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Add new error "Can't use keyword '%s' as a label"
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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MHM
59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
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94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
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100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
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106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
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115(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
116transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
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117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
118a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash -- and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
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125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
b0fdf69e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 135
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136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
137subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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138
139 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 140 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 141 &do_something
a0d0e21e 142
8ea97a1e 143=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 144
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145(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
146such as:
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147
148 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 149 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 150
8ea97a1e 151or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 152
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153 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
154 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 155
6df41af2 156=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 157
6df41af2 158(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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159name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
160error.
a0d0e21e 161
f86702cc 162=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 163
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164(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
165that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
166will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 167
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168=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
169
170(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
171forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
172data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
173the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
174If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
175the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
176
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177=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
178
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179(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
180spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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181
182=item assertion botched: %s
183
184(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
185
186=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
187
188(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
189
190=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
191
192(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
193must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
194know which context to supply to the right side.
195
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196=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
197
4447dfc1 198(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
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199thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
200Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
201created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
202thread. See L<threads>.
203
2393f1b9 204=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 205
49293501 206(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 207the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 208
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209=item Attempt to bless into a reference
210
211(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
212the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
213supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
214
215 bless $self, $proto;
216
217when you intended
218
219 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
220
221If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
222of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
223example by:
224
225 bless $self, "$proto";
226
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227=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
228
229(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
230which is not in its key set.
231
232=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
233
234(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
235declared readonly from a restricted hash.
236
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237=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
238
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239(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
240that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
241outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 242
54310121 243=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 244
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245(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
246strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
247strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
248of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 249
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250=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
251
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252(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
253free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
254SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
255free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
256try to free it.
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257
258=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
259
e476b1b5 260(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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261
262=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
263
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264(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
265see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
266earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
267This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
268that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
269mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
270corrupted.
a0d0e21e 271
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272=item Attempt to join self
273
274(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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275impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
276to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 277
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278=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
279
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280(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
281function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
282means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
283invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
284literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
285avoid this warning.
84902520 286
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287=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
288
289(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
290compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
291unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
292L<perlvar/%INC>.
293
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294=item Attempt to set length of freed array
295
296(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
297can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
298of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
299
300 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
301 $$r = 503
302
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303=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
304
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305(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
306used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
307dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 308
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309=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
310
311(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "locked"
312attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
313effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in the next major
314release of Perl 5.
315
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316=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
317
318(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 319attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
259976bd 320had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in the next major
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NC
321release of Perl 5.
322
fe13d51d 323=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
a0d0e21e 324
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325(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
326or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 327S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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328S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
329
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330=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
331
496a33f5 332(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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333substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
334most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
335
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336=item Bad filehandle: %s
337
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338(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
339symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
340open(), or did it in another package.
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341
342=item Bad free() ignored
343
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344(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
345been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 346setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 347
9ea8bc6d 348This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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349dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
350which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 351
aa689395
PP
352=item Bad hash
353
354(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
355
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356=item Badly placed ()'s
357
358(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
359of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
360Perl yourself.
361
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362=item Bad name after %s::
363
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364(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
365didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
366of quotes, so
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367
368 $var = 'myvar';
369 $sym = mypack::$var;
370
371is not the same as
372
373 $var = 'myvar';
374 $sym = "mypack::$var";
375
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376=item Bad realloc() ignored
377
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378(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
379never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
380by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 381
a0d0e21e
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382=item Bad symbol for array
383
384(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
385wasn't a symbol table entry.
386
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387=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
388
389(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
390that wasn't a symbol table entry.
391
392
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393=item Bad symbol for filehandle
394
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395(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
396that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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397
398=item Bad symbol for hash
399
400(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
401wasn't a symbol table entry.
402
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403=item Bareword found in conditional
404
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405(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
406conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
407of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
408
409 open FOO || die;
410
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411It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
412a bareword:
34d09196
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413
414 use constant TYPO => 1;
415 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
416
417The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
418
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419=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
420
421(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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422subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
423symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
424
425=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
426
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427(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
428compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
429you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 430
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431=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
432
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433(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
434subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
435exited.
a0d0e21e 436
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437=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
438
439(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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440implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
441occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
442be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
443depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 444
6df41af2
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445=item \1 better written as $1
446
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447(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
448The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
449substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
450because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
451there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 452
252aa082
JH
453=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
454
e476b1b5 455(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
456(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
457L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 458
69282e91 459=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 460
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461(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
462check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 463
c289d2f7
JH
464=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
465
466(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
467Check you control flow and number of arguments.
