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a0ed51b3
LW
1/* utf8.c
2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
b94e2f88 4 * by Larry Wall and others
a0ed51b3
LW
5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
4ac71550
TC
12 * 'What a fix!' said Sam. 'That's the one place in all the lands we've ever
13 * heard of that we don't want to see any closer; and that's the one place
14 * we're trying to get to! And that's just where we can't get, nohow.'
15 *
cdad3b53 16 * [p.603 of _The Lord of the Rings_, IV/I: "The Taming of Sméagol"]
a0ed51b3
LW
17 *
18 * 'Well do I understand your speech,' he answered in the same language;
19 * 'yet few strangers do so. Why then do you not speak in the Common Tongue,
4ac71550 20 * as is the custom in the West, if you wish to be answered?'
cdad3b53 21 * --Gandalf, addressing Théoden's door wardens
4ac71550
TC
22 *
23 * [p.508 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
LW
24 *
25 * ...the travellers perceived that the floor was paved with stones of many
26 * hues; branching runes and strange devices intertwined beneath their feet.
4ac71550
TC
27 *
28 * [p.512 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
LW
29 */
30
31#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 32#define PERL_IN_UTF8_C
a0ed51b3 33#include "perl.h"
81e983c1 34#include "inline_invlist.c"
a0ed51b3 35
a0c21aa1 36#ifndef EBCDIC
970ea3cb 37/* Separate prototypes needed because in ASCII systems these are
a0c21aa1
JH
38 * usually macros but they still are compiled as code, too. */
39PERL_CALLCONV UV Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags);
6dd9dce9 40PERL_CALLCONV UV Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen);
a0c21aa1
JH
41PERL_CALLCONV U8* Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv);
42#endif
43
27da23d5
JH
44static const char unees[] =
45 "Malformed UTF-8 character (unexpected end of string)";
901b21bf 46
48ef279e 47/*
ccfc67b7 48=head1 Unicode Support
a0ed51b3 49
166f8a29
DM
50This file contains various utility functions for manipulating UTF8-encoded
51strings. For the uninitiated, this is a method of representing arbitrary
61296642 52Unicode characters as a variable number of bytes, in such a way that
56da48f7
DM
53characters in the ASCII range are unmodified, and a zero byte never appears
54within non-zero characters.
166f8a29 55
eaf7a4d2
CS
56=cut
57*/
58
59/*
60=for apidoc is_ascii_string
61
a1433954 62Returns true if the first C<len> bytes of the string C<s> are the same whether
970ea3cb
KW
63or not the string is encoded in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC on EBCDIC machines). That
64is, if they are invariant. On ASCII-ish machines, only ASCII characters
65fit this definition, hence the function's name.
eaf7a4d2 66
9f7e3d64
MH
67If C<len> is 0, it will be calculated using C<strlen(s)>.
68
a1433954 69See also L</is_utf8_string>(), L</is_utf8_string_loclen>(), and L</is_utf8_string_loc>().
eaf7a4d2
CS
70
71=cut
72*/
73
74bool
668b6d8d 75Perl_is_ascii_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)
eaf7a4d2
CS
76{
77 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
78 const U8* x = s;
79
80 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_ASCII_STRING;
eaf7a4d2
CS
81
82 for (; x < send; ++x) {
83 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x))
84 break;
85 }
86
87 return x == send;
88}
89
90/*
87cea99e 91=for apidoc uvuni_to_utf8_flags
eebe1485 92
6ee84de2
KW
93Adds the UTF-8 representation of the code point C<uv> to the end
94of the string C<d>; C<d> should have at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1> free
eebe1485 95bytes available. The return value is the pointer to the byte after the
9041c2e3 96end of the new character. In other words,
eebe1485 97
b851fbc1
JH
98 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);
99
100or, in most cases,
101
9041c2e3 102 d = uvuni_to_utf8(d, uv);
eebe1485 103
b851fbc1
JH
104(which is equivalent to)
105
106 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);
107
949cf498 108This is the recommended Unicode-aware way of saying
eebe1485
SC
109
110 *(d++) = uv;
111
949cf498
KW
112This function will convert to UTF-8 (and not warn) even code points that aren't
113legal Unicode or are problematic, unless C<flags> contains one or more of the
a1433954
KW
114following flags:
115
949cf498
KW
116If C<uv> is a Unicode surrogate code point and UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE is set,
117the function will raise a warning, provided UTF8 warnings are enabled. If instead
118UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE is set, the function will fail and return NULL.
119If both flags are set, the function will both warn and return NULL.
120
121The UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR and UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR flags correspondingly
122affect how the function handles a Unicode non-character. And, likewise for the
123UNICODE_WARN_SUPER and UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER flags, and code points that are
124above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF. Code points above 0x7FFF_FFFF (which are
125even less portable) can be warned and/or disallowed even if other above-Unicode
126code points are accepted by the UNICODE_WARN_FE_FF and UNICODE_DISALLOW_FE_FF
127flags.
128
129And finally, the flag UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four of the
130above WARN flags; and UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four
131DISALLOW flags.
132
133
eebe1485
SC
134=cut
135*/
136
dfe13c55 137U8 *
b851fbc1 138Perl_uvuni_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)
a0ed51b3 139{
7918f24d
NC
140 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UVUNI_TO_UTF8_FLAGS;
141
979f77b6
KW
142 /* The first problematic code point is the first surrogate */
143 if (uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST
144 && ckWARN4_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE, WARN_NON_UNICODE, WARN_NONCHAR))
145 {
949cf498
KW
146 if (UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv)) {
147 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE) {
8457b38f 148 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
949cf498
KW
149 "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf, uv);
150 }
151 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
152 return NULL;
153 }
154 }
155 else if (UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv)) {
156 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SUPER
157 || (UNICODE_IS_FE_FF(uv) && (flags & UNICODE_WARN_FE_FF)))
158 {
8457b38f 159 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
949cf498
KW
160 "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, may not be portable", uv);
161 }
162 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER
163 || (UNICODE_IS_FE_FF(uv) && (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_FE_FF)))
164 {
165 return NULL;
166 }
167 }
168 else if (UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv)) {
169 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR) {
8457b38f 170 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR),
949cf498
KW
171 "Unicode non-character U+%04"UVXf" is illegal for open interchange",
172 uv);
173 }
174 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
175 return NULL;
176 }
177 }
507b9800 178 }
c4d5f83a 179 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
eb160463 180 *d++ = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE(uv);
a0ed51b3
LW
181 return d;
182 }
2d331972 183#if defined(EBCDIC)
1d72bdf6
NIS
184 else {
185 STRLEN len = UNISKIP(uv);
186 U8 *p = d+len-1;
187 while (p > d) {
eb160463 188 *p-- = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE((uv & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK) | UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK);
1d72bdf6
NIS
189 uv >>= UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT;
190 }
eb160463 191 *p = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE((uv & UTF_START_MASK(len)) | UTF_START_MARK(len));
1d72bdf6
NIS
192 return d+len;
193 }
194#else /* Non loop style */
a0ed51b3 195 if (uv < 0x800) {
eb160463
GS
196 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 6) | 0xc0);
197 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
198 return d;
199 }
200 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
201 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
202 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
203 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
204 return d;
205 }
206 if (uv < 0x200000) {
eb160463
GS
207 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
208 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
209 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
210 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
211 return d;
212 }
213 if (uv < 0x4000000) {
eb160463
GS
214 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 24) | 0xf8);
215 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
216 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
217 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
218 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
219 return d;
220 }
221 if (uv < 0x80000000) {
eb160463
GS
222 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 30) | 0xfc);
223 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
224 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
225 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
226 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
227 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
228 return d;
229 }
6b8eaf93 230#ifdef HAS_QUAD
d7578b48 231 if (uv < UTF8_QUAD_MAX)
a0ed51b3
LW
232#endif
233 {
eb160463
GS
234 *d++ = 0xfe; /* Can't match U+FEFF! */
235 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 30) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
236 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
237 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
238 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
239 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
240 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
241 return d;
242 }
6b8eaf93 243#ifdef HAS_QUAD
a0ed51b3 244 {
eb160463
GS
245 *d++ = 0xff; /* Can't match U+FFFE! */
246 *d++ = 0x80; /* 6 Reserved bits */
247 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 60) & 0x0f) | 0x80); /* 2 Reserved bits */
248 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 54) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
249 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 48) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
250 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 42) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
251 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 36) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
252 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 30) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
253 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
254 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
255 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
256 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
257 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
258 return d;
259 }
260#endif
1d72bdf6 261#endif /* Loop style */
a0ed51b3 262}
9041c2e3 263
646ca15d
JH
264/*
265
f7d739d1 266Tests if the first C<len> bytes of string C<s> form a valid UTF-8
646ca15d 267character. Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII) character is a valid
f7d739d1 268UTF-8 character. The number of bytes in the UTF-8 character
646ca15d
JH
269will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.
270
271This is the "slow" version as opposed to the "fast" version which is
272the "unrolled" IS_UTF8_CHAR(). E.g. for t/uni/class.t the speed
273difference is a factor of 2 to 3. For lengths (UTF8SKIP(s)) of four
274or less you should use the IS_UTF8_CHAR(), for lengths of five or more
275you should use the _slow(). In practice this means that the _slow()
276will be used very rarely, since the maximum Unicode code point (as of
277Unicode 4.1) is U+10FFFF, which encodes in UTF-8 to four bytes. Only
278the "Perl extended UTF-8" (the infamous 'v-strings') will encode into
279five bytes or more.
280
281=cut */
7af276bc 282PERL_STATIC_INLINE STRLEN
5f66b61c 283S_is_utf8_char_slow(const U8 *s, const STRLEN len)
646ca15d 284{
cd7e6c88 285 dTHX; /* The function called below requires thread context */
646ca15d 286
cd7e6c88 287 STRLEN actual_len;
646ca15d 288
cd7e6c88 289 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR_SLOW;
646ca15d 290
cd7e6c88 291 utf8n_to_uvuni(s, len, &actual_len, UTF8_CHECK_ONLY);
646ca15d 292
cd7e6c88 293 return (actual_len == (STRLEN) -1) ? 0 : actual_len;
646ca15d 294}
9041c2e3
NIS
295
296/*
492a624f
KW
297=for apidoc is_utf8_char_buf
298
299Returns the number of bytes that comprise the first UTF-8 encoded character in
300buffer C<buf>. C<buf_end> should point to one position beyond the end of the
301buffer. 0 is returned if C<buf> does not point to a complete, valid UTF-8
302encoded character.
303
304Note that an INVARIANT character (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC
305machines) is a valid UTF-8 character.
306
307=cut */
308
309STRLEN
310Perl_is_utf8_char_buf(const U8 *buf, const U8* buf_end)
311{
312
313 STRLEN len;
314
315 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR_BUF;
316
317 if (buf_end <= buf) {
318 return 0;
319 }
320
321 len = buf_end - buf;
322 if (len > UTF8SKIP(buf)) {
323 len = UTF8SKIP(buf);
324 }
325
326#ifdef IS_UTF8_CHAR
327 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(len))
328 return IS_UTF8_CHAR(buf, len) ? len : 0;
329#endif /* #ifdef IS_UTF8_CHAR */
330 return is_utf8_char_slow(buf, len);
331}
332
333/*
87cea99e 334=for apidoc is_utf8_char
eebe1485 335
76848387
KW
336DEPRECATED!
337
5da9da9e 338Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a valid UTF-8
2bbc8d55
SP
339character. Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines)
340character is a valid UTF-8 character. The actual number of bytes in the UTF-8
341character will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.
9041c2e3 342
76848387 343This function is deprecated due to the possibility that malformed input could
a1433954 344cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer. Use L</is_utf8_char_buf>
76848387 345instead.
e0328548 346
82686b01 347=cut */
76848387 348
067a85ef 349STRLEN
668b6d8d 350Perl_is_utf8_char(const U8 *s)
386d01d6 351{
7918f24d 352 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR;
492a624f 353
76848387 354 /* Assumes we have enough space, which is why this is deprecated */
492a624f 355 return is_utf8_char_buf(s, s + UTF8SKIP(s));
386d01d6
GS
356}
357
eaf7a4d2 358
6662521e 359/*
87cea99e 360=for apidoc is_utf8_string
6662521e 361
a1433954 362Returns true if the first C<len> bytes of string C<s> form a valid
9f7e3d64 363UTF-8 string, false otherwise. If C<len> is 0, it will be calculated
e0328548
KW
364using C<strlen(s)> (which means if you use this option, that C<s> has to have a
365terminating NUL byte). Note that all characters being ASCII constitute 'a
366valid UTF-8 string'.
6662521e 367
a1433954 368See also L</is_ascii_string>(), L</is_utf8_string_loclen>(), and L</is_utf8_string_loc>().
768c67ee 369
6662521e
GS
370=cut
371*/
372
8e84507e 373bool
668b6d8d 374Perl_is_utf8_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)
6662521e 375{
35da51f7 376 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
7fc63493 377 const U8* x = s;
067a85ef 378
7918f24d 379 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_STRING;
1aa99e6b 380
6662521e 381 while (x < send) {
1acdb0da 382 /* Inline the easy bits of is_utf8_char() here for speed... */
e0328548
KW
383 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x)) {
384 x++;
385 }
1acdb0da
JH
386 else {
387 /* ... and call is_utf8_char() only if really needed. */
e0328548
KW
388 const STRLEN c = UTF8SKIP(x);
389 const U8* const next_char_ptr = x + c;
390
391 if (next_char_ptr > send) {
392 return FALSE;
393 }
394
768c67ee
JH
395 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(c)) {
396 if (!IS_UTF8_CHAR(x, c))
e0328548 397 return FALSE;
3c614e38 398 }
e0328548
KW
399 else if (! is_utf8_char_slow(x, c)) {
400 return FALSE;
401 }
402 x = next_char_ptr;
1acdb0da 403 }
6662521e 404 }
768c67ee 405
067a85ef 406 return TRUE;
6662521e
GS
407}
408
67e989fb 409/*
814fafa7
NC
410Implemented as a macro in utf8.h
411
87cea99e 412=for apidoc is_utf8_string_loc
814fafa7 413
a1433954
KW
414Like L</is_utf8_string> but stores the location of the failure (in the
415case of "utf8ness failure") or the location C<s>+C<len> (in the case of
814fafa7
NC
416"utf8ness success") in the C<ep>.
417
a1433954 418See also L</is_utf8_string_loclen>() and L</is_utf8_string>().
814fafa7 419
87cea99e 420=for apidoc is_utf8_string_loclen
81cd54e3 421
a1433954
KW
422Like L</is_utf8_string>() but stores the location of the failure (in the
423case of "utf8ness failure") or the location C<s>+C<len> (in the case of
768c67ee
JH
424"utf8ness success") in the C<ep>, and the number of UTF-8
425encoded characters in the C<el>.
426
a1433954 427See also L</is_utf8_string_loc>() and L</is_utf8_string>().
81cd54e3
JH
428
429=cut
430*/
431
432bool
668b6d8d 433Perl_is_utf8_string_loclen(const U8 *s, STRLEN len, const U8 **ep, STRLEN *el)
81cd54e3 434{
35da51f7 435 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
7fc63493 436 const U8* x = s;
81cd54e3 437 STRLEN c;
3ebfea28 438 STRLEN outlen = 0;
7918f24d
NC
439
440 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_STRING_LOCLEN;
81cd54e3 441
81cd54e3 442 while (x < send) {
e0328548
KW
443 const U8* next_char_ptr;
444
81cd54e3
JH
445 /* Inline the easy bits of is_utf8_char() here for speed... */
446 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x))
e0328548 447 next_char_ptr = x + 1;
81cd54e3 448 else {
768c67ee 449 /* ... and call is_utf8_char() only if really needed. */
768c67ee 450 c = UTF8SKIP(x);
e0328548
KW
451 next_char_ptr = c + x;
452 if (next_char_ptr > send) {
453 goto out;
454 }
768c67ee
JH
455 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(c)) {
456 if (!IS_UTF8_CHAR(x, c))
457 c = 0;
458 } else
459 c = is_utf8_char_slow(x, c);
768c67ee
JH
460 if (!c)
461 goto out;
81cd54e3 462 }
e0328548 463 x = next_char_ptr;
3ebfea28 464 outlen++;
81cd54e3 465 }
768c67ee
JH
466
467 out:
3ebfea28
AL
468 if (el)
469 *el = outlen;
470
768c67ee
JH
471 if (ep)
472 *ep = x;
3ebfea28 473 return (x == send);
81cd54e3
JH
474}
475
476/*
768c67ee 477
87cea99e 478=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvuni
67e989fb 479
9041c2e3 480Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.
