label: " : "";
853 my $loc = $op->file;
9e0f9750 854 my $pathnm = $loc;
c99ca59a 855 $loc =~ s[.*/][];
9e0f9750
JC
856 my $ln = $op->line;
857 $loc .= ":$ln";
c99ca59a 858 my($stash, $cseq) = ($op->stash->NAME, $op->cop_seq - $cop_seq_base);
e1dccc0d 859 $h{arg} = "($label$stash $cseq $loc)";
f18deeb9 860 if ($show_src) {
9e0f9750 861 fill_srclines($pathnm) unless exists $srclines{$pathnm};
e9c69003
NC
862 # Would love to retain Jim's use of // but this code needs to be
863 # portable to 5.8.x
864 my $line = $srclines{$pathnm}[$ln];
865 $line = "-src unavailable under -e" unless defined $line;
866 $h{src} = "$ln: $line";
f18deeb9 867 }
c99ca59a
SM
868 } elsif ($h{class} eq "LOOP") {
869 $h{arg} = "(next->" . seq($op->nextop) . " last->" . seq($op->lastop)
870 . " redo->" . seq($op->redoop) . ")";
871 } elsif ($h{class} eq "LOGOP") {
872 undef $lastnext;
873 $h{arg} = "(other->" . seq($op->other) . ")";
5b493bdf
JC
874 }
875 elsif ($h{class} eq "SVOP" or $h{class} eq "PADOP") {
6a077020 876 unless ($h{name} eq 'aelemfast' and $op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
5b493bdf 877 my $idx = ($h{class} eq "SVOP") ? $op->targ : $op->padix;
2db5ca0a 878 my $preferpv = $h{name} eq "method_named";
5b493bdf
JC
879 if ($h{class} eq "PADOP" or !${$op->sv}) {
880 my $sv = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$idx];
2db5ca0a 881 $h{arg} = "[" . concise_sv($sv, \%h, $preferpv) . "]";
6a077020
DM
882 $h{targarglife} = $h{targarg} = "";
883 } else {
2db5ca0a 884 $h{arg} = "(" . concise_sv($op->sv, \%h, $preferpv) . ")";
6a077020 885 }
c99ca59a
SM
886 }
887 }
888 $h{seq} = $h{hyphseq} = seq($op);
889 $h{seq} = "" if $h{seq} eq "-";
7252851f
NC
890 if ($] > 5.009) {
891 $h{opt} = $op->opt;
7252851f
NC
892 $h{label} = $labels{$$op};
893 } else {
894 $h{seqnum} = $op->seq;
895 $h{label} = $labels{$op->seq};
896 }
c99ca59a
SM
897 $h{next} = $op->next;
898 $h{next} = (class($h{next}) eq "NULL") ? "(end)" : seq($h{next});
899 $h{nextaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->next});
900 $h{sibaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->sibling});
901 $h{firstaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->first}) if $op->can("first");
902 $h{lastaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->last}) if $op->can("last");
903
904 $h{classsym} = $opclass{$h{class}};
905 $h{flagval} = $op->flags;
906 $h{flags} = op_flags($op->flags);
907 $h{privval} = $op->private;
908 $h{private} = private_flags($h{name}, $op->private);
d5ec2987
NC
909 if ($op->can("hints")) {
910 $h{hintsval} = $op->hints;
911 $h{hints} = hints_flags($h{hintsval});
912 } else {
913 $h{hintsval} = $h{hints} = '';
914 }
c99ca59a 915 $h{addr} = sprintf("%#x", $$op);
c99ca59a
SM
916 $h{typenum} = $op->type;
917 $h{noise} = $linenoise[$op->type];
f95e3c3c 918
cc02ea56 919 return fmt_line(\%h, $op, $format, $level);
c99ca59a
SM
920}
921
922sub B::OP::concise {
923 my($op, $level) = @_;
924 if ($order eq "exec" and $lastnext and $$lastnext != $$op) {
724aa791 925 # insert a 'goto' line
cc02ea56
JC
926 my $synth = {"seq" => seq($lastnext), "class" => class($lastnext),
927 "addr" => sprintf("%#x", $$lastnext),
928 "goto" => seq($lastnext), # simplify goto '-' removal
929 };
930 print $walkHandle fmt_line($synth, $op, $gotofmt, $level+1);
c99ca59a
SM
931 }
932 $lastnext = $op->next;
f95e3c3c 933 print $walkHandle concise_op($op, $level, $format);
c99ca59a
SM
934}
935
31b49ad4
SM
936# B::OP::terse (see Terse.pm) now just calls this
937sub b_terse {
938 my($op, $level) = @_;
939
940 # This isn't necessarily right, but there's no easy way to get
941 # from an OP to the right CV. This is a limitation of the
942 # ->terse() interface style, and there isn't much to do about
943 # it. In particular, we can die in concise_op if the main pad
944 # isn't long enough, or has the wrong kind of entries, compared to
945 # the pad a sub was compiled with. The fix for that would be to
946 # make a backwards compatible "terse" format that never even
947 # looked at the pad, just like the old B::Terse. I don't think
948 # that's worth the effort, though.
