This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Jan Dubois has taken over maintenance of Win32 stuff from Sarathy
[perl5.git] / README.win32
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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7perlwin32 - Perl under Windows
8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
11These are instructions for building Perl under Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP
12on the Intel x86 and Itanium architectures.
13
14=head1 DESCRIPTION
15
16Before you start, you should glance through the README file
17found in the top-level directory to which the Perl distribution
18was extracted. Make sure you read and understand the terms under
19which this software is being distributed.
20
21Also make sure you read L<BUGS AND CAVEATS> below for the
22known limitations of this port.
23
24The INSTALL file in the perl top-level has much information that is
25only relevant to people building Perl on Unix-like systems. In
26particular, you can safely ignore any information that talks about
27"Configure".
28
29You may also want to look at two other options for building
30a perl that will work on Windows NT: the README.cygwin and
31README.os2 files, each of which give a different set of rules to
32build a Perl that will work on Win32 platforms. Those two methods
33will probably enable you to build a more Unix-compatible perl, but
34you will also need to download and use various other build-time and
35run-time support software described in those files.
36
37This set of instructions is meant to describe a so-called "native"
38port of Perl to Win32 platforms. This includes both 32-bit and
3964-bit Windows operating systems. The resulting Perl requires no
40additional software to run (other than what came with your operating
41system). Currently, this port is capable of using one of the
42following compilers on the Intel x86 architecture:
43
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44 Borland C++ version 5.02 or later
45 Microsoft Visual C++ version 4.2 or later
46 MinGW with gcc gcc version 2.95.2 or later
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48The last of these is a high quality freeware compiler. Use version
493.2.x or later for the best results with this compiler.
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51The Microsoft Visual C++ compiler is also now being given away free in
52the "Visual C++ Toolkit 2003", and also as part of the ".NET Framework
53SDK". This is the same compiler that ships with "Visual Studio .NET 2003
54Professional".
55
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56This port can also be built on the Intel IA64 using:
57
58 Microsoft Platform SDK Nov 2001 (64-bit compiler and tools)
59
60The MS Platform SDK can be downloaded from http://www.microsoft.com/.
61
62This port fully supports MakeMaker (the set of modules that
63is used to build extensions to perl). Therefore, you should be
64able to build and install most extensions found in the CPAN sites.
65See L<Usage Hints for Perl on Win32> below for general hints about this.
66
67=head2 Setting Up Perl on Win32
68
69=over 4
70
71=item Make
72
73You need a "make" program to build the sources. If you are using
74Visual C++ or the Platform SDK tools under Windows NT/2000/XP, nmake
75will work. All other builds need dmake.
76
77dmake is a freely available make that has very nice macro features
78and parallelability.
79
80A port of dmake for Windows is available from:
81
82 http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/GSAR/dmake-4.1pl1-win32.zip
83
84(This is a fixed version of the original dmake sources obtained from
85http://www.wticorp.com/ As of version 4.1PL1, the original
86sources did not build as shipped and had various other problems.
87A patch is included in the above fixed version.)
88
89Fetch and install dmake somewhere on your path (follow the instructions
90in the README.NOW file).
91
92There exists a minor coexistence problem with dmake and Borland C++
93compilers. Namely, if a distribution has C files named with mixed
94case letters, they will be compiled into appropriate .obj-files named
95with all lowercase letters, and every time dmake is invoked
96to bring files up to date, it will try to recompile such files again.
97For example, Tk distribution has a lot of such files, resulting in
98needless recompiles every time dmake is invoked. To avoid this, you
99may use the script "sync_ext.pl" after a successful build. It is
100available in the win32 subdirectory of the Perl source distribution.
101
102=item Command Shell
103
104Use the default "cmd" shell that comes with NT. Some versions of the
105popular 4DOS/NT shell have incompatibilities that may cause you trouble.
106If the build fails under that shell, try building again with the cmd
107shell.
108
109The nmake Makefile also has known incompatibilities with the
110"command.com" shell that comes with Windows 9x. You will need to
111use dmake and makefile.mk to build under Windows 9x.
112
113The surest way to build it is on Windows NT/2000/XP, using the cmd shell.
114
115Make sure the path to the build directory does not contain spaces. The
116build usually works in this circumstance, but some tests will fail.
