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Simplify win32/makefile.mk for static extensions with GCC
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
c630fe62 7B<perl> S<[ B<-sTtuUWX> ]> S<[ B<-hv> ] [ B<-V>[:I<configvar>] ]>
19799a22 8 S<[ B<-cw> ] [ B<-d>[:I<debugger>] ] [ B<-D>[I<number/list>] ]>
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9 S<[ B<-pna> ] [ B<-F>I<pattern> ]>
10 S<[ B<-l>[I<octal>] ] [ B<-0>[I<octal/hexadecimal>] ]>
19799a22 11 S<[ B<-I>I<dir> ] [ B<-m>[B<->]I<module> ] [ B<-M>[B<->]I<'module...'> ]>
c630fe62 12 S<[ B<-A [I<assertions>] >]> S<[ B<-C [I<number/list>] >]>
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13 S<[ B<-P> ]> S<[ B<-S> ]> S<[ B<-x>[I<dir>] ]>
14 S<[ B<-i>[I<extension>] ]> S<[ B<-e> I<'command'> ]
15 [ B<--> ] [ I<programfile> ] [ I<argument> ]...>
c07a80fd 16
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17If you're new to Perl, you should start with L<perlintro>, which is a
18general intro for beginners and provides some background to help you
19navigate the rest of Perl's extensive documentation.
20
21For ease of access, the Perl manual has been split up into several sections.
a0d0e21e 22
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23=head2 Overview
24
fb9cefb4 25 perl Perl overview (this section)
10151d09 26 perlintro Perl introduction for beginners
fb9cefb4 27 perltoc Perl documentation table of contents
760ac839 28
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29=head2 Tutorials
30
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31 perlreftut Perl references short introduction
32 perldsc Perl data structures intro
33 perllol Perl data structures: arrays of arrays
7a2320f0 34
41630250 35 perlrequick Perl regular expressions quick start
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36 perlretut Perl regular expressions tutorial
37
38 perlboot Perl OO tutorial for beginners
39 perltoot Perl OO tutorial, part 1
40 perltooc Perl OO tutorial, part 2
41 perlbot Perl OO tricks and examples
42
43 perlstyle Perl style guide
44
41630250 45 perlcheat Perl cheat sheet
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46 perltrap Perl traps for the unwary
47 perldebtut Perl debugging tutorial
48
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49 perlfaq Perl frequently asked questions
50 perlfaq1 General Questions About Perl
51 perlfaq2 Obtaining and Learning about Perl
52 perlfaq3 Programming Tools
53 perlfaq4 Data Manipulation
54 perlfaq5 Files and Formats
55 perlfaq6 Regexes
56 perlfaq7 Perl Language Issues
57 perlfaq8 System Interaction
58 perlfaq9 Networking
0f542199 59
fd7b6849 60=head2 Reference Manual
413510b3 61
fb9cefb4 62 perlsyn Perl syntax
4755096e 63 perldata Perl data structures
fb9cefb4 64 perlop Perl operators and precedence
c2e66d9e 65 perlsub Perl subroutines
fd7b6849 66 perlfunc Perl built-in functions
413510b3 67 perlopentut Perl open() tutorial
41630250 68 perlpacktut Perl pack() and unpack() tutorial
c2e66d9e 69 perlpod Perl plain old documentation
41630250 70 perlpodspec Perl plain old documentation format specification
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71 perlrun Perl execution and options
72 perldiag Perl diagnostic messages
41630250 73 perllexwarn Perl warnings and their control
4755096e 74 perldebug Perl debugging
fb9cefb4 75 perlvar Perl predefined variables
4755096e 76 perlre Perl regular expressions, the rest of the story
30487ceb 77 perlreref Perl regular expressions quick reference
d396a558 78 perlref Perl references, the rest of the story
fb9cefb4 79 perlform Perl formats
d396a558 80 perlobj Perl objects
d396a558 81 perltie Perl objects hidden behind simple variables
fd7b6849 82 perldbmfilter Perl DBM filters
760ac839 83
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84 perlipc Perl interprocess communication
85 perlfork Perl fork() information
86 perlnumber Perl number semantics
53d7eaa8 87
c2e66d9e 88 perlthrtut Perl threads tutorial
41630250 89 perlothrtut Old Perl threads tutorial
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90
91 perlport Perl portability guide
d396a558 92 perllocale Perl locale support
07fcf8ff 93 perluniintro Perl Unicode introduction
41630250 94 perlunicode Perl Unicode support
d396a558 95 perlebcdic Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
c2e66d9e 96
d396a558 97 perlsec Perl security
4755096e 98
c2e66d9e 99 perlmod Perl modules: how they work
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100 perlmodlib Perl modules: how to write and use
101 perlmodstyle Perl modules: how to write modules with style
fd7b6849 102 perlmodinstall Perl modules: how to install from CPAN
c2e66d9e 103 perlnewmod Perl modules: preparing a new module for distribution
760ac839 104
fd7b6849 105 perlutil utilities packaged with the Perl distribution
760ac839 106
41630250 107 perlcompile Perl compiler suite intro
760ac839 108
