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9133bbab 1This document is written in pod format hence there are punctuation
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2characters in odd places. Do not worry, you've apparently got the
3ASCII->EBCDIC translation worked out correctly. You can read more
4about pod in pod/perlpod.pod or the short summary in the INSTALL file.
9d116dd7 5
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6=head1 NAME
7
de2902a6 8perlos390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS
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9
10=head1 SYNOPSIS
11
12This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl
37a78d01 13on OS/390 (aka z/OS) Unix System Services.
8fde188e 14
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15B<This document needs to be updated, but we don't know what it should say.
16Please email comments to L<perlbug@perl.org|mailto:perlbug@perl.org>.>
17
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18=head1 DESCRIPTION
19
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20This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release 3, 5, 6, 7,
218, and 9. It may work on other versions or releases, but those are
eae55d03 22the ones we've tested it on.
8fde188e 23
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24You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks before
25running the Configure script for Perl.
8fde188e 26
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27
28=head2 Tools
29
30The z/OS Unix Tools and Toys list may prove helpful and contains links
f110302f 31to ports of much of the software helpful for building Perl.
08d7a6b2 32http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html
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33
34
a83b6f46 35=head2 Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
9d116dd7 36
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37If using ftp remember to transfer the distribution in binary format.
38
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39Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:
40
08d7a6b2 41 http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html
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42
43to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:
44
45 pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar
46
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47or
48
49 zcat latest.tar.Z | pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r
50
0e7519cd 51If you get lots of errors of the form
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52
53 tar: FSUM7171 ...: cannot set uid/gid: EDC5139I Operation not permitted.
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55you didn't read the above and tried to use tar instead of pax, you'll
56first have to remove the (now corrupt) perl directory
57
58 rm -rf perl-...
59
60and then use pax.
bbee22da 61
a83b6f46 62=head2 Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
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63
64Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including any necessary
65parser template files. If you have not already done so then be sure to:
66
67 cp /samples/yyparse.c /etc
68
9133bbab 69This may also be a good time to ensure that your /etc/protocol file
8fde188e 70and either your /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/hosts files are in place.
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71The IBM document that described such USS system setup issues was
72SC28-1890-07 "OS/390 UNIX System Services Planning", in particular
73Chapter 6 on customizing the OE shell.
8fde188e 74
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75GNU make for OS/390, which is recommended for the build of perl (as
76well as building CPAN modules and extensions), is available from the
77L</Tools>.
9d116dd7 78
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79Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!" errors while
80trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries. If you encounter such
81trouble then try to download the source code kit and build GNU make
82from source to eliminate any such trouble. You might also find GNU make
83(as well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open Source Software
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84for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.
85
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86If instead of the recommended GNU make you would like to use the system
87supplied make program then be sure to install the default rules file
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88properly via the shell command:
89
90 cp /samples/startup.mk /etc
91
92and be sure to also set the environment variable _C89_CCMODE=1 (exporting
93_C89_CCMODE=1 is also a good idea for users of GNU make).
94
f2766b05 95You might also want to have GNU groff for OS/390 installed before
b432a672 96running the "make install" step for Perl.
f2766b05 97
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98There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h header file
99that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and possibly V2R9. The problem with
100the header file is that near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT constant
101there is a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment like so:
102
103 #define SO_REUSEPORT 0x0200 /* allow local address & port
104 reuse */ /
105
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106You could edit that header yourself to remove that last '/', or you might
107note that Language Environment (LE) APAR PQ39997 describes the problem
eae55d03 108and PTF's UQ46272 and UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and apply them.
9133bbab 109If left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an inability for Perl
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110to build its "Socket" extension.
111
9133bbab 112For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky bit for your
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113world readable /tmp directory if you have not already done so (see man chmod).
114
a83b6f46 115=head2 Configure Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 116
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117Once you've unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure" (see INSTALL
118for a full discussion of the Configure options). There is a "hints" file
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119for os390 that specifies the correct values for most things. Some things
120to watch out for include:
121
122=over 4
123
124=item *
125
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126A message of the form:
127
128 (I see you are using the Korn shell. Some ksh's blow up on Configure,
129 mainly on older exotic systems. If yours does, try the Bourne shell instead.)
130
131is nothing to worry about at all.
132
133=item *
134
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135Some of the parser default template files in /samples are needed in /etc.
136In particular be sure that you at least copy /samples/yyparse.c to /etc
eae55d03 137before running Perl's Configure. This step ensures successful extraction
c67aee7a 138of EBCDIC versions of parser files such as perly.c and perly.h.
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139This has to be done before running Configure the first time. If you failed
140to do so then the easiest way to re-Configure Perl is to delete your
141misconfigured build root and re-extract the source from the tar ball.
142Then you must ensure that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in place before
59c9e5d6 143attempting to re-run Configure.
