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more perldiag grammar/punctuation tweaks
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
c69ca1d4 87of the object by explicitly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
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88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
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90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
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99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
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103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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106bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
107(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
108like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
109assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
110clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
111really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 112
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113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
114
115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
116asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
117named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
118the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
119function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
120and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
121
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122=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s
123
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124(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo
125represents the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for
126element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write
127C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to
128the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it
129returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
130
131In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
132to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
133C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length>
134followed by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what
135you want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/>
136to the unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to
137something that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by
138simply turning off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 139
bdac9d71 140=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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141
142(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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143string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
144the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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145write C<-foo()>.
146
6df41af2 147=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 148
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149(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
150redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
151redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 152
6df41af2 153=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 154
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155(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
156redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
157into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
158though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
159which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 160
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161 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
162 while (<STDIN>) {
163 print;
164 print OUT;
165 }
166 close OUT;
c9f97d15 167
6df41af2 168=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 169
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170(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
171transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 172one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 173a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
174hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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175you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
176alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 177
6df41af2 178=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 179
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180(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
181with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
182impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
183for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 184
6df41af2 185=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 186
6df41af2 187(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 188
b0fdf69e 189=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 190
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191(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
192subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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193
194 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 195 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 196 &do_something
a0d0e21e 197
8ea97a1e 198=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 199
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200(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
201such as:
5f05dabc 202
203 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 204 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 205
8ea97a1e 206or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 207
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208 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
209 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 210
6df41af2 211=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 212
6df41af2 213(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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214name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
215error.
a0d0e21e 216
f86702cc 217=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 218
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219(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
220that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
221will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 222
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223=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
224
225(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
226forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
227data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
228the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
229If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
230the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
231
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232=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
233
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234(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
235spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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236
237=item assertion botched: %s
238
239(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
240
241=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
242
243(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
244
245=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
246
247(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
248must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
249know which context to supply to the right side.
250
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251=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
252
4447dfc1 253(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
96ebfdd7 254thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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255Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
256created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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257thread. See L<threads>.
258
2393f1b9 259=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 260
49293501 261(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 262the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 263
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264=item Attempt to bless into a reference
265
266(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
267the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
268supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
269
270 bless $self, $proto;
271
272when you intended
273
274 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
275
276If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
277of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
278example by:
279
280 bless $self, "$proto";
281
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282=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
283
284(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
285which is not in its key set.
286
287=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
288
289(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
290declared readonly from a restricted hash.
291
de42a5a9 292=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 293
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294(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
295that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
296outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 297
54310121 298=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 299
111a855e 300(P internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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301strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
302strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
303of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 304
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305=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
306
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307(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
308free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
309SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
310free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
311try to free it.
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312
313=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
314
e476b1b5 315(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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316
317=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
318
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319(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
320see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
321earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
322This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
323that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
324mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
325corrupted.
a0d0e21e 326
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327=item Attempt to join self
328
329(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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330impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
331to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 332
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333=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
334
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335(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
336function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
337means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
338invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
339literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
340avoid this warning.
84902520 341
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342=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
343
344(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
345compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
346unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
347L<perlvar/%INC>.
348
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349=item Attempt to set length of freed array
350
351(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
352can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
353of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
354
355 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
356 $$r = 503
357
b7a902f4 358=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
359
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360(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
361used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
362dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 363
c32124fe
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364=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
365
111a855e 366(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "locked"
c32124fe 367attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
a5547419 368effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in a future
c32124fe
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369release of Perl 5.
370
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371=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
372
111a855e 373(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 374attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
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375had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in a future release
376of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 377
de42a5a9 378=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 379
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380(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
381or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 382S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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383S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
384
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385=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
386
496a33f5 387(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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388substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
389most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
390
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391=item Bad filehandle: %s
392
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393(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
394symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
395open(), or did it in another package.
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396
397=item Bad free() ignored
398
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399(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
400been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 401setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 402
9ea8bc6d 403This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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404dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
405which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 406
aa689395 407=item Bad hash
408
409(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
410
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411=item Badly placed ()'s
412
413(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
414of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
415Perl yourself.
416
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417=item Bad name after %s::
418
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419(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
420didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
421of quotes, so
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422
423 $var = 'myvar';
424 $sym = mypack::$var;
425
426is not the same as
427
428 $var = 'myvar';
429 $sym = "mypack::$var";
430
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431=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
432
433(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
434plugin API.
435
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436=item Bad realloc() ignored
437
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438(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
439never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
4dcecea4 440by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 441
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442=item Bad symbol for array
443
444(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
445wasn't a symbol table entry.
446
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447=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
448
449(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
450that wasn't a symbol table entry.
451
452
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453=item Bad symbol for filehandle
454
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455(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
456that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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457
458=item Bad symbol for hash
459
460(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
461wasn't a symbol table entry.
462
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463=item Bareword found in conditional
464
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465(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
466conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
467of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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468
469 open FOO || die;
470
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471It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
472a bareword:
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473
474 use constant TYPO => 1;
475 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
476
477The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
478
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479=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
480
481(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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482subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
483symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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484
485=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
486
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487(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
488compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
489you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 490
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491=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
492
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493(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
494subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
495exited.
a0d0e21e 496
68dc0745 497=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
498
499(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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500implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
501occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
502be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
503depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 504
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505=item \1 better written as $1
506
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507(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
508The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
509substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
510because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
511there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 512
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513=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
514
515=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
516
517(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
518C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
519itself in a future release.
520
252aa082
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521=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
522
e476b1b5 523(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
524(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
525L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 526
69282e91 527=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 528
be771a83
GS
529(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
530check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 531
c289d2f7
JH
532=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
533
534(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 535Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 536
c5a0f51a
JH
537=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
538
e476b1b5 539(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 540
4633a7c4
LW
541=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
542
be771a83 543(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 544copiable.
4633a7c4 545
f675dbe5
CB
546=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
547
be771a83
GS
548(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
549iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
550which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 551
a0d0e21e
LW
552=item Callback called exit
553
4929bf7b 554(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
555exited by calling exit.
556
6df41af2 557=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 558
be771a83
GS
559(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
560parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
561that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
562early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
563subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
564checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
565function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
566the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 567
49704364 568=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
569
570(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
571compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
572attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
573See L<perlfunc/pack>.
574
49704364 575=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
576
577(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
578format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
579
5c1f4d79
NC
580=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
581
582(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
583then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
584triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
585from that type of reference to a typeglob.
