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a0d0e21e 1/* handy.h
a687059c 2 *
4bb101f2 3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999,
acde74e1 4 * 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, by Larry Wall and others
a687059c 5 *
6e21c824
LW
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8d063cd8 8 *
8d063cd8
LW
9 */
10
85e6fe83 11#if !defined(__STDC__)
378cc40b
LW
12#ifdef NULL
13#undef NULL
14#endif
a687059c
LW
15#ifndef I286
16# define NULL 0
17#else
18# define NULL 0L
19#endif
85e6fe83
LW
20#endif
21
378cc40b 22#define Null(type) ((type)NULL)
954c1994
GS
23
24/*
ccfc67b7 25=head1 Handy Values
954c1994 26
3609ea0d 27=for apidoc AmU||Nullch
ccfc67b7 28Null character pointer.
2307c6d0 29
954c1994
GS
30=for apidoc AmU||Nullsv
31Null SV pointer.
32
33=cut
34*/
35
8d063cd8 36#define Nullch Null(char*)
760ac839 37#define Nullfp Null(PerlIO*)
79072805 38#define Nullsv Null(SV*)
8d063cd8 39
641d3f0b
PP
40#ifdef TRUE
41#undef TRUE
42#endif
43#ifdef FALSE
44#undef FALSE
45#endif
46#define TRUE (1)
47#define FALSE (0)
48
27d4fb96
PP
49
50/* XXX Configure ought to have a test for a boolean type, if I can
51 just figure out all the headers such a test needs.
52 Andy Dougherty August 1996
53*/
8e84507e 54/* bool is built-in for g++-2.6.3 and later, which might be used
c1d22f6b
GS
55 for extensions. <_G_config.h> defines _G_HAVE_BOOL, but we can't
56 be sure _G_config.h will be included before this file. _G_config.h
8e84507e 57 also defines _G_HAVE_BOOL for both gcc and g++, but only g++
c1d22f6b
GS
58 actually has bool. Hence, _G_HAVE_BOOL is pretty useless for us.
59 g++ can be identified by __GNUG__.
60 Andy Dougherty February 2000
5d94fbed 61*/
3609ea0d 62#ifdef __GNUG__ /* GNU g++ has bool built-in */
5d94fbed 63# ifndef HAS_BOOL
c1d22f6b 64# define HAS_BOOL 1
5d94fbed 65# endif
5d94fbed
AD
66#endif
67
641d3f0b
PP
68/* The NeXT dynamic loader headers will not build with the bool macro
69 So declare them now to clear confusion.
70*/
8f1f23e8 71#if defined(NeXT) || defined(__NeXT__)
641d3f0b
PP
72# undef FALSE
73# undef TRUE
74 typedef enum bool { FALSE = 0, TRUE = 1 } bool;
75# define ENUM_BOOL 1
76# ifndef HAS_BOOL
77# define HAS_BOOL 1
78# endif /* !HAS_BOOL */
8f1f23e8 79#endif /* NeXT || __NeXT__ */
641d3f0b 80
5d94fbed 81#ifndef HAS_BOOL
61bb5906 82# if defined(UTS) || defined(VMS)
5d94fbed
AD
83# define bool int
84# else
85# define bool char
86# endif
c1d22f6b 87# define HAS_BOOL 1
a687059c 88#endif
0d3e774c 89
46c6c7e2 90/* Try to figure out __func__ or __FUNCTION__ equivalent, if any.
e352bcff
JH
91 * XXX Should really be a Configure probe, with HAS__FUNCTION__
92 * and FUNCTION__ as results.
93 * XXX Similarly, a Configure probe for __FILE__ and __LINE__ is needed. */
46c6c7e2
JH
94#if (defined(__STDC_VERSION__) && __STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L) || (defined(__SUNPRO_C)) /* C99 or close enough. */
95# define FUNCTION__ __func__
96#else
97# if (defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER < 1300) || /* Pre-MSVC 7.0 has neither __func__ nor __FUNCTION and no good workarounds, either. */ \
be73ebb0 98 (defined(__DECC_VER)) /* Tru64 or VMS, and strict C89 being used, but not modern enough cc (in Tur64, -c99 not known, only -std1). */
46c6c7e2
JH
99# define FUNCTION__ ""
100# else
101# define FUNCTION__ __FUNCTION__ /* Common extension. */
102# endif
103#endif
104
27d4fb96
PP
105/* XXX A note on the perl source internal type system. The
106 original intent was that I32 be *exactly* 32 bits.
107
108 Currently, we only guarantee that I32 is *at least* 32 bits.
109 Specifically, if int is 64 bits, then so is I32. (This is the case
110 for the Cray.) This has the advantage of meshing nicely with
111 standard library calls (where we pass an I32 and the library is
112 expecting an int), but the disadvantage that an I32 is not 32 bits.