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109 perlfilter Perl source filters
110
111=head2 Internals and C Language Interface
112
fb9cefb4 113 perlembed Perl ways to embed perl in your C or C++ application
41630250 114 perldebguts Perl debugging guts and tips
fb9cefb4 115 perlxstut Perl XS tutorial
4755096e 116 perlxs Perl XS application programming interface
f40a6c71 117 perlclib Internal replacements for standard C library functions
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118 perlguts Perl internal functions for those doing extensions
119 perlcall Perl calling conventions from C
fd7b6849 120
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121 perlapi Perl API listing (autogenerated)
122 perlintern Perl internal functions (autogenerated)
dc5c060f 123 perliol C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers
4755096e 124 perlapio Perl internal IO abstraction interface
fd7b6849 125
e8cd7eae 126 perlhack Perl hackers guide
4755096e 127
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128=head2 Miscellaneous
129
130 perlbook Perl book information
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131 perltodo Perl things to do
132
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133 perldoc Look up Perl documentation in Pod format
134
fb9cefb4 135 perlhist Perl history records
4755096e 136 perldelta Perl changes since previous version
496c75d0 137 perl592delta Perl changes in version 5.9.2
e0eb806d 138 perl591delta Perl changes in version 5.9.1
1400179b 139 perl590delta Perl changes in version 5.9.0
315ba985 140 perl587delta Perl changes in version 5.8.7
e4bb216d 141 perl586delta Perl changes in version 5.8.6
07e9b5fe 142 perl585delta Perl changes in version 5.8.5
5f15c94e 143 perl584delta Perl changes in version 5.8.4
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144 perl583delta Perl changes in version 5.8.3
145 perl582delta Perl changes in version 5.8.2
b6235c4f 146 perl581delta Perl changes in version 5.8.1
2e038148 147 perl58delta Perl changes in version 5.8.0
77b096b5 148 perl573delta Perl changes in version 5.7.3
245d750e 149 perl572delta Perl changes in version 5.7.2
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150 perl571delta Perl changes in version 5.7.1
151 perl570delta Perl changes in version 5.7.0
493a87da 152 perl561delta Perl changes in version 5.6.1
41630250 153 perl56delta Perl changes in version 5.6
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154 perl5005delta Perl changes in version 5.005
155 perl5004delta Perl changes in version 5.004
d516a115 156
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157 perlartistic Perl Artistic License
158 perlgpl GNU General Public License
159
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160=head2 Language-Specific
161
162 perlcn Perl for Simplified Chinese (in EUC-CN)
163 perljp Perl for Japanese (in EUC-JP)
164 perlko Perl for Korean (in EUC-KR)
165 perltw Perl for Traditional Chinese (in Big5)
166
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167=head2 Platform-Specific
168
37d4d706 169 perlaix Perl notes for AIX
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170 perlamiga Perl notes for AmigaOS
171 perlapollo Perl notes for Apollo DomainOS
172 perlbeos Perl notes for BeOS
dc5c060f 173 perlbs2000 Perl notes for POSIX-BC BS2000
a1f19229 174 perlce Perl notes for WinCE
49877630 175 perlcygwin Perl notes for Cygwin
245d750e 176 perldgux Perl notes for DG/UX
49877630 177 perldos Perl notes for DOS
9a997319 178 perlepoc Perl notes for EPOC
41630250 179 perlfreebsd Perl notes for FreeBSD
49877630 180 perlhpux Perl notes for HP-UX
a83b6f46 181 perlhurd Perl notes for Hurd
469e7be4 182 perlirix Perl notes for Irix
41630250 183 perlmachten Perl notes for Power MachTen
26d9b02f 184 perlmacos Perl notes for Mac OS (Classic)
0d53b15f 185 perlmacosx Perl notes for Mac OS X
a83b6f46 186 perlmint Perl notes for MiNT
ab648d5e 187 perlmpeix Perl notes for MPE/iX
41630250 188 perlnetware Perl notes for NetWare
b0846812 189 perlopenbsd Perl notes for OpenBSD
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190 perlos2 Perl notes for OS/2
191 perlos390 Perl notes for OS/390
522b859a 192 perlos400 Perl notes for OS/400
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193 perlplan9 Perl notes for Plan 9
194 perlqnx Perl notes for QNX
d420ca49 195 perlsolaris Perl notes for Solaris
27da23d5 196 perlsymbian Perl notes for Symbian
772ff3b9 197 perltru64 Perl notes for Tru64
41630250 198 perluts Perl notes for UTS
cbe1151c 199 perlvmesa Perl notes for VM/ESA
49877630 200 perlvms Perl notes for VMS
9a997319 201 perlvos Perl notes for Stratus VOS
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202 perlwin32 Perl notes for Windows
203
a0d0e21e 204
19799a22 205By default, the manpages listed above are installed in the
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206F</usr/local/man/> directory.