949 $curcv = main_cv unless $curcv;
950
951 if ($order eq "exec" and $lastnext and $$lastnext != $$op) {
724aa791 952 # insert a 'goto'
31b49ad4
SM
953 my $h = {"seq" => seq($lastnext), "class" => class($lastnext),
954 "addr" => sprintf("%#x", $$lastnext)};
cc02ea56
JC
955 print # $walkHandle
956 fmt_line($h, $op, $style{"terse"}[1], $level+1);
31b49ad4
SM
957 }
958 $lastnext = $op->next;
cc02ea56
JC
959 print # $walkHandle
960 concise_op($op, $level, $style{"terse"}[0]);
31b49ad4
SM
961}
962
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SM
963sub tree {
964 my $op = shift;
965 my $level = shift;
966 my $style = $tree_decorations[$tree_style];
967 my($space, $single, $kids, $kid, $nokid, $last, $lead, $size) = @$style;
968 my $name = concise_op($op, $level, $treefmt);
969 if (not $op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
970 return $name . "\n";
971 }
972 my @lines;
973 for (my $kid = $op->first; $$kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
974 push @lines, tree($kid, $level+1);
975 }
976 my $i;
977 for ($i = $#lines; substr($lines[$i], 0, 1) eq " "; $i--) {
978 $lines[$i] = $space . $lines[$i];
979 }
980 if ($i > 0) {
981 $lines[$i] = $last . $lines[$i];
982 while ($i-- > 1) {
983 if (substr($lines[$i], 0, 1) eq " ") {
984 $lines[$i] = $nokid . $lines[$i];
985 } else {
f95e3c3c 986 $lines[$i] = $kid . $lines[$i];
c99ca59a
SM
987 }
988 }
989 $lines[$i] = $kids . $lines[$i];
990 } else {
991 $lines[0] = $single . $lines[0];
992 }
993 return("$name$lead" . shift @lines,
994 map(" " x (length($name)+$size) . $_, @lines));
995}
996
213a1a26
SM
997# *** Warning: fragile kludge ahead ***
998# Because the B::* modules run in the same interpreter as the code
2814eb74
PJ
999# they're compiling, their presence tends to distort the view we have of
1000# the code we're looking at. In particular, perl gives sequence numbers
1001# to COPs. If the program we're looking at were run on its own, this
1002# would start at 1. Because all of B::Concise and all the modules it
1003# uses are compiled first, though, by the time we get to the user's
1004# program the sequence number is already pretty high, which could be
1005# distracting if you're trying to tell OPs apart. Therefore we'd like to
1006# subtract an offset from all the sequence numbers we display, to
1007# restore the simpler view of the world. The trick is to know what that
1008# offset will be, when we're still compiling B::Concise! If we
213a1a26 1009# hardcoded a value, it would have to change every time B::Concise or
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PJ
1010# other modules we use do. To help a little, what we do here is compile
1011# a little code at the end of the module, and compute the base sequence
1012# number for the user's program as being a small offset later, so all we
1013# have to worry about are changes in the offset.
7252851f
NC
1014
1015# [For 5.8.x and earlier perl is generating sequence numbers for all ops,
1016# and using them to reference labels]
1017
1018
213a1a26
SM
1019# When you say "perl -MO=Concise -e '$a'", the output should look like:
1020
1021# 4 <@> leave[t1] vKP/REFC ->(end)
1022# 1 <0> enter ->2
1023 #^ smallest OP sequence number should be 1
1024# 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v ->3
1025 # ^ smallest COP sequence number should be 1
1026# - <1> ex-rv2sv vK/1 ->4
1027# 3 <$> gvsv(*a) s ->4
1028
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SM
1029# If the second of the marked numbers there isn't 1, it means you need
1030# to update the corresponding magic number in the next line.
1031# Remember, this needs to stay the last things in the module.
e69a2255 1032
c27ea44e 1033# Why is this different for MacOS? Does it matter?
8ec8fbef 1034my $cop_seq_mnum = $^O eq 'MacOS' ? 12 : 11;
e69a2255 1035$cop_seq_base = svref_2object(eval 'sub{0;}')->START->cop_seq + $cop_seq_mnum;
c99ca59a
SM
1036
10371;
1038
1039__END__
1040
1041=head1 NAME
1042
1043B::Concise - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops
1044
1045=head1 SYNOPSIS
1046
1047 perl -MO=Concise[,OPTIONS] foo.pl
1048
78ad9108
PJ
1049 use B::Concise qw(set_style add_callback);
1050
c99ca59a
SM
1051=head1 DESCRIPTION
1052
1053This compiler backend prints the internal OPs of a Perl program's syntax
1054tree in one of several space-efficient text formats suitable for debugging
1055the inner workings of perl or other compiler backends. It can print OPs in
1056the order they appear in the OP tree, in the order they will execute, or
1057in a text approximation to their tree structure, and the format of the
3c4b39be 1058information displayed is customizable. Its function is similar to that of
c99ca59a
SM
1059perl's B<-Dx> debugging flag or the B<B::Terse> module, but it is more
1060sophisticated and flexible.