113 Andy Dougherty August 1996
24fef2a7 114
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115 There is no guarantee that there is *any* integral type with
116 exactly 32 bits. It is perfectly legal for a system to have
117 sizeof(short) == sizeof(int) == sizeof(long) == 8.
693762b4 118
dc45a647
MB
119 Similarly, there is no guarantee that I16 and U16 have exactly 16
120 bits.
693762b4 121
8e84507e
NIS
122 For dealing with issues that may arise from various 32/64-bit
123 systems, we will ask Configure to check out
8175356b 124
3609ea0d
JH
125 SHORTSIZE == sizeof(short)
126 INTSIZE == sizeof(int)
127 LONGSIZE == sizeof(long)
dc45a647 128 LONGLONGSIZE == sizeof(long long) (if HAS_LONG_LONG)
3609ea0d 129 PTRSIZE == sizeof(void *)
dc45a647
MB
130 DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(double)
131 LONG_DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(long double) (if HAS_LONG_DOUBLE).
8175356b 132
27d4fb96
PP
133*/
134
69512466
JH
135#ifdef I_INTTYPES /* e.g. Linux has int64_t without <inttypes.h> */
136# include <inttypes.h>
dd0eed91
JH
137# ifdef INT32_MIN_BROKEN
138# undef INT32_MIN
139# define INT32_MIN (-2147483647-1)
140# endif
141# ifdef INT64_MIN_BROKEN
142# undef INT64_MIN
143# define INT64_MIN (-9223372036854775807LL-1)
144# endif
69512466
JH
145#endif
146
8175356b
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147typedef I8TYPE I8;
148typedef U8TYPE U8;
149typedef I16TYPE I16;
150typedef U16TYPE U16;
151typedef I32TYPE I32;
152typedef U32TYPE U32;
6b8eaf93
JH
153#ifdef PERL_CORE
154# ifdef HAS_QUAD
8175356b
JH
155typedef I64TYPE I64;
156typedef U64TYPE U64;
6b8eaf93
JH
157# endif
158#endif /* PERL_CORE */
8175356b 159
69512466
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160#if defined(HAS_QUAD) && defined(USE_64_BIT_INT)
161# ifndef UINT64_C /* usually from <inttypes.h> */
162# if defined(HAS_LONG_LONG) && QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG_LONG
163# define INT64_C(c) CAT2(c,LL)
164# define UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,ULL)
165# else
166# if LONGSIZE == 8 && QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG
167# define INT64_C(c) CAT2(c,L)
168# define UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,UL)
169# else
170# define INT64_C(c) ((I64TYPE)(c))
171# define UINT64_C(c) ((U64TYPE)(c))
172# endif
173# endif
e8c95190
JH
174# endif
175#endif
dc750f2e 176
cae3d67c 177/* HMB H.Merijn Brand - a placeholder for preparing Configure patches */
4f5da3e9 178#if defined(HAS_MALLOC_SIZE) && defined(HAS_SNPRINTF) && defined(HAS_VSNPRINTF)
cae3d67c 179/* Not (yet) used at top level, but mention them for metaconfig */
dc750f2e 180#endif
e8c95190 181
a22e52b9
JH
182/* Mention I8SIZE, U8SIZE, I16SIZE, U16SIZE, I32SIZE, U32SIZE,
183 I64SIZE, and U64SIZE here so that metaconfig pulls them in. */
184
d8668976 185#if defined(UINT8_MAX) && defined(INT16_MAX) && defined(INT32_MAX)
5ff3f7a4 186
5ff3f7a4
GS
187/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
188 Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
189#define U8_MAX UINT8_MAX
190#define U8_MIN UINT8_MIN
191
5ff3f7a4
GS
192#define I16_MAX INT16_MAX
193#define I16_MIN INT16_MIN
194#define U16_MAX UINT16_MAX
195#define U16_MIN UINT16_MIN
196
5ff3f7a4
GS
197#define I32_MAX INT32_MAX
198#define I32_MIN INT32_MIN
0e983133
GS
199#ifndef UINT32_MAX_BROKEN /* e.g. HP-UX with gcc messes this up */
200# define U32_MAX UINT32_MAX
201#else
202# define U32_MAX 4294967295U
203#endif
5ff3f7a4
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204#define U32_MIN UINT32_MIN
205
206#else
207
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208/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
209 Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
27d4fb96
PP
210#define U8_MAX PERL_UCHAR_MAX
211#define U8_MIN PERL_UCHAR_MIN
79072805 212
27d4fb96
PP
213#define I16_MAX PERL_SHORT_MAX
214#define I16_MIN PERL_SHORT_MIN
215#define U16_MAX PERL_USHORT_MAX
216#define U16_MIN PERL_USHORT_MIN
79072805 217
c4f23d77 218#if LONGSIZE > 4
27d4fb96
PP
219# define I32_MAX PERL_INT_MAX
220# define I32_MIN PERL_INT_MIN
221# define U32_MAX PERL_UINT_MAX
222# define U32_MIN PERL_UINT_MIN
79072805 223#else
27d4fb96
PP
224# define I32_MAX PERL_LONG_MAX