746afd53
KW
481Returns the code point value of the first character in the string C<s>,
482which is assumed to be in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) encoding, and no longer than
483C<curlen> bytes; C<*retlen> (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) will be set to
484the length, in bytes, of that character.
949cf498
KW
485
486The value of C<flags> determines the behavior when C<s> does not point to a
487well-formed UTF-8 character. If C<flags> is 0, when a malformation is found,
524080c4
KW
488zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
489next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
490Also, if UTF-8 warnings haven't been lexically disabled, a warning is raised.
949cf498
KW
491
492Various ALLOW flags can be set in C<flags> to allow (and not warn on)
493individual types of malformations, such as the sequence being overlong (that
494is, when there is a shorter sequence that can express the same code point;
495overlong sequences are expressly forbidden in the UTF-8 standard due to
496potential security issues). Another malformation example is the first byte of
497a character not being a legal first byte. See F<utf8.h> for the list of such
524080c4
KW
498flags. For allowed 0 length strings, this function returns 0; for allowed
499overlong sequences, the computed code point is returned; for all other allowed
500malformations, the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned, as these have no
501determinable reasonable value.
949cf498
KW
502
503The UTF8_CHECK_ONLY flag overrides the behavior when a non-allowed (by other
504flags) malformation is found. If this flag is set, the routine assumes that
505the caller will raise a warning, and this function will silently just set
d088425d
KW
506C<retlen> to C<-1> (cast to C<STRLEN>) and return zero.
507
508Note that this API requires disambiguation between successful decoding a NUL
509character, and an error return (unless the UTF8_CHECK_ONLY flag is set), as
510in both cases, 0 is returned. To disambiguate, upon a zero return, see if the
511first byte of C<s> is 0 as well. If so, the input was a NUL; if not, the input
512had an error.
949cf498
KW
513
514Certain code points are considered problematic. These are Unicode surrogates,
746afd53 515Unicode non-characters, and code points above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF.
949cf498 516By default these are considered regular code points, but certain situations
5eafe189 517warrant special handling for them. If C<flags> contains
949cf498
KW
518UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, all three classes are treated as
519malformations and handled as such. The flags UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE,
520UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR, and UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER (meaning above the legal Unicode
521maximum) can be set to disallow these categories individually.
522
523The flags UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE,
524UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR, and UTF8_WARN_SUPER will cause warning messages to be raised
525for their respective categories, but otherwise the code points are considered
526valid (not malformations). To get a category to both be treated as a
527malformation and raise a warning, specify both the WARN and DISALLOW flags.
528(But note that warnings are not raised if lexically disabled nor if
529UTF8_CHECK_ONLY is also specified.)
530
531Very large code points (above 0x7FFF_FFFF) are considered more problematic than
532the others that are above the Unicode legal maximum. There are several
eb83ed87
KW
533reasons: they requre at least 32 bits to represent them on ASCII platforms, are
534not representable at all on EBCDIC platforms, and the original UTF-8
535specification never went above this number (the current 0x10FFFF limit was
536imposed later). (The smaller ones, those that fit into 32 bits, are
537representable by a UV on ASCII platforms, but not by an IV, which means that
538the number of operations that can be performed on them is quite restricted.)
539The UTF-8 encoding on ASCII platforms for these large code points begins with a
540byte containing 0xFE or 0xFF. The UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF flag will cause them to
541be treated as malformations, while allowing smaller above-Unicode code points.
542(Of course UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER will treat all above-Unicode code points,
543including these, as malformations.) Similarly, UTF8_WARN_FE_FF acts just like
544the other WARN flags, but applies just to these code points.
949cf498
KW
545
546All other code points corresponding to Unicode characters, including private
547use and those yet to be assigned, are never considered malformed and never
548warn.
67e989fb 549
ec5f19d0 550Most code should use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>() rather than call this directly.
9041c2e3 551
37607a96
PK
552=cut
553*/
67e989fb 554
a0ed51b3 555UV
7fc63493 556Perl_utf8n_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)
a0ed51b3 557{
97aff369 558 dVAR;
d4c19fe8 559 const U8 * const s0 = s;
eb83ed87 560 U8 overflow_byte = '\0'; /* Save byte in case of overflow */
0b8d30e8 561 U8 * send;
eb83ed87
KW
562 UV uv = *s;
563 STRLEN expectlen;
949cf498 564 SV* sv = NULL;
eb83ed87
KW
565 UV outlier_ret = 0; /* return value when input is in error or problematic
566 */
567 UV pack_warn = 0; /* Save result of packWARN() for later */
568 bool unexpected_non_continuation = FALSE;
569 bool overflowed = FALSE;
2f8f112e 570 bool do_overlong_test = TRUE; /* May have to skip this test */
a0dbb045 571
eb83ed87 572 const char* const malformed_text = "Malformed UTF-8 character";
7918f24d 573
eb83ed87 574 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVUNI;
a0dbb045 575
eb83ed87
KW
576 /* The order of malformation tests here is important. We should consume as
577 * few bytes as possible in order to not skip any valid character. This is
578 * required by the Unicode Standard (section 3.9 of Unicode 6.0); see also
579 * http://unicode.org/reports/tr36 for more discussion as to why. For
580 * example, once we've done a UTF8SKIP, we can tell the expected number of
581 * bytes, and could fail right off the bat if the input parameters indicate
582 * that there are too few available. But it could be that just that first
583 * byte is garbled, and the intended character occupies fewer bytes. If we
584 * blindly assumed that the first byte is correct, and skipped based on
585 * that number, we could skip over a valid input character. So instead, we
586 * always examine the sequence byte-by-byte.
587 *
588 * We also should not consume too few bytes, otherwise someone could inject
589 * things. For example, an input could be deliberately designed to
590 * overflow, and if this code bailed out immediately upon discovering that,
591 * returning to the caller *retlen pointing to the very next byte (one
592 * which is actually part of of the overflowing sequence), that could look
593 * legitimate to the caller, which could discard the initial partial
594 * sequence and process the rest, inappropriately */
595
596 /* Zero length strings, if allowed, of necessity are zero */
b5b9af04 597 if (UNLIKELY(curlen == 0)) {
eb83ed87
KW
598 if (retlen) {
599 *retlen = 0;
600 }
a0dbb045 601
eb83ed87
KW
602 if (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY) {
603 return 0;
604 }
605 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
606 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (empty string)", malformed_text));
607 }
0c443dc2
JH
608 goto malformed;
609 }
610
eb83ed87
KW
611 expectlen = UTF8SKIP(s);
612
613 /* A well-formed UTF-8 character, as the vast majority of calls to this
614 * function will be for, has this expected length. For efficiency, set
615 * things up here to return it. It will be overriden only in those rare
616 * cases where a malformation is found */
617 if (retlen) {
618 *retlen = expectlen;
619 }
620
621 /* An invariant is trivially well-formed */
1d72bdf6 622 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
c4d5f83a 623 return (UV) (NATIVE_TO_UTF(*s));
a0ed51b3 624 }
67e989fb 625
eb83ed87 626 /* A continuation character can't start a valid sequence */
b5b9af04 627 if (UNLIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(uv))) {
eb83ed87
KW
628 if (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_CONTINUATION) {
629 if (retlen) {
630 *retlen = 1;
631 }
632 return UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
633 }
ba210ebe 634
eb83ed87
KW
635 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
636 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected continuation byte 0x%02x, with no preceding start byte)", malformed_text, *s0));
637 }
638 curlen = 1;
ba210ebe
JH
639 goto malformed;
640 }
9041c2e3 641
1d72bdf6 642#ifdef EBCDIC
75383841 643 uv = NATIVE_TO_UTF(uv);
1d72bdf6
NIS
644#endif
645
eb83ed87
KW
646 /* Here is not a continuation byte, nor an invariant. The only thing left
647 * is a start byte (possibly for an overlong) */
ba210ebe 648
eb83ed87
KW
649 /* Remove the leading bits that indicate the number of bytes in the
650 * character's whole UTF-8 sequence, leaving just the bits that are part of
651 * the value */
652 uv &= UTF_START_MASK(expectlen);
ba210ebe 653
eb83ed87
KW
654 /* Now, loop through the remaining bytes in the character's sequence,
655 * accumulating each into the working value as we go. Be sure to not look
656 * past the end of the input string */
0b8d30e8
KW
657 send = (U8*) s0 + ((expectlen <= curlen) ? expectlen : curlen);
658
eb83ed87 659 for (s = s0 + 1; s < send; s++) {
b5b9af04 660 if (LIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))) {
eb83ed87
KW
661#ifndef EBCDIC /* Can't overflow in EBCDIC */
662 if (uv & UTF_ACCUMULATION_OVERFLOW_MASK) {
663
664 /* The original implementors viewed this malformation as more
665 * serious than the others (though I, khw, don't understand
666 * why, since other malformations also give very very wrong
667 * results), so there is no way to turn off checking for it.
668 * Set a flag, but keep going in the loop, so that we absorb
669 * the rest of the bytes that comprise the character. */
670 overflowed = TRUE;
671 overflow_byte = *s; /* Save for warning message's use */
672 }
673#endif
8850bf83 674 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
eb83ed87
KW
675 }
676 else {
677 /* Here, found a non-continuation before processing all expected
678 * bytes. This byte begins a new character, so quit, even if
679 * allowing this malformation. */
680 unexpected_non_continuation = TRUE;
681 break;
682 }
683 } /* End of loop through the character's bytes */
684
685 /* Save how many bytes were actually in the character */
686 curlen = s - s0;
687
688 /* The loop above finds two types of malformations: non-continuation and/or
689 * overflow. The non-continuation malformation is really a too-short
690 * malformation, as it means that the current character ended before it was
691 * expected to (being terminated prematurely by the beginning of the next
692 * character, whereas in the too-short malformation there just are too few
693 * bytes available to hold the character. In both cases, the check below
694 * that we have found the expected number of bytes would fail if executed.)
695 * Thus the non-continuation malformation is really unnecessary, being a
696 * subset of the too-short malformation. But there may be existing
697 * applications that are expecting the non-continuation type, so we retain
698 * it, and return it in preference to the too-short malformation. (If this
699 * code were being written from scratch, the two types might be collapsed
700 * into one.) I, khw, am also giving priority to returning the
701 * non-continuation and too-short malformations over overflow when multiple
702 * ones are present. I don't know of any real reason to prefer one over
703 * the other, except that it seems to me that multiple-byte errors trumps
704 * errors from a single byte */
b5b9af04 705 if (UNLIKELY(unexpected_non_continuation)) {
eb83ed87
KW
706 if (!(flags & UTF8_ALLOW_NON_CONTINUATION)) {
707 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
708 if (curlen == 1) {
709 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x, immediately after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, *s, *s0));
710 }
711 else {
712 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x, %d bytes after start byte 0x%02x, expected %d bytes)", malformed_text, *s, (int) curlen, *s0, (int)expectlen));
a0dbb045
JH
713 }
714 }
eb83ed87
KW
715 goto malformed;
716 }
717 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
2f8f112e
KW
718
719 /* Skip testing for overlongs, as the REPLACEMENT may not be the same
720 * as what the original expectations were. */
721 do_overlong_test = FALSE;
eb83ed87
KW
722 if (retlen) {
723 *retlen = curlen;
724 }
725 }
b5b9af04 726 else if (UNLIKELY(curlen < expectlen)) {
eb83ed87
KW
727 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_SHORT)) {
728 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
729 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (%d byte%s, need %d, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, (int)curlen, curlen == 1 ? "" : "s", (int)expectlen, *s0));
a0dbb045 730 }
eb83ed87
KW
731 goto malformed;
732 }
733 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
2f8f112e 734 do_overlong_test = FALSE;
eb83ed87
KW
735 if (retlen) {
736 *retlen = curlen;
737 }
738 }
739
740#ifndef EBCDIC /* EBCDIC allows FE, FF, can't overflow */
2f8f112e 741 if ((*s0 & 0xFE) == 0xFE /* matches both FE, FF */
eb83ed87
KW
742 && (flags & (UTF8_WARN_FE_FF|UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF)))
743 {
744 /* By adding UTF8_CHECK_ONLY to the test, we avoid unnecessary
745 * generation of the sv, since no warnings are raised under CHECK */
746 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_FE_FF|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_FE_FF
747 && ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8))
748 {
42303544
KW
749 /* This message is deliberately not of the same syntax as the other
750 * messages for malformations, for backwards compatibility in the
751 * unlikely event that code is relying on its precise earlier text
752 */
eb83ed87
KW
753 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s Code point beginning with byte 0x%02X is not Unicode, and not portable", malformed_text, *s0));
754 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
755 }
756 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF) {
757 goto malformed;
ba210ebe 758 }
ba210ebe 759 }
b5b9af04 760 if (UNLIKELY(overflowed)) {
ba210ebe 761
eb83ed87
KW
762 /* If the first byte is FF, it will overflow a 32-bit word. If the
763 * first byte is FE, it will overflow a signed 32-bit word. The
764 * above preserves backward compatibility, since its message was used
765 * in earlier versions of this code in preference to overflow */
766 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (overflow at byte 0x%02x, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, overflow_byte, *s0));
ba210ebe 767 goto malformed;
eb83ed87
KW
768 }
769#endif
770
2f8f112e
KW
771 if (do_overlong_test
772 && expectlen > (STRLEN)UNISKIP(uv)
773 && ! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_LONG))
774 {
eb83ed87
KW
775 /* The overlong malformation has lower precedence than the others.
776 * Note that if this malformation is allowed, we return the actual
777 * value, instead of the replacement character. This is because this
778 * value is actually well-defined. */
779 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
780 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (%d byte%s, need %d, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, (int)expectlen, expectlen == 1 ? "": "s", UNISKIP(uv), *s0));
781 }
782 goto malformed;
783 }
784
785 /* Here, the input is considered to be well-formed , but could be a
786 * problematic code point that is not allowed by the input parameters. */
787 if (uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST /* isn't problematic if < this */
788 && (flags & (UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE
789 |UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE)))
790 {
949cf498 791 if (UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv)) {
eb83ed87
KW
792 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE
793 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE))
794 {
111d382d 795 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf"", uv));
eb83ed87 796 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE);
949cf498
KW
797 }
798 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
799 goto disallowed;
800 }
801 }
949cf498 802 else if ((uv > PERL_UNICODE_MAX)) {
eb83ed87
KW
803 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_SUPER
804 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NON_UNICODE))
805 {
111d382d 806 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, may not be portable", uv));
eb83ed87 807 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NON_UNICODE);
949cf498
KW
808 }
809 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER) {
810 goto disallowed;
811 }
812 }
4190d317
KW
813 else if (UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv)) {
814 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR
815 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NONCHAR))
816 {
817 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "Unicode non-character U+%04"UVXf" is illegal for open interchange", uv));
818 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NONCHAR);
819 }
820 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
821 goto disallowed;
822 }
823 }
949cf498 824
eb83ed87
KW
825 if (sv) {
826 outlier_ret = uv;
827 goto do_warn;
828 }
829
949cf498
KW
830 /* Here, this is not considered a malformed character, so drop through
831 * to return it */
a0ed51b3 832 }
ba210ebe 833
a0ed51b3 834 return uv;
ba210ebe 835
eb83ed87
KW
836 /* There are three cases which get to beyond this point. In all 3 cases:
837 * <sv> if not null points to a string to print as a warning.
838 * <curlen> is what <*retlen> should be set to if UTF8_CHECK_ONLY isn't
839 * set.
840 * <outlier_ret> is what return value to use if UTF8_CHECK_ONLY isn't set.
841 * This is done by initializing it to 0, and changing it only
842 * for case 1).
843 * The 3 cases are:
844 * 1) The input is valid but problematic, and to be warned about. The
845 * return value is the resultant code point; <*retlen> is set to
846 * <curlen>, the number of bytes that comprise the code point.