117
118=item Borland C++
119
120If you are using the Borland compiler, you will need dmake.
121(The make that Borland supplies is seriously crippled and will not
122work for MakeMaker builds.)
123
124See L</"Make"> above.
125
126=item Microsoft Visual C++
127
128The nmake that comes with Visual C++ will suffice for building.
129You will need to run the VCVARS32.BAT file, usually found somewhere
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130like C:\MSDEV4.2\BIN or C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio\VC98\Bin.
131This will set your build environment.
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132
133You can also use dmake to build using Visual C++; provided, however,
134you set OSRELEASE to "microsft" (or whatever the directory name
135under which the Visual C dmake configuration lives) in your environment
136and edit win32/config.vc to change "make=nmake" into "make=dmake". The
137latter step is only essential if you want to use dmake as your default
138make for building extensions using MakeMaker.
139
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140=item Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003
141
142This free toolkit contains the same compiler and linker that ship with
143Visual Studio .NET 2003 Professional, but doesn't contain everything
144necessary to build Perl.
145
146You will also need to download the "Platform SDK" (the "Core SDK" and "MDAC
147SDK" components are required) for header files, libraries and rc.exe, and
148".NET Framework SDK" for more libraries and nmake.exe. Note that the latter
149(which also includes the free compiler and linker) requires the ".NET
150Framework Redistributable" to be installed first. This can be downloaded and
151installed separately, but is included in the "Visual C++ Toolkit 2003" anyway.
152
153These packages can all be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
154http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en
155
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156The Platform SDK packages can also be obtained from the Platform SDK Update
157site: http://www.microsoft.com/msdownload/platformsdk/sdkupdate Note that this
158site requires Internet Explorer 5.0 or later to function, but the site's home
159page currently gives links to two download pages for users of other browsers:
160
161For Windows XP Service Pack 2:
162http://www.microsoft.com/msdownload/platformsdk/sdkupdate/XPSP2FULLInstall.htm
163
164For Windows Server 2003:
165http://www.microsoft.com/msdownload/platformsdk/sdkupdate/psdk-full.htm
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166
167According to the download pages the Toolkit and the .NET Framework SDK are only
168supported on Windows 2000/XP/2003, so trying to use these tools on Windows
16995/98/ME and even Windows NT probably won't work.
170
171Install the Toolkit first, then the Platform SDK, then the .NET Framework SDK.
172Setup your environment as follows (assuming default installation locations
173were chosen):
174
175 SET PATH=%SystemRoot%\system32;%SystemRoot%;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin;C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK\Bin;C:\Program Files\Microsoft.NET\SDK\v1.1\Bin
176 SET INCLUDE=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\include;C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK\include;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\include
177 SET LIB=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\lib;C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK\lib;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\lib
178
179Several required files will still be missing:
180
181=over 4
182
183=item *
184
185cvtres.exe is required by link.exe when using a .res file. It is actually
186installed by the .NET Framework SDK, but into a location such as the
187following:
188
189 C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322
190
191Copy it from there to C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK\Bin
192
193=item *
194
195lib.exe is normally used to build libraries, but link.exe with the /lib
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196option also works, so change win32/config.vc to use it instead:
197
198Change the line reading:
199
200 ar='lib'
201
202to:
203
204 ar='link /lib'
205
206It may also be useful to create a batch file called lib.bat in
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207C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin containing:
208
209 @echo off
210 link /lib %*
211
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212for the benefit of any naughty C extension modules that you might want to build
213later which explicitly reference "lib" rather than taking their value from
214$Config{ar}.
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215
216=item *
217
218setargv.obj is required to build perlglob.exe (and perl.exe if the USE_SETARGV
219option is enabled). The Platform SDK supplies this object file in source form
220in C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK\src\crt. Copy setargv.c, cruntime.h and
221internal.h from there to some temporary location and build setargv.obj using
222
223 cl.exe /c /I. /D_CRTBLD setargv.c
224
225Then copy setargv.obj to C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK\lib
226
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227Alternatively, if you don't need perlglob.exe and don't need to enable the
228USE_SETARGV option then you can safely just remove all mention of $(GLOBEXE)
229from win32/Makefile and setargv.obj won't be required anyway.