225# define I32_MIN PERL_LONG_MIN
226# define U32_MAX PERL_ULONG_MAX
227# define U32_MIN PERL_ULONG_MIN
79072805
LW
228#endif
229
5ff3f7a4
GS
230#endif
231
58a9a5d5 232/* log(2) is pretty close to 0.30103, just in case anyone is grepping for it */
fc36a67e
PP
233#define BIT_DIGITS(N) (((N)*146)/485 + 1) /* log2(10) =~ 146/485 */
234#define TYPE_DIGITS(T) BIT_DIGITS(sizeof(T) * 8)
235#define TYPE_CHARS(T) (TYPE_DIGITS(T) + 2) /* sign, NUL */
236
ff68c719 237#define Ctl(ch) ((ch) & 037)
8d063cd8 238
65177ae0 239/* concatenating with "" ensures that only literal strings are accepted as argument */
2efa8cc7
GA
240#define STR_WITH_LEN(s) (s ""), (sizeof(s)-1)
241
ba3a79e7
GA
242/* note that STR_WITH_LEN() can't be used as argument to macros or functions that
243 * under some configurations might be macros, which means that it requires the full
244 * Perl_xxx(aTHX_ ...) form for any API calls where it's used.
245 */
246
247/* STR_WITH_LEN() shortcuts */
248#define newSVpvs(str) Perl_newSVpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
249#define newSVpvs_share(str) Perl_newSVpvn_share(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), 0)
250#define sv_catpvs(sv, str) Perl_sv_catpvn_flags(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str), SV_GMAGIC)
251#define savepvs(str) Perl_savepvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
252#define gv_stashpvs(str, create) Perl_gv_stashpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), create)
a4fc7abc 253#define hv_fetchs(hv,key,lval) Perl_hv_fetch(aTHX_ hv, STR_WITH_LEN(key), lval)
ba3a79e7 254
954c1994 255/*
ccfc67b7
JH
256=head1 Miscellaneous Functions
257
954c1994
GS
258=for apidoc Am|bool|strNE|char* s1|char* s2
259Test two strings to see if they are different. Returns true or
260false.
261
262=for apidoc Am|bool|strEQ|char* s1|char* s2
263Test two strings to see if they are equal. Returns true or false.
264
265=for apidoc Am|bool|strLT|char* s1|char* s2
266Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than the second,
267C<s2>. Returns true or false.
268
269=for apidoc Am|bool|strLE|char* s1|char* s2
270Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than or equal to the
271second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
272
273=for apidoc Am|bool|strGT|char* s1|char* s2
274Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than the second,
275C<s2>. Returns true or false.
276
277=for apidoc Am|bool|strGE|char* s1|char* s2
278Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than or equal to
279the second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
280
281=for apidoc Am|bool|strnNE|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
282Test two strings to see if they are different. The C<len> parameter
283indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A
284wrapper for C<strncmp>).
285
286=for apidoc Am|bool|strnEQ|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
287Test two strings to see if they are equal. The C<len> parameter indicates
288the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A wrapper for
289C<strncmp>).
290
291=cut
292*/
293
8d063cd8
LW
294#define strNE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2))
295#define strEQ(s1,s2) (!strcmp(s1,s2))
296#define strLT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) < 0)
297#define strLE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) <= 0)
298#define strGT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) > 0)
299#define strGE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) >= 0)
300#define strnNE(s1,s2,l) (strncmp(s1,s2,l))
301#define strnEQ(s1,s2,l) (!strncmp(s1,s2,l))
378cc40b 302
36477c24
PP
303#ifdef HAS_MEMCMP
304# define memNE(s1,s2,l) (memcmp(s1,s2,l))
305# define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!memcmp(s1,s2,l))
306#else
307# define memNE(s1,s2,l) (bcmp(s1,s2,l))
308# define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!bcmp(s1,s2,l))
309#endif
310
bbce6d69
PP
311/*
312 * Character classes.
313 *
314 * Unfortunately, the introduction of locales means that we
315 * can't trust isupper(), etc. to tell the truth. And when
316 * it comes to /\w+/ with tainting enabled, we *must* be able
317 * to trust our character classes.