207
208Extensive additional documentation for Perl modules is available. The
209default configuration for perl will place this additional documentation
210in the F</usr/local/lib/perl5/man> directory (or else in the F<man>
211subdirectory of the Perl library directory). Some of this additional
212documentation is distributed standard with Perl, but you'll also find
213documentation for third-party modules there.
214
215You should be able to view Perl's documentation with your man(1)
216program by including the proper directories in the appropriate start-up
217files, or in the MANPATH environment variable. To find out where the
218configuration has installed the manpages, type:
16d20bd9 219
760ac839 220 perl -V:man.dir
16d20bd9 221
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222If the directories have a common stem, such as F</usr/local/man/man1>
223and F</usr/local/man/man3>, you need only to add that stem
224(F</usr/local/man>) to your man(1) configuration files or your MANPATH
225environment variable. If they do not share a stem, you'll have to add
226both stems.
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227
228If that doesn't work for some reason, you can still use the
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229supplied F<perldoc> script to view module information. You might
230also look into getting a replacement man program.
16d20bd9 231
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232If something strange has gone wrong with your program and you're not
233sure where you should look for help, try the B<-w> switch first. It
234will often point out exactly where the trouble is.
235
236=head1 DESCRIPTION
237
5f05dabc 238Perl is a language optimized for scanning arbitrary
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239text files, extracting information from those text files, and printing
240reports based on that information. It's also a good language for many
241system management tasks. The language is intended to be practical
242(easy to use, efficient, complete) rather than beautiful (tiny,
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243elegant, minimal).
244
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245Perl combines (in the author's opinion, anyway) some of the best
246features of C, B<sed>, B<awk>, and B<sh>, so people familiar with
247those languages should have little difficulty with it. (Language
248historians will also note some vestiges of B<csh>, Pascal, and even
14218588 249BASIC-PLUS.) Expression syntax corresponds closely to C
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250expression syntax. Unlike most Unix utilities, Perl does not
251arbitrarily limit the size of your data--if you've got the memory,
aa689395 252Perl can slurp in your whole file as a single string. Recursion is of
0f31cffe 253unlimited depth. And the tables used by hashes (sometimes called
aa689395 254"associative arrays") grow as necessary to prevent degraded
0f31cffe 255performance. Perl can use sophisticated pattern matching techniques to
14218588 256scan large amounts of data quickly. Although optimized for
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257scanning text, Perl can also deal with binary data, and can make dbm
258files look like hashes. Setuid Perl scripts are safer than C programs
14218588 259through a dataflow tracing mechanism that prevents many stupid
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260security holes.
261
262If you have a problem that would ordinarily use B<sed> or B<awk> or
263B<sh>, but it exceeds their capabilities or must run a little faster,
264and you don't want to write the silly thing in C, then Perl may be for
265you. There are also translators to turn your B<sed> and B<awk>
266scripts into Perl scripts.
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267
268But wait, there's more...
269
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270Begun in 1993 (see L<perlhist>), Perl version 5 is nearly a complete
271rewrite that provides the following additional benefits:
a0d0e21e 272
13a2d996 273=over 4
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275=item *
276
277modularity and reusability using innumerable modules
a0d0e21e 278
19799a22 279Described in L<perlmod>, L<perlmodlib>, and L<perlmodinstall>.
a0d0e21e 280
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281=item *
282
283embeddable and extensible
a0d0e21e 284
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285Described in L<perlembed>, L<perlxstut>, L<perlxs>, L<perlcall>,
286L<perlguts>, and L<xsubpp>.
a0d0e21e 287
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288=item *
289
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290roll-your-own magic variables (including multiple simultaneous DBM
291implementations)
a0d0e21e 292
19799a22 293Described in L<perltie> and L<AnyDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 294
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295=item *
296
297subroutines can now be overridden, autoloaded, and prototyped
a0d0e21e 298
19799a22 299Described in L<perlsub>.
a0d0e21e 300
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301=item *
302
303arbitrarily nested data structures and anonymous functions
a0d0e21e 304
19799a22 305Described in L<perlreftut>, L<perlref>, L<perldsc>, and L<perllol>.
a0d0e21e 306
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307=item *
308
309object-oriented programming
a0d0e21e 310
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311Described in L<perlobj>, L<perlboot>, L<perltoot>, L<perltooc>,
312and L<perlbot>.