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144
145=item *
146
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147This port will support dynamic loading, but it is not selected by
148default. If you would like to experiment with dynamic loading then
149be sure to specify -Dusedl in the arguments to the Configure script.
150See the comments in hints/os390.sh for more information on dynamic loading.
151If you build with dynamic loading then you will need to add the
152$archlibexp/CORE directory to your LIBPATH environment variable in order
153for perl to work. See the config.sh file for the value of $archlibexp.
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154If in trying to use Perl you see an error message similar to:
155
156 CEE3501S The module libperl.dll was not found.
157 From entry point __dllstaticinit at compile unit offset +00000194 at
158
9133bbab 159then your LIBPATH does not have the location of libperl.x and either
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160libperl.dll or libperl.so in it. Add that directory to your LIBPATH and
161proceed.
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162
163=item *
9d116dd7 164
eae55d03 165Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O". There is
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166a bug in either the optimizer or perl that causes perl to
167not work correctly when the optimizer is on.
9d116dd7 168
8fde188e 169=item *
9d116dd7 170
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171Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the
172networking APIs are either missing or have the wrong
173names. In particular, make sure that there's either
eae55d03 174an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that
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175gethostbyname() works, and make sure that the file
176/etc/proto has been renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT
177/etc/protocols, as used by other Unix systems).
59c9e5d6 178You may have to look for things like HOSTNAME and DOMAINORIGIN
9133bbab 179in the "//'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'" PDS member in order to
59c9e5d6 180properly set up your /etc networking files.
9d116dd7 181
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182=back
183
a83b6f46 184=head2 Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
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185
186Simply put:
187
188 sh Configure
189 make
190 make test
191
eae55d03 192if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP diagnosis) then:
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193
194 make install
195
196this last step may or may not require UID=0 privileges depending
197on how you answered the questions that Configure asked and whether
198or not you have write access to the directories you specified.
199
a83b6f46 200=head2 Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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201
202"Out of memory!" messages during the build of Perl are most often fixed
203by re building the GNU make utility for OS/390 from a source code kit.
204
205Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE parameter in your
206'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note too that as of V2R8 address space
9133bbab 207limits can be set on a per user ID basis in the USS segment of a RACF
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208profile). People have reported successful builds of Perl with MAXASSIZE
209parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be possible to build Perl
210with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).
211
9133bbab 212Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit your ulimit
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213settings. Check that the following command returns reasonable values:
214
215 ulimit -a
216
217To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules loaded into the
218Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a link list or step lib.
219
220If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the build of the
221Socket extension then be sure to fix the syntax error in the system
222header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.
223
a83b6f46 224=head2 Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
eae55d03 225
b432a672 226The "make test" step runs a Perl Verification Procedure, usually before
eae55d03 227installation. You might encounter STDERR messages even during a successful
b432a672 228run of "make test". Here is a guide to some of the more commonly seen
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229anomalies:
230
231=over 4
232
233=item *
234
235A message of the form:
236
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237 io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
238 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
239 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
240 ok
241
242indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has passed but done so
243with extraneous messages on stderr from CEE.
244
245=item *
246
247A message of the form:
248
249 lib/ftmp-security....File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe
250 (sticky bit not set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
251 File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe (sticky bit not
252 set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
253 ok
254
255indicates a problem with the permissions on your /tmp directory within the HFS.
256To correct that problem issue the command:
257
258 chmod a+t /tmp
259
260from an account with write access to the directory entry for /tmp.
261
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262=item *
263
264Out of Memory!
265
f858446f 266Recent perl test suite is quite memory hungry. In addition to the comments
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267above on memory limitations it is also worth checking for _CEE_RUNOPTS
268in your environment. Perl now has (in miniperlmain.c) a C #pragma
210b36aa 269to set CEE run options, but the environment variable wins.
9133bbab 270
210b36aa 271The C code asks for:
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272
273 #pragma runopts(HEAP(2M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K) STACK(,,ANY,) ALL31(ON))
274
275The important parts of that are the second argument (the increment) to HEAP,
276and allowing the stack to be "Above the (16M) line". If the heap
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277increment is too small then when perl (for example loading unicode/Name.pl) tries
278to create a "big" (400K+) string it cannot fit in a single segment
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279and you get "Out of Memory!" - even if there is still plenty of memory
280available.
281
282A related issue is use with perl's malloc. Perl's malloc uses C<sbrk()>
283to get memory, and C<sbrk()> is limited to the first allocation so in this
284case something like:
285
286 HEAP(8M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K)
287
288is needed to get through the test suite.
289
290
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291=back
292
a83b6f46 293=head2 Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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294
295The installman script will try to run on OS/390. There will be fewer errors
9133bbab 296if you have a roff utility installed. You can obtain GNU groff from the
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297Redbook SG24-5944-00 ftp site.
298
a83b6f46 299=head2 Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
64d55c8a 300
9d116dd7 301When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the EBCDIC and ASCII
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302character sets are different. See perlebcdic.pod for more on such character
303set issues. Perl builtin functions that may behave differently under
eae55d03 304EBCDIC are also mentioned in the perlport.pod document.