318 *
319 * Therefore, the default tests in the text of Perl will be
320 * independent of locale. Any code that wants to depend on
321 * the current locale will use the tests that begin with "lc".
322 */
323
2304df62
AD
324#ifdef HAS_SETLOCALE /* XXX Is there a better test for this? */
325# ifndef CTYPE256
326# define CTYPE256
327# endif
328#endif
329
954c1994 330/*
ccfc67b7
JH
331
332=head1 Character classes
333
954c1994 334=for apidoc Am|bool|isALNUM|char ch
4375e838 335Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII alphanumeric
f1cbbd6e 336character (including underscore) or digit.
954c1994
GS
337
338=for apidoc Am|bool|isALPHA|char ch
4375e838 339Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII alphabetic
954c1994
GS
340character.
341
342=for apidoc Am|bool|isSPACE|char ch
343Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is whitespace.
344
345=for apidoc Am|bool|isDIGIT|char ch
4375e838 346Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII
954c1994
GS
347digit.
348
349=for apidoc Am|bool|isUPPER|char ch
350Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an uppercase
351character.
352
353=for apidoc Am|bool|isLOWER|char ch
354Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a lowercase
355character.
356
357=for apidoc Am|char|toUPPER|char ch
358Converts the specified character to uppercase.
359
360=for apidoc Am|char|toLOWER|char ch
361Converts the specified character to lowercase.
362
363=cut
364*/
365
bbce6d69
PP
366#define isALNUM(c) (isALPHA(c) || isDIGIT(c) || (c) == '_')
367#define isIDFIRST(c) (isALPHA(c) || (c) == '_')
368#define isALPHA(c) (isUPPER(c) || isLOWER(c))
369#define isSPACE(c) \
370 ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\t' || (c) == '\n' || (c) =='\r' || (c) == '\f')
aaa51d5e
JF
371#define isPSXSPC(c) (isSPACE(c) || (c) == '\v')
372#define isBLANK(c) ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\t')
bbce6d69 373#define isDIGIT(c) ((c) >= '0' && (c) <= '9')
9d116dd7
JH
374#ifdef EBCDIC
375 /* In EBCDIC we do not do locales: therefore() isupper() is fine. */
376# define isUPPER(c) isupper(c)
377# define isLOWER(c) islower(c)
b8c5462f
JH
378# define isALNUMC(c) isalnum(c)
379# define isASCII(c) isascii(c)
380# define isCNTRL(c) iscntrl(c)
381# define isGRAPH(c) isgraph(c)
9d116dd7 382# define isPRINT(c) isprint(c)
b8c5462f
JH
383# define isPUNCT(c) ispunct(c)
384# define isXDIGIT(c) isxdigit(c)
9d116dd7
JH
385# define toUPPER(c) toupper(c)
386# define toLOWER(c) tolower(c)
387#else
388# define isUPPER(c) ((c) >= 'A' && (c) <= 'Z')
389# define isLOWER(c) ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'z')
b8c5462f
JH
390# define isALNUMC(c) (isALPHA(c) || isDIGIT(c))
391# define isASCII(c) ((c) <= 127)
7be5a6cf 392# define isCNTRL(c) ((c) < ' ' || (c) == 127)
b8c5462f 393# define isGRAPH(c) (isALNUM(c) || isPUNCT(c))
f79b3095 394# define isPRINT(c) (((c) > 32 && (c) < 127) || (c) == ' ')
b8c5462f 395# define isPUNCT(c) (((c) >= 33 && (c) <= 47) || ((c) >= 58 && (c) <= 64) || ((c) >= 91 && (c) <= 96) || ((c) >= 123 && (c) <= 126))
c302d089 396# define isXDIGIT(c) (isDIGIT(c) || ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'f') || ((c) >= 'A' && (c) <= 'F'))
9d116dd7
JH
397# define toUPPER(c) (isLOWER(c) ? (c) - ('a' - 'A') : (c))
398# define toLOWER(c) (isUPPER(c) ? (c) + ('a' - 'A') : (c))
399#endif
bbce6d69
PP
400
401#ifdef USE_NEXT_CTYPE
402
403# define isALNUM_LC(c) \
37bd1396 404 (NXIsAlNum((unsigned int)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
ff68c719
PP
405# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) \
406 (NXIsAlpha((unsigned int)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
407# define isALPHA_LC(c) NXIsAlpha((unsigned int)(c))
408# define isSPACE_LC(c) NXIsSpace((unsigned int)(c))
409# define isDIGIT_LC(c) NXIsDigit((unsigned int)(c))
410# define isUPPER_LC(c) NXIsUpper((unsigned int)(c))
411# define isLOWER_LC(c) NXIsLower((unsigned int)(c))
37bd1396 412# define isALNUMC_LC(c) NXIsAlNum((unsigned int)(c))
b8c5462f
JH
413# define isCNTRL_LC(c) NXIsCntrl((unsigned int)(c))
414# define isGRAPH_LC(c) NXIsGraph((unsigned int)(c))
ff68c719 415# define isPRINT_LC(c) NXIsPrint((unsigned int)(c))
b8c5462f 416# define isPUNCT_LC(c) NXIsPunct((unsigned int)(c))
ff68c719
PP
417# define toUPPER_LC(c) NXToUpper((unsigned int)(c))
418# define toLOWER_LC(c) NXToLower((unsigned int)(c))
bbce6d69
PP
419
420#else /* !USE_NEXT_CTYPE */
b8c5462f 421
bbce6d69
PP
422# if defined(CTYPE256) || (!defined(isascii) && !defined(HAS_ISASCII))
423
b8c5462f 424# define isALNUM_LC(c) (isalnum((unsigned char)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