230
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231=back
232
233Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile. You will need to edit that
234file to comment-out CCTYPE = MSVC60 (since that enables delay-loading of the
235Winsock DLL which the free toolkit does not support) and to set CCHOME,
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236CCINCDIR and CCLIBDIR as per the environment setup above. You may also want to
237change both mentions of the compiler's "-Gf" switch to "-GF" since the former
238is deprecated in VC7 and will be removed from future versions.
7241fd28 239
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240=item Microsoft Platform SDK 64-bit Compiler
241
242The nmake that comes with the Platform SDK will suffice for building
243Perl. Make sure you are building within one of the "Build Environment"
244shells available after you install the Platform SDK from the Start Menu.
245
e2736246 246=item MinGW release 3 with gcc
9baed986 247
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248The latest release of MinGW at the time of writing is 3.1.0, which contains
249gcc-3.2.3. It can be downloaded here:
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e2736246 251 http://www.mingw.org/
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253Perl also compiles with earlier releases of gcc (2.95.2 and up). See below
254for notes about using earlier versions of MinGW/gcc.
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255
256You also need dmake. See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
257
e2736246 258=item MinGW release 1 with gcc
7c5b6093 259
4a7adf4c 260The MinGW-1.1 bundle contains gcc-2.95.3.
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261
262Make sure you install the binaries that work with MSVCRT.DLL as indicated
263in the README for the GCC bundle. You may need to set up a few environment
264variables (usually ran from a batch file).
265
266There are a couple of problems with the version of gcc-2.95.2-msvcrt.exe
267released 7 November 1999:
268
269=over
270
271=item *
272
273It left out a fix for certain command line quotes. To fix this, be sure
274to download and install the file fixes/quote-fix-msvcrt.exe from the above
275ftp location.
276
277=item *
278
279The definition of the fpos_t type in stdio.h may be wrong. If your
280stdio.h has this problem, you will see an exception when running the
281test t/lib/io_xs.t. To fix this, change the typedef for fpos_t from
282"long" to "long long" in the file i386-mingw32msvc/include/stdio.h,
283and rebuild.
284
285=back
286
287A potentially simpler to install (but probably soon-to-be-outdated) bundle
288of the above package with the mentioned fixes already applied is available
289here:
290
291 http://downloads.ActiveState.com/pub/staff/gsar/gcc-2.95.2-msvcrt.zip
292 ftp://ftp.ActiveState.com/pub/staff/gsar/gcc-2.95.2-msvcrt.zip
293
294=back
295
296=head2 Building
297
298=over 4
299
300=item *
301
302Make sure you are in the "win32" subdirectory under the perl toplevel.
303This directory contains a "Makefile" that will work with
304versions of nmake that come with Visual C++ or the Platform SDK, and
305a dmake "makefile.mk" that will work for all supported compilers. The
00808b83 306defaults in the dmake makefile are setup to build using MinGW/gcc.
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307
308=item *
309
310Edit the makefile.mk (or Makefile, if you're using nmake) and change
311the values of INST_DRV and INST_TOP. You can also enable various
312build flags. These are explained in the makefiles.
313
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314Note that it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl with
315INST_DRV and INST_TOP set to a path that already exists from a previous
316build. In particular, this may cause problems with the
317lib/ExtUtils/t/Embed.t test, which attempts to build a test program and
318may end up building against the installed perl's lib/CORE directory rather
319than the one being tested.
320
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321You will have to make sure that CCTYPE is set correctly and that
322CCHOME points to wherever you installed your compiler.
323
324The default value for CCHOME in the makefiles for Visual C++
325may not be correct for some versions. Make sure the default exists
326and is valid.
327
328If you have either the source or a library that contains des_fcrypt(),
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329enable the appropriate option in the makefile. A ready-to-use version
330of fcrypt.c, based on the version originally written by Eric Young at
331ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/crypt/mirrors/dsi/libdes/, is bundled with the
00808b83 332distribution and CRYPT_SRC is set to use it.
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333Alternatively, if you have built a library that contains des_fcrypt(),
334you can set CRYPT_LIB to point to the library name.
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335Perl will also build without des_fcrypt(), but the crypt() builtin will
336fail at run time.
337
338Be sure to read the instructions near the top of the makefiles carefully.
339
340=item *
341
342Type "dmake" (or "nmake" if you are using that make).