1061
f8a679e6
RGS
1062=head1 EXAMPLE
1063
f9f861ec
JC
1064Here's two outputs (or 'renderings'), using the -exec and -basic
1065(i.e. default) formatting conventions on the same code snippet.
19e169bf
JC
1066
1067 % perl -MO=Concise,-exec -e '$a = $b + 42'
1068 1 <0> enter
1069 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v
1070 3 <#> gvsv[*b] s
1071 4 <$> const[IV 42] s
1072 * 5 <2> add[t3] sK/2
1073 6 <#> gvsv[*a] s
1074 7 <2> sassign vKS/2
1075 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC
1076
f9f861ec
JC
1077In this -exec rendering, each opcode is executed in the order shown.
1078The add opcode, marked with '*', is discussed in more detail.
19e169bf
JC
1079
1080The 1st column is the op's sequence number, starting at 1, and is
f9f861ec
JC
1081displayed in base 36 by default. Here they're purely linear; the
1082sequences are very helpful when looking at code with loops and
1083branches.
19e169bf
JC
1084
1085The symbol between angle brackets indicates the op's type, for
1086example; <2> is a BINOP, <@> a LISTOP, and <#> is a PADOP, which is
1087used in threaded perls. (see L</"OP class abbreviations">).
1088
f9f861ec 1089The opname, as in B<'add[t1]'>, may be followed by op-specific
19e169bf
JC
1090information in parentheses or brackets (ex B<'[t1]'>).
1091
f9f861ec 1092The op-flags (ex B<'sK/2'>) are described in (L</"OP flags
19e169bf 1093abbreviations">).
f8a679e6
RGS
1094
1095 % perl -MO=Concise -e '$a = $b + 42'
8ec8fbef 1096 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC ->(end)
f8a679e6
RGS
1097 1 <0> enter ->2
1098 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v ->3
1099 7 <2> sassign vKS/2 ->8
19e169bf 1100 * 5 <2> add[t1] sK/2 ->6
f8a679e6
RGS
1101 - <1> ex-rv2sv sK/1 ->4
1102 3 <$> gvsv(*b) s ->4
1103 4 <$> const(IV 42) s ->5
1104 - <1> ex-rv2sv sKRM*/1 ->7
1105 6 <$> gvsv(*a) s ->7
1106
19e169bf
JC
1107The default rendering is top-down, so they're not in execution order.
1108This form reflects the way the stack is used to parse and evaluate
1109expressions; the add operates on the two terms below it in the tree.
f8a679e6 1110
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JC
1111Nullops appear as C<ex-opname>, where I<opname> is an op that has been
1112optimized away by perl. They're displayed with a sequence-number of
1113'-', because they are not executed (they don't appear in previous
1114example), they're printed here because they reflect the parse.
f8a679e6 1115
19e169bf
JC
1116The arrow points to the sequence number of the next op; they're not
1117displayed in -exec mode, for obvious reasons.
f8a679e6 1118
19e169bf
JC
1119Note that because this rendering was done on a non-threaded perl, the
1120PADOPs in the previous examples are now SVOPs, and some (but not all)
1121of the square brackets have been replaced by round ones. This is a
1122subtle feature to provide some visual distinction between renderings
1123on threaded and un-threaded perls.
f8a679e6 1124
f8a679e6 1125
c99ca59a
SM
1126=head1 OPTIONS
1127
1128Arguments that don't start with a hyphen are taken to be the names of
9e0f9750
JC
1129subroutines to render; if no such functions are specified, the main
1130body of the program (outside any subroutines, and not including use'd
1131or require'd files) is rendered. Passing C<BEGIN>, C<UNITCHECK>,
1132C<CHECK>, C<INIT>, or C<END> will cause all of the corresponding
1133special blocks to be printed. Arguments must follow options.
c99ca59a 1134
724aa791
JC
1135Options affect how things are rendered (ie printed). They're presented
1136here by their visual effect, 1st being strongest. They're grouped
1137according to how they interrelate; within each group the options are
1138mutually exclusive (unless otherwise stated).
1139
1140=head2 Options for Opcode Ordering
1141
1142These options control the 'vertical display' of opcodes. The display
1143'order' is also called 'mode' elsewhere in this document.
1144
c99ca59a
SM
1145=over 4
1146
1147=item B<-basic>
1148
1149Print OPs in the order they appear in the OP tree (a preorder
1150traversal, starting at the root). The indentation of each OP shows its
19e169bf
JC
1151level in the tree, and the '->' at the end of the line indicates the
1152next opcode in execution order. This mode is the default, so the flag
1153is included simply for completeness.
c99ca59a
SM
1154
1155=item B<-exec>
1156
1157Print OPs in the order they would normally execute (for the majority
1158of constructs this is a postorder traversal of the tree, ending at the
1159root). In most cases the OP that usually follows a given OP will
1160appear directly below it; alternate paths are shown by indentation. In
1161cases like loops when control jumps out of a linear path, a 'goto'
1162line is generated.
