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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
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4
5=head1 NAME
6
d66be8f9 7README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
12(HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
13compiled and/or runs.
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15=head2 Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
16
17As of application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is shipped with
210b36aa 18perl-5.6.1 in /opt/perl. The first occurrence is on CD 5012-7954 and
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19can be installed using
20
21 swinstall -s /cdrom perl
22
23assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom. In this version the
24following modules are installed:
25
26 ActivePerl::DocTools-0.04 HTML::Parser-3.19 XML::DOM-1.25
27 Archive::Tar-0.072 HTML::Tagset-3.03 XML::Parser-2.27
28 Compress::Zlib-1.08 MIME::Base64-2.11 XML::Simple-1.05
29 Convert::ASN1-0.10 Net-1.07 XML::XPath-1.09
30 Digest::MD5-2.11 PPM-2.1.5 XML::XSLT-0.32
31 File::CounterFile-0.12 SOAP::Lite-0.46 libwww-perl-5.51
32 Font::AFM-1.18 Storable-1.011 libxml-perl-0.07
33 HTML-Tree-3.11 URI-1.11 perl-ldap-0.23
34
35The build is a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large
36files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112
37
38If you perform a new installation, then Perl will be installed
39automatically.
40
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41=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
42
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43When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. The C compiler
44that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
45used to build new kernels.
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46
47Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The
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48former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
49difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
50require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
f2a260d6 51
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52If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
53complete, and be sure to read the Perl README file for more gcc-specific
54details.
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55
56=head2 PA-RISC
57
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58HP's current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
59(PA-RISC) chip. HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
60chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
61document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
62Motorola chipset.
f2a260d6 63
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64The most recent version of PA-RISC at the time of this document's last
65update is 2.0.
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66
67=head2 PA-RISC 1.0
68
69The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with this chip.
70
13e84f2c 71The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
f2a260d6 72
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73 600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850,
74 852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
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75
76=head2 PA-RISC 1.1
77
78An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many different
79system.
80
81The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
82
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83 705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745,
84 747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811,
85 813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849,
86 851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C,
87 B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120, C160L,
88 D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350, D360, D410,
89 DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30, G40, G50, G60,
90 G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60, I70, J200, J210,
91 J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410, K420, S700i, S715,
92 S744, S760, T500, T520
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93
94=head2 PA-RISC 2.0
95
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96The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
9764-bit integer data.
f2a260d6 98
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99As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
100contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
f2a260d6 101
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102 700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889,
103 893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160,
104 C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270,
105 D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410,
106 J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
107 K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000,
108 L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, RP8400, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000,
109 T540, T600, V2000, V2200, V2250, V2500, V2600
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110
111=head2 Itanium
112
113HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). As of the
114date of this document's last update, the following systems contain
115Itanium chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
116
2925712a 117 RX4610, RX9610
f2a260d6 118
d66be8f9 119A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
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120/opt/langtools/lib/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the
121output of the "uname -m" command (without the leading "9000/"). The
122second column is the PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact
42be3f00 123chip type used. (Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)
d66be8f9 124
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125=head2 Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
126
127An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
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128PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
129HP-UX. If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want that
d1be9408 130Perl to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable and
60ed1d8c 131+DS32 should be used.
f2a260d6 132
60ed1d8c 133It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
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134the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms. The command-line flags are accepted,
135but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
1361.0 system.
137
a83b6f46 138=head2 Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX
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139
140HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor. This requires the use
141of a different version of HP-UX (currently 11.20), and with the exception
142of a few differences detailed below and in later sections, Perl should
143compile with no problems.
144
145Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
146attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system. This is
147because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
148while running a PA-RISC executable.
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149
150=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
151
152HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
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153Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl. On Itanium systems,
154they end with the suffix .so.
f2a260d6 155
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156Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC
157version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
158default. However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using the
159same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
160mentioned above).
f2a260d6 161
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162Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on
163a PA-RISC platform. Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform
164can only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
165that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library. A PA-RISC shared
166library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.
167
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168To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
169
170 1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
171 which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC). The linker will
172 tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
173
174 2. Link the shared library using the -b flag. If the code calls
175 any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
176 be included on this line.
177
178(Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the extension's
179Makefile).
180
181If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
182time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when the
183library is loaded.
184
a75f7dba 185You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
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186may be either an archive library or a shared library. If this second
187library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library". The
188dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
189is not linked into the shared library. Instead, it is loaded when the
190main shared library is loaded. This can cause problems if you build an
191extension on one system and move it to another system where the
192libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
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193
194If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
195simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC). These
196modules are then linked into the shared library.
197
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198Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
199library that is already linked into perl.
f2a260d6 200
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201Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
202libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
203are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you run
204into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase. HP is aware
205of this problem and address it at
37a78d01 206 http://h21007.www2.hp.com/dspp/tech/tech_TechDocumentDetailPage_IDX/1,,392!0!,00.html
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207
208A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example for
209the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's libdb.sl:
210
211 # cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
212 # vi Makefile
213 ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
214 CFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
215 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
216 CXXFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
217 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
218
219 # make clean
220 # make
221 # mkdir tmp
222 # cd tmp
223 # ar x ../libdb.a
224 # ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o
225 # mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib
226 # rm *.o
227 # cd /usr/local/lib
228 # rm -f libdb.sl
229 # ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl
230
231 # cd .../DB_File-1.76
232 # make distclean
233 # perl Makefile.PL
234 # make
235 # make test
236 # make install
237
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238It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
239though the command-line flags are still present).