468
c5a0f51a
JH
469=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
470
e476b1b5 471(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 472
4633a7c4
LW
473=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
474
be771a83 475(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 476copyable.
4633a7c4 477
f675dbe5
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478=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
479
be771a83
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480(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
481iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
482which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 483
a0d0e21e
LW
484=item Callback called exit
485
4929bf7b 486(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
487exited by calling exit.
488
6df41af2 489=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 490
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491(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
492parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
493that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
494early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
495subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
496checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
497function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
498the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 499
49704364 500=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
501
502(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
503compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
504attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
505See L<perlfunc/pack>.
506
49704364 507=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
508
509(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
510format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
511
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NC
512=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
513
514(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
515then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
516triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
517from that type of reference to a typeglob.
518
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NC
519=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
520
521(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
522be directly assigned not.
523
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524=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
525
526(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
527integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
528to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
529
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530=item Can't bless non-reference value
531
532(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
533encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
534
dc57907a
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535=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
536
0d863452
RH
537(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
538a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
539
540=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 541
0d863452
RH
542(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
543
a0d0e21e
LW
544=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
545
546(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
547functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
548in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
549
6df41af2
GS
550=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
551
552(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
553object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
554like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
555
556 $BADREF = undef;
557 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
558 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
559
a0d0e21e
LW
560=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
561
54310121 562(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
563ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
564didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
565object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
566
567=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
568
569(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
570object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
571defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
572Something like this will reproduce the error:
573
574 $BADREF = 42;
575 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
576 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
577
a0d0e21e
LW
578=item Can't chdir to %s
579
580(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
581that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
582
0545a864 583=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 584
be771a83
GS
585(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
586nosuid.
104d25b7 587
6df41af2
GS
588=item Can't coerce array into hash
589
590(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
591information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
592only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
593
a0d0e21e
LW
594=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
595
596(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 597(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
598say things like:
599
600 *foo += 1;
601
602You CAN say
603
604 $foo = *foo;
605 $foo += 1;
606
607but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
608
609=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
610
611(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 612(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
613
614=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
615
616(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 617(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 618
0d863452 619=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 620
0d863452
RH
621(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
622or C<default> block.
623
a0d0e21e
LW
624=item Can't create pipe mailbox
625
be771a83
GS
626(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
627quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 628
eb64745e 629=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 630
2f7e735d 631(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 632class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 633extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
634
635=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
636
30c282f6
NC
637(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
638"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 639
6df41af2
GS
640=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
641
be771a83
GS
642(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
643a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 644
a0d0e21e
LW
645=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
646
be771a83
GS
647(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
648reason.
a0d0e21e 649
54310121 650=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 651
be771a83
GS
652(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
653reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
654C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 655
10f9c03d 656=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 657
e476b1b5 658(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
659characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
660inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 661
7253e4e3 662=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 663
b45f050a 664(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 665regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 666regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 667
a0d0e21e
LW
668=item Can't do waitpid with flags
669
be771a83
GS
670(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
671waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 672
a0d0e21e
LW
673=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
674
be771a83
GS
675(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
676point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
677line.
a0d0e21e 678
1109a392
MHM
679=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
680
681(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
682or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
683little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
684See L<perlfunc/pack>.
685
a0d0e21e
LW
686=item Can't exec "%s": %s
687
d1be9408 688(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
689named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
690permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
691C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
692architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
693can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
694#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
695
696=item Can't exec %s
697
be771a83
GS
698(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
699that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
700need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
701
702=item Can't execute %s
703
be771a83
GS
704(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
705found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 706
6df41af2 707=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 708
be771a83
GS
709(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
710is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 711
56ca2fc0
JH
712=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
713
714(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
89d60977 715could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property
56ca2fc0
JH
716(remember that the names of character properties consist only of
717alphanumeric characters), or maybe you forgot the C<Is> or C<In> prefix?