847 * <pack_warn> contains the result of packWARN() for the warning
848 * types. The entry point for this case is the label <do_warn>;
849 * 2) The input is a valid code point but disallowed by the parameters to
850 * this function. The return value is 0. If UTF8_CHECK_ONLY is set,
851 * <*relen> is -1; otherwise it is <curlen>, the number of bytes that
852 * comprise the code point. <pack_warn> contains the result of
853 * packWARN() for the warning types. The entry point for this case is
854 * the label <disallowed>.
855 * 3) The input is malformed. The return value is 0. If UTF8_CHECK_ONLY
856 * is set, <*relen> is -1; otherwise it is <curlen>, the number of
857 * bytes that comprise the malformation. All such malformations are
858 * assumed to be warning type <utf8>. The entry point for this case
859 * is the label <malformed>.
860 */
949cf498 861
ba210ebe
JH
862malformed:
863
eb83ed87
KW
864 if (sv && ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8)) {
865 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
866 }
867
868disallowed:
869
fcc8fcf6 870 if (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY) {
ba210ebe 871 if (retlen)
10edeb5d 872 *retlen = ((STRLEN) -1);
ba210ebe
JH
873 return 0;
874 }
875
eb83ed87 876do_warn:
5b311467 877
eb83ed87
KW
878 if (pack_warn) { /* <pack_warn> was initialized to 0, and changed only
879 if warnings are to be raised. */
f555bc63 880 const char * const string = SvPVX_const(sv);
a0dbb045 881
f555bc63
KW
882 if (PL_op)
883 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s in %s", string, OP_DESC(PL_op));
884 else
885 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s", string);
a0dbb045
JH
886 }
887
eb83ed87
KW
888 if (retlen) {
889 *retlen = curlen;
890 }
ba210ebe 891
eb83ed87 892 return outlier_ret;
a0ed51b3
LW
893}
894
8e84507e 895/*
ec5f19d0
KW
896=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr_buf
897
898Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s> which
899is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
524080c4 900C<*retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
ec5f19d0 901
524080c4
KW
902If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
903enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
173db420
KW
904NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value, if well-defined
905(or the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER if not), is silently returned, and
906C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is
907the next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
908See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is
909returned.
ec5f19d0
KW
910
911=cut
912*/
913
914
915UV
916Perl_utf8_to_uvchr_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
917{
918 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVCHR_BUF;
919
920 assert(s < send);
921
922 return utf8n_to_uvchr(s, send - s, retlen,
923 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
924}
925
27d6c58a 926/* Like L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>(), but should only be called when it is known that
3986bb7c 927 * there are no malformations in the input UTF-8 string C<s>. surrogates,
6dd9dce9
KW
928 * non-character code points, and non-Unicode code points are allowed. A macro
929 * in utf8.h is used to normally avoid this function wrapper */
27d6c58a
KW
930
931UV
932Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
933{
3986bb7c
KW
934 const UV uv = valid_utf8_to_uvuni(s, retlen);
935
27d6c58a
KW
936 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VALID_UTF8_TO_UVCHR;
937
3986bb7c 938 return UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
27d6c58a
KW
939}
940
ec5f19d0 941/*
87cea99e 942=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr
9041c2e3 943
977c1d31
KW
944DEPRECATED!
945
6ee84de2 946Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s>
1e54db1a 947which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<retlen> will be set to the
9041c2e3
NIS
948length, in bytes, of that character.
949
4b88fb76 950Some, but not all, UTF-8 malformations are detected, and in fact, some
977c1d31
KW
951malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer, which
952is why this function is deprecated. Use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf> instead.
4b88fb76 953
524080c4
KW
954If C<s> points to one of the detected malformations, and UTF8 warnings are
955enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
956NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
957the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
958is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
959next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
960See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
9041c2e3
NIS
961
962=cut
963*/
964
965UV
7fc63493 966Perl_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
9041c2e3 967{
7918f24d
NC
968 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVCHR;
969
2ff6c191 970 return utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, s + UTF8_MAXBYTES, retlen);
9041c2e3
NIS
971}
972
973/*
ec5f19d0
KW
974=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni_buf
975
976Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string C<s> which
977is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
978C<retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
979
980This function should only be used when the returned UV is considered
981an index into the Unicode semantic tables (e.g. swashes).
982
524080c4
KW
983If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
984enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
985NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
986the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
987is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
988next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
989See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
ec5f19d0
KW
990
991=cut
992*/
993
994UV
995Perl_utf8_to_uvuni_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
996{
997 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI_BUF;
998
999 assert(send > s);
1000
1001 /* Call the low level routine asking for checks */
1002 return Perl_utf8n_to_uvuni(aTHX_ s, send -s, retlen,
1003 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
1004}
1005
27d6c58a 1006/* Like L</utf8_to_uvuni_buf>(), but should only be called when it is known that
2114036c 1007 * there are no malformations in the input UTF-8 string C<s>. Surrogates,
3986bb7c 1008 * non-character code points, and non-Unicode code points are allowed */
27d6c58a
KW
1009
1010UV
1011Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
1012{
3986bb7c
KW
1013 UV expectlen = UTF8SKIP(s);
1014 const U8* send = s + expectlen;
1015 UV uv = NATIVE_TO_UTF(*s);
1016
27d6c58a
KW
1017 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VALID_UTF8_TO_UVUNI;
1018
3986bb7c
KW
1019 if (retlen) {
1020 *retlen = expectlen;
1021 }
1022
1023 /* An invariant is trivially returned */
1024 if (expectlen == 1) {
1025 return uv;
1026 }
1027
1028 /* Remove the leading bits that indicate the number of bytes, leaving just
1029 * the bits that are part of the value */
1030 uv &= UTF_START_MASK(expectlen);
1031
1032 /* Now, loop through the remaining bytes, accumulating each into the
08bc774e
KW
1033 * working total as we go. (I khw tried unrolling the loop for up to 4
1034 * bytes, but there was no performance improvement) */
3986bb7c
KW
1035 for (++s; s < send; s++) {
1036 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
1037 }
1038
1039 return uv;
27d6c58a
KW
1040}
1041
ec5f19d0 1042/*
87cea99e 1043=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni
9041c2e3 1044
977c1d31
KW
1045DEPRECATED!
1046
9041c2e3 1047Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string C<s>
1e54db1a 1048which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<retlen> will be set to the
9041c2e3
NIS
1049length, in bytes, of that character.
1050
39e518fd
KW
1051This function should only be used when the returned UV is considered
1052an index into the Unicode semantic tables (e.g. swashes).
1053
4b88fb76 1054Some, but not all, UTF-8 malformations are detected, and in fact, some
977c1d31
KW
1055malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer, which
1056is why this function is deprecated. Use L</utf8_to_uvuni_buf> instead.
9041c2e3 1057
524080c4
KW
1058If C<s> points to one of the detected malformations, and UTF8 warnings are
1059enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> doesn't point to
1060NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
1061the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
1062is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
1063next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
1064See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
8e84507e
NIS
1065
1066=cut
1067*/
1068
1069UV
7fc63493 1070Perl_utf8_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
8e84507e 1071{
7918f24d
NC
1072 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI;
1073
4b88fb76 1074 return valid_utf8_to_uvuni(s, retlen);
8e84507e
NIS
1075}
1076
b76347f2 1077/*
87cea99e 1078=for apidoc utf8_length
b76347f2
JH
1079
1080Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string C<s> in characters.
02eb7b47
JH
1081Stops at C<e> (inclusive). If C<e E<lt> s> or if the scan would end
1082up past C<e>, croaks.
b76347f2
JH
1083
1084=cut
1085*/
1086
1087STRLEN
35a4481c 1088Perl_utf8_length(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *e)
b76347f2 1089{
97aff369 1090 dVAR;
b76347f2
JH
1091 STRLEN len = 0;
1092
7918f24d
NC
1093 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_LENGTH;
1094
8850bf83
JH
1095 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g.
1096 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
1097 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
1098
a3b680e6
AL
1099 if (e < s)
1100 goto warn_and_return;
b76347f2 1101 while (s < e) {
4cbf4130 1102 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
8e91ec7f
AV
1103 len++;
1104 }
1105
1106 if (e != s) {
1107 len--;
1108 warn_and_return:
9b387841
NC
1109 if (PL_op)
1110 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1111 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1112 else
61a12c31 1113 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
b76347f2
JH
1114 }
1115
1116 return len;
1117}
1118
b06226ff 1119/*
87cea99e 1120=for apidoc utf8_distance
b06226ff 1121
1e54db1a 1122Returns the number of UTF-8 characters between the UTF-8 pointers C<a>
b06226ff
JH
1123and C<b>.
1124
1125WARNING: use only if you *know* that the pointers point inside the
1126same UTF-8 buffer.
1127
37607a96
PK
1128=cut
1129*/
a0ed51b3 1130
02eb7b47 1131IV
35a4481c 1132Perl_utf8_distance(pTHX_ const U8 *a, const U8 *b)
a0ed51b3 1133{
7918f24d
NC
1134 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_DISTANCE;
1135
bf1665bc 1136 return (a < b) ? -1 * (IV) utf8_length(a, b) : (IV) utf8_length(b, a);
a0ed51b3
LW
1137}
1138
b06226ff 1139/*
87cea99e 1140=for apidoc utf8_hop
b06226ff 1141
8850bf83
JH
1142Return the UTF-8 pointer C<s> displaced by C<off> characters, either
1143forward or backward.
b06226ff
JH
1144
1145WARNING: do not use the following unless you *know* C<off> is within
8850bf83
JH
1146the UTF-8 data pointed to by C<s> *and* that on entry C<s> is aligned
1147on the first byte of character or just after the last byte of a character.
b06226ff 1148
37607a96
PK
1149=cut
1150*/
a0ed51b3
LW
1151
1152U8 *
4373e329 1153Perl_utf8_hop(pTHX_ const U8 *s, I32 off)
a0ed51b3 1154{
7918f24d
NC
1155 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_HOP;
1156
96a5add6 1157 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
8850bf83
JH
1158 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g
1159 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
1160 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
1161
a0ed51b3
LW
1162 if (off >= 0) {
1163 while (off--)
1164 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
1165 }
1166 else {
1167 while (off++) {
1168 s--;
8850bf83
JH
1169 while (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))
1170 s--;
a0ed51b3
LW
1171 }
1172 }
4373e329 1173 return (U8 *)s;
a0ed51b3
LW
1174}
1175
6940069f 1176/*
fed3ba5d
NC
1177=for apidoc bytes_cmp_utf8
1178
a1433954
KW
1179Compares the sequence of characters (stored as octets) in C<b>, C<blen> with the
1180sequence of characters (stored as UTF-8) in C<u>, C<ulen>. Returns 0 if they are
fed3ba5d
NC
1181equal, -1 or -2 if the first string is less than the second string, +1 or +2
1182if the first string is greater than the second string.
1183
1184-1 or +1 is returned if the shorter string was identical to the start of the
1185longer string. -2 or +2 is returned if the was a difference between characters
1186within the strings.
1187
1188=cut
1189*/
1190
1191int
1192Perl_bytes_cmp_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *b, STRLEN blen, const U8 *u, STRLEN ulen)
1193{
1194 const U8 *const bend = b + blen;
1195 const U8 *const uend = u + ulen;
1196
1197 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_CMP_UTF8;
1198
1199 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
1200
1201 while (b < bend && u < uend) {
1202 U8 c = *u++;
1203 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1204 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c)) {
1205 if (u < uend) {
1206 U8 c1 = *u++;
1207 if (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c1)) {
356979f4 1208 c = UNI_TO_NATIVE(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(c, c1));
fed3ba5d
NC
1209 } else {
1210 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1211 "Malformed UTF-8 character "
1212 "(unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x"
1213 ", immediately after start byte 0x%02x)"
1214 /* Dear diag.t, it's in the pod. */
1215 "%s%s", c1, c,
1216 PL_op ? " in " : "",
1217 PL_op ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : "");
1218 return -2;
1219 }
1220 } else {
1221 if (PL_op)
1222 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1223 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1224 else
61a12c31 1225 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
fed3ba5d
NC
1226 return -2; /* Really want to return undef :-) */
1227 }
1228 } else {
1229 return -2;
1230 }
1231 }
1232 if (*b != c) {
1233 return *b < c ? -2 : +2;
1234 }
1235 ++b;
1236 }
1237
1238 if (b == bend && u == uend)
1239 return 0;
1240
1241 return b < bend ? +1 : -1;
1242}
1243
1244/*
87cea99e 1245=for apidoc utf8_to_bytes
6940069f 1246
2bbc8d55 1247Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954
KW
1248Unlike L</bytes_to_utf8>, this over-writes the original string, and
1249updates C<len> to contain the new length.
67e989fb 1250Returns zero on failure, setting C<len> to -1.
6940069f 1251
a1433954 1252If you need a copy of the string, see L</bytes_from_utf8>.
95be277c 1253
6940069f
GS
1254=cut
1255*/
1256
1257U8 *
37607a96 1258Perl_utf8_to_bytes(pTHX_ U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1259{
d4c19fe8
AL
1260 U8 * const save = s;
1261 U8 * const send = s + *len;
6940069f 1262 U8 *d;
246fae53 1263
7918f24d
NC
1264 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_BYTES;
1265
1e54db1a 1266 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before updating string */
d4c19fe8 1267 while (s < send) {
dcad2880
JH
1268 U8 c = *s++;
1269
1d72bdf6
NIS
1270 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c) &&
1271 (!UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) || (s >= send)
1272 || !(c = *s++) || !UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c))) {
10edeb5d 1273 *len = ((STRLEN) -1);
dcad2880
JH
1274 return 0;
1275 }
246fae53 1276 }
dcad2880
JH
1277
1278 d = s = save;
6940069f 1279 while (s < send) {
ed646e6e 1280 STRLEN ulen;
4b88fb76 1281 *d++ = (U8)utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, send, &ulen);
ed646e6e 1282 s += ulen;
6940069f
GS
1283 }
1284 *d = '\0';
246fae53 1285 *len = d - save;
6940069f
GS
1286 return save;
1287}
1288
1289/*
87cea99e 1290=for apidoc bytes_from_utf8
f9a63242 1291
2bbc8d55 1292Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954 1293Unlike L</utf8_to_bytes> but like L</bytes_to_utf8>, returns a pointer to
ef9edfd0
JH
1294the newly-created string, and updates C<len> to contain the new
1295length. Returns the original string if no conversion occurs, C<len>
1296is unchanged. Do nothing if C<is_utf8> points to 0. Sets C<is_utf8> to
2bbc8d55
SP
12970 if C<s> is converted or consisted entirely of characters that are invariant
1298in utf8 (i.e., US-ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines).
f9a63242 1299
37607a96
PK
1300=cut
1301*/
f9a63242
JH
1302
1303U8 *
e1ec3a88 1304Perl_bytes_from_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)
f9a63242 1305{
f9a63242 1306 U8 *d;
e1ec3a88
AL
1307 const U8 *start = s;
1308 const U8 *send;
f9a63242
JH
1309 I32 count = 0;
1310
7918f24d
NC
1311 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_FROM_UTF8;
1312
96a5add6 1313 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
f9a63242 1314 if (!*is_utf8)
73d840c0 1315 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242 1316
1e54db1a 1317 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before converting string */
f9a63242 1318 for (send = s + *len; s < send;) {
e1ec3a88 1319 U8 c = *s++;
1d72bdf6 1320 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
db42d148
NIS
1321 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) && s < send &&
1322 (c = *s++) && UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c))
1323 count++;
1324 else
73d840c0 1325 return (U8 *)start;
db42d148 1326 }
f9a63242
JH
1327 }
1328
35da51f7 1329 *is_utf8 = FALSE;
f9a63242 1330
212542aa 1331 Newx(d, (*len) - count + 1, U8);
ef9edfd0 1332 s = start; start = d;
f9a63242
JH
1333 while (s < send) {
1334 U8 c = *s++;
c4d5f83a
NIS
1335 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1336 /* Then it is two-byte encoded */
356979f4 1337 c = UNI_TO_NATIVE(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(c, *s++));
c4d5f83a
NIS
1338 }
1339 *d++ = c;
f9a63242
JH
1340 }
1341 *d = '\0';
1342 *len = d - start;
73d840c0 1343 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242
JH
1344}
1345
1346/*
87cea99e 1347=for apidoc bytes_to_utf8
6940069f 1348
ff97e5cf
KW
1349Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> bytes from the native encoding into
1350UTF-8.