1163
1164=item B<-tree>
1165
1166Print OPs in a text approximation of a tree, with the root of the tree
1167at the left and 'left-to-right' order of children transformed into
1168'top-to-bottom'. Because this mode grows both to the right and down,
1169it isn't suitable for large programs (unless you have a very wide
1170terminal).
1171
724aa791
JC
1172=back
1173
1174=head2 Options for Line-Style
1175
1176These options select the line-style (or just style) used to render
1177each opcode, and dictates what info is actually printed into each line.
1178
1179=over 4
1180
1181=item B<-concise>
1182
1183Use the author's favorite set of formatting conventions. This is the
1184default, of course.
1185
1186=item B<-terse>
1187
1188Use formatting conventions that emulate the output of B<B::Terse>. The
1189basic mode is almost indistinguishable from the real B<B::Terse>, and the
1190exec mode looks very similar, but is in a more logical order and lacks
1191curly brackets. B<B::Terse> doesn't have a tree mode, so the tree mode
1192is only vaguely reminiscent of B<B::Terse>.
1193
1194=item B<-linenoise>
1195
1196Use formatting conventions in which the name of each OP, rather than being
1197written out in full, is represented by a one- or two-character abbreviation.
1198This is mainly a joke.
1199
1200=item B<-debug>
1201
1202Use formatting conventions reminiscent of B<B::Debug>; these aren't
1203very concise at all.
1204
1205=item B<-env>
1206
1207Use formatting conventions read from the environment variables
1208C<B_CONCISE_FORMAT>, C<B_CONCISE_GOTO_FORMAT>, and C<B_CONCISE_TREE_FORMAT>.
1209
1210=back
1211
1212=head2 Options for tree-specific formatting
1213
1214=over 4
1215
c99ca59a
SM
1216=item B<-compact>
1217
1218Use a tree format in which the minimum amount of space is used for the
1219lines connecting nodes (one character in most cases). This squeezes out
1220a few precious columns of screen real estate.
1221
1222=item B<-loose>
1223
1224Use a tree format that uses longer edges to separate OP nodes. This format
1225tends to look better than the compact one, especially in ASCII, and is
1226the default.
1227
1228=item B<-vt>
1229
1230Use tree connecting characters drawn from the VT100 line-drawing set.
1231This looks better if your terminal supports it.
1232
1233=item B<-ascii>
1234
1235Draw the tree with standard ASCII characters like C<+> and C<|>. These don't
1236look as clean as the VT100 characters, but they'll work with almost any
1237terminal (or the horizontal scrolling mode of less(1)) and are suitable
1238for text documentation or email. This is the default.
1239
724aa791 1240=back
c99ca59a 1241
724aa791
JC
1242These are pairwise exclusive, i.e. compact or loose, vt or ascii.
1243
1244=head2 Options controlling sequence numbering
1245
1246=over 4
c99ca59a
SM
1247
1248=item B<-base>I<n>
1249
1250Print OP sequence numbers in base I<n>. If I<n> is greater than 10, the
1251digit for 11 will be 'a', and so on. If I<n> is greater than 36, the digit
1252for 37 will be 'A', and so on until 62. Values greater than 62 are not
1253currently supported. The default is 36.
1254
1255=item B<-bigendian>
1256
1257Print sequence numbers with the most significant digit first. This is the
1258usual convention for Arabic numerals, and the default.
1259
1260=item B<-littleendian>
1261
1c2e8cca 1262Print sequence numbers with the least significant digit first. This is
724aa791 1263obviously mutually exclusive with bigendian.
c99ca59a 1264
724aa791 1265=back
c99ca59a 1266
724aa791 1267=head2 Other options
c99ca59a 1268
f18deeb9
JC
1269=over 4
1270
1271=item B<-src>
1272
e6665613
JC
1273With this option, the rendering of each statement (starting with the
1274nextstate OP) will be preceded by the 1st line of source code that
1275generates it. For example:
f18deeb9
JC
1276
1277 1 <0> enter
1278 # 1: my $i;
1279 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 junk.pl:1) v:{
1280 3 <0> padsv[$i:1,10] vM/LVINTRO
1281 # 3: for $i (0..9) {
1282 4 <;> nextstate(main 3 junk.pl:3) v:{
1283 5 <0> pushmark s
1284 6 <$> const[IV 0] s
1285 7 <$> const[IV 9] s
1286 8 <{> enteriter(next->j last->m redo->9)[$i:1,10] lKS
1287 k <0> iter s
1288 l <|> and(other->9) vK/1
1289 # 4: print "line ";
1290 9 <;> nextstate(main 2 junk.pl:4) v
1291 a <0> pushmark s
1292 b <$> const[PV "line "] s
1293 c <@> print vK
1294 # 5: print "$i\n";
e6665613 1295 ...
f18deeb9 1296
9e0f9750
JC
1297=item B<-stash="somepackage">
1298
1299With this, "somepackage" will be required, then the stash is
1300inspected, and each function is rendered.
1301
f18deeb9
JC
1302=back
1303
1304The following options are pairwise exclusive.
cc02ea56 1305
724aa791 1306=over 4
c99ca59a 1307
724aa791 1308=item B<-main>
c99ca59a 1309
724aa791 1310Include the main program in the output, even if subroutines were also
cc02ea56
JC
1311specified. This rendering is normally suppressed when a subroutine
1312name or reference is given.