718
6df41af2
GS
719=item Can't find label %s
720
be771a83
GS
721(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
722possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
723
724=item Can't find %s on PATH
725
be771a83
GS
726(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
727found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 728
6df41af2 729=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 730
be771a83
GS
731(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
732found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
733script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
734
735=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
736
be771a83
GS
737(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
738that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
739nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 740
fb73857a
PP
741 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
742
be771a83
GS
743If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
744unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
745editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 746
660a4616
ST
747=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
748
749(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
750example C<\p{Lu}> is all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
751Unicode property, see L<perlunicode> for the list of known properties.
752If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
753by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
754possible C<\E>).
755
b3647a36 756=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 757
be771a83
GS
758(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
759pipeline.
a0d0e21e 760
b3647a36
SR
761=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
762
c973c02e 763(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
764after five seconds.
765
748a9306
LW
766=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
767
be771a83
GS
768(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
769between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
770Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
771the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
772account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
773the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
774the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
775the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
776if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
777because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
778appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
779and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
780routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
781shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
782only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 783
a0d0e21e
LW
784=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
785
be771a83
GS
786(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
787pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
788
789=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
790
748a9306
LW
791(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
792mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 793
6df41af2 794=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 795
be771a83
GS
796(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
797loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
798
799=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
800
be771a83
GS
801(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
802a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
803you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
804See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 805
9850bf21 806=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 807
9850bf21
RH
808(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
809comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
810as the reduce() function in List::Util).
811
c74ace89 812=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 813
be771a83 814(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 815"string" or block.
b150fb22 816
6df41af2
GS
817=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
818
be771a83
GS
819(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
820subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
821cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
822routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 823
0b5b802d
GS
824=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
825
be771a83
GS
826(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
827signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
828signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
829processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
830situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
831may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 832
e2c0f81f
DG
833=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
834
835(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
836attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
837process identifier.
838
6df41af2 839=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 840
6df41af2 841(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
842except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
843block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
844block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
845usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
846inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
847L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 848
2c7d6b9c
RGS
849=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
850
851(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
852package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
853
b8170e59
JB
854=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
855
856(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
857may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
858incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
859between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 860extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
861installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
862extensions.
863
748a9306
LW
864=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
865
2ba9eb46 866(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 867lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
868localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
869package name.
870
6df41af2 871=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 872
6df41af2
GS
873(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
874handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 875pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 876that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 877
ea071790 878=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
879
880(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
881found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
882unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
883need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
884the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
885to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
886L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 887
6df41af2
GS
888=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
889
be771a83
GS
890(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
891autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
892are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
893the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 894
b8170e59
JB
895=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
896
897(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
898for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
899unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
900
a0d0e21e
LW
901=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
902
903(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
904functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 905method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
906
907=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
908
be771a83
GS
909(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
910doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 911
2f7da168
RK
912=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
913
914(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
915e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
916
3e3baf6d
TB
917=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
918
be771a83
GS
919(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
920VMS.
3e3baf6d 921
a0d0e21e
LW
922=item Can't modify %s in %s
923
be771a83
GS
924(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
925to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 926
54310121 927=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
928
929(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
930a NULL.
931
6df41af2
GS
932=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
933
934(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
935such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
936
5f05dabc 937=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 938
5f05dabc 939(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
940buffer.
941
6df41af2
GS
942=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
943
944(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
945there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
946count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
947grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
948though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
949once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 950
a0d0e21e
LW
951=item Can't open %s: %s
952
c47ff5f1 953(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
954filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
955switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
956is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
957the command line.
a0d0e21e 958
9a869a14
RGS
959=item Can't open a reference
960
961(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
962using the 3-arg open() syntax :
963
964 open FH, '>', $ref;
965
966but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
967open is not supported.
968
a0d0e21e
LW
969=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
970
be771a83
GS
971(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
972You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
973as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
974">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 975
748a9306
LW
976=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
977
be771a83
GS
978(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
979redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
980the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
981
982=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
983
be771a83
GS
984(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
985redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
986command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
987
988=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
989
be771a83
GS
990(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
991redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
992the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
993
994=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
995
be771a83
GS
996(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
997redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
998for stdout.