586
ba2fdce6
NC
587=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
588
589(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 590be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 591
b5d97229
RGS
592=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
593
594(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
595either with open() or binmode().
596
96ebfdd7
RK
597=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
598
599(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
600integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
601to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
602
a0d0e21e
LW
603=item Can't bless non-reference value
604
605(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
606encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
607
dc57907a
RGS
608=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
609
0d863452
RH
610(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
611a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
612
613=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 614
0d863452
RH
615(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
616
6df41af2
GS
617=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
618
619(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
620object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
621like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
622
623 $BADREF = undef;
624 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
625 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
626
a0d0e21e
LW
627=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
628
54310121 629(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
630ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
631didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
632object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
633
634=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
635
636(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
637object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
638defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
639Something like this will reproduce the error:
640
641 $BADREF = 42;
642 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
643 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
644
a0d0e21e
LW
645=item Can't chdir to %s
646
647(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
648that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
649
0545a864 650=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 651
be771a83
GS
652(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
653nosuid.
104d25b7 654
22e74366 655=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
656
657(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 658(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
659say things like:
660
661 *foo += 1;
662
663You CAN say
664
665 $foo = *foo;
666 $foo += 1;
667
668but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
669
0d863452 670=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 671
0d863452
RH
672(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
673or C<default> block.
674
a0d0e21e
LW
675=item Can't create pipe mailbox
676
be771a83
GS
677(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
678quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 679
eb64745e
GS
680=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
681
30c282f6
NC
682(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
683"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 684
6df41af2
GS
685=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
686
be771a83
GS
687(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
688a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 689
a0d0e21e
LW
690=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
691
be771a83
GS
692(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
693reason.
a0d0e21e 694
54310121 695=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 696
be771a83
GS
697(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
698reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
699C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 700
10f9c03d 701=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 702
e476b1b5 703(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
704characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
705inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 706
7253e4e3 707=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 708
b45f050a 709(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 710regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 711regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 712
a0d0e21e
LW
713=item Can't do waitpid with flags
714
be771a83
GS
715(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
716waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 717
a0d0e21e
LW
718=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
719
be771a83
GS
720(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
721point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
722line.
a0d0e21e 723
1109a392
MHM
724=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
725
726(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
727or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
728little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
729See L<perlfunc/pack>.
730
a0d0e21e
LW
731=item Can't exec "%s": %s
732
d1be9408 733(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
734named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
735permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
736C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
737architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
738can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
739#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
740
741=item Can't exec %s
742
be771a83
GS
743(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
744that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
745need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
746
747=item Can't execute %s
748
be771a83
GS
749(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
750found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 751
6df41af2 752=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 753
be771a83
GS
754(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
755is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 756
56ca2fc0
JH
757=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
758
759(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
760could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
761See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
762for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 763
6df41af2
GS
764=item Can't find label %s
765
be771a83
GS
766(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
767possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
768
769=item Can't find %s on PATH
770
be771a83
GS
771(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
772found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 773
6df41af2 774=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 775
be771a83
GS
776(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
777found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
778script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
779
780=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
781
be771a83
GS
782(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
783that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
784nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 785
fb73857a 786 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
787
be771a83
GS
788If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
789unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
790editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 791
660a4616
TS
792=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
793
5f8ad6b6
FC
794(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
795property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
796letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 797L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
5f8ad6b6
FC
798for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
799mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by C<\\p>
800(just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
801until C<\E>).
660a4616 802
b3647a36 803=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 804
be771a83
GS
805(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
806pipeline.
a0d0e21e 807
b3647a36
SR
808=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
809
c973c02e 810(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
811after five seconds.
812
748a9306
LW
813=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
814
be771a83
GS
815(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
816between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
817Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
818the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
819account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
820the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 821the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
822the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
823if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
824because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
825appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
826and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
827routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
828shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
829only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 830
a0d0e21e
LW
831=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
832
be771a83
GS
833(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
834pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
835
836=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
837
748a9306
LW
838(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
839mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 840
6df41af2 841=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 842
be771a83
GS
843(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
844loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
845
846=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
847
be771a83
GS
848(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
849a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
850you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
851See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 852
9850bf21 853=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 854
9850bf21
RH
855(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
856comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
857as the reduce() function in List::Util).
858
c74ace89 859=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 860
be771a83 861(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 862"string" or block.
b150fb22 863
6df41af2
GS
864=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
865
be771a83
GS
866(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
867subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
868cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
869routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 870
0b5b802d
GS
871=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
872
be771a83
GS
873(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
874signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
875signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
876processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
877situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
878may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 879
e2c0f81f
DG
880=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
881
882(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
883attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
884process identifier.
885
6df41af2 886=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 887
6df41af2 888(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
889except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
890block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
891block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
892usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
893inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
894L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 895
2c7d6b9c
RGS
896=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
897
898(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
899package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
900
b8170e59
JB
901=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
902
903(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
904may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
905incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
906between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 907extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
908installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
909extensions.
910
748a9306
LW
911=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
912
2ba9eb46 913(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 914lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
915localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
916package name.
917
6df41af2 918=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 919
6df41af2
GS
920(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
921handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 922pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 923that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 924
ea071790 925=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
926
927(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
928found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
929unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
930need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
931the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
932to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
933L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 934
6df41af2
GS
935=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
936
be771a83
GS
937(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
938autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
939are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
940the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 941
b8170e59
JB
942=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
943
944(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
945for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
946unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
947
a0d0e21e
LW
948=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
949
950(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
951functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 952method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
953
954=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
955
be771a83
GS
956(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
957doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 958
2f7da168
RK
959=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
960
961(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
962e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
963
3e3baf6d
TB
964=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
965
be771a83
GS
966(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
967VMS.
3e3baf6d 968
a0d0e21e
LW
969=item Can't modify %s in %s
970
be771a83
GS
971(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
972to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 973
54310121 974=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
975
976(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
977a NULL.
978
6df41af2
GS
979=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
980
981(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 982such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 983
5f05dabc 984=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 985
5f05dabc 986(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
987buffer.
988
6df41af2
GS
989=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
990
991(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
992there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
993count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
994grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
995though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
996once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 997
a0d0e21e
LW
998=item Can't open %s: %s
999
c47ff5f1 1000(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1001filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1002switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1003is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1004the command line.
a0d0e21e 1005
9a869a14
RGS
1006=item Can't open a reference
1007
1008(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1009using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1010
1011 open FH, '>', $ref;
1012
1013but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1014open is not supported.