1313
1314=item B<-nomain>
1315
1316This restores the default behavior after you've changed it with '-main'
1317(it's not normally needed). If no subroutine name/ref is given, main is
1318rendered, regardless of this flag.
1319
1320=item B<-nobanner>
1321
1322Renderings usually include a banner line identifying the function name
1323or stringified subref. This suppresses the printing of the banner.
1324
1325TBC: Remove the stringified coderef; while it provides a 'cookie' for
1326each function rendered, the cookies used should be 1,2,3.. not a
1327random hex-address. It also complicates string comparison of two
1328different trees.
c99ca59a 1329
724aa791 1330=item B<-banner>
c99ca59a 1331
cc02ea56
JC
1332restores default banner behavior.
1333
1334=item B<-banneris> => subref
1335
1336TBC: a hookpoint (and an option to set it) for a user-supplied
1337function to produce a banner appropriate for users needs. It's not
1338ideal, because the rendering-state variables, which are a natural
1339candidate for use in concise.t, are unavailable to the user.
c99ca59a 1340
724aa791 1341=back
c99ca59a 1342
724aa791 1343=head2 Option Stickiness
c99ca59a 1344
724aa791
JC
1345If you invoke Concise more than once in a program, you should know that
1346the options are 'sticky'. This means that the options you provide in
1347the first call will be remembered for the 2nd call, unless you
1348re-specify or change them.
c99ca59a 1349
cc02ea56
JC
1350=head1 ABBREVIATIONS
1351
1352The concise style uses symbols to convey maximum info with minimal
1353clutter (like hex addresses). With just a little practice, you can
1354start to see the flowers, not just the branches, in the trees.
1355
1356=head2 OP class abbreviations
1357
1358These symbols appear before the op-name, and indicate the
1359B:: namespace that represents the ops in your Perl code.
1360
1361 0 OP (aka BASEOP) An OP with no children
1362 1 UNOP An OP with one child
1363 2 BINOP An OP with two children
1364 | LOGOP A control branch OP
1365 @ LISTOP An OP that could have lots of children
1366 / PMOP An OP with a regular expression
1367 $ SVOP An OP with an SV
1368 " PVOP An OP with a string
1369 { LOOP An OP that holds pointers for a loop
1370 ; COP An OP that marks the start of a statement
1371 # PADOP An OP with a GV on the pad
1372
1373=head2 OP flags abbreviations
1374
19e169bf
JC
1375OP flags are either public or private. The public flags alter the
1376behavior of each opcode in consistent ways, and are represented by 0
1377or more single characters.
cc02ea56
JC
1378
1379 v OPf_WANT_VOID Want nothing (void context)
1380 s OPf_WANT_SCALAR Want single value (scalar context)
1381 l OPf_WANT_LIST Want list of any length (list context)
19e169bf 1382 Want is unknown
cc02ea56
JC
1383 K OPf_KIDS There is a firstborn child.
1384 P OPf_PARENS This operator was parenthesized.
1385 (Or block needs explicit scope entry.)
1386 R OPf_REF Certified reference.
1387 (Return container, not containee).
1388 M OPf_MOD Will modify (lvalue).
1389 S OPf_STACKED Some arg is arriving on the stack.
1390 * OPf_SPECIAL Do something weird for this op (see op.h)
1391
19e169bf
JC
1392Private flags, if any are set for an opcode, are displayed after a '/'
1393
1394 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC ->(end)
1395 7 <2> sassign vKS/2 ->8
1396
1397They're opcode specific, and occur less often than the public ones, so
1398they're represented by short mnemonics instead of single-chars; see
00baac8f 1399F<op.h> for gory details, or try this quick 2-liner:
19e169bf
JC
1400
1401 $> perl -MB::Concise -de 1
1402 DB<1> |x \%B::Concise::priv
1403
c99ca59a
SM
1404=head1 FORMATTING SPECIFICATIONS
1405
724aa791
JC
1406For each line-style ('concise', 'terse', 'linenoise', etc.) there are
14073 format-specs which control how OPs are rendered.
1408
1409The first is the 'default' format, which is used in both basic and exec
1410modes to print all opcodes. The 2nd, goto-format, is used in exec
1411mode when branches are encountered. They're not real opcodes, and are
1412inserted to look like a closing curly brace. The tree-format is tree
1413specific.
1414
cc02ea56
JC
1415When a line is rendered, the correct format-spec is copied and scanned
1416for the following items; data is substituted in, and other
1417manipulations like basic indenting are done, for each opcode rendered.
1418
1419There are 3 kinds of items that may be populated; special patterns,
1420#vars, and literal text, which is copied verbatim. (Yes, it's a set
1421of s///g steps.)
1422
1423=head2 Special Patterns
1424
1425These items are the primitives used to perform indenting, and to
1426select text from amongst alternatives.
c99ca59a
SM
1427
1428=over 4
1429
1430=item B<(x(>I<exec_text>B<;>I<basic_text>B<)x)>
1431
1432Generates I<exec_text> in exec mode, or I<basic_text> in basic mode.