748a9306 999
2b8ca739 1000=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1001
1002(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1003
fa3aa65a
JC
1004If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1005shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1006you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1007
6df41af2
GS
1008=item Can't read CRTL environ
1009
1010(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1011from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1012missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1013or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1014searched.
6df41af2 1015
6df41af2
GS
1016=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1017
1018(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1019there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1020count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1021or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1022though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1023loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1024
64977eb6 1025=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1026
be771a83
GS
1027(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1028file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1029the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1030
a0d0e21e
LW
1031=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1032
e476b1b5 1033(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1034probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1035
748a9306
LW
1036=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1037
be771a83
GS
1038(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1039to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1040
fe13d51d 1041=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1042
be771a83
GS
1043(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1044to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1045method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1046
cd06dffe
GS
1047=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1048
be771a83
GS
1049(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1050temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1051is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1052
96ebfdd7
RK
1053=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1054
1055(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1056there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1057
78f9721b
SM
1058=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1059
1060(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1061but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1062to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1063the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1064list context.
1065
a0d0e21e
LW
1066=item Can't stat script "%s"
1067
be771a83
GS
1068(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1069open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1070
a0d0e21e
LW
1071=item Can't take log of %g
1072
fb73857a
PP
1073(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1074negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1075standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1076negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1077
1078=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1079
1080(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1081negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1082with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1083
1084=item Can't undef active subroutine
1085
1086(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1087however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1088redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1089
1090=item Can't unshift
1091
1092(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1093as the main Perl stack.
1094
c81225bc 1095=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1096
be771a83
GS
1097(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1098into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1099specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1100indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1101
1db89ea5
BS
1102=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1103
e27ad1f2 1104(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1105table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1106for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1107
96ebfdd7
RK
1108=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1109
1110(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1111be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1112
6df41af2
GS
1113=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1114
be771a83
GS
1115(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1116references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1117
90b75b61 1118=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1119
1120(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1121Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1122provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1123
1109a392
MHM
1124=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1125
1126(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1127byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1128allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1129
6df41af2
GS
1130=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1131
be771a83
GS
1132(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1133foreach.
6df41af2 1134
aab6a793 1135=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1136
be771a83
GS
1137(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1138is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1139(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1140have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1141weren't.
1142
6d3b25aa
RGS
1143=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1144
1145(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1146that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1147For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1148is inside a big-endian group.
1149
28ccebc4
RGS
1150=item Can't use keyword '%s' as a label
1151
1152(F) You attempted to use a reserved keyword, such as C<print> or C<BEGIN>,
1153as a statement label. This is disallowed since Perl 5.11.0.
1154
c07a80fd
PP
1155=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1156
1157(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1158You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1159and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1160Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1161lexical variable.
1162
a0d0e21e
LW
1163=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1164
1165(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1166reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1167test the type of the reference, if need be.
1168
748a9306 1169=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1170
be771a83
GS
1171(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1172references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1173
748a9306
LW
1174=item Can't use subscript on %s
1175
1176(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1177subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1178didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1179
6df41af2
GS
1180=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1181
75b44862
GS
1182(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1183creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1184backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1185expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1186value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1187instead.
6df41af2 1188
0d863452 1189=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1190
0d863452
RH
1191(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1192loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1193from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1194or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1195
810b8aa5
GS
1196=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1197
1198(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1199references can be weakened.
1200
5f05dabc 1201=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1202
be771a83
GS
1203(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1204with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1205Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1206
f337b084 1207=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1208
1209(W pack) You said
1210
1211 pack("C", $x)
1212
1213where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1214only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1215and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1216
1217 pack("C", $x & 255)
1218
1219If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1220instead.
1221
f337b084
TH
1222=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1223
1224(W pack) You said
1225
1226 pack("U0W", $x)
1227
1228where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1229all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1230meant:
1231
1232 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1233
1234=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1235
1236(W pack) You said
1237
1238 pack("c", $x)
1239
1240where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1241is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1242and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1243
1244 pack("c", $x & 255);
1245
1246If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1247instead.