ff68c719 425# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) (isalpha((unsigned char)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
bbce6d69
PP
426# define isALPHA_LC(c) isalpha((unsigned char)(c))
427# define isSPACE_LC(c) isspace((unsigned char)(c))
428# define isDIGIT_LC(c) isdigit((unsigned char)(c))
429# define isUPPER_LC(c) isupper((unsigned char)(c))
430# define isLOWER_LC(c) islower((unsigned char)(c))
b8c5462f
JH
431# define isALNUMC_LC(c) isalnum((unsigned char)(c))
432# define isCNTRL_LC(c) iscntrl((unsigned char)(c))
433# define isGRAPH_LC(c) isgraph((unsigned char)(c))
bbce6d69 434# define isPRINT_LC(c) isprint((unsigned char)(c))
b8c5462f 435# define isPUNCT_LC(c) ispunct((unsigned char)(c))
bbce6d69
PP
436# define toUPPER_LC(c) toupper((unsigned char)(c))
437# define toLOWER_LC(c) tolower((unsigned char)(c))
438
439# else
440
3609ea0d 441# define isALNUM_LC(c) (isascii(c) && (isalnum(c) || (c) == '_'))
bbce6d69
PP
442# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) (isascii(c) && (isalpha(c) || (c) == '_'))
443# define isALPHA_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isalpha(c))
444# define isSPACE_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isspace(c))
445# define isDIGIT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isdigit(c))
446# define isUPPER_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isupper(c))
447# define isLOWER_LC(c) (isascii(c) && islower(c))
b8c5462f
JH
448# define isALNUMC_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isalnum(c))
449# define isCNTRL_LC(c) (isascii(c) && iscntrl(c))
450# define isGRAPH_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isgraph(c))
bbce6d69 451# define isPRINT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isprint(c))
b8c5462f 452# define isPUNCT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && ispunct(c))
bbce6d69
PP
453# define toUPPER_LC(c) toupper(c)
454# define toLOWER_LC(c) tolower(c)
455
456# endif
a0d0e21e 457#endif /* USE_NEXT_CTYPE */
55204971 458
aaa51d5e
JF
459#define isPSXSPC_LC(c) (isSPACE_LC(c) || (c) == '\v')
460#define isBLANK_LC(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
461
a0ed51b3
LW
462#define isALNUM_uni(c) is_uni_alnum(c)
463#define isIDFIRST_uni(c) is_uni_idfirst(c)
464#define isALPHA_uni(c) is_uni_alpha(c)
465#define isSPACE_uni(c) is_uni_space(c)
466#define isDIGIT_uni(c) is_uni_digit(c)
467#define isUPPER_uni(c) is_uni_upper(c)
468#define isLOWER_uni(c) is_uni_lower(c)
b8c5462f
JH
469#define isALNUMC_uni(c) is_uni_alnumc(c)
470#define isASCII_uni(c) is_uni_ascii(c)
471#define isCNTRL_uni(c) is_uni_cntrl(c)
472#define isGRAPH_uni(c) is_uni_graph(c)
a0ed51b3 473#define isPRINT_uni(c) is_uni_print(c)
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474#define isPUNCT_uni(c) is_uni_punct(c)
475#define isXDIGIT_uni(c) is_uni_xdigit(c)
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476#define toUPPER_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_upper(c,s,l)
477#define toTITLE_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_title(c,s,l)
478#define toLOWER_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_lower(c,s,l)
b8d68ded 479#define toFOLD_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_fold(c,s,l)
a0ed51b3 480
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481#define isPSXSPC_uni(c) (isSPACE_uni(c) ||(c) == '\f')
482#define isBLANK_uni(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
483
9041c2e3
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484#define isALNUM_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALNUM_LC(c) : is_uni_alnum_lc(c))
485#define isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isIDFIRST_LC(c) : is_uni_idfirst_lc(c))
486#define isALPHA_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALPHA_LC(c) : is_uni_alpha_lc(c))
487#define isSPACE_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isSPACE_LC(c) : is_uni_space_lc(c))
488#define isDIGIT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isDIGIT_LC(c) : is_uni_digit_lc(c))
489#define isUPPER_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isUPPER_LC(c) : is_uni_upper_lc(c))
490#define isLOWER_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isLOWER_LC(c) : is_uni_lower_lc(c))
491#define isALNUMC_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALNUMC_LC(c) : is_uni_alnumc_lc(c))
492#define isCNTRL_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isCNTRL_LC(c) : is_uni_cntrl_lc(c))
493#define isGRAPH_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isGRAPH_LC(c) : is_uni_graph_lc(c))