240
241PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable. Although
242you may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC
243object files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using
244an Itanium link editor.
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245
246=head2 The HP ANSI C Compiler
247
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248When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
249flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
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250file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
251recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set automatically.
f2a260d6 252
a83b6f46 253=head2 Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 254
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255Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
256may be created and manipulated. Three separate methods of doing this
257are available. Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to compile
258using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure. This causes Perl to be
259compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits wide,
260rather than 32 bits wide. (Note that this will only work with HP's ANSI
261C compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get
262a version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
263
264There are some drawbacks to this approach. One is that any extension
265which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
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266(just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install"
267procedure).
60ed1d8c 268
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269The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
270creat, fgetpos, fopen,
271freopen, fsetpos, fstat,
272fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev, ftruncate,
273ftw, lockf, lseek,
274lstat, mmap, nftw,
275open, prealloc, stat,
276statvfs, statvfsdev, tmpfile,
277truncate, getrlimit, setrlimit
f2a260d6 278
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279Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0. This
280drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
281and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
282
283It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run
284Configure. If you do not do this, but later answer the question about
285large files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that
286cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
287
a83b6f46 288=head2 Threaded Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 289
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290It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
291HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
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292HP-UX 11.00 at least.
293
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294To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of
295Configure. Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
296automatically added to the list of flags. Also make sure that -lpthread
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297is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl with. The
298hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard to get
299this right for you.
f2a260d6 300
210b36aa 301HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX
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302threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
303on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
304April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, available
305though worldwide HP-UX mirrors of precompiled packages
37a78d01 306(e.g. http://hpux.tn.tudelft.nl/hppd/hpux/)
c7d9b096 307
a83b6f46 308=head2 64-bit Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 309
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310Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
311advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
312Pointers are 64 bits wide).
f2a260d6 313
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314Work is being performed on Perl to make it 64-bit compliant on all
315versions of Unix. Once this is complete, scalar variables will be able
316to hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.
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317
318As of the date of this document, Perl is not 64-bit compliant on HP-UX.
319
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320Should a user wish to experiment with compiling Perl in the LP64
321environment, use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure. This will force
322Perl to be compiled in a pure LP64 environment (via the +DD64 flag).
f74a9bd3 323
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324You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure. Although there
325are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
326the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl user's
327perspective.
f74a9bd3 328
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329In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
330you run Configure. If you do not use do this, but later answer the
331questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
332configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as
333expected.
f74a9bd3 334
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335(Note that these Configure flags will only work with HP's ANSI C
336compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get a
337version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
f2a260d6 338
a83b6f46 339=head2 GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
d66be8f9 340
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341If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
342link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
343starts up. The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
344library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.
d66be8f9 345
a83b6f46 346=head2 NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
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347
348If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the test
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349io/fs.t may fail on test #18. This appears to be a bug in HP-UX and no
350fix is currently available.
d66be8f9 351
a83b6f46 352=head2 perl -P and // and HP-UX
183968aa 353
efdf3af0 354In HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if the
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355-P flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before
356perl sees it) is used. The problem is that C<//>, being a C++-style
357until-end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder
358of the line. This means that common Perl constructs like
359
efdf3af0 360 s/foo//;
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361
362will turn into illegal code
363
efdf3af0 364 s/foo
183968aa 365
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366The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than C<"/">,
367like for example C<"!">:
183968aa 368
efdf3af0 369 s!foo!!;
183968aa 370
a83b6f46 371=head2 HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
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372
373By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
37464MB. This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
375optimization levels. You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
376parameter through the use of SAM.
377
378When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
379icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon. Scroll down and select
380the maxdsiz line. From the Actions menu, select the Modify Configurable
381Parameter item. Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value box.
382Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot your
383system.
384
385In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
386Perl to compile at maximum optimization.
387
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388=head1 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
389
390You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent
391tests. If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like
392the following:
393
394 #0 0xc004216c in () from /usr/lib/libc.2
395 #1 0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
396 #2 0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
397 #3 0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
398 #4 0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
399 #5 0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
400 #6 0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
401 #7 0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
402 #8 0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
403 #9 0x2005c in main () from ./perl
404
405The key here is the C<nss_delete> call. One workaround for this
406bug seems to be to create add to the file F</etc/nsswitch.conf>
407(at least) the following lines
408
409 group: files
410 passwd: files
411
412Whether you are using NIS does not matter. Amazingly enough,
413the same bug affects also Solaris.
414
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415=head1 AUTHOR
416
417Jeff Okamoto <okamoto@corp.hp.com>
418
419With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.
420
421=head1 DATE
422
1a4e8251 423Version 0.6.4: 2001-10-09
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424
425=cut