1248
f337b084
TH
1249=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1250
1251(W unpack) You tried something like
1252
1253 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1254
1a147d38 1255where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1256below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1257modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1258
1259 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1260
1261=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1262
1263(W pack) You tried something like
1264
1265 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1266
1a147d38
YO
1267where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1268value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1269uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1270
1271 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1272
1273=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1274
1275(W unpack) You tried something like
1276
1277 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1278
1a147d38
YO
1279where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1280value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1281uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1282
1283 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1284
96ebfdd7
RK
1285=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1286
1287(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1288
abc7ecad
SP
1289=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1290
1291(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1292a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1293
49704364
LW
1294=item Code missing after '/'
1295
1296(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1297template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1298
6df41af2
GS
1299=item %s: Command not found
1300
be771a83
GS
1301(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1302Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1303
7a2e2cd6
PP
1304=item Compilation failed in require
1305
1306(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1307Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1308encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1309
c3464db5
DD
1310=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1311
be771a83
GS
1312(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1313situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1314to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1315arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1316recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1317under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1318in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1319that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1320on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1321
38875929
DM
1322=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1323
1324(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1325cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1326function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1327cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1328has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1329first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1330after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1331lock.
1332
38875929
DM
1333=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1334
1335(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1336cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1337function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1338cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1339has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1340first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1341after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1342lock.
1343
69282e91 1344=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1345
be771a83
GS
1346(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1347to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1348L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1349
41ab332f 1350=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1351
be771a83
GS
1352(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1353an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1354specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1355corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1356L<overload>.
6df41af2 1357
fc8cd66c
YO
1358=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1359
1a147d38
YO
1360(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1361the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1362forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1363See L<charnames>.
1364
1365
779c5bc9
GS
1366=item Constant is not %s reference
1367
1368(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1369is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1370The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1371usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1372See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1373
4cee8e80
CS
1374=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1375
bb028877 1376(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1377eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1378commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1379
9607fc9c
PP
1380=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1381
be771a83
GS
1382(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1383for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1384workarounds.
9607fc9c 1385
e7ea3e70
IZ
1386=item Copy method did not return a reference
1387
64977eb6 1388(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1389L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1390
6798c92b
GS
1391=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1392
1393(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1394
a0d0e21e
LW
1395=item corrupted regexp pointers
1396
1397(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1398expression compiler gave it.
1399
1400=item corrupted regexp program
1401
be771a83
GS
1402(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1403valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1404
6df41af2
GS
1405=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1406
1407(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1408
49704364
LW
1409=item Count after length/code in unpack
1410
1411(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1412you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1413L<perlfunc/pack>.
1414
a0d0e21e
LW
1415=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1416
be771a83
GS
1417(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1418100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1419infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1420which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1421
aad1d01f
NC
1422This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1423setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1424
f10b0346 1425=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1426
be771a83
GS
1427(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1428checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1429array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1430
f10b0346 1431=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1432
be771a83
GS
1433(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1434checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1435is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1436
62658f4d
PM
1437=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1438
1439(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1440there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1441
fc36a67e
PP
1442=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1443
be771a83
GS
1444(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1445long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1446that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1447
6d3b25aa
RGS
1448=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1449
1450(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1451There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1452not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1453conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1454static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1455relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1456declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1457
6d3b25aa
RGS
1458 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1459
1460becomes
1461
1462 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1463
36fb85f3
RGS
1464Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1465have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1466
1467 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1468
500ab966
RGS
1469=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1470
1471(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1472just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1473to create a dangling reference.
1474
3cdd684c
TP
1475=item Did not produce a valid header
1476
1477See Server error.
1478
6df41af2
GS
1479=item %s did not return a true value
1480
1481(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1482it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1483traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1484do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1485
cc507455 1486=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1487
be771a83
GS
1488(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1489such.
4633a7c4 1490
cc507455 1491=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1492
be771a83
GS
1493(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1494variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1495seems superfluous.
33633739 1496
cc507455 1497=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1498
be771a83
GS
1499(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1500@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1501carried away.
748a9306 1502
7e1af8bc 1503=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1504
1505(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1506you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1507
3cdd684c
TP
1508=item Document contains no data
1509
1510See Server error.