494#define isPRINT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isPRINT_LC(c) : is_uni_print_lc(c))
495#define isPUNCT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isPUNCT_LC(c) : is_uni_punct_lc(c))
a0ed51b3 496
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497#define isPSXSPC_LC_uni(c) (isSPACE_LC_uni(c) ||(c) == '\f')
498#define isBLANK_LC_uni(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
499
a0ed51b3 500#define isALNUM_utf8(p) is_utf8_alnum(p)
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JH
501/* The ID_Start of Unicode is quite limiting: it assumes a L-class
502 * character (meaning that you cannot have, say, a CJK character).
503 * Instead, let's allow ID_Continue but not digits. */
504#define isIDFIRST_utf8(p) (is_utf8_idcont(p) && !is_utf8_digit(p))
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505#define isALPHA_utf8(p) is_utf8_alpha(p)
506#define isSPACE_utf8(p) is_utf8_space(p)
507#define isDIGIT_utf8(p) is_utf8_digit(p)
508#define isUPPER_utf8(p) is_utf8_upper(p)
509#define isLOWER_utf8(p) is_utf8_lower(p)
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510#define isALNUMC_utf8(p) is_utf8_alnumc(p)
511#define isASCII_utf8(p) is_utf8_ascii(p)
512#define isCNTRL_utf8(p) is_utf8_cntrl(p)
513#define isGRAPH_utf8(p) is_utf8_graph(p)
a0ed51b3 514#define isPRINT_utf8(p) is_utf8_print(p)
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515#define isPUNCT_utf8(p) is_utf8_punct(p)
516#define isXDIGIT_utf8(p) is_utf8_xdigit(p)
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517#define toUPPER_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_upper(p,s,l)
518#define toTITLE_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_title(p,s,l)
519#define toLOWER_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_lower(p,s,l)
a0ed51b3 520
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521#define isPSXSPC_utf8(c) (isSPACE_utf8(c) ||(c) == '\f')
522#define isBLANK_utf8(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
523
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NIS
524#define isALNUM_LC_utf8(p) isALNUM_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
525#define isIDFIRST_LC_utf8(p) isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
526#define isALPHA_LC_utf8(p) isALPHA_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
527#define isSPACE_LC_utf8(p) isSPACE_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
528#define isDIGIT_LC_utf8(p) isDIGIT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
529#define isUPPER_LC_utf8(p) isUPPER_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
530#define isLOWER_LC_utf8(p) isLOWER_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
531#define isALNUMC_LC_utf8(p) isALNUMC_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
532#define isCNTRL_LC_utf8(p) isCNTRL_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
533#define isGRAPH_LC_utf8(p) isGRAPH_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
534#define isPRINT_LC_utf8(p) isPRINT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
535#define isPUNCT_LC_utf8(p) isPUNCT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
a0ed51b3 536
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537#define isPSXSPC_LC_utf8(c) (isSPACE_LC_utf8(c) ||(c) == '\f')
538#define isBLANK_LC_utf8(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
539
9d116dd7 540#ifdef EBCDIC
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JH
541# ifdef PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT
542# define toCTRL(c) Perl_ebcdic_control(aTHX_ c)
543# else
544# define toCTRL Perl_ebcdic_control
545# endif
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JH
546#else
547 /* This conversion works both ways, strangely enough. */
548# define toCTRL(c) (toUPPER(c) ^ 64)
549#endif
bbce6d69 550
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JJ
551/* Line numbers are unsigned, 32 bits. */
552typedef U32 line_t;
dea28490 553#define NOLINE ((line_t) 4294967295UL)
378cc40b 554
8c52afec 555
8e84507e 556/*
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557=head1 SV Manipulation Functions
558
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559=for apidoc Am|SV*|NEWSV|int id|STRLEN len
560Creates a new SV. A non-zero C<len> parameter indicates the number of
561bytes of preallocated string space the SV should have. An extra byte for a
562tailing NUL is also reserved. (SvPOK is not set for the SV even if string
8e84507e 563space is allocated.) The reference count for the new SV is set to 1.