1015
a0d0e21e
LW
1016=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1017
be771a83
GS
1018(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1019You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1020as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1021">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1022
748a9306
LW
1023=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1024
be771a83
GS
1025(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1026redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1027the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1028
1029=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1030
be771a83
GS
1031(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1032redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1033command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1034
1035=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1036
be771a83
GS
1037(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1038redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1039the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1040
1041=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1042
be771a83
GS
1043(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1044redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1045for stdout.
748a9306 1046
2b8ca739 1047=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1048
1049(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1050
fa3aa65a
JC
1051If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1052shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1053you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1054
6df41af2
GS
1055=item Can't read CRTL environ
1056
1057(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1058from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1059missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1060or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1061searched.
6df41af2 1062
6df41af2
GS
1063=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1064
1065(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1066there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1067count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1068or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1069though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1070loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1071
64977eb6 1072=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1073
be771a83
GS
1074(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1075file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1076the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1077
a0d0e21e
LW
1078=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1079
e476b1b5 1080(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1081probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1082
748a9306
LW
1083=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1084
be771a83
GS
1085(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1086to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1087
fe13d51d 1088=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1089
be771a83
GS
1090(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1091to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
2fe2bdfd 1092the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1093
cd06dffe
GS
1094=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1095
be771a83
GS
1096(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1097temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1098is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1099
96ebfdd7
RK
1100=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1101
1102(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1103there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1104
78f9721b
SM
1105=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1106
1107(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1108but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1109to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1110the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1111list context.
1112
a0d0e21e
LW
1113=item Can't stat script "%s"
1114
be771a83
GS
1115(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1116open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1117
a0d0e21e
LW
1118=item Can't take log of %g
1119
fb73857a 1120(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1121negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1122standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1123negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1124
1125=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1126
1127(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1128negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1129with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1130
1131=item Can't undef active subroutine
1132
1133(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1134however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1135redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1136
1137=item Can't unshift
1138
1139(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1140as the main Perl stack.
1141
c81225bc 1142=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1143
be771a83
GS
1144(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1145into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1146specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1147indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1148
1db89ea5
BS
1149=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1150
e27ad1f2 1151(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1152table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1153for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1154
96ebfdd7
RK
1155=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1156
1157(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1158be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1159
6df41af2
GS
1160=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1161
be771a83
GS
1162(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1163references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1164
90b75b61 1165=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1166
1167(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1168Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1169provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1170
1109a392
MHM
1171=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1172
1173(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1174byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1175allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1176
6df41af2
GS
1177=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1178
be771a83
GS
1179(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1180foreach.
6df41af2 1181
aab6a793 1182=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1183
be771a83
GS
1184(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1185is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1186(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1187have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1188weren't.
1189
6d3b25aa
RGS
1190=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1191
1192(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1193that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1194For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1195is inside a big-endian group.
1196
c07a80fd 1197=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1198
1199(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1200You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1201and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1202Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1203lexical variable.
1204
a0d0e21e
LW
1205=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1206
1207(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1208reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1209test the type of the reference, if need be.
1210
748a9306 1211=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1212
be771a83
GS
1213(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1214references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1215
748a9306
LW
1216=item Can't use subscript on %s
1217
1218(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1219subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1220didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1221
6df41af2
GS
1222=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1223
75b44862
GS
1224(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1225creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1226backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1227expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1228value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1229instead.
6df41af2 1230
0d863452 1231=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1232
0d863452
RH
1233(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1234loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1235from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1236or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1237
810b8aa5
GS
1238=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1239
1240(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1241references can be weakened.
1242
5f05dabc 1243=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1244
be771a83
GS
1245(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1246with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1247Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1248
4a68bf9d 1249=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1250
17a3df4c
KW
1251(F|W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1252It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1253cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1254derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1255
1256Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1257
f337b084 1258=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1259
1260(W pack) You said
1261
1262 pack("C", $x)
1263
1264where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1265only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1266and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1267
1268 pack("C", $x & 255)
1269
1270If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1271instead.
1272
f337b084
TH
1273=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1274
1275(W pack) You said
1276
1277 pack("U0W", $x)
1278
1279where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1280all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1281meant:
1282
1283 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1284
1285=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1286
1287(W pack) You said
1288
1289 pack("c", $x)
1290
1291where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1292is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1293and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1294
1295 pack("c", $x & 255);
1296
1297If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1298instead.
1299
f337b084
TH
1300=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1301
1302(W unpack) You tried something like
1303
1304 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1305
1a147d38 1306where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1307below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1308modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1309
1310 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1311
1312=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1313
1314(W pack) You tried something like
1315
1316 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1317
1a147d38
YO
1318where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1319value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1320uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1321
1322 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1323
1324=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1325
1326(W unpack) You tried something like
1327
1328 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1329
1a147d38
YO
1330where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1331value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1332uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1333
1334 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1335
96ebfdd7
RK
1336=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1337
1338(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1339
abc7ecad
SP
1340=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1341
1342(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1343a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1344
541ed3a9
FC
1345=item Closure prototype called
1346
1347(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1348handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1349This subroutine cannot be called.
1350
49704364
WL
1351=item Code missing after '/'
1352
1353(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1354template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1355
0876b9a0
KW
1356=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1357
9ae3ac1a
KW
1358=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, no properties match it; all inverse properties do
1359
0876b9a0
KW
1360(W utf8) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
1361
1362Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1363points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1364your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1365At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13660x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1367larger than a 32 bit word.
1368
9ae3ac1a
KW
1369None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1370code point. For example,
1371
1372 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1373
1374will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1375
1376 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1377
1378will match.
1379
6df41af2
GS
1380=item %s: Command not found
1381
be771a83
GS
1382(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1383Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1384
7a2e2cd6 1385=item Compilation failed in require
1386
1387(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1388Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1389encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1390
c3464db5
DD
1391=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1392
be771a83
GS
1393(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1394situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1395to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1396arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1397recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1398under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1399in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1400that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1401on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1402
38875929
DM
1403=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1404
1405(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1406cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1407function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1408cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1409has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1410first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1411after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1412lock.
1413
38875929
DM
1414=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1415
1416(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1417cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1418function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1419cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1420has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1421first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1422after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1423lock.