343
344This should build everything. Specifically, it will create perl.exe,
78a7c709 345perl59.dll at the perl toplevel, and various other extension dll's
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346under the lib\auto directory. If the build fails for any reason, make
347sure you have done the previous steps correctly.
348
349=back
350
351=head2 Testing Perl on Win32
352
353Type "dmake test" (or "nmake test"). This will run most of the tests from
354the testsuite (many tests will be skipped).
355
356There should be no test failures when running under Windows NT/2000/XP.
357Many tests I<will> fail under Windows 9x due to the inferior command shell.
358
359Some test failures may occur if you use a command shell other than the
360native "cmd.exe", or if you are building from a path that contains
361spaces. So don't do that.
362
363If you are running the tests from a emacs shell window, you may see
364failures in op/stat.t. Run "dmake test-notty" in that case.
365
366If you're using the Borland compiler, you may see a failure in op/taint.t
367arising from the inability to find the Borland Runtime DLLs on the system
368default path. You will need to copy the DLLs reported by the messages
369from where Borland chose to install it, into the Windows system directory
370(usually somewhere like C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32) and rerun the test.
371
372If you're using Borland compiler versions 5.2 and below, you may run into
373problems finding the correct header files when building extensions. For
374example, building the "Tk" extension may fail because both perl and Tk
375contain a header file called "patchlevel.h". The latest Borland compiler
376(v5.5) is free of this misbehaviour, and it even supports an
377option -VI- for backward (bugward) compatibility for using the old Borland
378search algorithm to locate header files.
379
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380If you run the tests on a FAT partition, you may see some failures for
381C<link()> related tests (I<op/write.t>, I<op/stat.t> ...). Testing on
382NTFS avoids these errors.
383
384Furthermore, you should make sure that during C<make test> you do not
385have any GNU tool packages in your path: some toolkits like Unixutils
386include some tools (C<type> for instance) which override the Windows
387ones and makes tests fail. Remove them from your path while testing to
388avoid these errors.
389
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390Please report any other failures as described under L<BUGS AND CAVEATS>.
391
392=head2 Installation of Perl on Win32
393
394Type "dmake install" (or "nmake install"). This will put the newly
395built perl and the libraries under whatever C<INST_TOP> points to in the
396Makefile. It will also install the pod documentation under
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397C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod> and HTML versions of the same under
398C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod\html>.
9baed986 399
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400To use the Perl you just installed you will need to add a new entry to
401your PATH environment variable: C<$INST_TOP\bin>, e.g.
9baed986 402
00808b83 403 set PATH=c:\perl\bin;%PATH%
9baed986 404
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405If you opted to uncomment C<INST_VER> and C<INST_ARCH> in the makefile
406then the installation structure is a little more complicated and you will
407need to add two new PATH components instead: C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin> and
408C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin\$ARCHNAME>, e.g.
409
410 set PATH=c:\perl\5.6.0\bin;c:\perl\5.6.0\bin\MSWin32-x86;%PATH%
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411
412=head2 Usage Hints for Perl on Win32
413
414=over 4
415
416=item Environment Variables
417
418The installation paths that you set during the build get compiled
419into perl, so you don't have to do anything additional to start
420using that perl (except add its location to your PATH variable).
421
422If you put extensions in unusual places, you can set PERL5LIB
423to a list of paths separated by semicolons where you want perl
424to look for libraries. Look for descriptions of other environment
425variables you can set in L<perlrun>.
426
427You can also control the shell that perl uses to run system() and
428backtick commands via PERL5SHELL. See L<perlrun>.
429
430Perl does not depend on the registry, but it can look up certain default
431values if you choose to put them there. Perl attempts to read entries from
432C<HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Perl> and C<HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Perl>.
433Entries in the former override entries in the latter. One or more of the
434following entries (of type REG_SZ or REG_EXPAND_SZ) may be set:
435
436 lib-$] version-specific standard library path to add to @INC
437 lib standard library path to add to @INC
438 sitelib-$] version-specific site library path to add to @INC
439 sitelib site library path to add to @INC
440 vendorlib-$] version-specific vendor library path to add to @INC
441 vendorlib vendor library path to add to @INC
442 PERL* fallback for all %ENV lookups that begin with "PERL"
443
444Note the C<$]> in the above is not literal. Substitute whatever version
445of perl you want to honor that entry, e.g. C<5.6.0>. Paths must be
446separated with semicolons, as usual on win32.