1511
62658f4d
PM
1512=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1513
1514(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1515define a C<$VERSION.>
1516
49704364
LW
1517=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1518
1519(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1520See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1521
a0d0e21e
LW
1522=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1523
1524(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1525
1526=item do_study: out of memory
1527
1528(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1529
6df41af2
GS
1530=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1531
56da5a46
RGS
1532(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1533"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1534name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1535because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1536"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1537something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1538subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1539"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1540
ac206dc8
RGS
1541=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1542
1543(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1544qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1545
84d78eb7
YO
1546=item dump is not supported
1547
1548(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1549
a0d0e21e
LW
1550=item Duplicate free() ignored
1551
be771a83
GS
1552(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1553already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1554
1109a392
MHM
1555=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1556
1557(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1558in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1559
4633a7c4
LW
1560=item elseif should be elsif
1561
56da5a46
RGS
1562(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1563ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1564"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1565unlikely to be what you want.
1566
ab13f0c7
JH
1567=item Empty %s
1568
af6f566e
HS
1569(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1570described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1571a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1572
85ab1d1d 1573=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1574
85ab1d1d 1575(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1576effective uids or gids failed.
1577
c038024b
RGS
1578=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1579
1580(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1581aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1582program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1583
748a9306
LW
1584=item Error converting file specification %s
1585
5f05dabc 1586(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1587specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1588single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1589an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1590conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1591
e4d48cc9
GS
1592=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1593
be771a83
GS
1594(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1595expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1596is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1597
fc8f615e 1598=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1599
be771a83
GS
1600(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1601C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1602pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1603is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1604building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1605that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1606
6df41af2
GS
1607=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1608
be771a83
GS
1609(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1610assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1611pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1612
1a147d38
YO
1613=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1614
1615(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1616any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1617
1618The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1619discovered.
1620
fc36a67e
PP
1621=item Excessively long <> operator
1622
1623(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1624Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1625filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1626variable and glob that.
1627
ed9aa3b7
SG
1628=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1629
1630(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1631
fe13d51d 1632=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1633
1634(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1635
1636=item Exiting eval via %s
1637
be771a83
GS
1638(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1639goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1640
1641=item Exiting format via %s
1642
9a2ff54b 1643(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1644goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1645
0a753a76
PP
1646=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1647
be771a83
GS
1648(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1649sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1650loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1651
a0d0e21e
LW
1652=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1653
be771a83
GS
1654(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1655as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1656
1657=item Exiting substitution via %s
1658
be771a83
GS
1659(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1660as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1661
7b8d334a
GS
1662=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1663
be771a83
GS
1664(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1665the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1666usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1667e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1668
6df41af2
GS
1669=item %s: Expression syntax
1670
be771a83
GS
1671(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1672Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1673
1674=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1675
3c10abe3
AG
1676(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1677CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1678queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1679
7253e4e3 1680=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1681
be771a83 1682(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1683character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1684in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1685"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1686problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1687
748a9306 1688=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1689
be771a83
GS
1690(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1691system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1692details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1693you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1694
1695=item fcntl is not implemented
1696
1697(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1698PDP-11 or something?
1699
22846ab4
AB
1700=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1701
1702(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1703is not possible.
1704
f337b084
TH
1705=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1706
1707(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1708which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1709a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1710C<u63> as format.
1711
af8c498a 1712=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1713
6c8d78fb
HS
1714(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1715it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1716"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1717write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1718
af8c498a 1719=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1720
6c8d78fb
HS
1721(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1722you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1723with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1724intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1725Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1726(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1727
1728=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1729
1730(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1731as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1732previously.
1733
1734=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1735
1736(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1737as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1738
1739=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1740
1741(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1742a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1743happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1744name.
a0d0e21e 1745
56e90b21
GS
1746=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1747
be771a83 1748(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1749some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1750filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1751same name?
56e90b21 1752
6df41af2
GS
1753=item Format not terminated
1754
1755(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1756to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1757
a0d0e21e
LW
1758=item Format %s redefined
1759
e476b1b5 1760(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1761
1762 {
271595cc 1763 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1764 eval "format NAME =...";
1765 }
1766
a0d0e21e
LW
1767=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1768
e476b1b5 1769(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1770
1771 if ($foo = 123)
1772
1773when you meant
1774
1775 if ($foo == 123)
1776
1777(or something like that).
1778
6df41af2
GS
1779=item %s found where operator expected
1780
56da5a46
RGS
1781(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1782If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1783operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1784operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1785
a0d0e21e
LW
1786=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1787
1788(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1789
1790=item gethostent not implemented
1791
1792(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1793because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1794on the Internet.