1424
69282e91 1425=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1426
be771a83
GS
1427(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1428to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1429L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1430
41ab332f 1431=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1432
be771a83
GS
1433(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1434an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1435specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1436corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1437L<overload>.
6df41af2 1438
fc8cd66c
YO
1439=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1440
1a147d38
YO
1441(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1442the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1443forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1444See L<charnames>.
1445
1446
779c5bc9
GS
1447=item Constant is not %s reference
1448
1449(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1450is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1451The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1452usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1453See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1454
4cee8e80
CS
1455=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1456
bb028877 1457(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1458eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1459commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1460
9607fc9c 1461=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1462
be771a83
GS
1463(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1464for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1465workarounds.
9607fc9c 1466
e7ea3e70
IZ
1467=item Copy method did not return a reference
1468
64977eb6 1469(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1470L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1471
6798c92b
GS
1472=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1473
1474(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1475
a0d0e21e
LW
1476=item corrupted regexp pointers
1477
1478(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1479expression compiler gave it.
1480
1481=item corrupted regexp program
1482
be771a83
GS
1483(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1484valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1485
de42a5a9 1486=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1487
1488(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1489
49704364
WL
1490=item Count after length/code in unpack
1491
1492(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1493you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1494L<perlfunc/pack>.
1495
17a3df4c
KW
1496=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1497
1498(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1499to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1500evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1501ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1502semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1503
1504=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
f9d13529 1505
17a3df4c 1506(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
f9d13529 1507non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408fb84 1508written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
17a3df4c 1509characters.
f9d13529 1510
a0d0e21e
LW
1511=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1512
be771a83
GS
1513(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1514100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1515infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1516which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1517
aad1d01f
NC
1518This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1519setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1520
f10b0346 1521=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1522
be771a83
GS
1523(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1524checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1525array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1526
f10b0346 1527=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1528
be771a83
GS
1529(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1530checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1531is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1532
62658f4d
PM
1533=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1534
1535(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1536there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1537
fc36a67e 1538=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1539
be771a83
GS
1540(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1541long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1542that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1543
4a68bf9d 1544=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1545
1546(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1547But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1548deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1549continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1550colons.
1551
6d3b25aa
RGS
1552=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1553
1554(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1555There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1556not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1557conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1558static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1559relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1560declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1561
6d3b25aa
RGS
1562 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1563
1564becomes
1565
1566 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1567
36fb85f3
RGS
1568Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1569have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1570
1571 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1572
500ab966
RGS
1573=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1574
1575(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1576just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1577to create a dangling reference.
1578
3cdd684c
TP
1579=item Did not produce a valid header
1580
1581See Server error.
1582
6df41af2
GS
1583=item %s did not return a true value
1584
1585(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1586it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1587traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1588do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1589
cc507455 1590=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1591
413ff9f6
FC
1592(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1593some such.
4633a7c4 1594
cc507455 1595=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1596
be771a83
GS
1597(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1598variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1599seems superfluous.
33633739 1600
cc507455 1601=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1602
be771a83
GS
1603(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1604@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1605carried away.
748a9306 1606
7e1af8bc 1607=item Died
5f05dabc 1608
1609(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1610you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1611
3cdd684c
TP
1612=item Document contains no data
1613
1614See Server error.
1615
62658f4d
PM
1616=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1617
1618(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1619define a C<$VERSION.>
1620
49704364
WL
1621=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1622
1623(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1624See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1625
a0d0e21e
LW
1626=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1627
1628(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1629
1630=item do_study: out of memory
1631
1632(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1633
6df41af2
GS
1634=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1635
56da5a46
RGS
1636(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1637"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1638name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1639because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1640"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1641something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1642subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1643"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1644
ac206dc8
RGS
1645=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1646
1647(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1648qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1649
84d78eb7
YO
1650=item dump is not supported
1651
1652(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1653
a0d0e21e
LW
1654=item Duplicate free() ignored
1655
be771a83
GS
1656(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1657already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1658
1109a392
MHM
1659=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1660
1661(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1662in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1663
4633a7c4
LW
1664=item elseif should be elsif
1665
56da5a46
RGS
1666(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1667ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1668"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1669unlikely to be what you want.
1670
ab13f0c7
JH
1671=item Empty %s
1672
af6f566e
HS
1673(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1674described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1675a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1676
85ab1d1d 1677=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1678
85ab1d1d 1679(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1680effective uids or gids failed.
1681
c038024b
RGS
1682=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1683
1684(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1685aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1686program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1687
748a9306
LW
1688=item Error converting file specification %s
1689
5f05dabc 1690(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1691specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1692single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1693an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1694conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1695
e4d48cc9
GS
1696=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1697
be771a83
GS
1698(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1699expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1700is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1701
fc8f615e 1702=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1703
be771a83
GS
1704(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1705C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1706pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1707is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1708building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1709that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1710
6df41af2
GS
1711=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1712
be771a83
GS
1713(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1714assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1715pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1716
1a147d38
YO
1717=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1718
1719(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1720any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1721
1722The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1723discovered.
1724
fc36a67e 1725=item Excessively long <> operator
1726
1727(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1728Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1729filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1730variable and glob that.
1731
ed9aa3b7
SG
1732=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1733
1734(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1735
fe13d51d 1736=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1737
1738(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1739
1740=item Exiting eval via %s
1741
be771a83
GS
1742(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1743goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1744
1745=item Exiting format via %s
1746
9a2ff54b 1747(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1748goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1749
0a753a76 1750=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1751
be771a83
GS
1752(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1753sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1754loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1755
a0d0e21e
LW
1756=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1757
be771a83
GS
1758(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1759as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1760
1761=item Exiting substitution via %s
1762
be771a83
GS
1763(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1764as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1765
7b8d334a
GS
1766=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1767
be771a83
GS
1768(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1769the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1770usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1771e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1772
6df41af2
GS
1773=item %s: Expression syntax
1774
be771a83
GS
1775(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1776Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1777
1778=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1779
3c10abe3
AG
1780(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1781CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1782queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1783
7253e4e3 1784=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1785
be771a83 1786(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1787character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1788in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1789"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1790problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1791
1b1ee2ef 1792=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1793
be771a83
GS
1794(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1795system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1796details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1797you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1798
1799=item fcntl is not implemented
1800
1801(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1802PDP-11 or something?
1803
22846ab4
AB
1804=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1805
1806(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1807is not possible.