954c1994
GS
564C<id> is an integer id between 0 and 1299 (used to identify leaks).
565
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566=head1 Memory Management
567
a02a5408 568=for apidoc Am|void|Newx|void* ptr|int nitems|type
954c1994
GS
569The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function.
570
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JC
571In 5.9.3, Newx() and friends replace the older New() API, and drops
572the first parameter, I<x>, a debug aid which allowed callers to identify
37b8b4c9 573themselves. This aid has been superseded by a new build option,
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574PERL_MEM_LOG (see L<perlhack/PERL_MEM_LOG>). The older API is still
575there for use in XS modules supporting older perls.
576
a02a5408 577=for apidoc Am|void|Newxc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
954c1994 578The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function, with
c5008215 579cast. See also C<Newx>.
954c1994 580
a02a5408 581=for apidoc Am|void|Newxz|void* ptr|int nitems|type
954c1994 582The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function. The allocated
c5008215 583memory is zeroed with C<memzero>. See also C<Newx>.
a02a5408 584
954c1994
GS
585=for apidoc Am|void|Renew|void* ptr|int nitems|type
586The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function.
587
588=for apidoc Am|void|Renewc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
589The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function, with
590cast.
591
49b8b560 592=for apidoc Am|void|Safefree|void* ptr
954c1994
GS
593The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<free> function.
594
595=for apidoc Am|void|Move|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
596The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memmove> function. The C<src> is the
597source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
598the type. Can do overlapping moves. See also C<Copy>.
599
e90e2364
NC
600=for apidoc Am|void *|MoveD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
601Like C<Move> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
602optimise.
603
954c1994
GS
604=for apidoc Am|void|Copy|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
605The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memcpy> function. The C<src> is the
606source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
607the type. May fail on overlapping copies. See also C<Move>.
608
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NC
609=for apidoc Am|void *|CopyD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
610
611Like C<Copy> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
612optimise.
613
954c1994
GS
614=for apidoc Am|void|Zero|void* dest|int nitems|type
615
616The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memzero> function. The C<dest> is the
617destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is the type.
618
e90e2364
NC
619=for apidoc Am|void *|ZeroD|void* dest|int nitems|type
620
621Like C<Zero> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
622optimise.
623
954c1994 624=for apidoc Am|void|StructCopy|type src|type dest|type
4375e838 625This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure to another.
954c1994 626
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627=for apidoc Am|void|Poison|void* dest|int nitems|type
628
629Fill up memory with a pattern (byte 0xAB over and over again) that
630hopefully catches attempts to access uninitialized memory.
631
632=cut */
954c1994 633
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IZ
634#define NEWSV(x,len) newSV(len)
635
27d5b266 636#ifdef PERL_MALLOC_WRAP
fabdb6c0 637#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t) MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,PL_memory_wrap)
27d5b266 638#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a) \
bbbd4338 639 (void)(sizeof(t) > 1 && (n) > ((MEM_SIZE)~0)/sizeof(t) && (Perl_croak_nocontext(a),0))
8b44ba4c 640#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t),
27d5b266 641
6fff79ce 642#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) ((void)(((n) > (MEM_SIZE)~0 - 2 * PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM) ? (Perl_croak_nocontext(PL_memory_wrap),0):0),((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
1936d2a7 643
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JH
644#else
645
410319be
NC
646#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t)
647#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a)
648#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_2(n,t,a,b)
8b44ba4c
NC
649#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t)
650
6fff79ce 651#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) (((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
27d5b266 652
1936d2a7 653#endif
8b44ba4c 654
fe4f188c 655#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
46c6c7e2 656/*
9f653bb5 657 * If PERL_MEM_LOG is defined, all Newx()s, Renew()s, and Safefree()s
46c6c7e2
JH
658 * go through functions, which are handy for debugging breakpoints, but
659 * which more importantly get the immediate calling environment (file and
e352bcff
JH
660 * line number, and C function name if available) passed in. This info can
661 * then be used for logging the calls, for which one gets a sample
662 * implementation if PERL_MEM_LOG_STDERR is defined.
3609ea0d 663 *
46c6c7e2
JH
664 * Known problems:
665 * - all memory allocs do not get logged, only those
666 * that go through Newx() and derivatives (while all
667 * Safefrees do get logged)
668 * - __FILE__ and __LINE__ do not work everywhere
669 * - __func__ or __FUNCTION__ even less so
670 * - I think more goes on after the perlio frees but
671 * the thing is that STDERR gets closed (as do all
672 * the file descriptors)
673 * - no deeper calling stack than the caller of the Newx()
674 * or the kind, but do I look like a C reflection/introspection
675 * utility to you?