6662521e 1351Returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and sets C<len> to
ff97e5cf 1352reflect the new length in bytes.
6940069f 1353
2bbc8d55
SP
1354A NUL character will be written after the end of the string.
1355
1356If you want to convert to UTF-8 from encodings other than
1357the native (Latin1 or EBCDIC),
a1433954 1358see L</sv_recode_to_utf8>().
c9ada85f 1359
497711e7 1360=cut
6940069f
GS
1361*/
1362
c682ebef
FC
1363/* This logic is duplicated in sv_catpvn_flags, so any bug fixes will
1364 likewise need duplication. */
1365
6940069f 1366U8*
35a4481c 1367Perl_bytes_to_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1368{
35a4481c 1369 const U8 * const send = s + (*len);
6940069f
GS
1370 U8 *d;
1371 U8 *dst;
7918f24d
NC
1372
1373 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_TO_UTF8;
96a5add6 1374 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
6940069f 1375
212542aa 1376 Newx(d, (*len) * 2 + 1, U8);
6940069f
GS
1377 dst = d;
1378
1379 while (s < send) {
35a4481c 1380 const UV uv = NATIVE_TO_ASCII(*s++);
c4d5f83a 1381 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv))
eb160463 1382 *d++ = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE(uv);
6940069f 1383 else {
eb160463
GS
1384 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(uv);
1385 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(uv);
6940069f
GS
1386 }
1387 }
1388 *d = '\0';
6662521e 1389 *len = d-dst;
6940069f
GS
1390 return dst;
1391}
1392
a0ed51b3 1393/*
dea0fc0b 1394 * Convert native (big-endian) or reversed (little-endian) UTF-16 to UTF-8.
a0ed51b3
LW
1395 *
1396 * Destination must be pre-extended to 3/2 source. Do not use in-place.
1397 * We optimize for native, for obvious reasons. */
1398
1399U8*
dea0fc0b 1400Perl_utf16_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3 1401{
dea0fc0b
JH
1402 U8* pend;
1403 U8* dstart = d;
1404
7918f24d
NC
1405 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8;
1406
dea0fc0b 1407 if (bytelen & 1)
f5992bc4 1408 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen %"UVuf, (UV)bytelen);
dea0fc0b
JH
1409
1410 pend = p + bytelen;
1411
a0ed51b3 1412 while (p < pend) {
dea0fc0b
JH
1413 UV uv = (p[0] << 8) + p[1]; /* UTF-16BE */
1414 p += 2;
a0ed51b3 1415 if (uv < 0x80) {
e294cc5d
JH
1416#ifdef EBCDIC
1417 *d++ = UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
1418#else
eb160463 1419 *d++ = (U8)uv;
e294cc5d 1420#endif
a0ed51b3
LW
1421 continue;
1422 }
1423 if (uv < 0x800) {
eb160463
GS
1424 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 6) | 0xc0);
1425 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1426 continue;
1427 }
52b9aa85 1428 if (uv >= 0xd800 && uv <= 0xdbff) { /* surrogates */
01ea242b 1429 if (p >= pend) {
dea0fc0b 1430 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
01ea242b
NC
1431 } else {
1432 UV low = (p[0] << 8) + p[1];
1433 p += 2;
52b9aa85 1434 if (low < 0xdc00 || low > 0xdfff)
01ea242b
NC
1435 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
1436 uv = ((uv - 0xd800) << 10) + (low - 0xdc00) + 0x10000;
1437 }
dbde1951
NC
1438 } else if (uv >= 0xdc00 && uv <= 0xdfff) {
1439 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
a0ed51b3
LW
1440 }
1441 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
1442 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
1443 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1444 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1445 continue;
1446 }
1447 else {
eb160463
GS
1448 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
1449 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1450 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1451 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1452 continue;
1453 }
1454 }
dea0fc0b 1455 *newlen = d - dstart;
a0ed51b3
LW
1456 return d;
1457}
1458
1459/* Note: this one is slightly destructive of the source. */
1460
1461U8*
dea0fc0b 1462Perl_utf16_to_utf8_reversed(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3
LW
1463{
1464 U8* s = (U8*)p;
d4c19fe8 1465 U8* const send = s + bytelen;
7918f24d
NC
1466
1467 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8_REVERSED;
1468
e0ea5e2d
NC
1469 if (bytelen & 1)
1470 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8_reversed: odd bytelen %"UVuf,
1471 (UV)bytelen);
1472
a0ed51b3 1473 while (s < send) {
d4c19fe8 1474 const U8 tmp = s[0];
a0ed51b3
LW
1475 s[0] = s[1];
1476 s[1] = tmp;
1477 s += 2;
1478 }
dea0fc0b 1479 return utf16_to_utf8(p, d, bytelen, newlen);
a0ed51b3
LW
1480}
1481
922e8cb4
KW
1482bool
1483Perl__is_uni_FOO(pTHX_ const U8 classnum, const UV c)
1484{
1485 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
1486 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
1487 return _is_utf8_FOO(classnum, tmpbuf);
1488}
1489
c3fd2246
KW
1490/* for now these are all defined (inefficiently) in terms of the utf8 versions.
1491 * Note that the macros in handy.h that call these short-circuit calling them
1492 * for Latin-1 range inputs */
a0ed51b3
LW
1493
1494bool
84afefe6 1495Perl_is_uni_alnum(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1496{
89ebb4a3 1497 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1498 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1499 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_WORDCHAR, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1500}
1501
1502bool
5092f92a
KW
1503Perl_is_uni_alnumc(pTHX_ UV c)
1504{
1505 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
1506 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1507 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_ALPHANUMERIC, tmpbuf);
5092f92a
KW
1508}
1509
61b19385
KW
1510bool /* Internal function so we can deprecate the external one, and call
1511 this one from other deprecated functions in this file */
1512S_is_utf8_idfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1513{
1514 dVAR;
1515
1516 if (*p == '_')
1517 return TRUE;
1518 /* is_utf8_idstart would be more logical. */
1519 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idstart, "IdStart");
1520}
1521
5092f92a 1522bool
84afefe6 1523Perl_is_uni_idfirst(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1524{
89ebb4a3 1525 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1526 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
61b19385 1527 return S_is_utf8_idfirst(aTHX_ tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1528}
1529
1530bool
f91dcd13
KW
1531Perl__is_uni_perl_idstart(pTHX_ UV c)
1532{
1533 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
1534 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
1535 return _is_utf8_perl_idstart(tmpbuf);
1536}
1537
1538bool
84afefe6 1539Perl_is_uni_alpha(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1540{
89ebb4a3 1541 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1542 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1543 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_ALPHA, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1544}
1545
1546bool
84afefe6 1547Perl_is_uni_ascii(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1548{
bc39fe24 1549 return isASCII(c);
4d61ec05
GS
1550}
1551
1552bool
bdd8600f
KW
1553Perl_is_uni_blank(pTHX_ UV c)
1554{
2cafb56b 1555 return isBLANK_uni(c);
bdd8600f
KW
1556}
1557
1558bool
84afefe6 1559Perl_is_uni_space(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1560{
add4123a 1561 return isSPACE_uni(c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1562}
1563
1564bool
84afefe6 1565Perl_is_uni_digit(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1566{
89ebb4a3 1567 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1568 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1569 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_DIGIT, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1570}
1571
1572bool
84afefe6 1573Perl_is_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1574{
89ebb4a3 1575 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1576 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1577 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_UPPER, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1578}
1579
1580bool
84afefe6 1581Perl_is_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1582{
89ebb4a3 1583 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1584 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1585 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_LOWER, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1586}
1587
1588bool
84afefe6 1589Perl_is_uni_cntrl(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1590{
7b952154 1591 return isCNTRL_L1(c);
b8c5462f
JH
1592}
1593
1594bool
84afefe6 1595Perl_is_uni_graph(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1596{
89ebb4a3 1597 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1598 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1599 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_GRAPH, tmpbuf);
b8c5462f
JH
1600}
1601
1602bool
84afefe6 1603Perl_is_uni_print(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1604{
89ebb4a3 1605 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1606 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1607 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_PRINT, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1608}
1609
b8c5462f 1610bool
84afefe6 1611Perl_is_uni_punct(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1612{
89ebb4a3 1613 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1614 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1615 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_PUNCT, tmpbuf);
b8c5462f
JH
1616}
1617
4d61ec05 1618bool
84afefe6 1619Perl_is_uni_xdigit(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1620{
4ac6419d 1621 return isXDIGIT_uni(c);
4d61ec05
GS
1622}
1623
3a4c58c9
KW
1624UV
1625Perl__to_upper_title_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const char S_or_s)
1626{
1627 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
1628 * those, converting the result to utf8. The only difference between upper
1629 * and title case in this range is that LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S is
1630 * either "SS" or "Ss". Which one to use is passed into the routine in
1631 * 'S_or_s' to avoid a test */
1632
1633 UV converted = toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD(c);
1634
1635 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UPPER_TITLE_LATIN1;
1636
1637 assert(S_or_s == 'S' || S_or_s == 's');
1638
1639 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) { /* No difference between the two for
1640 characters in this range */
1641 *p = (U8) converted;
1642 *lenp = 1;
1643 return converted;
1644 }
1645
1646 /* toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD gives the correct results except for three outliers,
1647 * which it maps to one of them, so as to only have to have one check for
1648 * it in the main case */
1649 if (UNLIKELY(converted == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS)) {
1650 switch (c) {
1651 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS:
1652 converted = LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS;
1653 break;
1654 case MICRO_SIGN:
1655 converted = GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_MU;
1656 break;
1657 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S:
1658 *(p)++ = 'S';
1659 *p = S_or_s;
1660 *lenp = 2;
1661 return 'S';
1662 default:
1663 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: to_upper_title_latin1 did not expect '%c' to map to '%c'", c, LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS);
118e2215 1664 assert(0); /* NOTREACHED */
3a4c58c9
KW
1665 }
1666 }
1667
1668 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1669 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1670 *lenp = 2;
1671
1672 return converted;
1673}
1674
50bda2c3
KW
1675/* Call the function to convert a UTF-8 encoded character to the specified case.
1676 * Note that there may be more than one character in the result.
1677 * INP is a pointer to the first byte of the input character
1678 * OUTP will be set to the first byte of the string of changed characters. It
1679 * needs to have space for UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes
1680 * LENP will be set to the length in bytes of the string of changed characters
1681 *
1682 * The functions return the ordinal of the first character in the string of OUTP */
f90a9a02
KW
1683#define CALL_UPPER_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_toupper, "ToUc", "utf8::ToSpecUc")
1684#define CALL_TITLE_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_totitle, "ToTc", "utf8::ToSpecTc")
1685#define CALL_LOWER_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_tolower, "ToLc", "utf8::ToSpecLc")
50bda2c3
KW
1686
1687/* This additionally has the input parameter SPECIALS, which if non-zero will
1688 * cause this to use the SPECIALS hash for folding (meaning get full case
1689 * folding); otherwise, when zero, this implies a simple case fold */
f90a9a02 1690#define CALL_FOLD_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP, SPECIALS) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_tofold, "ToCf", (SPECIALS) ? "utf8::ToSpecCf" : NULL)
c3fd2246 1691
84afefe6
JH
1692UV
1693Perl_to_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1694{
3a4c58c9
KW
1695 dVAR;
1696
a1433954
KW
1697 /* Convert the Unicode character whose ordinal is <c> to its uppercase
1698 * version and store that in UTF-8 in <p> and its length in bytes in <lenp>.
1699 * Note that the <p> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
c3fd2246
KW
1700 * the changed version may be longer than the original character.