1808
f337b084
TH
1809=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1810
1811(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1812which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1813a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1814C<u63> as format.
1815
af8c498a 1816=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1817
6c8d78fb
HS
1818(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1819it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1820"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1821write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1822
af8c498a 1823=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1824
6c8d78fb
HS
1825(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1826you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1827with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1828intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1829Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1830(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1831
1832=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1833
1834(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1835as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1836previously.
1837
1838=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1839
1840(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1841as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1842
1843=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1844
1845(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1846a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1847happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1848name.
a0d0e21e 1849
56e90b21
GS
1850=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1851
be771a83 1852(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1853some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1854filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1855same name?
56e90b21 1856
6df41af2
GS
1857=item Format not terminated
1858
1859(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1860to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1861
a0d0e21e
LW
1862=item Format %s redefined
1863
e476b1b5 1864(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1865
1866 {
271595cc 1867 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1868 eval "format NAME =...";
1869 }
1870
a0d0e21e
LW
1871=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1872
e476b1b5 1873(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1874
1875 if ($foo = 123)
1876
1877when you meant
1878
1879 if ($foo == 123)
1880
1881(or something like that).
1882
6df41af2
GS
1883=item %s found where operator expected
1884
56da5a46
RGS
1885(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1886If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1887operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1888operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1889
a0d0e21e
LW
1890=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1891
1892(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1893
1894=item gethostent not implemented
1895
1896(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1897because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1898on the Internet.
1899
69282e91 1900=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1901
be771a83
GS
1902(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1903socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1904
748a9306
LW
1905=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1906
1907(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1908C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1909
6df41af2
GS
1910=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1911
be771a83
GS
1912(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1913forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1914L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1915
1916=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1917
a4edf47d 1918(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1919that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1920declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1921which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1922
e476b1b5
GS
1923=item glob failed (%s)
1924
be771a83
GS
1925(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1926C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1927C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1928nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1929resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1930broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1931config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1932were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1933empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1934think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1935C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1936
a0d0e21e
LW
1937=item Glob not terminated
1938
1939(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1940a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1941not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1942earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1943
bcd05b94 1944=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1945
fc003d4b
MS
1946(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1947it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1948date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1949not-a-number value).
1950
bcd05b94 1951=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
1952
1953(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1954it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1955date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1956not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1957
6df41af2 1958=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1959
6df41af2
GS
1960(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1961version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1962
1963=item goto must have label
1964
1965(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1966unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1967
49704364 1968=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1969
49704364 1970(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1971supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1972 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1973
fe13d51d 1974=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1975
1976(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1977
a0d0e21e
LW
1978=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1979
be771a83
GS
1980(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1981to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1982created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1983
1984=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1985
be771a83
GS
1986(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1987spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1988
6df41af2
GS
1989=item %s has too many errors
1990
1991(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1992Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1993
e6897b1a
KW
1994=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
1995
1996(D syntax)
1997
1998You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
1999without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
2000
2001 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2002 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2003
2004both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first form
2005in Perl 5.16. And,
2006
2007 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2008
2009will be disallowed too.
2010
252aa082
JH
2011=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2012
e476b1b5 2013(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2014(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2015L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2016
8903cb82 2017=item Identifier too long
2018
2019(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2020about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2021names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2022of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2023
c3c41406 2024=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2025
ff3f963a
KW
2026(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2027zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2028its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2029been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2030
6df41af2 2031=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2032
6df41af2 2033(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2034
6df41af2 2035=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2036
be771a83
GS
2037(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2038binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2039offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2040
78d0fecf 2041=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2042
d5898338 2043(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2044would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2045when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2046version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2047to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2048
d37a9538
ST
2049=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2050
197afce1
MT
2051(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2052Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 2053
904d85c5
RGS
2054=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2055
2056(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2057you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2058
8e742a20
MHM
2059=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2060
2061(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2062
a0d0e21e
LW
2063=item Illegal division by zero
2064
be771a83
GS
2065(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2066your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2067meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2068
6df41af2
GS
2069=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2070
be771a83
GS
2071(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2072A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2073number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2074
a0d0e21e
LW
2075=item Illegal modulus zero
2076
be771a83
GS
2077(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2078numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2079
6df41af2 2080=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2081
6df41af2
GS
2082(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2083two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2084
2085=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2086
d1be9408 2087(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2088
399388f4 2089=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2090
d1be9408 2091(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2092Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2093
fe13d51d 2094=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2095
6df41af2 2096(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2097following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2098
6df41af2 2099=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2100
75b44862 2101(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2102internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2103delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2104
6df41af2 2105=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2106
be771a83
GS
2107(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2108name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2109didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2110ignored.
54310121 2111
6df41af2 2112=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2113
be771a83
GS
2114(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2115the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2116system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2117times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2118would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2119
be771a83
GS
2120Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2121also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2122
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2123=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2124
2125(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2126C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2127documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2128
979699d9
JH
2129=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2130
2131(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2132Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2133encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2134
1a147d38
YO
2135=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2136
2137(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2138text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2139either consume text or fail.
2140
2141The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2142discovered.
2143
6dbe9451
NC
2144=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2145
2146(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2147of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2148C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2149as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2150
a0d0e21e
LW
2151=item Insecure dependency in %s
2152
8b1a09fc 2153(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2154The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2155setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2156tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2157from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2158such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2159L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2160
2161=item Insecure directory in %s
2162
be771a83
GS
2163(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2164setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2165the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2166See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2167
62f468fc 2168=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2169
2170(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2171setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2172C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2173supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2174the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2175
a7ae9550
GS
2176=item Integer overflow in %s number
2177
75b44862 2178(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2179either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2180your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2181On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2182representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21830b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2184transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2185internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2186operations.
bbce6d69 2187
2fba7546
GA
2188=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2189
0be96356
AL
2190(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2191or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2192integers for your architecture.
2193
46314c13
JP
2194=item Integer overflow in version
2195
2196(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2197size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2198because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2199element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2200trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2201100/9.
2202
7253e4e3 2203=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2204
2205(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2206The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2207discovered.