a0d0e21e 313
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314=item *
315
551e1d92 316support for light-weight processes (threads)
a0d0e21e 317
63de3cb2 318Described in L<perlthrtut> and L<threads>.
a0d0e21e 319
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320=item *
321
63de3cb2 322support for Unicode, internationalization, and localization
a0d0e21e 323
63de3cb2 324Described in L<perluniintro>, L<perllocale> and L<Locale::Maketext>.
a0d0e21e 325
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326=item *
327
328lexical scoping
a0d0e21e 329
19799a22 330Described in L<perlsub>.
a0d0e21e 331
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332=item *
333
334regular expression enhancements
a0d0e21e 335
19799a22 336Described in L<perlre>, with additional examples in L<perlop>.
a0d0e21e 337
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338=item *
339
340enhanced debugger and interactive Perl environment,
341with integrated editor support
a0d0e21e 342
f6b3c421 343Described in L<perldebtut>, L<perldebug> and L<perldebguts>.
a0d0e21e 344
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345=item *
346
347POSIX 1003.1 compliant library
5f05dabc 348
19799a22 349Described in L<POSIX>.
5f05dabc 350
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351=back
352
68dc0745 353Okay, that's I<definitely> enough hype.
a0d0e21e 354
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355=head1 AVAILABILITY
356
14218588 357Perl is available for most operating systems, including virtually
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358all Unix-like platforms. See L<perlport/"Supported Platforms">
359for a listing.
8bc4a6bb 360
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361=head1 ENVIRONMENT
362
1e422769 363See L<perlrun>.
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364
365=head1 AUTHOR
366
19799a22 367Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>, with the help of oodles of other folks.
a0d0e21e 368
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369If your Perl success stories and testimonials may be of help to others
370who wish to advocate the use of Perl in their applications,
371or if you wish to simply express your gratitude to Larry and the
19799a22 372Perl developers, please write to perl-thanks@perl.org .
a99b1639 373
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374=head1 FILES
375
5f05dabc 376 "@INC" locations of perl libraries
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377
378=head1 SEE ALSO
379
380 a2p awk to perl translator
381 s2p sed to perl translator
382
c5f69108 383 http://www.perl.org/ the Perl homepage
da9e6348 384 http://www.perl.com/ Perl articles (O'Reilly)
f6b3c421 385 http://www.cpan.org/ the Comprehensive Perl Archive
c5f69108 386 http://www.pm.org/ the Perl Mongers
19799a22 387
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388=head1 DIAGNOSTICS
389
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390The C<use warnings> pragma (and the B<-w> switch) produces some
391lovely diagnostics.
a0d0e21e 392
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393See L<perldiag> for explanations of all Perl's diagnostics. The C<use
394diagnostics> pragma automatically turns Perl's normally terse warnings
395and errors into these longer forms.
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396
397Compilation errors will tell you the line number of the error, with an
398indication of the next token or token type that was to be examined.
14218588 399(In a script passed to Perl via B<-e> switches, each
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400B<-e> is counted as one line.)
401
402Setuid scripts have additional constraints that can produce error
403messages such as "Insecure dependency". See L<perlsec>.
404
405Did we mention that you should definitely consider using the B<-w>
406switch?
407
408=head1 BUGS
409
410The B<-w> switch is not mandatory.
411
412Perl is at the mercy of your machine's definitions of various
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413operations such as type casting, atof(), and floating-point
414output with sprintf().
a0d0e21e 415
748a9306 416If your stdio requires a seek or eof between reads and writes on a
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417particular stream, so does Perl. (This doesn't apply to sysread()
418and syswrite().)
419
420While none of the built-in data types have any arbitrary size limits
421(apart from memory size), there are still a few arbitrary limits: a
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422given variable name may not be longer than 251 characters. Line numbers
423displayed by diagnostics are internally stored as short integers,
424so they are limited to a maximum of 65535 (higher numbers usually being
425affected by wraparound).
a0d0e21e 426
b0607b7a 427You may mail your bug reports (be sure to include full configuration
19799a22 428information as output by the myconfig program in the perl source
7f2de2d2 429tree, or by C<perl -V>) to perlbug@perl.org . If you've succeeded
055fd3a9 430in compiling perl, the B<perlbug> script in the F<utils/> subdirectory
19799a22 431can be used to help mail in a bug report.
4633a7c4 432
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433Perl actually stands for Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister, but
434don't tell anyone I said that.
435
436=head1 NOTES
437
438The Perl motto is "There's more than one way to do it." Divining
439how many more is left as an exercise to the reader.
440
4633a7c4 441The three principal virtues of a programmer are Laziness,
a0d0e21e 442Impatience, and Hubris. See the Camel Book for why.
16d20bd9 443