1701 *
1702 * The ordinal of the first character of the changed version is returned
1703 * (but note, as explained above, that there may be more.) */
1704
7918f24d
NC
1705 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_UPPER;
1706
3a4c58c9
KW
1707 if (c < 256) {
1708 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 'S');
1709 }
1710
0ebc6274 1711 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
3a4c58c9 1712 return CALL_UPPER_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1713}
1714
84afefe6
JH
1715UV
1716Perl_to_uni_title(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1717{
3a4c58c9
KW
1718 dVAR;
1719
7918f24d
NC
1720 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_TITLE;
1721
3a4c58c9
KW
1722 if (c < 256) {
1723 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 's');
1724 }
1725
0ebc6274 1726 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
3a4c58c9 1727 return CALL_TITLE_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1728}
1729
afc16117
KW
1730STATIC U8
1731S_to_lower_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
1732{
1733 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
1734 * those, converting the result to utf8. Since the result is always just
a1433954 1735 * one character, we allow <p> to be NULL */
afc16117
KW
1736
1737 U8 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
1738
1739 if (p != NULL) {
1740 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
1741 *p = converted;
1742 *lenp = 1;
1743 }
1744 else {
1745 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1746 *(p+1) = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1747 *lenp = 2;
1748 }
1749 }
1750 return converted;
1751}
1752
84afefe6
JH
1753UV
1754Perl_to_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1755{
968c5e6a
KW
1756 dVAR;
1757
7918f24d
NC
1758 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_LOWER;
1759
afc16117
KW
1760 if (c < 256) {
1761 return to_lower_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp);
bca00c02
KW
1762 }
1763
afc16117 1764 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
968c5e6a 1765 return CALL_LOWER_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1766}
1767
84afefe6 1768UV
f673fad4 1769Perl__to_fold_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags)
a1dde8de 1770{
a1433954 1771 /* Corresponds to to_lower_latin1(), <flags> is TRUE if to use full case
f673fad4
KW
1772 * folding */
1773
a1dde8de
KW
1774 UV converted;
1775
1776 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_FOLD_LATIN1;
1777
1778 if (c == MICRO_SIGN) {
1779 converted = GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_MU;
1780 }
1781 else if (flags && c == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S) {
1782 *(p)++ = 's';
1783 *p = 's';
1784 *lenp = 2;
1785 return 's';
1786 }
1787 else { /* In this range the fold of all other characters is their lower
1788 case */
1789 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
1790 }
1791
1792 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
1793 *p = (U8) converted;
1794 *lenp = 1;
1795 }
1796 else {
1797 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1798 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1799 *lenp = 2;
1800 }
1801
1802 return converted;
1803}
1804
1805UV
a0270393 1806Perl__to_uni_fold_flags(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const U8 flags)
84afefe6 1807{
4b593389 1808
a0270393
KW
1809 /* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change
1810 * <flags> bits meanings:
1811 * FOLD_FLAGS_FULL iff full folding is to be used;
1812 * FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE iff in locale
1813 * FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII iff non-ASCII to ASCII folds are prohibited
1814 */
4b593389 1815
36bb2ab6 1816 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UNI_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 1817
a1dde8de 1818 if (c < 256) {
a0270393
KW
1819 UV result = _to_fold_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp,
1820 cBOOL(((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL)
1821 /* If ASCII-safe, don't allow full folding,
1822 * as that could include SHARP S => ss;
1823 * otherwise there is no crossing of
1824 * ascii/non-ascii in the latin1 range */
1825 && ! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))));
1826 /* It is illegal for the fold to cross the 255/256 boundary under
1827 * locale; in this case return the original */
1828 return (result > 256 && flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE)
1829 ? c
1830 : result;
a1dde8de
KW
1831 }
1832
a0270393
KW
1833 /* If no special needs, just use the macro */
1834 if ( ! (flags & (FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE|FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))) {
1835 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
1836 return CALL_FOLD_CASE(p, p, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
1837 }
1838 else { /* Otherwise, _to_utf8_fold_flags has the intelligence to deal with
1839 the special flags. */
1840 U8 utf8_c[UTF8_MAXBYTES + 1];
1841 uvchr_to_utf8(utf8_c, c);
1842 return _to_utf8_fold_flags(utf8_c, p, lenp, flags, NULL);
1843 }
84afefe6
JH
1844}
1845
a0ed51b3 1846bool
84afefe6 1847Perl_is_uni_alnum_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1848{
edfb3318
KW
1849 if (c < 256) {
1850 return isALNUM_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1851 }
922e8cb4 1852 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_WORDCHAR, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1853}
1854
1855bool
5092f92a
KW
1856Perl_is_uni_alnumc_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
1857{
1858 if (c < 256) {
15861f94 1859 return isALPHANUMERIC_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
5092f92a 1860 }
922e8cb4 1861 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_ALPHANUMERIC, c);
5092f92a
KW
1862}
1863
1864bool
84afefe6 1865Perl_is_uni_idfirst_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1866{
edfb3318
KW
1867 if (c < 256) {
1868 return isIDFIRST_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1869 }
1870 return _is_uni_perl_idstart(c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1871}
1872
1873bool
84afefe6 1874Perl_is_uni_alpha_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1875{
edfb3318
KW
1876 if (c < 256) {
1877 return isALPHA_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1878 }
922e8cb4 1879 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_ALPHA, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1880}
1881
1882bool
84afefe6 1883Perl_is_uni_ascii_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1884{
edfb3318
KW
1885 if (c < 256) {
1886 return isASCII_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1887 }
1888 return 0;
4d61ec05
GS
1889}
1890
1891bool
bdd8600f
KW
1892Perl_is_uni_blank_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
1893{
edfb3318
KW
1894 if (c < 256) {
1895 return isBLANK_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1896 }
61b19385 1897 return isBLANK_uni(c);
bdd8600f
KW
1898}
1899
1900bool
84afefe6 1901Perl_is_uni_space_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1902{
edfb3318
KW
1903 if (c < 256) {
1904 return isSPACE_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1905 }
61b19385 1906 return isSPACE_uni(c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1907}
1908
1909bool
84afefe6 1910Perl_is_uni_digit_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1911{
edfb3318
KW
1912 if (c < 256) {
1913 return isDIGIT_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1914 }
922e8cb4 1915 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_DIGIT, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1916}
1917
1918bool
84afefe6 1919Perl_is_uni_upper_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1920{
edfb3318
KW
1921 if (c < 256) {
1922 return isUPPER_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1923 }
922e8cb4 1924 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_UPPER, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1925}
1926
1927bool
84afefe6 1928Perl_is_uni_lower_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1929{
edfb3318
KW
1930 if (c < 256) {
1931 return isLOWER_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1932 }
922e8cb4 1933 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_LOWER, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1934}
1935
1936bool
84afefe6 1937Perl_is_uni_cntrl_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1938{
edfb3318
KW
1939 if (c < 256) {
1940 return isCNTRL_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1941 }
61b19385 1942 return 0;
b8c5462f
JH
1943}
1944
1945bool
84afefe6 1946Perl_is_uni_graph_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1947{
edfb3318
KW
1948 if (c < 256) {
1949 return isGRAPH_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1950 }
922e8cb4 1951 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_GRAPH, c);
b8c5462f
JH
1952}
1953
1954bool
84afefe6 1955Perl_is_uni_print_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1956{
edfb3318
KW
1957 if (c < 256) {
1958 return isPRINT_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1959 }
922e8cb4 1960 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_PRINT, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1961}
1962
b8c5462f 1963bool
84afefe6 1964Perl_is_uni_punct_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1965{
edfb3318
KW
1966 if (c < 256) {
1967 return isPUNCT_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1968 }
922e8cb4 1969 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_PUNCT, c);
b8c5462f
JH
1970}
1971
4d61ec05 1972bool
84afefe6 1973Perl_is_uni_xdigit_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1974{
edfb3318
KW
1975 if (c < 256) {
1976 return isXDIGIT_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1977 }
61b19385 1978 return isXDIGIT_uni(c);
4d61ec05
GS
1979}
1980
b7ac61fa
JH
1981U32
1982Perl_to_uni_upper_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
1983{
ee099d14
JH
1984 /* XXX returns only the first character -- do not use XXX */
1985 /* XXX no locale support yet */
1986 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 1987 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 1988 return (U32)to_uni_upper(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
1989}
1990
1991U32
1992Perl_to_uni_title_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
1993{
ee099d14
JH
1994 /* XXX returns only the first character XXX -- do not use XXX */
1995 /* XXX no locale support yet */
1996 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 1997 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 1998 return (U32)to_uni_title(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
1999}
2000
2001U32
2002Perl_to_uni_lower_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
2003{
ee099d14
JH
2004 /* XXX returns only the first character -- do not use XXX */
2005 /* XXX no locale support yet */
2006 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 2007 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 2008 return (U32)to_uni_lower(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
2009}
2010
26483009 2011PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
5141f98e 2012S_is_utf8_common(pTHX_ const U8 *const p, SV **swash,
bde6a22d
NC
2013 const char *const swashname)
2014{
ea317ccb
KW
2015 /* returns a boolean giving whether or not the UTF8-encoded character that
2016 * starts at <p> is in the swash indicated by <swashname>. <swash>
2017 * contains a pointer to where the swash indicated by <swashname>
2018 * is to be stored; which this routine will do, so that future calls will
2019 * look at <*swash> and only generate a swash if it is not null
2020 *
2021 * Note that it is assumed that the buffer length of <p> is enough to
2022 * contain all the bytes that comprise the character. Thus, <*p> should
2023 * have been checked before this call for mal-formedness enough to assure
2024 * that. */
2025
97aff369 2026 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2027
2028 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_COMMON;
2029
492a624f 2030 /* The API should have included a length for the UTF-8 character in <p>,
28123549 2031 * but it doesn't. We therefore assume that p has been validated at least
492a624f
KW
2032 * as far as there being enough bytes available in it to accommodate the
2033 * character without reading beyond the end, and pass that number on to the
2034 * validating routine */
28123549
KW
2035 if (! is_utf8_char_buf(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p))) {
2036 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8)) {
2037 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN2(WARN_DEPRECATED,WARN_UTF8),
2038 "It is deprecated to pass malformed UTF-8 to character classification macros, for \"%s\"", swashname);
2039 if (ckWARN(WARN_UTF8)) { /* This will output details as to the
2040 what the malformation is */
2041 utf8_to_uvchr_buf(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p), NULL);
2042 }
2043 }
2044 return FALSE;
2045 }
87367d5f
KW
2046 if (!*swash) {
2047 U8 flags = _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST;
2048 *swash = _core_swash_init("utf8", swashname, &PL_sv_undef, 1, 0, NULL, &flags);
2049 }
28123549 2050
bde6a22d
NC
2051 return swash_fetch(*swash, p, TRUE) != 0;
2052}
2053
2054bool
922e8cb4
KW
2055Perl__is_utf8_FOO(pTHX_ const U8 classnum, const U8 *p)
2056{
2057 dVAR;
2058
2059 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_FOO;
2060
2061 assert(classnum < _FIRST_NON_SWASH_CC);
2062
2063 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[classnum], swash_property_names[classnum]);
2064}
2065
2066bool
7fc63493 2067Perl_is_utf8_alnum(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2068{
97aff369 2069 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2070
2071 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALNUM;
2072
671c33bf
NC
2073 /* NOTE: "IsWord", not "IsAlnum", since Alnum is a true
2074 * descendant of isalnum(3), in other words, it doesn't
2075 * contain the '_'. --jhi */
03940dc2 2076 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_WORDCHAR], "IsWord");
a0ed51b3
LW
2077}
2078
2079bool
5092f92a
KW
2080Perl_is_utf8_alnumc(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2081{
2082 dVAR;
2083
2084 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALNUMC;
2085
03940dc2 2086 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_ALPHANUMERIC], "IsAlnum");
5092f92a
KW
2087}
2088
2089bool
7fc63493 2090Perl_is_utf8_idfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p) /* The naming is historical. */
a0ed51b3 2091{
97aff369 2092 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2093
2094 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_IDFIRST;
2095
61b19385 2096 return S_is_utf8_idfirst(aTHX_ p);
82686b01
JH
2097}
2098
2099bool
c11ff943
KW
2100Perl_is_utf8_xidfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p) /* The naming is historical. */
2101{
2102 dVAR;
2103
2104 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XIDFIRST;
2105
2106 if (*p == '_')
2107 return TRUE;
2108 /* is_utf8_idstart would be more logical. */
2109 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_xidstart, "XIdStart");
2110}
2111
2112bool
d65654cb 2113Perl__is_utf8_perl_idstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b6912c02
KW
2114{
2115 dVAR;
2116
d65654cb 2117 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_PERL_IDSTART;
b6912c02
KW
2118
2119 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idstart, "_Perl_IDStart");
2120}
2121
2122bool
7fc63493 2123Perl_is_utf8_idcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
82686b01 2124{
97aff369 2125 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2126
2127 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_IDCONT;
2128
d4c19fe8 2129 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "IdContinue");
a0ed51b3
LW
2130}
2131
2132bool
c11ff943
KW
2133Perl_is_utf8_xidcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2134{
2135 dVAR;
2136
2137 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XIDCONT;
2138
c11ff943
KW
2139 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "XIdContinue");
2140}
2141
2142bool
7fc63493 2143Perl_is_utf8_alpha(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2144{
97aff369 2145 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2146
2147 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALPHA;
2148
03940dc2 2149 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_ALPHA], "IsAlpha");
a0ed51b3
LW
2150}
2151
2152bool
7fc63493 2153Perl_is_utf8_ascii(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2154{
97aff369 2155 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2156
2157 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ASCII;
2158
bc39fe24
KW
2159 /* ASCII characters are the same whether in utf8 or not. So the macro
2160 * works on both utf8 and non-utf8 representations. */
2161 return isASCII(*p);
b8c5462f
JH
2162}
2163
2164bool
bdd8600f
KW
2165Perl_is_utf8_blank(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2166{
2167 dVAR;
2168
2169 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_BLANK;
2170
2cafb56b 2171 return isBLANK_utf8(p);
bdd8600f
KW
2172}
2173
2174bool
7fc63493 2175Perl_is_utf8_space(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2176{
97aff369 2177 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2178
2179 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_SPACE;
2180
add4123a 2181 return isSPACE_utf8(p);
a0ed51b3
LW
2182}
2183
2184bool
d1eb3177
YO
2185Perl_is_utf8_perl_space(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2186{
2187 dVAR;
2188
2189 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PERL_SPACE;
2190
c4428693
KW
2191 /* Only true if is an ASCII space-like character, and ASCII is invariant
2192 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2193 return isSPACE_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2194}
2195
2196bool
2197Perl_is_utf8_perl_word(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2198{
2199 dVAR;
2200
2201 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PERL_WORD;
2202
c4428693
KW
2203 /* Only true if is an ASCII word character, and ASCII is invariant
2204 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2205 return isWORDCHAR_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2206}
2207
2208bool
7fc63493 2209Perl_is_utf8_digit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2210{
97aff369 2211 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2212
2213 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_DIGIT;
2214
03940dc2 2215 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_DIGIT], "IsDigit");
a0ed51b3
LW
2216}
2217
2218bool
d1eb3177
YO
2219Perl_is_utf8_posix_digit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2220{
2221 dVAR;
2222
2223 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_POSIX_DIGIT;
2224
c4428693
KW
2225 /* Only true if is an ASCII digit character, and ASCII is invariant
2226 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2227 return isDIGIT_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2228}
2229
2230bool
7fc63493 2231Perl_is_utf8_upper(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2232{
97aff369 2233 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2234
2235 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_UPPER;
2236
03940dc2 2237 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_UPPER], "IsUppercase");
a0ed51b3
LW
2238}
2239
2240bool
7fc63493 2241Perl_is_utf8_lower(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2242{
97aff369 2243 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2244
2245 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_LOWER;
2246
03940dc2 2247 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_LOWER], "IsLowercase");
a0ed51b3
LW
2248}
2249
2250bool
7fc63493 2251Perl_is_utf8_cntrl(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2252{
97aff369 2253 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2254
2255 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CNTRL;
2256
a35d759a 2257 return isCNTRL_utf8(p);
b8c5462f
JH
2258}
2259
2260bool
7fc63493 2261Perl_is_utf8_graph(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2262{
97aff369 2263 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2264
2265 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_GRAPH;
2266
03940dc2 2267 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_GRAPH], "IsGraph");
b8c5462f
JH
2268}
2269
2270bool
7fc63493 2271Perl_is_utf8_print(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2272{
97aff369 2273 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2274
2275 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PRINT;
2276
03940dc2 2277 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_PRINT], "IsPrint");
a0ed51b3
LW
2278}
2279
2280bool
7fc63493 2281Perl_is_utf8_punct(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2282{
97aff369 2283 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2284
2285 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PUNCT;
2286
03940dc2 2287 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_PUNCT], "IsPunct");
b8c5462f
JH
2288}
2289
2290bool
7fc63493 2291Perl_is_utf8_xdigit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2292{
97aff369 2293 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2294
2295 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XDIGIT;
2296
4ac6419d 2297 return is_XDIGIT_utf8(p);
b8c5462f
JH
2298}
2299
2300bool
7dbf68d2
KW
2301Perl__is_utf8_mark(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2302{
2303 dVAR;
2304
2305 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_MARK;
2306
2307 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_mark, "IsM");
2308}
2309
2310
2311bool
7fc63493 2312Perl_is_utf8_mark(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2313{
97aff369 2314 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2315
2316 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_MARK;
2317
7dbf68d2 2318 return _is_utf8_mark(p);
a0ed51b3
LW
2319}
2320
6b5c0936 2321/*
87cea99e 2322=for apidoc to_utf8_case
6b5c0936 2323
a1433954
KW
2324The C<p> contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding
2325the character that is being converted. This routine assumes that the character
2326at C<p> is well-formed.
6b5c0936 2327
a1433954
KW
2328The C<ustrp> is a pointer to the character buffer to put the
2329conversion result to. The C<lenp> is a pointer to the length
6b5c0936
JH
2330of the result.
2331
a1433954 2332The C<swashp> is a pointer to the swash to use.
6b5c0936 2333
a1433954
KW
2334Both the special and normal mappings are stored in F<lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl>,
2335and loaded by SWASHNEW, using F<lib/utf8_heavy.pl>. The C<special> (usually,
0134edef 2336but not always, a multicharacter mapping), is tried first.
6b5c0936 2337
a1433954 2338The C<special> is a string like "utf8::ToSpecLower", which means the
0134edef
JH
2339hash %utf8::ToSpecLower. The access to the hash is through
2340Perl_to_utf8_case().
6b5c0936 2341
a1433954 2342The C<normal> is a string like "ToLower" which means the swash
0134edef
JH
2343%utf8::ToLower.