9d116dd7 305
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306Open Edition (UNIX System Services) from V2R8 onward does support
307#!/path/to/perl script invocation. There is a PTF available from
eae55d03 308IBM for V2R7 that will allow shell/kernel support for #!. USS
9133bbab 309releases prior to V2R7 did not support the #! means of script invocation.
eae55d03 310If you are running V2R6 or earlier then see:
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311
312 head `whence perldoc`
313
314for an example of how to use the "eval exec" trick to ask the shell to
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315have Perl run your scripts on those older releases of Unix System Services.
316
59c9e5d6 317If you are having trouble with square brackets then consider switching your
9133bbab 318rlogin or telnet client. Try to avoid older 3270 emulators and ISHELL for
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319working with Perl on USS.
320
a83b6f46 321=head2 Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
35a77668 322
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323There appears to be a bug in the floating point implementation on S/390
324systems such that calling int() on the product of a number and a small
325magnitude number is not the same as calling int() on the quotient of
326that number and a large magnitude number. For example, in the following
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327Perl code:
328
329 my $x = 100000.0;
330 my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
331 my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5; # '100000'
332 print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000
333
9133bbab 334Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be the same and equal
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335to 100000 they will differ and instead will be 0 and 100000 respectively.
336
337The problem can be further examined in a roughly equivalent C program:
338
339 #include <stdio.h>
340 #include <math.h>
341 main()
342 {
343 double r1,r2;
344 double x = 100000.0;
345 double y = 0.0;
346 double z = 0.0;
347 x = 100000.0 * 1e-5;
348 r1 = modf (x,&y);
349 x = 100000.0 / 1e+5;
350 r2 = modf (x,&z);
351 printf("y is %e and z is %e\n",y*1e5,z*1e5);
352 /* y is 0.000000e+00 and z is 1.000000e+05 (with c89) */
353 }
354
a83b6f46 355=head2 Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
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356
357Pure pure (that is non xs) modules may be installed via the usual:
358
359 perl Makefile.PL
360 make
361 make test
362 make install
363
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364If you built perl with dynamic loading capability then that would also
365be the way to build xs based extensions. However, if you built perl with
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366the default static linking you can still build xs based extensions for OS/390
367but you will need to follow the instructions in ExtUtils::MakeMaker for
368building statically linked perl binaries. In the simplest configurations
59c9e5d6 369building a static perl + xs extension boils down to:
9d116dd7 370
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371 perl Makefile.PL
372 make
373 make perl
374 make test
375 make install
376 make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl
8fde188e 377
9133bbab 378In most cases people have reported better results with GNU make rather
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379than the system's /bin/make program, whether for plain modules or for
380xs based extensions.
8fde188e 381
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382If the make process encounters trouble with either compilation or
383linking then try setting the _C89_CCMODE to 1. Assuming sh is your
384login shell then run:
385
386 export _C89_CCMODE=1
387
388If tcsh is your login shell then use the setenv command.
389
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390=head1 AUTHORS
391
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392David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis Longnecker
393and William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR and PTF feedback.
394Thanks to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwedow for SG24-5944-00.
35a77668 395Thanks to Ignasi Roca for pointing out the floating point problems.
f2766b05 396Thanks to John Goodyear for dynamic loading help.
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397
398=head1 SEE ALSO
399
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400L<INSTALL>, L<perlport>, L<perlebcdic>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.
401
08d7a6b2 402 http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html
eae55d03 403
08d7a6b2 404 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/SG245944.html
eae55d03 405
08d7a6b2 406 http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc
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407
408 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
8fde188e 409
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410 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/ceea3030/
411
412 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/CBCUG030/
413
a83b6f46 414=head2 Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 415
043fec90 416If you are interested in the z/OS (formerly known as OS/390)
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417and POSIX-BC (BS2000) ports of Perl then see the perl-mvs mailing list.
418To subscribe, send an empty message to perl-mvs-subscribe@perl.org.
9d116dd7 419
3f66d419 420See also:
35a77668 421
7d0fb9b8 422 http://lists.perl.org/list/perl-mvs.html
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423
424There are web archives of the mailing list at:
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425
426 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
35a77668 427 http://archive.develooper.com/perl-mvs@perl.org/
9d116dd7 428
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429=head1 HISTORY
430
431This document was originally written by David Fiander for the 5.005
432release of Perl.
433
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434This document was podified for the 5.005_03 release of Perl 11 March 1999.
435
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436Updated 28 November 2001 for broken URLs.
437
eae55d03 438Updated 12 November 2000 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
8fde188e 439
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440Updated 15 January 2001 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
441
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442Updated 24 January 2001 to mention dynamic loading.
443
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444Updated 12 March 2001 to mention //'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'.
445
8fde188e 446=cut
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