2208
748a9306
LW
2209=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2210
be771a83
GS
2211(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2212you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2213to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2214L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2215Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2216terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2217
7253e4e3 2218=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2219
7253e4e3
RK
2220(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2221<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2222discovered.
a0d0e21e 2223
6df41af2
GS
2224=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2225
75b44862 2226(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2227followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2228operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2229L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2230
09bef843
SB
2231=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2232
a4a4c9e2 2233(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2234by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2235
2236=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2237
a4a4c9e2 2238(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2239recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2240
c635e13b 2241=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2242
be771a83
GS
2243(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2244L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2245
9e08bc66
TS
2246=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2247
2248(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2249didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2250from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2251The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2252The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2253escape was discovered.
2254
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2255=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2256
2257(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2258or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2259(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2260
7253e4e3 2261=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2262
2263(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2264greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2265C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2266up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2267problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2268
d1573ac7 2269=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2270
2271(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2272character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2273
09bef843
SB
2274=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2275
0120eecf 2276(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2277elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2278parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2279See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2280
b4581f09
JH
2281=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2282
2283(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2284colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2285If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2286list was terminated too soon.
2287
2c86d456
DG
2288=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2289
2290(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2291A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2292decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2293v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2294The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2295See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2296
49704364 2297=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2298
49704364
WL
2299(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2300See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2301(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2302silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2303
2c86d456
DG
2304=item Invalid version format (%s)
2305
2306(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2307A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2308decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2309v-string. If the v-string has less than three components, it must have a
2310leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional. Both
2311decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2312component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2313dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2314criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2315allowed version formats.
46314c13 2316
798ae1b7
DG
2317=item Invalid version object
2318
2319(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2320the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2321was blessed into the "version" class.
2322
a0d0e21e
LW
2323=item ioctl is not implemented
2324
2325(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2326strange for a machine that supports C.
2327
c289d2f7
JH
2328=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2329
2330(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2331Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2332
fe13d51d 2333=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2334
2335(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2336you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2337with 'useperlio'.
2338
80cbd5ad
JH
2339=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2340
2341(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2342neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2343
b4581f09
JH
2344=item $* is no longer supported
2345
d1d15184 2346(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2347been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2348C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2349
2350Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2351modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2352expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2353
8ae1fe26
RGS
2354=item $# is no longer supported
2355
d1d15184 2356(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2357been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2358printf/sprintf functions instead.
2359
6ad11d81
JH
2360=item `%s' is not a code reference
2361
04a80ee0
RGS
2362(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2363needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2364to a subroutine.
2365
2366=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2367
04a80ee0
RGS
2368(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2369unaware of.
6ad11d81 2370
a0d0e21e
LW
2371=item junk on end of regexp
2372
2373(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2374
2375=item Label not found for "last %s"
2376
be771a83
GS
2377(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2378of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2379L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2380
2381=item Label not found for "next %s"
2382
2383(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2384that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2385L<perlfunc/last>.
2386
2387=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2388
2389(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2390that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2391L<perlfunc/last>.
2392
85ab1d1d 2393=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2394
85ab1d1d 2395(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2396effective uids or gids failed.
2397
49704364
WL
2398=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2399
d7f8936a 2400(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
WL
2401length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2402an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2403
f0e67a1d
Z
2404=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2405
2406(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2407(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2408tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2409This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2410reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2411plain ASCII is recommended.
2412
2413=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2414
2415(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2416detectable way.
2417
69282e91 2418=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2419
be771a83
GS
2420(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2421to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2422L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2423
bcd05b94 2424=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2425
fc003d4b
MS
2426(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2427than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2428wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2429not-a-number value).
2430
bcd05b94 2431=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
2432
2433(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2434than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2435wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2436not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2437
58e23c8d 2438=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2439
2440(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2441handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2442
b88df990
NC
2443=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2444
2445(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2446for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2447hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2448because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2449are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2450You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2451
2f7da168
RK
2452=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2453
2454(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2455by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2456instead on the filehandle.)
2457
885ef6f5
GG
2458=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2459
963d9ce9 2460(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2461by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2462possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2463lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2464the definition.
2465
96ebfdd7
RK
2466=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2467
2468(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2469values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2470L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2471
49704364
WL
2472=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2473
2474(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2475are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2476
2477=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2478
2479(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2480are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2481
6df41af2
GS
2482=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2483
2484(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2485
2486 prefix1;prefix2
2487
2488or
6df41af2
GS
2489 prefix1 prefix2
2490
be771a83
GS
2491with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2492a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2493appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2494"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2495
2f758a16
ST
2496=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2497
d37a9538
ST
2498(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2499syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2500obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2501when the function is called.
2f758a16 2502
ba210ebe
JH
2503=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2504
2575c402
JW
2505(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2506encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2507
2575c402
JW
2508One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2509you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25108-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2511
2512If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2513sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2514set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2515message.
2516
2517See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2518
dea0fc0b
JH
2519=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2520
183097aa 2521(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2522doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2523
ff3f963a
KW
2524=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2525
2526(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2527
f337b084
TH
2528=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2529
2530(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2531rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2532
2533=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2534
2535(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2536rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2537
2538=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2539
2540(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2541rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2542
de42a5a9 2543=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2544
fe13d51d 2545(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2546usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2547too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2548resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2549safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2550
49704364 2551=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2552
2553(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2554regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2555shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2556See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2557
25f58aea
PN
2558=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2559
2560(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2561interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2562"use" or "my".
2563
49704364 2564=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2565
2566(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2567checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2568See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2569
a0d0e21e
LW
2570=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2571
2572(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2573doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2574
3cdd684c
TP
2575=item Method %s not permitted
2576
2577See Server error.
2578
a0d0e21e
LW
2579=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2580
2581(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2582by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2583ended earlier on the current line.
2584
2585=item Misplaced _ in number
2586
d4ced10d
JH
2587(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2588separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2589
7baa4690
HS
2590=item Missing argument in %s
2591
2592(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2593supplied.
2594
9e81e6a1
RGS
2595=item Missing argument to -%c
2596
2597(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2598immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2599
ff3f963a 2600=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2601
4a2d328f 2602(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2603double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2604comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2605This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2606the C<\N>.
423cee85 2607
f0a2b745
KW
2608=item Missing braces on \o{}
2609
2610(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2611
a0d0e21e
LW
2612=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2613
2614(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2615"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2616
06eaf0bc
GS
2617=item Missing command in piped open
2618
be771a83
GS
2619(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2620C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2621blank.
06eaf0bc 2622
961ce445
RGS
2623=item Missing control char name in \c
2624
2625(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2626character name.