1433
1434=item B<(*(>I<text>B<)*)>
1435
1436Generates one copy of I<text> for each indentation level.
1437
1438=item B<(*(>I<text1>B<;>I<text2>B<)*)>
1439
1440Generates one fewer copies of I<text1> than the indentation level, followed
1441by one copy of I<text2> if the indentation level is more than 0.
1442
1443=item B<(?(>I<text1>B<#>I<var>I<Text2>B<)?)>
1444
1445If the value of I<var> is true (not empty or zero), generates the
1446value of I<var> surrounded by I<text1> and I<Text2>, otherwise
1447nothing.
1448
cc02ea56
JC
1449=item B<~>
1450
1451Any number of tildes and surrounding whitespace will be collapsed to
1452a single space.
1453
1454=back
1455
1456=head2 # Variables
1457
1458These #vars represent opcode properties that you may want as part of
1459your rendering. The '#' is intended as a private sigil; a #var's
1460value is interpolated into the style-line, much like "read $this".
1461
1462These vars take 3 forms:
1463
1464=over 4
1465
c99ca59a
SM
1466=item B<#>I<var>
1467
cc02ea56
JC
1468A property named 'var' is assumed to exist for the opcodes, and is
1469interpolated into the rendering.
c99ca59a
SM
1470
1471=item B<#>I<var>I<N>
1472
cc02ea56
JC
1473Generates the value of I<var>, left justified to fill I<N> spaces.
1474Note that this means while you can have properties 'foo' and 'foo2',
1475you cannot render 'foo2', but you could with 'foo2a'. You would be
1476wise not to rely on this behavior going forward ;-)
c99ca59a 1477
cc02ea56 1478=item B<#>I<Var>
c99ca59a 1479
cc02ea56
JC
1480This ucfirst form of #var generates a tag-value form of itself for
1481display; it converts '#Var' into a 'Var => #var' style, which is then
1482handled as described above. (Imp-note: #Vars cannot be used for
1483conditional-fills, because the => #var transform is done after the check
1484for #Var's value).
c99ca59a
SM
1485
1486=back
1487
cc02ea56
JC
1488The following variables are 'defined' by B::Concise; when they are
1489used in a style, their respective values are plugged into the
1490rendering of each opcode.
1491
1492Only some of these are used by the standard styles, the others are
1493provided for you to delve into optree mechanics, should you wish to
1494add a new style (see L</add_style> below) that uses them. You can
00baac8f 1495also add new ones using L</add_callback>.
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SM
1496
1497=over 4
1498
1499=item B<#addr>
1500
cc02ea56 1501The address of the OP, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1502
1503=item B<#arg>
1504
1505The OP-specific information of the OP (such as the SV for an SVOP, the
cc02ea56 1506non-local exit pointers for a LOOP, etc.) enclosed in parentheses.
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SM
1507
1508=item B<#class>
1509
1510The B-determined class of the OP, in all caps.
1511
f8a679e6 1512=item B<#classsym>
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SM
1513
1514A single symbol abbreviating the class of the OP.
1515
c3caa09d
SM
1516=item B<#coplabel>
1517
1518The label of the statement or block the OP is the start of, if any.
1519
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SM
1520=item B<#exname>
1521
1522The name of the OP, or 'ex-foo' if the OP is a null that used to be a foo.
1523
1524=item B<#extarg>
1525
1526The target of the OP, or nothing for a nulled OP.
1527
1528=item B<#firstaddr>
1529
19e169bf 1530The address of the OP's first child, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1531
1532=item B<#flags>
1533
1534The OP's flags, abbreviated as a series of symbols.
1535
1536=item B<#flagval>
1537
1538The numeric value of the OP's flags.
1539
d5ec2987
NC
1540=item B<#hints>
1541
1542The COP's hint flags, rendered with abbreviated names if possible. An empty
4f948f3a
RGS
1543string if this is not a COP. Here are the symbols used:
1544
1545 $ strict refs
1546 & strict subs
1547 * strict vars
1548 i integers
1549 l locale
1550 b bytes
4f948f3a
RGS
1551 { block scope
1552 % localise %^H
1553 < open in
1554 > open out
1555 I overload int
1556 F overload float
1557 B overload binary
1558 S overload string
1559 R overload re
1560 T taint
1561 E eval
1562 X filetest access
1563 U utf-8
d5ec2987
NC
1564
1565=item B<#hintsval>
1566
1567The numeric value of the COP's hint flags, or an empty string if this is not
1568a COP.
1569
f8a679e6 1570=item B<#hyphseq>
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SM
1571
1572The sequence number of the OP, or a hyphen if it doesn't have one.
1573
1574=item B<#label>
1575
1576'NEXT', 'LAST', or 'REDO' if the OP is a target of one of those in exec
1577mode, or empty otherwise.
1578
1579=item B<#lastaddr>
1580
19e169bf 1581The address of the OP's last child, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1582
1583=item B<#name>
1584
1585The OP's name.