2344
2345=cut */
6b5c0936 2346
2104c8d9 2347UV
9a957fbc
AL
2348Perl_to_utf8_case(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp,
2349 SV **swashp, const char *normal, const char *special)
a0ed51b3 2350{
97aff369 2351 dVAR;
89ebb4a3 2352 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
0134edef 2353 STRLEN len = 0;
4b88fb76 2354 const UV uv0 = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, NULL);
1feea2c7
JH
2355 /* The NATIVE_TO_UNI() and UNI_TO_NATIVE() mappings
2356 * are necessary in EBCDIC, they are redundant no-ops
2357 * in ASCII-ish platforms, and hopefully optimized away. */
f54cb97a 2358 const UV uv1 = NATIVE_TO_UNI(uv0);
7918f24d
NC
2359
2360 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UTF8_CASE;
2361
9ae3ac1a
KW
2362 /* Note that swash_fetch() doesn't output warnings for these because it
2363 * assumes we will */
8457b38f 2364 if (uv1 >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST) {
9ae3ac1a 2365 if (uv1 <= UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST) {
8457b38f
KW
2366 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE)) {
2367 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2368 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
2369 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf"", desc, uv1);
2370 }
9ae3ac1a
KW
2371 }
2372 else if (UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv1)) {
8457b38f
KW
2373 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
2374 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2375 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
2376 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%04"UVXf"", desc, uv1);
2377 }
9ae3ac1a
KW
2378 }
2379
2380 /* Note that non-characters are perfectly legal, so no warning should
2381 * be given */
2382 }
2383
1feea2c7 2384 uvuni_to_utf8(tmpbuf, uv1);
0134edef
JH
2385
2386 if (!*swashp) /* load on-demand */
5ab9d2ef 2387 *swashp = _core_swash_init("utf8", normal, &PL_sv_undef, 4, 0, NULL, NULL);
0134edef 2388
a6f87d8c 2389 if (special) {
0134edef 2390 /* It might be "special" (sometimes, but not always,
2a37f04d 2391 * a multicharacter mapping) */
6673a63c 2392 HV * const hv = get_hv(special, 0);
b08cf34e
JH
2393 SV **svp;
2394
35da51f7 2395 if (hv &&
b08cf34e
JH
2396 (svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)tmpbuf, UNISKIP(uv1), FALSE)) &&
2397 (*svp)) {
cfd0369c 2398 const char *s;
47654450 2399
cfd0369c 2400 s = SvPV_const(*svp, len);
47654450
JH
2401 if (len == 1)
2402 len = uvuni_to_utf8(ustrp, NATIVE_TO_UNI(*(U8*)s)) - ustrp;
2a37f04d 2403 else {
2f9475ad
JH
2404#ifdef EBCDIC
2405 /* If we have EBCDIC we need to remap the characters
2406 * since any characters in the low 256 are Unicode
2407 * code points, not EBCDIC. */
7cda7a3d 2408 U8 *t = (U8*)s, *tend = t + len, *d;
2f9475ad
JH
2409
2410 d = tmpbuf;
b08cf34e 2411 if (SvUTF8(*svp)) {
2f9475ad
JH
2412 STRLEN tlen = 0;
2413
2414 while (t < tend) {
6bd1c396 2415 const UV c = utf8_to_uvchr_buf(t, tend, &tlen);
2f9475ad
JH
2416 if (tlen > 0) {
2417 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
2418 t += tlen;
2419 }
2420 else
2421 break;
2422 }
2423 }
2424 else {
36fec512
JH
2425 while (t < tend) {
2426 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, UNI_TO_NATIVE(*t));
2427 t++;
2428 }
2f9475ad
JH
2429 }
2430 len = d - tmpbuf;
2431 Copy(tmpbuf, ustrp, len, U8);
2432#else
d2dcd0fb 2433 Copy(s, ustrp, len, U8);
2f9475ad 2434#endif
29e98929 2435 }
983ffd37 2436 }
0134edef
JH
2437 }
2438
2439 if (!len && *swashp) {
2114036c 2440 const UV uv2 = swash_fetch(*swashp, tmpbuf, TRUE /* => is utf8 */);
d4c19fe8 2441
0134edef
JH
2442 if (uv2) {
2443 /* It was "normal" (a single character mapping). */
d4c19fe8 2444 const UV uv3 = UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv2);
e9101d72 2445 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, uv3) - ustrp;
2a37f04d
JH
2446 }
2447 }
1feea2c7 2448
cbe07460
KW
2449 if (len) {
2450 if (lenp) {
2451 *lenp = len;
2452 }
2453 return valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ustrp, 0);
2454 }
2455
2456 /* Here, there was no mapping defined, which means that the code point maps
2457 * to itself. Return the inputs */
bfdf22ec 2458 len = UTF8SKIP(p);
ca9fab46
KW
2459 if (p != ustrp) { /* Don't copy onto itself */
2460 Copy(p, ustrp, len, U8);
2461 }
0134edef 2462
2a37f04d
JH
2463 if (lenp)
2464 *lenp = len;
2465
cbe07460
KW
2466 return uv0;
2467
a0ed51b3
LW
2468}
2469
051a06d4
KW
2470STATIC UV
2471S_check_locale_boundary_crossing(pTHX_ const U8* const p, const UV result, U8* const ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)
2472{
2473 /* This is called when changing the case of a utf8-encoded character above
2474 * the Latin1 range, and the operation is in locale. If the result
2475 * contains a character that crosses the 255/256 boundary, disallow the
2476 * change, and return the original code point. See L<perlfunc/lc> for why;
2477 *
a1433954
KW
2478 * p points to the original string whose case was changed; assumed
2479 * by this routine to be well-formed
051a06d4
KW
2480 * result the code point of the first character in the changed-case string
2481 * ustrp points to the changed-case string (<result> represents its first char)
2482 * lenp points to the length of <ustrp> */
2483
2484 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
2485
2486 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CHECK_LOCALE_BOUNDARY_CROSSING;
2487
2488 assert(! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p) && ! UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p));
2489
2490 /* We know immediately if the first character in the string crosses the
2491 * boundary, so can skip */
2492 if (result > 255) {
2493
2494 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
2495 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
2496 U8* s = ustrp + UTF8SKIP(ustrp);
2497 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
2498 while (s < e) {
2499 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s) || UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*s))
2500 {
2501 goto bad_crossing;
2502 }
2503 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
2504 }
2505
2506 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is */
2507 return result;
2508 }
2509
2510bad_crossing:
2511
2512 /* Failed, have to return the original */
4b88fb76 2513 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
051a06d4
KW
2514 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
2515 return original;
2516}
2517
d3e79532 2518/*
87cea99e 2519=for apidoc to_utf8_upper
d3e79532 2520
a1433954
KW
2521Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its uppercase version and
2522store that in UTF-8 in C<ustrp> and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
89ebb4a3
JH
2523that the ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
2524the uppercase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2525
2526The first character of the uppercased version is returned
2527(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2528
a1433954
KW
2529The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2530
d3e79532
JH
2531=cut */
2532
051a06d4
KW
2533/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2534 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2535 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2536 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2537
2104c8d9 2538UV
051a06d4 2539Perl__to_utf8_upper_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
a0ed51b3 2540{
97aff369 2541 dVAR;
7918f24d 2542
051a06d4
KW
2543 UV result;
2544
2545 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_UPPER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2546
3a4c58c9 2547 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2548 if (flags) {
2549 result = toUPPER_LC(*p);
2550 }
2551 else {
81c6c7ce 2552 return _to_upper_title_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp, 'S');
051a06d4 2553 }
3a4c58c9
KW
2554 }
2555 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2556 if (flags) {
2557 result = toUPPER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2558 }
2559 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2560 return _to_upper_title_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2561 ustrp, lenp, 'S');
051a06d4
KW
2562 }
2563 }
2564 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2565 result = CALL_UPPER_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2566
2567 if (flags) {
2568 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2569 }
2570 return result;
2571 }
2572
2573 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2574 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2575 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2576 *lenp = 1;
2577 }
2578 else {
2579 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2580 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2581 *lenp = 2;
3a4c58c9
KW
2582 }
2583
051a06d4
KW
2584 if (tainted_ptr) {
2585 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2586 }
2587 return result;
983ffd37 2588}
a0ed51b3 2589
d3e79532 2590/*
87cea99e 2591=for apidoc to_utf8_title
d3e79532 2592
a1433954
KW
2593Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its titlecase version and
2594store that in UTF-8 in C<ustrp> and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
2595that the C<ustrp> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
89ebb4a3 2596titlecase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2597
2598The first character of the titlecased version is returned
2599(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2600
a1433954
KW
2601The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2602
d3e79532
JH
2603=cut */
2604
051a06d4
KW
2605/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2606 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2607 * Since titlecase is not defined in POSIX, uppercase is used instead
2608 * for these/
2609 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2610 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2611
983ffd37 2612UV
051a06d4 2613Perl__to_utf8_title_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
983ffd37 2614{
97aff369 2615 dVAR;
7918f24d 2616
051a06d4
KW
2617 UV result;
2618
2619 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_TITLE_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2620
3a4c58c9 2621 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2622 if (flags) {
2623 result = toUPPER_LC(*p);
2624 }
2625 else {
81c6c7ce 2626 return _to_upper_title_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp, 's');
051a06d4 2627 }
3a4c58c9
KW
2628 }
2629 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2630 if (flags) {
2631 result = toUPPER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2632 }
2633 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2634 return _to_upper_title_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2635 ustrp, lenp, 's');
051a06d4
KW
2636 }
2637 }
2638 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2639 result = CALL_TITLE_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2640
2641 if (flags) {
2642 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2643 }
2644 return result;
2645 }
2646
2647 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2648 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2649 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2650 *lenp = 1;
2651 }
2652 else {
2653 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2654 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2655 *lenp = 2;
3a4c58c9
KW
2656 }
2657
051a06d4
KW
2658 if (tainted_ptr) {
2659 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2660 }
2661 return result;
a0ed51b3
LW
2662}
2663
d3e79532 2664/*
87cea99e 2665=for apidoc to_utf8_lower
d3e79532 2666
a1433954
KW
2667Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its lowercase version and
2668store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
2669that the C<ustrp> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
89ebb4a3 2670lowercase version may be longer than the original character.
d3e79532
JH
2671
2672The first character of the lowercased version is returned
2673(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2674
a1433954
KW
2675The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2676
d3e79532
JH
2677=cut */
2678
051a06d4
KW
2679/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2680 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2681 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2682 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2683
2104c8d9 2684UV
051a06d4 2685Perl__to_utf8_lower_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
a0ed51b3 2686{
051a06d4
KW
2687 UV result;
2688
97aff369 2689 dVAR;
7918f24d 2690
051a06d4 2691 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_LOWER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2692
968c5e6a 2693 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2694 if (flags) {
2695 result = toLOWER_LC(*p);
2696 }
2697 else {
81c6c7ce 2698 return to_lower_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2699 }
968c5e6a
KW
2700 }
2701 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2702 if (flags) {
2703 result = toLOWER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2704 }
2705 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2706 return to_lower_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2707 ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2708 }
968c5e6a 2709 }
051a06d4
KW
2710 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2711 result = CALL_LOWER_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2712
2713 if (flags) {
2714 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2715 }
968c5e6a 2716
051a06d4
KW
2717 return result;
2718 }
2719
2720 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2721 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2722 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2723 *lenp = 1;
2724 }
2725 else {
2726 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2727 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2728 *lenp = 2;
2729 }
2730
2731 if (tainted_ptr) {
2732 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2733 }
2734 return result;
b4e400f9
JH
2735}
2736
d3e79532 2737/*
87cea99e 2738=for apidoc to_utf8_fold
d3e79532 2739
a1433954
KW
2740Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its foldcase version and
2741store that in UTF-8 in C<ustrp> and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
2742that the C<ustrp> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the
d3e79532
JH
2743foldcase version may be longer than the original character (up to
2744three characters).
2745
2746The first character of the foldcased version is returned
2747(but note, as explained above, that there may be more.)
2748
a1433954
KW
2749The character at C<p> is assumed by this routine to be well-formed.
2750
d3e79532
JH
2751=cut */
2752
051a06d4
KW
2753/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change,
2754 * in <flags>
2755 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code
2756 * points < 256. Since foldcase is not defined in
2757 * POSIX, lowercase is used instead
2758 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_FULL is set iff full case folds are to be used;
2759 * otherwise simple folds
a0270393
KW
2760 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII is set iff folds of non-ASCII to ASCII are
2761 * prohibited
051a06d4
KW
2762 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2763 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
36bb2ab6 2764
b4e400f9 2765UV
051a06d4 2766Perl__to_utf8_fold_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, U8 flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
b4e400f9 2767{
97aff369 2768 dVAR;
7918f24d 2769
051a06d4
KW
2770 UV result;
2771
36bb2ab6 2772 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2773
a0270393
KW
2774 /* These are mutually exclusive */
2775 assert (! ((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) && (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)));
2776
50ba90ff
KW
2777 assert(p != ustrp); /* Otherwise overwrites */
2778
a1dde8de 2779 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2780 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2781 result = toLOWER_LC(*p);
2782 }
2783 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2784 return _to_fold_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp,
2785 cBOOL(flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL));
051a06d4 2786 }
a1dde8de
KW
2787 }
2788 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2789 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2790 result = toLOWER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2791 }
2792 else {
81c6c7ce 2793 return _to_fold_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
a0270393
KW
2794 ustrp, lenp,
2795 cBOOL((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL
2796 /* If ASCII safe, don't allow full
2797 * folding, as that could include SHARP
2798 * S => ss; otherwise there is no
2799 * crossing of ascii/non-ascii in the
2800 * latin1 range */
2801 && ! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))));
051a06d4 2802 }
a1dde8de 2803 }
051a06d4 2804 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
a0270393 2805 result = CALL_FOLD_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
a1dde8de 2806
051a06d4 2807 if ((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE)) {
a0270393 2808 return check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2809 }
a0270393
KW
2810 else if (! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)) {
2811 return result;
2812 }
2813 else {
2814 /* This is called when changing the case of a utf8-encoded
2815 * character above the Latin1 range, and the result should not
2816 * contain an ASCII character. */
2817
2818 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
2819
2820 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
2821 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
2822 U8* s = ustrp;
2823 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
2824 while (s < e) {
2825 if (isASCII(*s)) {
2826 /* Crossed, have to return the original */
2827 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
2828 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
2829 return original;
2830 }
2831 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
2832 }
051a06d4 2833
a0270393
KW
2834 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is */
2835 return result;
2836 }
051a06d4
KW
2837 }
2838
2839 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2840 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2841 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2842 *lenp = 1;
2843 }
2844 else {
2845 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2846 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2847 *lenp = 2;
2848 }
2849
2850 if (tainted_ptr) {
2851 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2852 }
2853 return result;
a0ed51b3
LW
2854}
2855
711a919c 2856/* Note:
f90a9a02 2857 * Returns a "swash" which is a hash described in utf8.c:Perl_swash_fetch().
711a919c
ST
2858 * C<pkg> is a pointer to a package name for SWASHNEW, should be "utf8".
2859 * For other parameters, see utf8::SWASHNEW in lib/utf8_heavy.pl.
2860 */
c4a5db0c 2861
a0ed51b3 2862SV*
7fc63493 2863Perl_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none)
a0ed51b3 2864{
c4a5db0c
KW
2865 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_INIT;
2866
2867 /* Returns a copy of a swash initiated by the called function. This is the
2868 * public interface, and returning a copy prevents others from doing
2869 * mischief on the original */
2870
5d3d13d1 2871 return newSVsv(_core_swash_init(pkg, name, listsv, minbits, none, NULL, NULL));
c4a5db0c
KW
2872}
2873
2874SV*
5d3d13d1 2875Perl__core_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none, SV* invlist, U8* const flags_p)
c4a5db0c
KW
2876{
2877 /* Initialize and return a swash, creating it if necessary. It does this
87367d5f
KW
2878 * by calling utf8_heavy.pl in the general case. The returned value may be
2879 * the swash's inversion list instead if the input parameters allow it.
2880 * Which is returned should be immaterial to callers, as the only
923b6d4e
KW
2881 * operations permitted on a swash, swash_fetch(), _get_swash_invlist(),
2882 * and swash_to_invlist() handle both these transparently.
c4a5db0c
KW
2883 *
2884 * This interface should only be used by functions that won't destroy or
2885 * adversely change the swash, as doing so affects all other uses of the
2886 * swash in the program; the general public should use 'Perl_swash_init'
2887 * instead.
2888 *
2889 * pkg is the name of the package that <name> should be in.
2890 * name is the name of the swash to find. Typically it is a Unicode
2891 * property name, including user-defined ones
2892 * listsv is a string to initialize the swash with. It must be of the form
2893 * documented as the subroutine return value in
2894 * L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
2895 * minbits is the number of bits required to represent each data element.
2896 * It is '1' for binary properties.
2897 * none I (khw) do not understand this one, but it is used only in tr///.
9a53f6cf 2898 * invlist is an inversion list to initialize the swash with (or NULL)
83199d38
KW
2899 * flags_p if non-NULL is the address of various input and output flag bits
2900 * to the routine, as follows: ('I' means is input to the routine;
2901 * 'O' means output from the routine. Only flags marked O are
2902 * meaningful on return.)
2903 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY indicates if the swash
2904 * came from a user-defined property. (I O)
5d3d13d1
KW
2905 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF indicates that instead of croaking
2906 * when the swash cannot be located, to simply return NULL. (I)
87367d5f
KW
2907 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST indicates that the caller will accept a
2908 * return of an inversion list instead of a swash hash if this routine
2909 * thinks that would result in faster execution of swash_fetch() later
2910 * on. (I)
9a53f6cf
KW
2911 *
2912 * Thus there are three possible inputs to find the swash: <name>,
2913 * <listsv>, and <invlist>. At least one must be specified. The result
2914 * will be the union of the specified ones, although <listsv>'s various
2915 * actions can intersect, etc. what <name> gives.