2627
6df41af2
GS
2628=item Missing name in "my sub"
2629
be771a83
GS
2630(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2631they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2632
2633=item Missing $ on loop variable
2634
be771a83
GS
2635(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2636are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2637can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2638
cc507455 2639=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2640
56da5a46
RGS
2641(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2642"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2643
ab13f0c7
JH
2644=item Missing right brace on %s
2645
ff3f963a
KW
2646(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2647
4a68bf9d 2648=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2649
0a96133f
KW
2650(F)
2651C<\N> has two meanings.
2652
2653The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2654in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2655Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2656double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2657have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2658
0a96133f 2659Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2660patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2661C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2662
2663This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2664left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2665the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2666that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 26673; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2668and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2669
2670However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2671omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2672raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2673the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2674
d98d5fff 2675=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2676
be771a83
GS
2677(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2678ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2679were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2680
6df41af2
GS
2681=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2682
56da5a46
RGS
2683(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2684"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2685the previous line just because you saw this message.
2686
a0d0e21e
LW
2687=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2688
2689(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2690constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2691catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2692
2693 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2694 mod(2);
2695
2696Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2697
c5674021
PDF
2698Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2699is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2700
2701 $x = 1;
2702 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2703 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2704 }
c5674021 2705
7a4340ed 2706=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2707
2708(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2709subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2710backwards.
2711
7a4340ed 2712=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2713
be771a83
GS
2714(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2715couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2716
2717=item Module name must be constant
2718
2719(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2720
be98fb35 2721=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2722
be98fb35
GS
2723(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2724you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2725about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2726
fe13d51d 2727=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2728
2729(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2730can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2731list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2732See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2733
a0d0e21e
LW
2734=item msg%s not implemented
2735
2736(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2737
2738=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2739
75b44862
GS
2740(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2741They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2742
49704364 2743=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2744
49704364
WL
2745(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2746follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2747See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2748
2749=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2750
be771a83
GS
2751(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2752that yet.
6df41af2 2753
30c282f6 2754=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2755
be771a83
GS
2756(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2757sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2758local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2759
4a68bf9d 2760=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2761
c3c41406
KW
2762(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2763character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2764specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2765
4a68bf9d 2766=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406
KW
2767
2768(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2769was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2770such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2771
2772 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2773 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2774 /$re/;
2775
b09c05e6 2776Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2777
2778 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2779 /$re/;
2780
2781The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2782components:
2783
2784 $re = '\N';
2785 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2786
2787It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2788doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2789
2790Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2791C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2792
2793 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2794 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2795
8b1a09fc 2796=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2797
e476b1b5 2798(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2799If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2800again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2801provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2802
64b374f4
FD
2803NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2804%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2805the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2806will not trigger this warning.
2807
4a68bf9d 2808=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
ff3f963a
KW
2809
2810(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2811number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2812or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2813
49704364
WL
2814=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2815
2816(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2817negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2818
a0d0e21e
LW
2819=item Negative length
2820
be771a83
GS
2821(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2822length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2823
ed9aa3b7
SG
2824=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2825
2826(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2827greater than or equal to zero.
2828
7253e4e3 2829=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2830
b45f050a 2831(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2832things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2833expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2834
7253e4e3 2835Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2836C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2837
6df41af2 2838=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2839
be771a83
GS
2840(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2841scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2842
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2843=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2844
2845(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2846real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2847See L<mro>.
2848
a0d0e21e
LW
2849=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2850
be771a83
GS
2851(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2852setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2853will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2854securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2855
a0d0e21e
LW
2856=item No comma allowed after %s
2857
2858(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2859allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2860Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2861
0a753a76 2862One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2863constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2864importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2865does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2866explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2867L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2868would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2869remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2870constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2871list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2872this error was triggered?
2873
748a9306
LW
2874=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2875
be771a83
GS
2876(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2877redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2878doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2879
a0d0e21e
LW
2880=item No DB::DB routine defined
2881
be771a83 2882(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2883for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2884module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2885statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2886
2887=item No dbm on this machine
2888
2889(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2890supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2891
ccafdc96 2892=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2893
ccafdc96
RGS
2894(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2895for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2896module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2897of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2898
96ebfdd7
RK
2899=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2900
2901(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2902
c47ff5f1 2903=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2904
be771a83
GS
2905(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2906redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2907find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2908
49704364
WL
2909=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2910
2911(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2912matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2913
c47ff5f1 2914=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2915
be771a83
GS
2916(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2917redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2918name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2919
6df41af2
GS
2920=item No #! line
2921
2922(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2923even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2924
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2925=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2926
2927(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2928in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2929it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2930or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2931
6df41af2
GS
2932=item "no" not allowed in expression
2933
be771a83
GS
2934(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2935returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2936
c47ff5f1 2937=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2938
be771a83
GS
2939(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2940redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2941doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2942
c47ff5f1 2943=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2944
be771a83
GS
2945(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2946redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2947find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2948
1ec3e8de
GS
2949=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2950
be771a83
GS
2951(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2952declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2953semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2954
a0d0e21e
LW
2955=item No Perl script found in input
2956
2957(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2958with #! and containing the word "perl".
2959
2960=item No setregid available
2961
2962(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2963your system.
2964
2965=item No setreuid available
2966
2967(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2968your system.
2969
6df41af2
GS
2970=item No %s specified for -%c
2971
2972(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2973you haven't specified one.
e75d1f10
RD
2974=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2975
2976(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2977but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2978package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2979
2c692339
RGS
2980=item No such class %s
2981
30c282f6 2982(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2983this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2984
3c20a832
SP
2985=item No such hook: %s
2986
2987(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2988accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2989
6df41af2
GS
2990=item No such pipe open
2991
2992(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2993close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2994earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2995
a0d0e21e
LW
2996=item No such signal: SIG%s
2997
be771a83
GS
2998(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2999not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3000names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3001
3002=item Not a CODE reference
3003
3004(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3005subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3006use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3007also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3008
3009=item Not a format reference
3010
3011(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3012format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3013
3014=item Not a GLOB reference
3015
be771a83
GS
3016(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3017symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3018something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3019kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3020
3021=item Not a HASH reference
3022
be771a83
GS
3023(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3024reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3025find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3026
6df41af2
GS
3027=item Not an ARRAY reference
3028
be771a83
GS
3029(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3030a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3031to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3032
a0d0e21e
LW
3033=item Not a perl script
3034
3035(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3036even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3037mention perl.