447
448=item File Globbing
449
450By default, perl handles file globbing using the File::Glob extension,
451which provides portable globbing.
452
453If you want perl to use globbing that emulates the quirks of DOS
454filename conventions, you might want to consider using File::DosGlob
455to override the internal glob() implementation. See L<File::DosGlob> for
456details.
457
458=item Using perl from the command line
459
460If you are accustomed to using perl from various command-line
461shells found in UNIX environments, you will be less than pleased
462with what Windows offers by way of a command shell.
463
464The crucial thing to understand about the Windows environment is that
465the command line you type in is processed twice before Perl sees it.
466First, your command shell (usually CMD.EXE on Windows NT, and
467COMMAND.COM on Windows 9x) preprocesses the command line, to handle
468redirection, environment variable expansion, and location of the
469executable to run. Then, the perl executable splits the remaining
470command line into individual arguments, using the C runtime library
471upon which Perl was built.
472
473It is particularly important to note that neither the shell nor the C
474runtime do any wildcard expansions of command-line arguments (so
475wildcards need not be quoted). Also, the quoting behaviours of the
476shell and the C runtime are rudimentary at best (and may, if you are
477using a non-standard shell, be inconsistent). The only (useful) quote
478character is the double quote ("). It can be used to protect spaces
479and other special characters in arguments.
480
481The Windows NT documentation has almost no description of how the
482quoting rules are implemented, but here are some general observations
483based on experiments: The C runtime breaks arguments at spaces and
484passes them to programs in argc/argv. Double quotes can be used to
485prevent arguments with spaces in them from being split up. You can
486put a double quote in an argument by escaping it with a backslash and
487enclosing the whole argument within double quotes. The backslash and
488the pair of double quotes surrounding the argument will be stripped by
489the C runtime.
490
00808b83 491The file redirection characters "E<lt>", "E<gt>", and "|" can be quoted by
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492double quotes (although there are suggestions that this may not always
493be true). Single quotes are not treated as quotes by the shell or
494the C runtime, they don't get stripped by the shell (just to make
495this type of quoting completely useless). The caret "^" has also
496been observed to behave as a quoting character, but this appears
497to be a shell feature, and the caret is not stripped from the command
498line, so Perl still sees it (and the C runtime phase does not treat
499the caret as a quote character).
500
501Here are some examples of usage of the "cmd" shell:
502
503This prints two doublequotes:
504
505 perl -e "print '\"\"' "
506
507This does the same:
508
509 perl -e "print \"\\\"\\\"\" "
510
511This prints "bar" and writes "foo" to the file "blurch":
512
513 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" > blurch
514
515This prints "foo" ("bar" disappears into nowhereland):
516
517 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> nul
518
519This prints "bar" and writes "foo" into the file "blurch":
520
521 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 1> blurch
522
523This pipes "foo" to the "less" pager and prints "bar" on the console:
524
525 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" | less
526
527This pipes "foo\nbar\n" to the less pager:
528
529 perl -le "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2>&1 | less
530
531This pipes "foo" to the pager and writes "bar" in the file "blurch":
532
533 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> blurch | less
534
535
536Discovering the usefulness of the "command.com" shell on Windows 9x
537is left as an exercise to the reader :)
538
539One particularly pernicious problem with the 4NT command shell for
540Windows NT is that it (nearly) always treats a % character as indicating
541that environment variable expansion is needed. Under this shell, it is
542therefore important to always double any % characters which you want
543Perl to see (for example, for hash variables), even when they are
544quoted.
545
546=item Building Extensions
547
548The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) offers a wealth
549of extensions, some of which require a C compiler to build.
550Look in http://www.cpan.org/ for more information on CPAN.
551
552Note that not all of the extensions available from CPAN may work
553in the Win32 environment; you should check the information at
554http://testers.cpan.org/ before investing too much effort into
555porting modules that don't readily build.
556
557Most extensions (whether they require a C compiler or not) can
558be built, tested and installed with the standard mantra:
559
560 perl Makefile.PL
561 $MAKE
562 $MAKE test
563 $MAKE install
564
565where $MAKE is whatever 'make' program you have configured perl to
566use. Use "perl -V:make" to find out what this is. Some extensions
567may not provide a testsuite (so "$MAKE test" may not do anything or
568fail), but most serious ones do.