1586
1587=item B<#NAME>
1588
1589The OP's name, in all caps.
1590
1591=item B<#next>
1592
1593The sequence number of the OP's next OP.
1594
1595=item B<#nextaddr>
1596
19e169bf 1597The address of the OP's next OP, in hexadecimal.
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1598
1599=item B<#noise>
1600
c27ea44e 1601A one- or two-character abbreviation for the OP's name.
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1602
1603=item B<#private>
1604
1605The OP's private flags, rendered with abbreviated names if possible.
1606
1607=item B<#privval>
1608
1609The numeric value of the OP's private flags.
1610
1611=item B<#seq>
1612
2814eb74
PJ
1613The sequence number of the OP. Note that this is a sequence number
1614generated by B::Concise.
c99ca59a 1615
7252851f
NC
1616=item B<#seqnum>
1617
16185.8.x and earlier only. 5.9 and later do not provide this.
1619
1620The real sequence number of the OP, as a regular number and not adjusted
1621to be relative to the start of the real program. (This will generally be
1622a fairly large number because all of B<B::Concise> is compiled before
1623your program is).
1624
2814eb74 1625=item B<#opt>
c99ca59a 1626
2814eb74
PJ
1627Whether or not the op has been optimised by the peephole optimiser.
1628
7252851f
NC
1629Only available in 5.9 and later.
1630
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SM
1631=item B<#sibaddr>
1632
19e169bf 1633The address of the OP's next youngest sibling, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1634
1635=item B<#svaddr>
1636
19e169bf 1637The address of the OP's SV, if it has an SV, in hexadecimal.
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1638
1639=item B<#svclass>
1640
1641The class of the OP's SV, if it has one, in all caps (e.g., 'IV').
1642
1643=item B<#svval>
1644
1645The value of the OP's SV, if it has one, in a short human-readable format.
1646
1647=item B<#targ>
1648
1649The numeric value of the OP's targ.
1650
1651=item B<#targarg>
1652
1653The name of the variable the OP's targ refers to, if any, otherwise the
1654letter t followed by the OP's targ in decimal.
1655
1656=item B<#targarglife>
1657
1658Same as B<#targarg>, but followed by the COP sequence numbers that delimit
1659the variable's lifetime (or 'end' for a variable in an open scope) for a
1660variable.
1661
1662=item B<#typenum>
1663
1664The numeric value of the OP's type, in decimal.
1665
1666=back
1667
f9f861ec
JC
1668=head1 One-Liner Command tips
1669
1670=over 4
1671
1672=item perl -MO=Concise,bar foo.pl
1673
1674Renders only bar() from foo.pl. To see main, drop the ',bar'. To see
1675both, add ',-main'
1676
1677=item perl -MDigest::MD5=md5 -MO=Concise,md5 -e1
1678
1679Identifies md5 as an XS function. The export is needed so that BC can
1680find it in main.
1681
1682=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,_POSIX_ARG_MAX -e1
1683
1684Identifies _POSIX_ARG_MAX as a constant sub, optimized to an IV.
1685Although POSIX isn't entirely consistent across platforms, this is
1686likely to be present in virtually all of them.
1687
1688=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,a -e 'print _POSIX_SAVED_IDS'
1689
1690This renders a print statement, which includes a call to the function.
1691It's identical to rendering a file with a use call and that single
1692statement, except for the filename which appears in the nextstate ops.
1693
1694=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,a -e 'sub a{_POSIX_SAVED_IDS}'
1695
1696This is B<very> similar to previous, only the first two ops differ. This
1697subroutine rendering is more representative, insofar as a single main
1698program will have many subs.
1699
6cc5d258
JC
1700=item perl -MB::Concise -e 'B::Concise::compile("-exec","-src", \%B::Concise::)->()'
1701
1702This renders all functions in the B::Concise package with the source
1703lines. It eschews the O framework so that the stashref can be passed
9e0f9750
JC
1704directly to B::Concise::compile(). See -stash option for a more
1705convenient way to render a package.
f9f861ec 1706
d5e42f17 1707=back
f9f861ec 1708
78ad9108
PJ
1709=head1 Using B::Concise outside of the O framework
1710
cc02ea56
JC
1711The common (and original) usage of B::Concise was for command-line
1712renderings of simple code, as given in EXAMPLE. But you can also use
1713B<B::Concise> from your code, and call compile() directly, and
724aa791 1714repeatedly. By doing so, you can avoid the compile-time only
cc02ea56
JC
1715operation of O.pm, and even use the debugger to step through
1716B::Concise::compile() itself.
f95e3c3c 1717
cc02ea56
JC
1718Once you're doing this, you may alter Concise output by adding new
1719rendering styles, and by optionally adding callback routines which
1720populate new variables, if such were referenced from those (just
1721added) styles.
f95e3c3c 1722
724aa791 1723=head2 Example: Altering Concise Renderings
78ad9108
PJ
1724
1725 use B::Concise qw(set_style add_callback);
cc02ea56 1726 add_style($yourStyleName => $defaultfmt, $gotofmt, $treefmt);
78ad9108 1727 add_callback
f95e3c3c
JC
1728 ( sub {
1729 my ($h, $op, $format, $level, $stylename) = @_;
78ad9108 1730 $h->{variable} = some_func($op);
cc02ea56
JC
1731 });
1732 $walker = B::Concise::compile(@options,@subnames,@subrefs);
1733 $walker->();
78ad9108 1734
f95e3c3c
JC
1735=head2 set_style()
1736
724aa791
JC
1737B<set_style> accepts 3 arguments, and updates the three format-specs
1738comprising a line-style (basic-exec, goto, tree). It has one minor
1739drawback though; it doesn't register the style under a new name. This
1740can become an issue if you render more than once and switch styles.