3038
3039=item Not a SCALAR reference
3040
be771a83
GS
3041(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3042a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3043to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3044
3045=item Not a subroutine reference
3046
3047(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3048subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3049use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3050also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3051
e7ea3e70 3052=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3053
3054(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3055doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3056
a0d0e21e
LW
3057=item Not enough arguments for %s
3058
3059(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3060
6df41af2
GS
3061=item Not enough format arguments
3062
be771a83
GS
3063(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3064supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3065
3066=item %s: not found
3067
be771a83
GS
3068(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3069of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3070yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3071
3072=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3073
6df41af2
GS
3074(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3075timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3076to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3077F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3078need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3079
f0a2b745
KW
3080=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3081
3082(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
3083encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as indicated.
3084
4ef2275c
GA
3085=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3086
3087(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3088Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3089select. See L<perlfunc/select>
3090
a0d0e21e
LW
3091=item Null filename used
3092
be771a83
GS
3093(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3094machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3095
6df41af2
GS
3096=item NULL OP IN RUN
3097
be771a83
GS
3098(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3099pointer.
6df41af2 3100
55497cff 3101=item Null picture in formline
3102
3103(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3104specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3105supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3106
a0d0e21e
LW
3107=item Null realloc
3108
3109(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3110
3111=item NULL regexp argument
3112
5f05dabc 3113(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3114
3115=item NULL regexp parameter
3116
3117(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3118
fc36a67e 3119=item Number too long
3120
be771a83 3121(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3122about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3123versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3124the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3125"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3126
f0a2b745
KW
3127=item Number with no digits
3128
3129(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.
3130This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between the braces.
3131
6df41af2
GS
3132=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3133
be771a83
GS
3134(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3135The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3136future version.
6df41af2 3137
252aa082
JH
3138=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3139
75b44862 3140(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3141(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3142L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3143
3144See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3145
6ad11d81
JH
3146=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3147
04a80ee0
RGS
3148(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3149arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3150
b21befc1
MG
3151=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3152
3153(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3154which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3155
1930e939 3156=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3157
be771a83
GS
3158(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3159which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3160
bbce6d69 3161=item Offset outside string
3162
a4a4c9e2 3163(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3164with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3165imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3166take place when going past the end of the string when either
3167C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3168for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3169with real files).
bbce6d69 3170
c289d2f7 3171=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3172
3173(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3174never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3175call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3176
96ebfdd7
RK
3177=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3178
3179(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3180that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3181
a0d0e21e
LW
3182=item oops: oopsAV
3183
e476b1b5 3184(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3185
3186=item oops: oopsHV
3187
e476b1b5 3188(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3189
abc718f2
RGS
3190=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3191
a4a4c9e2 3192(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3193a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3194Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3195and is deprecated.
3196
3197=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3198
a4a4c9e2 3199(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3200a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3201Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3202and is deprecated.
3203
a0288114 3204=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3205
be771a83
GS
3206(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3207handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3208of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3209C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3210
9ae3ac1a
KW
3211=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
3212
3213(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a Unicode
3214surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3215storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3216the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3217the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
3218
3219If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3220matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3221
3222If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3223C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3224
3225=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
3226
3227(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a code
3228point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3229has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
3230
3231If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3232matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3233
3234If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3235C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3236
748a9306
LW
3237=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3238
be771a83
GS
3239(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3240was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3241use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3242example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3243"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3244
6df41af2
GS
3245=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3246
be771a83
GS
3247(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3248in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3249
a80b8354
GS
3250=item Out of memory!
3251
3252(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3253remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3254no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3255
19a52907
JH
3256At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3257process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3258C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3259the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3260and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3261
6d3b25aa
RGS
3262=item Out of memory during %s extend
3263
3264(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3265the largest possible memory allocation.
3266
6df41af2 3267=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3268
6df41af2
GS
3269(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3270remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3271the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3272possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3273
1b979e0a 3274=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3275
be771a83
GS
3276(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3277insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3278request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3279
3280The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3281depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3282However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3283emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3284is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3285where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3286
1b979e0a
IZ
3287=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3288
3289(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3290is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3291C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3292
6df41af2
GS
3293=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3294
be771a83
GS
3295(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3296parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3297otherwise.
6df41af2 3298
28be1210
TH
3299=item '.' outside of string in pack
3300
3301(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3302position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3303
49704364 3304=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3305
49704364 3306(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3307the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3308
f337b084
TH
3309=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3310
3311(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3312the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3313UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3314
7cb0cfe6
BM
3315=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3316
3317(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3318but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3319L<overload>.
3320
3321=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3322
3323(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3324overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3325
6df41af2
GS
3326=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3327
be771a83
GS
3328(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3329package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3330some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3331mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3332
fb2e24cd
KW
3333=item \p{} uses Unicode rules, not locale rules
3334
3335(W) You compiled a regular expression that contained a Unicode property
3336match (C<\p> or C<\P>), but the regular expression is also being told to
f7f5e97b
KW
3337use the run-time locale, not Unicode. Instead, use a POSIX character
3338class, which should know about the locale's rules.
3339(See L<perlrecharclass/POSIX Character Classes>.)
3340
3341Even if the run-time locale is ISO 8859-1 (Latin1), which is a subset of
3342Unicode, some properties will give results that are not valid for that
3343subset.
3344
3345Here are a couple of examples to help you see what's going on. If the
3346locale is ISO 8859-7, the character at code point 0xD7 is the "GREEK
3347CAPITAL LETTER CHI". But in Unicode that code point means the
3348"MULTIPLICATION SIGN" instead, and C<\p> always uses the Unicode
3349meaning. That means that C<\p{Alpha}> won't match, but C<[[:alpha:]]>
3350should. Only in the Latin1 locale are all the characters in the same
3351positions as they are in Unicode. But, even here, some properties give
3352incorrect results. An example is C<\p{Changes_When_Uppercased}> which
3353is true for "LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS", but since the upper
3354case of that character is not in Latin1, in that locale it doesn't
3355change when upper cased.
fb2e24cd 3356
96ebfdd7
RK
3357=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3358
3359(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3360signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3361
a0d0e21e
LW
3362=item page overflow
3363
be771a83
GS
3364(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3365page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3366
6df41af2
GS
3367=item panic: %s
3368
3369(P) An internal error.
3370
c99a1475
NC
3371=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3372
3373(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3374an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3375platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3376enter this branch on this platform.
3377
a0d0e21e
LW
3378=item panic: ck_grep