569
570It is important that you use a supported 'make' program, and
571ensure Config.pm knows about it. If you don't have nmake, you can
572either get dmake from the location mentioned earlier or get an
573old version of nmake reportedly available from:
574
cb9857f1 575 http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe
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576
577Another option is to use the make written in Perl, available from
578CPAN.
579
580 http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Make/
581
582You may also use dmake. See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
583
584Note that MakeMaker actually emits makefiles with different syntax
585depending on what 'make' it thinks you are using. Therefore, it is
586important that one of the following values appears in Config.pm:
587
588 make='nmake' # MakeMaker emits nmake syntax
589 make='dmake' # MakeMaker emits dmake syntax
590 any other value # MakeMaker emits generic make syntax
591 (e.g GNU make, or Perl make)
592
593If the value doesn't match the 'make' program you want to use,
594edit Config.pm to fix it.
595
596If a module implements XSUBs, you will need one of the supported
597C compilers. You must make sure you have set up the environment for
598the compiler for command-line compilation.
599
600If a module does not build for some reason, look carefully for
601why it failed, and report problems to the module author. If
602it looks like the extension building support is at fault, report
603that with full details of how the build failed using the perlbug
604utility.
605
606=item Command-line Wildcard Expansion
607
608The default command shells on DOS descendant operating systems (such
609as they are) usually do not expand wildcard arguments supplied to
610programs. They consider it the application's job to handle that.
611This is commonly achieved by linking the application (in our case,
612perl) with startup code that the C runtime libraries usually provide.
613However, doing that results in incompatible perl versions (since the
614behavior of the argv expansion code differs depending on the
615compiler, and it is even buggy on some compilers). Besides, it may
616be a source of frustration if you use such a perl binary with an
617alternate shell that *does* expand wildcards.
618
619Instead, the following solution works rather well. The nice things
620about it are 1) you can start using it right away; 2) it is more
621powerful, because it will do the right thing with a pattern like
622*/*/*.c; 3) you can decide whether you do/don't want to use it; and
6234) you can extend the method to add any customizations (or even
624entirely different kinds of wildcard expansion).
625
626 C:\> copy con c:\perl\lib\Wild.pm
627 # Wild.pm - emulate shell @ARGV expansion on shells that don't
628 use File::DosGlob;
629 @ARGV = map {
630 my @g = File::DosGlob::glob($_) if /[*?]/;
631 @g ? @g : $_;
632 } @ARGV;
633 1;
634 ^Z
635 C:\> set PERL5OPT=-MWild
636 C:\> perl -le "for (@ARGV) { print }" */*/perl*.c
637 p4view/perl/perl.c
638 p4view/perl/perlio.c
639 p4view/perl/perly.c
640 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
641 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
642 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
643 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
644 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
645 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
646
647Note there are two distinct steps there: 1) You'll have to create
648Wild.pm and put it in your perl lib directory. 2) You'll need to
649set the PERL5OPT environment variable. If you want argv expansion
650to be the default, just set PERL5OPT in your default startup
651environment.
652
653If you are using the Visual C compiler, you can get the C runtime's
654command line wildcard expansion built into perl binary. The resulting
655binary will always expand unquoted command lines, which may not be
656what you want if you use a shell that does that for you. The expansion
657done is also somewhat less powerful than the approach suggested above.
658
659=item Win32 Specific Extensions
660
661A number of extensions specific to the Win32 platform are available
662from CPAN. You may find that many of these extensions are meant to
663be used under the Activeware port of Perl, which used to be the only
664native port for the Win32 platform. Since the Activeware port does not
665have adequate support for Perl's extension building tools, these
666extensions typically do not support those tools either and, therefore,
667cannot be built using the generic steps shown in the previous section.
668
669To ensure smooth transitioning of existing code that uses the
670ActiveState port, there is a bundle of Win32 extensions that contains
00808b83 671all of the ActiveState extensions and several other Win32 extensions from
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672CPAN in source form, along with many added bugfixes, and with MakeMaker
673support. This bundle is available at:
674
00808b83 675 http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Win32/libwin32-0.191.zip
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676
677See the README in that distribution for building and installation
678instructions. Look for later versions that may be available at the
679same location.
680
681=item Notes on 64-bit Windows
682
683Windows .NET Server supports the LLP64 data model on the Intel Itanium
684architecture.