2916 *
2917 * <invlist> is only valid for binary properties */
c4a5db0c 2918
27da23d5 2919 dVAR;
c4a5db0c 2920 SV* retval = &PL_sv_undef;
83199d38 2921 HV* swash_hv = NULL;
87367d5f
KW
2922 const int invlist_swash_boundary =
2923 (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST)
2924 ? 512 /* Based on some benchmarking, but not extensive, see commit
2925 message */
2926 : -1; /* Never return just an inversion list */
9a53f6cf
KW
2927
2928 assert(listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "") || invlist);
2929 assert(! invlist || minbits == 1);
2930
2931 /* If data was passed in to go out to utf8_heavy to find the swash of, do
2932 * so */
2933 if (listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "")) {
69794297
KW
2934 dSP;
2935 const size_t pkg_len = strlen(pkg);
2936 const size_t name_len = strlen(name);
2937 HV * const stash = gv_stashpvn(pkg, pkg_len, 0);
2938 SV* errsv_save;
2939 GV *method;
2940
2941 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__CORE_SWASH_INIT;
2942
2943 PUSHSTACKi(PERLSI_MAGIC);
ce3b816e 2944 ENTER;
69794297
KW
2945 SAVEHINTS();
2946 save_re_context();
650f067c
JL
2947 /* We might get here via a subroutine signature which uses a utf8
2948 * parameter name, at which point PL_subname will have been set
2949 * but not yet used. */
2950 save_item(PL_subname);
69794297
KW
2951 if (PL_parser && PL_parser->error_count)
2952 SAVEI8(PL_parser->error_count), PL_parser->error_count = 0;
2953 method = gv_fetchmeth(stash, "SWASHNEW", 8, -1);
2954 if (!method) { /* demand load utf8 */
2955 ENTER;
db2c6cb3
FC
2956 if ((errsv_save = GvSV(PL_errgv))) SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
2957 GvSV(PL_errgv) = NULL;
69794297
KW
2958 /* It is assumed that callers of this routine are not passing in
2959 * any user derived data. */
2960 /* Need to do this after save_re_context() as it will set
2961 * PL_tainted to 1 while saving $1 etc (see the code after getrx:
2962 * in Perl_magic_get). Even line to create errsv_save can turn on
2963 * PL_tainted. */
284167a5
SM
2964#ifndef NO_TAINT_SUPPORT
2965 SAVEBOOL(TAINT_get);
2966 TAINT_NOT;
2967#endif
69794297
KW
2968 Perl_load_module(aTHX_ PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, newSVpvn(pkg,pkg_len),
2969 NULL);
eed484f9 2970 {
db2c6cb3
FC
2971 /* Not ERRSV, as there is no need to vivify a scalar we are
2972 about to discard. */
2973 SV * const errsv = GvSV(PL_errgv);
2974 if (!SvTRUE(errsv)) {
2975 GvSV(PL_errgv) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple(errsv_save);
2976 SvREFCNT_dec(errsv);
2977 }
eed484f9 2978 }
69794297
KW
2979 LEAVE;
2980 }
2981 SPAGAIN;
2982 PUSHMARK(SP);
2983 EXTEND(SP,5);
2984 mPUSHp(pkg, pkg_len);
2985 mPUSHp(name, name_len);
2986 PUSHs(listsv);
2987 mPUSHi(minbits);
2988 mPUSHi(none);
2989 PUTBACK;
db2c6cb3
FC
2990 if ((errsv_save = GvSV(PL_errgv))) SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
2991 GvSV(PL_errgv) = NULL;
69794297
KW
2992 /* If we already have a pointer to the method, no need to use
2993 * call_method() to repeat the lookup. */
c41800a8
KW
2994 if (method
2995 ? call_sv(MUTABLE_SV(method), G_SCALAR)
69794297
KW
2996 : call_sv(newSVpvs_flags("SWASHNEW", SVs_TEMP), G_SCALAR | G_METHOD))
2997 {
2998 retval = *PL_stack_sp--;
2999 SvREFCNT_inc(retval);
3000 }
eed484f9 3001 {
db2c6cb3
FC
3002 /* Not ERRSV. See above. */
3003 SV * const errsv = GvSV(PL_errgv);
3004 if (!SvTRUE(errsv)) {
3005 GvSV(PL_errgv) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple(errsv_save);
3006 SvREFCNT_dec(errsv);
3007 }
eed484f9 3008 }
ce3b816e 3009 LEAVE;
69794297
KW
3010 POPSTACK;
3011 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME) {
3012 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
3013 }
3014 if (!SvROK(retval) || SvTYPE(SvRV(retval)) != SVt_PVHV) {
3015 if (SvPOK(retval))
3016
3017 /* If caller wants to handle missing properties, let them */
5d3d13d1 3018 if (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF) {
69794297
KW
3019 return NULL;
3020 }
3021 Perl_croak(aTHX_
3022 "Can't find Unicode property definition \"%"SVf"\"",
3023 SVfARG(retval));
3024 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "SWASHNEW didn't return an HV ref");
3025 }
9a53f6cf 3026 } /* End of calling the module to find the swash */
36eb48b4 3027
83199d38
KW
3028 /* If this operation fetched a swash, and we will need it later, get it */
3029 if (retval != &PL_sv_undef
3030 && (minbits == 1 || (flags_p
3031 && ! (*flags_p
3032 & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY))))
3033 {
3034 swash_hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval));
3035
3036 /* If we don't already know that there is a user-defined component to
3037 * this swash, and the user has indicated they wish to know if there is
3038 * one (by passing <flags_p>), find out */
3039 if (flags_p && ! (*flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY)) {
3040 SV** user_defined = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "USER_DEFINED", FALSE);
3041 if (user_defined && SvUV(*user_defined)) {
3042 *flags_p |= _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY;
3043 }
3044 }
3045 }
3046
36eb48b4
KW
3047 /* Make sure there is an inversion list for binary properties */
3048 if (minbits == 1) {
3049 SV** swash_invlistsvp = NULL;
3050 SV* swash_invlist = NULL;
9a53f6cf 3051 bool invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
02c85471
FC
3052 bool swash_invlist_unclaimed = FALSE; /* whether swash_invlist has
3053 an unclaimed reference count */
36eb48b4 3054
9a53f6cf 3055 /* If this operation fetched a swash, get its already existing
83199d38 3056 * inversion list, or create one for it */
36eb48b4 3057
83199d38 3058 if (swash_hv) {
5c9f4bd2 3059 swash_invlistsvp = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "V", FALSE);
9a53f6cf
KW
3060 if (swash_invlistsvp) {
3061 swash_invlist = *swash_invlistsvp;
3062 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = TRUE;
3063 }
3064 else {
36eb48b4 3065 swash_invlist = _swash_to_invlist(retval);
02c85471 3066 swash_invlist_unclaimed = TRUE;
9a53f6cf
KW
3067 }
3068 }
3069
3070 /* If an inversion list was passed in, have to include it */
3071 if (invlist) {
3072
3073 /* Any fetched swash will by now have an inversion list in it;
3074 * otherwise <swash_invlist> will be NULL, indicating that we
3075 * didn't fetch a swash */
3076 if (swash_invlist) {
3077
3078 /* Add the passed-in inversion list, which invalidates the one
3079 * already stored in the swash */
3080 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
3081 _invlist_union(invlist, swash_invlist, &swash_invlist);
3082 }
3083 else {
3084
87367d5f
KW
3085 /* Here, there is no swash already. Set up a minimal one, if
3086 * we are going to return a swash */
3087 if ((int) _invlist_len(invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary) {
971d486f 3088 swash_hv = newHV();
4aca0fe6 3089 retval = newRV_noinc(MUTABLE_SV(swash_hv));
87367d5f 3090 }
9a53f6cf
KW
3091 swash_invlist = invlist;
3092 }
9a53f6cf
KW
3093 }
3094
3095 /* Here, we have computed the union of all the passed-in data. It may
3096 * be that there was an inversion list in the swash which didn't get
3097 * touched; otherwise save the one computed one */
87367d5f
KW
3098 if (! invlist_in_swash_is_valid
3099 && (int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary)
3100 {
5c9f4bd2 3101 if (! hv_stores(MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval)), "V", swash_invlist))
69794297
KW
3102 {
3103 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
3104 }
cc34d8c5
FC
3105 /* We just stole a reference count. */
3106 if (swash_invlist_unclaimed) swash_invlist_unclaimed = FALSE;
3107 else SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(swash_invlist);
9a53f6cf 3108 }
87367d5f 3109
c41800a8 3110 /* Use the inversion list stand-alone if small enough */
87367d5f
KW
3111 if ((int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) <= invlist_swash_boundary) {
3112 SvREFCNT_dec(retval);
02c85471
FC
3113 if (!swash_invlist_unclaimed)
3114 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(swash_invlist);
3115 retval = newRV_noinc(swash_invlist);
87367d5f 3116 }
36eb48b4
KW
3117 }
3118
a0ed51b3
LW
3119 return retval;
3120}
3121
035d37be
JH
3122
3123/* This API is wrong for special case conversions since we may need to
3124 * return several Unicode characters for a single Unicode character
3125 * (see lib/unicore/SpecCase.txt) The SWASHGET in lib/utf8_heavy.pl is
3126 * the lower-level routine, and it is similarly broken for returning
38684baa
KW
3127 * multiple values. --jhi
3128 * For those, you should use to_utf8_case() instead */
b0e3252e 3129/* Now SWASHGET is recasted into S_swatch_get in this file. */
680c470c
ST
3130
3131/* Note:
3132 * Returns the value of property/mapping C<swash> for the first character
3133 * of the string C<ptr>. If C<do_utf8> is true, the string C<ptr> is
3134 * assumed to be in utf8. If C<do_utf8> is false, the string C<ptr> is
3135 * assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding. Caches the swatch in C<swash>.
af2af982
KW
3136 *
3137 * A "swash" is a hash which contains initially the keys/values set up by
3138 * SWASHNEW. The purpose is to be able to completely represent a Unicode
3139 * property for all possible code points. Things are stored in a compact form
3140 * (see utf8_heavy.pl) so that calculation is required to find the actual
3141 * property value for a given code point. As code points are looked up, new
3142 * key/value pairs are added to the hash, so that the calculation doesn't have
3143 * to ever be re-done. Further, each calculation is done, not just for the
3144 * desired one, but for a whole block of code points adjacent to that one.
3145 * For binary properties on ASCII machines, the block is usually for 64 code
3146 * points, starting with a code point evenly divisible by 64. Thus if the
3147 * property value for code point 257 is requested, the code goes out and
3148 * calculates the property values for all 64 code points between 256 and 319,
3149 * and stores these as a single 64-bit long bit vector, called a "swatch",
3150 * under the key for code point 256. The key is the UTF-8 encoding for code
3151 * point 256, minus the final byte. Thus, if the length of the UTF-8 encoding
3152 * for a code point is 13 bytes, the key will be 12 bytes long. If the value
3153 * for code point 258 is then requested, this code realizes that it would be
3154 * stored under the key for 256, and would find that value and extract the
3155 * relevant bit, offset from 256.
3156 *
3157 * Non-binary properties are stored in as many bits as necessary to represent
3158 * their values (32 currently, though the code is more general than that), not
3159 * as single bits, but the principal is the same: the value for each key is a
3160 * vector that encompasses the property values for all code points whose UTF-8
3161 * representations are represented by the key. That is, for all code points
3162 * whose UTF-8 representations are length N bytes, and the key is the first N-1
3163 * bytes of that.
680c470c 3164 */
a0ed51b3 3165UV
680c470c 3166Perl_swash_fetch(pTHX_ SV *swash, const U8 *ptr, bool do_utf8)
a0ed51b3 3167{
27da23d5 3168 dVAR;
ef8f7699 3169 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
3568d838
JH
3170 U32 klen;
3171 U32 off;
a0ed51b3 3172 STRLEN slen;
7d85a32c 3173 STRLEN needents;
cfd0369c 3174 const U8 *tmps = NULL;
a0ed51b3 3175 U32 bit;
979f2922 3176 SV *swatch;
3568d838 3177 U8 tmputf8[2];
35da51f7 3178 const UV c = NATIVE_TO_ASCII(*ptr);
3568d838 3179
7918f24d
NC
3180 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_FETCH;
3181
87367d5f
KW
3182 /* If it really isn't a hash, it isn't really swash; must be an inversion
3183 * list */
3184 if (SvTYPE(hv) != SVt_PVHV) {
3185 return _invlist_contains_cp((SV*)hv,
3186 (do_utf8)
3187 ? valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ptr, NULL)
3188 : c);
3189 }
3190
dbe7a391 3191 /* Convert to utf8 if not already */
3568d838 3192 if (!do_utf8 && !UNI_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
979f2922
ST
3193 tmputf8[0] = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(c);
3194 tmputf8[1] = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(c);
3195 ptr = tmputf8;
3568d838
JH
3196 }
3197 /* Given a UTF-X encoded char 0xAA..0xYY,0xZZ
37e2e78e 3198 * then the "swatch" is a vec() for all the chars which start
3568d838
JH
3199 * with 0xAA..0xYY
3200 * So the key in the hash (klen) is length of encoded char -1
3201 */
3202 klen = UTF8SKIP(ptr) - 1;
3203 off = ptr[klen];
a0ed51b3 3204
979f2922 3205 if (klen == 0) {
37e2e78e 3206 /* If char is invariant then swatch is for all the invariant chars
1e54db1a 3207 * In both UTF-8 and UTF-8-MOD that happens to be UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK
7d85a32c 3208 */
979f2922
ST
3209 needents = UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK;
3210 off = NATIVE_TO_UTF(ptr[klen]);
3211 }
3212 else {
7d85a32c 3213 /* If char is encoded then swatch is for the prefix */
979f2922
ST
3214 needents = (1 << UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT);
3215 off = NATIVE_TO_UTF(ptr[klen]) & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK;
3216 }
7d85a32c 3217
a0ed51b3
LW
3218 /*
3219 * This single-entry cache saves about 1/3 of the utf8 overhead in test
3220 * suite. (That is, only 7-8% overall over just a hash cache. Still,
3221 * it's nothing to sniff at.) Pity we usually come through at least
3222 * two function calls to get here...
3223 *
3224 * NB: this code assumes that swatches are never modified, once generated!
3225 */
3226
3568d838 3227 if (hv == PL_last_swash_hv &&
a0ed51b3 3228 klen == PL_last_swash_klen &&
27da23d5 3229 (!klen || memEQ((char *)ptr, (char *)PL_last_swash_key, klen)) )
a0ed51b3
LW
3230 {
3231 tmps = PL_last_swash_tmps;
3232 slen = PL_last_swash_slen;
3233 }
3234 else {
3235 /* Try our second-level swatch cache, kept in a hash. */
e1ec3a88 3236 SV** svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)ptr, klen, FALSE);
a0ed51b3 3237
b0e3252e 3238 /* If not cached, generate it via swatch_get */
979f2922
ST
3239 if (!svp || !SvPOK(*svp)
3240 || !(tmps = (const U8*)SvPV_const(*svp, slen))) {
2b9d42f0
NIS
3241 /* We use utf8n_to_uvuni() as we want an index into
3242 Unicode tables, not a native character number.
3243 */
aec46f14 3244 const UV code_point = utf8n_to_uvuni(ptr, UTF8_MAXBYTES, 0,
872c91ae
JH
3245 ckWARN(WARN_UTF8) ?