1741Thus you may prefer to use add_style() and/or set_style_standard()
1742instead.
1743
1744=head2 set_style_standard($name)
1745
1746This restores one of the standard line-styles: C<terse>, C<concise>,
1747C<linenoise>, C<debug>, C<env>, into effect. It also accepts style
1748names previously defined with add_style().
f95e3c3c 1749
345e2394 1750=head2 add_style ()
78ad9108 1751
f95e3c3c
JC
1752This subroutine accepts a new style name and three style arguments as
1753above, and creates, registers, and selects the newly named style. It is
1754an error to re-add a style; call set_style_standard() to switch between
1755several styles.
1756
345e2394 1757=head2 add_callback ()
f95e3c3c 1758
19e169bf
JC
1759If your newly minted styles refer to any new #variables, you'll need
1760to define a callback subroutine that will populate (or modify) those
1761variables. They are then available for use in the style you've
1762chosen.
f95e3c3c
JC
1763
1764The callbacks are called for each opcode visited by Concise, in the
1765same order as they are added. Each subroutine is passed five
1766parameters.
1767
1768 1. A hashref, containing the variable names and values which are
1769 populated into the report-line for the op
1770 2. the op, as a B<B::OP> object
1771 3. a reference to the format string
1772 4. the formatting (indent) level
1773 5. the selected stylename
78ad9108
PJ
1774
1775To define your own variables, simply add them to the hash, or change
1776existing values if you need to. The level and format are passed in as
1777references to scalars, but it is unlikely that they will need to be
1778changed or even used.
1779
724aa791 1780=head2 Running B::Concise::compile()
f95e3c3c
JC
1781
1782B<compile> accepts options as described above in L</OPTIONS>, and
1783arguments, which are either coderefs, or subroutine names.
1784
cc02ea56
JC
1785It constructs and returns a $treewalker coderef, which when invoked,
1786traverses, or walks, and renders the optrees of the given arguments to
1787STDOUT. You can reuse this, and can change the rendering style used
1788each time; thereafter the coderef renders in the new style.
f95e3c3c
JC
1789
1790B<walk_output> lets you change the print destination from STDOUT to
19e169bf
JC
1791another open filehandle, or into a string passed as a ref (unless
1792you've built perl with -Uuseperlio).
f95e3c3c 1793
cc02ea56 1794 my $walker = B::Concise::compile('-terse','aFuncName', \&aSubRef); # 1
f95e3c3c 1795 walk_output(\my $buf);
cc02ea56
JC
1796 $walker->(); # 1 renders -terse
1797 set_style_standard('concise'); # 2
1798 $walker->(); # 2 renders -concise
1799 $walker->(@new); # 3 renders whatever
1800 print "3 different renderings: terse, concise, and @new: $buf\n";
1801
1802When $walker is called, it traverses the subroutines supplied when it
1803was created, and renders them using the current style. You can change
1804the style afterwards in several different ways:
1805
1806 1. call C<compile>, altering style or mode/order
1807 2. call C<set_style_standard>
1808 3. call $walker, passing @new options
1809
1810Passing new options to the $walker is the easiest way to change
1811amongst any pre-defined styles (the ones you add are automatically
1812recognized as options), and is the only way to alter rendering order
1813without calling compile again. Note however that rendering state is
1814still shared amongst multiple $walker objects, so they must still be
1815used in a coordinated manner.
f95e3c3c
JC
1816
1817=head2 B::Concise::reset_sequence()
1818
1819This function (not exported) lets you reset the sequence numbers (note
1820that they're numbered arbitrarily, their goal being to be human
1821readable). Its purpose is mostly to support testing, i.e. to compare
1822the concise output from two identical anonymous subroutines (but
1823different instances). Without the reset, B::Concise, seeing that
1824they're separate optrees, generates different sequence numbers in
1825the output.
1826
1827=head2 Errors
1828
9a3b3024
JC
1829Errors in rendering (non-existent function-name, non-existent coderef)
1830are written to the STDOUT, or wherever you've set it via
1831walk_output().
31b49ad4 1832
9a3b3024
JC
1833Errors using the various *style* calls, and bad args to walk_output(),
1834result in die(). Use an eval if you wish to catch these errors and
1835continue processing.
78ad9108 1836
c99ca59a
SM
1837=head1 AUTHOR
1838
31b49ad4 1839Stephen McCamant, E<lt>smcc@CSUA.Berkeley.EDUE<gt>.
c99ca59a
SM
1840
1841=cut