685
686The LLP64 data model is different from the LP64 data model that is the
687norm on 64-bit Unix platforms. In the former, C<int> and C<long> are
688both 32-bit data types, while pointers are 64 bits wide. In addition,
689there is a separate 64-bit wide integral type, C<__int64>. In contrast,
690the LP64 data model that is pervasive on Unix platforms provides C<int>
691as the 32-bit type, while both the C<long> type and pointers are of
69264-bit precision. Note that both models provide for 64-bits of
693addressability.
694
69564-bit Windows running on Itanium is capable of running 32-bit x86
696binaries transparently. This means that you could use a 32-bit build
697of Perl on a 64-bit system. Given this, why would one want to build
698a 64-bit build of Perl? Here are some reasons why you would bother:
699
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700=over
701
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702=item *
703
704A 64-bit native application will run much more efficiently on
705Itanium hardware.
706
707=item *
708
709There is no 2GB limit on process size.
710
711=item *
712
713Perl automatically provides large file support when built under
71464-bit Windows.
715
716=item *
717
718Embedding Perl inside a 64-bit application.
719
720=back
721
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722=back
723
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724=head2 Running Perl Scripts
725
726Perl scripts on UNIX use the "#!" (a.k.a "shebang") line to
727indicate to the OS that it should execute the file using perl.
728Win32 has no comparable means to indicate arbitrary files are
729executables.
730
731Instead, all available methods to execute plain text files on
732Win32 rely on the file "extension". There are three methods
733to use this to execute perl scripts:
734
735=over 8
736
737=item 1
738
739There is a facility called "file extension associations" that will
740work in Windows NT 4.0. This can be manipulated via the two
741commands "assoc" and "ftype" that come standard with Windows NT
7424.0. Type "ftype /?" for a complete example of how to set this
743up for perl scripts (Say what? You thought Windows NT wasn't
744perl-ready? :).
745
746=item 2
747
748Since file associations don't work everywhere, and there are
749reportedly bugs with file associations where it does work, the
750old method of wrapping the perl script to make it look like a
751regular batch file to the OS, may be used. The install process
752makes available the "pl2bat.bat" script which can be used to wrap
753perl scripts into batch files. For example:
754
755 pl2bat foo.pl
756
757will create the file "FOO.BAT". Note "pl2bat" strips any
758.pl suffix and adds a .bat suffix to the generated file.
759
760If you use the 4DOS/NT or similar command shell, note that
761"pl2bat" uses the "%*" variable in the generated batch file to
762refer to all the command line arguments, so you may need to make
763sure that construct works in batch files. As of this writing,
7644DOS/NT users will need a "ParameterChar = *" statement in their
7654NT.INI file or will need to execute "setdos /p*" in the 4DOS/NT
766startup file to enable this to work.
767
768=item 3
769
770Using "pl2bat" has a few problems: the file name gets changed,
771so scripts that rely on C<$0> to find what they must do may not
772run properly; running "pl2bat" replicates the contents of the
773original script, and so this process can be maintenance intensive
774if the originals get updated often. A different approach that
775avoids both problems is possible.
776
777A script called "runperl.bat" is available that can be copied
778to any filename (along with the .bat suffix). For example,
779if you call it "foo.bat", it will run the file "foo" when it is
780executed. Since you can run batch files on Win32 platforms simply
781by typing the name (without the extension), this effectively
782runs the file "foo", when you type either "foo" or "foo.bat".
783With this method, "foo.bat" can even be in a different location
784than the file "foo", as long as "foo" is available somewhere on
785the PATH. If your scripts are on a filesystem that allows symbolic
786links, you can even avoid copying "runperl.bat".
787
788Here's a diversion: copy "runperl.bat" to "runperl", and type
789"runperl". Explain the observed behavior, or lack thereof. :)
790Hint: .gnidnats llits er'uoy fi ,"lrepnur" eteled :tniH
791
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792=back
793
794=head2 Miscellaneous Things
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795
796A full set of HTML documentation is installed, so you should be
797able to use it if you have a web browser installed on your
798system.
799
800C<perldoc> is also a useful tool for browsing information contained
801in the documentation, especially in conjunction with a pager
802like C<less> (recent versions of which have Win32 support). You may
803have to set the PAGER environment variable to use a specific pager.