676 * - the function prototypes for the logging functions
677 * probably should maybe be somewhere else than handy.h
678 * - one could consider inlining (macrofying) the logging
679 * for speed, but I am too lazy
680 * - one could imagine recording the allocations in a hash,
681 * (keyed by the allocation address?), and maintain that
682 * through reallocs and frees, but how to do that without
683 * any News() happening...?
684 */
685
686Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_alloc(const UV n, const UV typesize, const char *typename, Malloc_t newalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
687
688Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_realloc(const UV n, const UV typesize, const char *typename, Malloc_t oldalloc, Malloc_t newalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
689
690Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_free(Malloc_t oldalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
691
fe4f188c
JH
692#endif
693
694#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
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JH
695#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a) Perl_mem_log_alloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
696#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) Perl_mem_log_realloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),v,a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
697#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a) Perl_mem_log_free(a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
fe4f188c
JH
698#endif
699
700#ifndef MEM_LOG_ALLOC
701#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a) (a)
702#endif
703#ifndef MEM_LOG_REALLOC
704#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) (a)
705#endif
706#ifndef MEM_LOG_FREE
707#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a) (a)
708#endif
709
710#define Newx(v,n,t) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,(t*)safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
711#define Newxc(v,n,t,c) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,(c*)safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
712#define Newxz(v,n,t) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,(t*)safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t)))))), \
ff68c719 713 memzero((char*)(v), (n)*sizeof(t))
a6f6820f
NC
714
715#ifndef PERL_CORE
a02a5408
JC
716/* pre 5.9.x compatibility */
717#define New(x,v,n,t) Newx(v,n,t)
718#define Newc(x,v,n,t,c) Newxc(v,n,t,c)
4541904d 719#define Newz(x,v,n,t) Newxz(v,n,t)
a6f6820f 720#endif
a02a5408 721
ff68c719 722#define Renew(v,n,t) \
fe4f188c 723 (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,(t*)saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
ff68c719 724#define Renewc(v,n,t,c) \
fe4f188c 725 (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,(c*)saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
94010e71
NC
726
727#ifdef PERL_POISON
728#define Safefree(d) \
06c0cc96 729 ((d) ? (void)(safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d))), Poison(&(d), 1, Malloc_t)) : (void) 0)
94010e71 730#else
fe4f188c 731#define Safefree(d) safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d)))
94010e71 732#endif
55497cff 733
8b44ba4c
NC
734#define Move(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
735#define Copy(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
736#define Zero(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
55497cff 737
8b44ba4c
NC
738#define MoveD(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
739#define CopyD(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
e90e2364 740#ifdef HAS_MEMSET
8b44ba4c 741#define ZeroD(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
e90e2364 742#else
8b44ba4c
NC
743/* Using bzero(), which returns void. */
744#define ZeroD(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)),d)
e90e2364
NC
745#endif
746
8b44ba4c 747#define Poison(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memset((char*)(d), 0xAB, (n) * sizeof(t)))
27d5b266 748
2304df62 749#ifdef USE_STRUCT_COPY
ff68c719 750#define StructCopy(s,d,t) (*((t*)(d)) = *((t*)(s)))
bee1dbe2
LW
751#else
752#define StructCopy(s,d,t) Copy(s,d,1,t)
753#endif
2cc61e15 754
622913ab
IZ
755#define C_ARRAY_LENGTH(a) (sizeof(a)/sizeof((a)[0]))
756
2cc61e15
DD
757#ifdef NEED_VA_COPY
758# ifdef va_copy
759# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) va_copy(d, s)
2cc61e15 760# else
a1866d1b
JH
761# if defined(__va_copy)
762# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) __va_copy(d, s)
763# else
764# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) Copy(s, d, 1, va_list)
765# endif
2cc61e15
DD
766# endif
767#endif
768
472d47bc
SB
769/* convenience debug macros */
770#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
771#define pTHX_FORMAT "Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
772#define pTHX__FORMAT ", Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
f54cb97a
AL
773#define pTHX_VALUE_ (void *)my_perl,
774#define pTHX_VALUE (void *)my_perl
775#define pTHX__VALUE_ ,(void *)my_perl,
776#define pTHX__VALUE ,(void *)my_perl
472d47bc 777#else
3609ea0d 778#define pTHX_FORMAT
472d47bc 779#define pTHX__FORMAT
3609ea0d 780#define pTHX_VALUE_
472d47bc 781#define pTHX_VALUE
3609ea0d 782#define pTHX__VALUE_
472d47bc
SB
783#define pTHX__VALUE
784#endif /* USE_ITHREADS */
3609ea0d 785