3246 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
b0e3252e 3247 swatch = swatch_get(swash,
979f2922 3248 /* On EBCDIC & ~(0xA0-1) isn't a useful thing to do */
361ee0fe 3249 (klen) ? (code_point & ~((UV)needents - 1)) : 0,
979f2922
ST
3250 needents);
3251
923e4eb5 3252 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME)
623e6609 3253 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
a0ed51b3 3254
979f2922 3255 svp = hv_store(hv, (const char *)ptr, klen, swatch, 0);
a0ed51b3 3256
979f2922
ST
3257 if (!svp || !(tmps = (U8*)SvPV(*svp, slen))
3258 || (slen << 3) < needents)
5637ef5b
NC
3259 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got improper swatch, "
3260 "svp=%p, tmps=%p, slen=%"UVuf", needents=%"UVuf,
3261 svp, tmps, (UV)slen, (UV)needents);
a0ed51b3
LW
3262 }
3263
3264 PL_last_swash_hv = hv;
16d8f38a 3265 assert(klen <= sizeof(PL_last_swash_key));
eac04b2e 3266 PL_last_swash_klen = (U8)klen;
cfd0369c
NC
3267 /* FIXME change interpvar.h? */
3268 PL_last_swash_tmps = (U8 *) tmps;
a0ed51b3
LW
3269 PL_last_swash_slen = slen;
3270 if (klen)
3271 Copy(ptr, PL_last_swash_key, klen, U8);
3272 }
3273
9faf8d75 3274 switch ((int)((slen << 3) / needents)) {
a0ed51b3
LW
3275 case 1:
3276 bit = 1 << (off & 7);
3277 off >>= 3;
3278 return (tmps[off] & bit) != 0;
3279 case 8:
3280 return tmps[off];
3281 case 16:
3282 off <<= 1;
3283 return (tmps[off] << 8) + tmps[off + 1] ;
3284 case 32:
3285 off <<= 2;
3286 return (tmps[off] << 24) + (tmps[off+1] << 16) + (tmps[off+2] << 8) + tmps[off + 3] ;
3287 }
5637ef5b
NC
3288 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got swatch of unexpected bit width, "
3289 "slen=%"UVuf", needents=%"UVuf, (UV)slen, (UV)needents);
670f1322 3290 NORETURN_FUNCTION_END;
a0ed51b3 3291}
2b9d42f0 3292
319009ee
KW
3293/* Read a single line of the main body of the swash input text. These are of
3294 * the form:
3295 * 0053 0056 0073
3296 * where each number is hex. The first two numbers form the minimum and
3297 * maximum of a range, and the third is the value associated with the range.
3298 * Not all swashes should have a third number
3299 *
3300 * On input: l points to the beginning of the line to be examined; it points
3301 * to somewhere in the string of the whole input text, and is
3302 * terminated by a \n or the null string terminator.
3303 * lend points to the null terminator of that string
3304 * wants_value is non-zero if the swash expects a third number
3305 * typestr is the name of the swash's mapping, like 'ToLower'
3306 * On output: *min, *max, and *val are set to the values read from the line.
3307 * returns a pointer just beyond the line examined. If there was no
3308 * valid min number on the line, returns lend+1
3309 */
3310
3311STATIC U8*
3312S_swash_scan_list_line(pTHX_ U8* l, U8* const lend, UV* min, UV* max, UV* val,
3313 const bool wants_value, const U8* const typestr)
3314{
3315 const int typeto = typestr[0] == 'T' && typestr[1] == 'o';
3316 STRLEN numlen; /* Length of the number */
02470786
KW
3317 I32 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3318 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3319 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
3320
3321 /* nl points to the next \n in the scan */
3322 U8* const nl = (U8*)memchr(l, '\n', lend - l);
3323
3324 /* Get the first number on the line: the range minimum */
3325 numlen = lend - l;
3326 *min = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3327 if (numlen) /* If found a hex number, position past it */
3328 l += numlen;
3329 else if (nl) { /* Else, go handle next line, if any */
3330 return nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
3331 }
3332 else { /* Else, no next line */
3333 return lend + 1; /* to LIST's end at which \n is not found */
3334 }
3335
3336 /* The max range value follows, separated by a BLANK */
3337 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
3338 ++l;
02470786
KW
3339 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3340 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3341 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
3342 numlen = lend - l;
3343 *max = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3344 if (numlen)
3345 l += numlen;
3346 else /* If no value here, it is a single element range */
3347 *max = *min;
3348
3349 /* Non-binary tables have a third entry: what the first element of the
3350 * range maps to */
3351 if (wants_value) {
3352 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
3353 ++l;
f90a9a02
KW
3354
3355 /* The ToLc, etc table mappings are not in hex, and must be
3356 * corrected by adding the code point to them */
3357 if (typeto) {
3358 char *after_strtol = (char *) lend;
3359 *val = Strtol((char *)l, &after_strtol, 10);
3360 l = (U8 *) after_strtol;
f90a9a02
KW
3361 }
3362 else { /* Other tables are in hex, and are the correct result
3363 without tweaking */
a9d188b3
KW
3364 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3365 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3366 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
3367 numlen = lend - l;
3368 *val = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3369 if (numlen)
3370 l += numlen;
3371 else
3372 *val = 0;
f90a9a02 3373 }
319009ee
KW
3374 }
3375 else {
3376 *val = 0;
3377 if (typeto) {
dcbac5bb 3378 /* diag_listed_as: To%s: illegal mapping '%s' */
319009ee
KW
3379 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'",
3380 typestr, l);
3381 }
3382 }
3383 }
3384 else
3385 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then any val should be ignored */
3386 }
3387 else { /* Nothing following range min, should be single element with no
3388 mapping expected */
3389 *max = *min;
3390 if (wants_value) {
3391 *val = 0;
3392 if (typeto) {
dcbac5bb 3393 /* diag_listed_as: To%s: illegal mapping '%s' */
319009ee
KW
3394 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'", typestr, l);
3395 }
3396 }
3397 else
3398 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then val should be ignored */
3399 }
3400
3401 /* Position to next line if any, or EOF */
3402 if (nl)
3403 l = nl + 1;
3404 else
3405 l = lend;
3406
3407 return l;
3408}
3409
979f2922
ST
3410/* Note:
3411 * Returns a swatch (a bit vector string) for a code point sequence
3412 * that starts from the value C<start> and comprises the number C<span>.
3413 * A C<swash> must be an object created by SWASHNEW (see lib/utf8_heavy.pl).
3414 * Should be used via swash_fetch, which will cache the swatch in C<swash>.
3415 */
3416STATIC SV*
b0e3252e 3417S_swatch_get(pTHX_ SV* swash, UV start, UV span)
979f2922
ST
3418{
3419 SV *swatch;
77f9f126 3420 U8 *l, *lend, *x, *xend, *s, *send;
979f2922 3421 STRLEN lcur, xcur, scur;
ef8f7699 3422 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
5c9f4bd2 3423 SV** const invlistsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "V", FALSE);
36eb48b4 3424
88d45d28
KW
3425 SV** listsvp = NULL; /* The string containing the main body of the table */
3426 SV** extssvp = NULL;
3427 SV** invert_it_svp = NULL;
3428 U8* typestr = NULL;
786861f5
KW
3429 STRLEN bits;
3430 STRLEN octets; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
3431 UV none;
3432 UV end = start + span;
972dd592 3433
36eb48b4 3434 if (invlistsvp == NULL) {
786861f5
KW
3435 SV** const bitssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "BITS", FALSE);
3436 SV** const nonesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "NONE", FALSE);
3437 SV** const typesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "TYPE", FALSE);
3438 extssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "EXTRAS", FALSE);
3439 listsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "LIST", FALSE);
3440 invert_it_svp = hv_fetchs(hv, "INVERT_IT", FALSE);
3441
3442 bits = SvUV(*bitssvp);
3443 none = SvUV(*nonesvp);
3444 typestr = (U8*)SvPV_nolen(*typesvp);
3445 }
36eb48b4
KW
3446 else {
3447 bits = 1;
3448 none = 0;
3449 }
786861f5 3450 octets = bits >> 3; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
979f2922 3451
b0e3252e 3452 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWATCH_GET;
7918f24d 3453
979f2922 3454 if (bits != 1 && bits != 8 && bits != 16 && bits != 32) {
b0e3252e 3455 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get doesn't expect bits %"UVuf,
660a4616 3456 (UV)bits);
979f2922
ST
3457 }
3458
84ea5ef6
KW
3459 /* If overflowed, use the max possible */
3460 if (end < start) {
3461 end = UV_MAX;
3462 span = end - start;
3463 }
3464
979f2922 3465 /* create and initialize $swatch */
979f2922 3466 scur = octets ? (span * octets) : (span + 7) / 8;
e524fe40
NC
3467 swatch = newSV(scur);
3468 SvPOK_on(swatch);
979f2922
ST
3469 s = (U8*)SvPVX(swatch);
3470 if (octets && none) {
0bd48802 3471 const U8* const e = s + scur;
979f2922
ST
3472 while (s < e) {
3473 if (bits == 8)
3474 *s++ = (U8)(none & 0xff);
3475 else if (bits == 16) {
3476 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 8) & 0xff);
3477 *s++ = (U8)( none & 0xff);
3478 }
3479 else if (bits == 32) {
3480 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 24) & 0xff);
3481 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 16) & 0xff);
3482 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 8) & 0xff);
3483 *s++ = (U8)( none & 0xff);
3484 }
3485 }
3486 *s = '\0';
3487 }
3488 else {
3489 (void)memzero((U8*)s, scur + 1);
3490 }
3491 SvCUR_set(swatch, scur);
3492 s = (U8*)SvPVX(swatch);
3493
36eb48b4
KW
3494 if (invlistsvp) { /* If has an inversion list set up use that */
3495 _invlist_populate_swatch(*invlistsvp, start, end, s);
3496 return swatch;
3497 }
3498
3499 /* read $swash->{LIST} */
979f2922
ST
3500 l = (U8*)SvPV(*listsvp, lcur);
3501 lend = l + lcur;
3502 while (l < lend) {
8ed25d53 3503 UV min, max, val, upper;
319009ee
KW
3504 l = S_swash_scan_list_line(aTHX_ l, lend, &min, &max, &val,
3505 cBOOL(octets), typestr);
3506 if (l > lend) {
979f2922
ST
3507 break;
3508 }
3509
972dd592 3510 /* If looking for something beyond this range, go try the next one */
979f2922
ST
3511 if (max < start)
3512 continue;
3513
8ed25d53
KW
3514 /* <end> is generally 1 beyond where we want to set things, but at the
3515 * platform's infinity, where we can't go any higher, we want to
3516 * include the code point at <end> */
3517 upper = (max < end)
3518 ? max
3519 : (max != UV_MAX || end != UV_MAX)
3520 ? end - 1
3521 : end;
3522
979f2922 3523 if (octets) {
35da51f7 3524 UV key;
979f2922
ST
3525 if (min < start) {
3526 if (!none || val < none) {
3527 val += start - min;
3528 }
3529 min = start;
3530 }
8ed25d53 3531 for (key = min; key <= upper; key++) {
979f2922 3532 STRLEN offset;
979f2922
ST
3533 /* offset must be non-negative (start <= min <= key < end) */
3534 offset = octets * (key - start);
3535 if (bits == 8)
3536 s[offset] = (U8)(val & 0xff);
3537 else if (bits == 16) {
3538 s[offset ] = (U8)((val >> 8) & 0xff);
3539 s[offset + 1] = (U8)( val & 0xff);
3540 }
3541 else if (bits == 32) {
3542 s[offset ] = (U8)((val >> 24) & 0xff);
3543 s[offset + 1] = (U8)((val >> 16) & 0xff);
3544 s[offset + 2] = (U8)((val >> 8) & 0xff);
3545 s[offset + 3] = (U8)( val & 0xff);
3546 }
3547
3548 if (!none || val < none)
3549 ++val;
3550 }
3551 }
711a919c 3552 else { /* bits == 1, then val should be ignored */
35da51f7 3553 UV key;
979f2922
ST
3554 if (min < start)
3555 min = start;
6cb05c12 3556
8ed25d53 3557 for (key = min; key <= upper; key++) {
0bd48802 3558 const STRLEN offset = (STRLEN)(key - start);
979f2922
ST
3559 s[offset >> 3] |= 1 << (offset & 7);
3560 }
3561 }
3562 } /* while */
979f2922 3563
9479a769 3564 /* Invert if the data says it should be. Assumes that bits == 1 */
77f9f126 3565 if (invert_it_svp && SvUV(*invert_it_svp)) {
0bda3001
KW
3566
3567 /* Unicode properties should come with all bits above PERL_UNICODE_MAX
3568 * be 0, and their inversion should also be 0, as we don't succeed any
3569 * Unicode property matches for non-Unicode code points */
3570 if (start <= PERL_UNICODE_MAX) {
3571
3572 /* The code below assumes that we never cross the
3573 * Unicode/above-Unicode boundary in a range, as otherwise we would
3574 * have to figure out where to stop flipping the bits. Since this
3575 * boundary is divisible by a large power of 2, and swatches comes
3576 * in small powers of 2, this should be a valid assumption */
3577 assert(start + span - 1 <= PERL_UNICODE_MAX);
3578
507a8485
KW
3579 send = s + scur;
3580 while (s < send) {
3581 *s = ~(*s);
3582 s++;
3583 }
0bda3001 3584 }
77f9f126
KW
3585 }
3586
d73c39c5
KW
3587 /* read $swash->{EXTRAS}
3588 * This code also copied to swash_to_invlist() below */
979f2922
ST
3589 x = (U8*)SvPV(*extssvp, xcur);
3590 xend = x + xcur;
3591 while (x < xend) {
3592 STRLEN namelen;
3593 U8 *namestr;
3594 SV** othersvp;
3595 HV* otherhv;
3596 STRLEN otherbits;
3597 SV **otherbitssvp, *other;
711a919c 3598 U8 *s, *o, *nl;
979f2922
ST
3599 STRLEN slen, olen;
3600
35da51f7 3601 const U8 opc = *x++;
979f2922
ST
3602 if (opc == '\n')
3603 continue;
3604
3605 nl = (U8*)memchr(x, '\n', xend - x);
3606
3607 if (opc != '-' && opc != '+' && opc != '!' && opc != '&') {
3608 if (nl) {
3609 x = nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
3610 continue;
3611 }
3612 else {
3613 x = xend; /* to EXTRAS' end at which \n is not found */
3614 break;
3615 }
3616 }
3617
3618 namestr = x;
3619 if (nl) {
3620 namelen = nl - namestr;
3621 x = nl + 1;
3622 }
3623 else {
3624 namelen = xend - namestr;
3625 x = xend;
3626 }
3627
3628 othersvp = hv_fetch(hv, (char *)namestr, namelen, FALSE);
ef8f7699 3629 otherhv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*othersvp));
017a3ce5 3630 otherbitssvp = hv_fetchs(otherhv, "BITS", FALSE);
979f2922
ST
3631 otherbits = (STRLEN)SvUV(*otherbitssvp);
3632 if (bits < otherbits)
5637ef5b
NC
3633 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get found swatch size mismatch, "
3634 "bits=%"UVuf", otherbits=%"UVuf, (UV)bits, (UV)otherbits);
979f2922
ST
3635
3636 /* The "other" swatch must be destroyed after. */
b0e3252e 3637 other = swatch_get(*othersvp, start, span);
979f2922
ST
3638 o = (U8*)SvPV(other, olen);
3639
3640 if (!olen)
b0e3252e 3641 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get got improper swatch");
979f2922
ST
3642
3643 s = (U8*)SvPV(swatch, slen);
3644 if (bits == 1 && otherbits == 1) {
3645 if (slen != olen)
5637ef5b
NC
3646 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get found swatch length "
3647 "mismatch, slen=%"UVuf", olen=%"UVuf,
3648 (UV)slen, (UV)olen);
979f2922
ST
3649
3650 switch (opc) {
3651 case '+':
3652 while (slen--)
3653 *s++ |= *o++;
3654 break;
3655 case '!':
3656 while (slen--)
3657 *s++ |= ~*o++;
3658 break;
3659 case '-':
3660 while (slen--)
3661 *s++ &= ~*o++;
3662 break;
3663 case '&':
3664 while (slen--)
3665 *s++ &= *o++;
3666 break;
3667 default:
3668 break;
3669 }
3670 }
711a919c 3671 else {
979f2922
ST
3672 STRLEN otheroctets = otherbits >> 3;
3673 STRLEN offset = 0;
35da51f7 3674 U8* const send = s + slen;
979f2922
ST
3675
3676 while (s < send) {
3677 UV otherval = 0;
3678
3679 if (otherbits == 1) {
3680 otherval = (o[offset >> 3] >> (offset & 7)) & 1;
3681 ++offset;
3682 }
3683 else {
3684 STRLEN vlen = otheroctets;
3685 otherval = *o++;
3686 while (--vlen) {
3687 otherval <<= 8;
3688 otherval |= *o++;
3689 }
3690 }
3691
711a919c 3692 if (opc == '+' && otherval)
6f207bd3 3693 NOOP; /* replace with otherval */
979f2922
ST
3694 else if (opc == '!' && !otherval)