804"perldoc -f foo" will print information about the perl operator
805"foo".
806
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807One common mistake when using this port with a GUI library like C<Tk>
808is assuming that Perl's normal behavior of opening a command-line
809window will go away. This isn't the case. If you want to start a copy
810of C<perl> without opening a command-line window, use the C<wperl>
811executable built during the installation process. Usage is exactly
812the same as normal C<perl> on Win32, except that options like C<-h>
813don't work (since they need a command-line window to print to).
814
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815If you find bugs in perl, you can run C<perlbug> to create a
816bug report (you may have to send it manually if C<perlbug> cannot
817find a mailer on your system).
818
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819=head1 BUGS AND CAVEATS
820
821Norton AntiVirus interferes with the build process, particularly if
822set to "AutoProtect, All Files, when Opened". Unlike large applications
823the perl build process opens and modifies a lot of files. Having the
824the AntiVirus scan each and every one slows build the process significantly.
825Worse, with PERLIO=stdio the build process fails with peculiar messages
826as the virus checker interacts badly with miniperl.exe writing configure
827files (it seems to either catch file part written and treat it as suspicious,
828or virus checker may have it "locked" in a way which inhibits miniperl
829updating it). The build does complete with
830
831 set PERLIO=perlio
832
833but that may be just luck. Other AntiVirus software may have similar issues.
834
835Some of the built-in functions do not act exactly as documented in
836L<perlfunc>, and a few are not implemented at all. To avoid
837surprises, particularly if you have had prior exposure to Perl
838in other operating environments or if you intend to write code
00808b83 839that will be portable to other environments, see L<perlport>
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840for a reasonably definitive list of these differences.
841
842Not all extensions available from CPAN may build or work properly
843in the Win32 environment. See L</"Building Extensions">.
844
845Most C<socket()> related calls are supported, but they may not
846behave as on Unix platforms. See L<perlport> for the full list.
036c1c1e
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847Perl requires Winsock2 to be installed on the system. If you're
848running Win95, you can download Winsock upgrade from here:
849
850http://www.microsoft.com/windows95/downloads/contents/WUAdminTools/S_WUNetworkingTools/W95Sockets2/Default.asp
851
852Later OS versions already include Winsock2 support.
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853
854Signal handling may not behave as on Unix platforms (where it
855doesn't exactly "behave", either :). For instance, calling C<die()>
856or C<exit()> from signal handlers will cause an exception, since most
857implementations of C<signal()> on Win32 are severely crippled.
858Thus, signals may work only for simple things like setting a flag
859variable in the handler. Using signals under this port should
860currently be considered unsupported.
861
862Please send detailed descriptions of any problems and solutions that
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863you may find to E<lt>F<perlbug@perl.org>E<gt>, along with the output
864produced by C<perl -V>.
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866=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
867
868The use of a camel with the topic of Perl is a trademark
869of O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. Used with permission.
870
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871=head1 AUTHORS
872
873=over 4
874
875=item Gary Ng E<lt>71564.1743@CompuServe.COME<gt>
876
877=item Gurusamy Sarathy E<lt>gsar@activestate.comE<gt>
878
879=item Nick Ing-Simmons E<lt>nick@ing-simmons.netE<gt>
880
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881=item Jan Dubois E<lt>jand@activestate.comE<gt>
882
883=item Steve Hay E<lt>steve.hay@uk.radan.comE<gt>
884
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885=back
886
2bfd3252 887This document is maintained by Jan Dubois.
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888
889=head1 SEE ALSO
890
891L<perl>
892
893=head1 HISTORY
894
895This port was originally contributed by Gary Ng around 5.003_24,
896and borrowed from the Hip Communications port that was available
897at the time. Various people have made numerous and sundry hacks
898since then.
899
900Borland support was added in 5.004_01 (Gurusamy Sarathy).
901
902GCC/mingw32 support was added in 5.005 (Nick Ing-Simmons).
903
904Support for PERL_OBJECT was added in 5.005 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
905
906Support for fork() emulation was added in 5.6 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
907
908Win9x support was added in 5.6 (Benjamin Stuhl).
909
910Support for 64-bit Windows added in 5.8 (ActiveState Corp).
911
2bfd3252 912Last updated: 15 February 2005
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914=cut