1795
69282e91 1796=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1797
be771a83
GS
1798(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1799socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1800
748a9306
LW
1801=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1802
1803(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1804C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1805
6df41af2
GS
1806=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1807
be771a83
GS
1808(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1809forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1810L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1811
1812=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1813
a4edf47d 1814(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1815that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1816declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1817which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1818
e476b1b5
GS
1819=item glob failed (%s)
1820
be771a83
GS
1821(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1822C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1823C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1824nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1825resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1826broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1827config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1828were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1829empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1830think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1831C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1832
a0d0e21e
LW
1833=item Glob not terminated
1834
1835(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1836a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1837not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1838earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1839
6df41af2 1840=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1841
6df41af2
GS
1842(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1843version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1844
1845=item goto must have label
1846
1847(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1848unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1849
49704364 1850=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1851
49704364 1852(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1853supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1854 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1855
fe13d51d 1856=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1857
1858(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1859
a0d0e21e
LW
1860=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1861
be771a83
GS
1862(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1863to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1864created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1865
1866=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1867
be771a83
GS
1868(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1869spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1870
6df41af2
GS
1871=item %s has too many errors
1872
1873(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1874Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1875
252aa082
JH
1876=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1877
e476b1b5 1878(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1879(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1880L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1881
8903cb82
PP
1882=item Identifier too long
1883
1884(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1885about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1886names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1887of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1888
fc8cd66c
YO
1889=item Ignoring %s in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1890
38a44b82 1891(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return multi-char
fc8cd66c 1892or zero length sequences. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 1893its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
1894been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
1895
6df41af2 1896=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1897
6df41af2 1898(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1899
6df41af2 1900=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1901
be771a83
GS
1902(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1903binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1904offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1905
4fdae800
PP
1906=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1907
d5898338 1908(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1909would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1910when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1911version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1912to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1913
d37a9538
ST
1914=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
1915
420cdfc1 1916(W syntax) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration. Legal
d37a9538
ST
1917characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
1918
904d85c5
RGS
1919=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
1920
1921(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
1922you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
1923
8e742a20
MHM
1924=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
1925
1926(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
1927
a0d0e21e
LW
1928=item Illegal division by zero
1929
be771a83
GS
1930(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1931your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1932meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1933
6df41af2
GS
1934=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1935
be771a83
GS
1936(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1937A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1938number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1939
a0d0e21e
LW
1940=item Illegal modulus zero
1941
be771a83
GS
1942(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1943numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1944
6df41af2 1945=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1946
6df41af2
GS
1947(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1948two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1949
1950=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 1951
d1be9408 1952(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 1953
399388f4 1954=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1955
d1be9408 1956(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 1957Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1958
fe13d51d 1959=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 1960
6df41af2 1961(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 1962following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 1963
6df41af2 1964=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1965
75b44862 1966(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1967internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1968delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1969
6df41af2 1970=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1971
be771a83
GS
1972(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1973name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1974didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1975ignored.
54310121 1976
6df41af2 1977=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1978
be771a83
GS
1979(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1980the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1981system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
1982times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
1983would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 1984
be771a83
GS
1985Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
1986also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 1987
2c7d6b9c
RGS
1988=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
1989
1990(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
1991C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
1992documentation in L<mro> for more information.
1993
979699d9
JH
1994=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
1995
1996(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
1997Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
1998encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
1999
1a147d38
YO
2000=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2001
2002(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2003text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2004either consume text or fail.
2005
2006The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2007discovered.
2008
6dbe9451
NC
2009=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2010
2011(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2012of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2013C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2014as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2015
a0d0e21e
LW
2016=item Insecure dependency in %s
2017
8b1a09fc 2018(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2019The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2020setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2021tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2022from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2023such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2024L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2025
2026=item Insecure directory in %s
2027
be771a83
GS
2028(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2029setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2030the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2031See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2032
62f468fc 2033=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2034
2035(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2036setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2037C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2038supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2039the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2040
a7ae9550
GS
2041=item Integer overflow in %s number
2042
75b44862 2043(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2044either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2045your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2046On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2047representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
20480b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2049transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2050internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2051operations.
bbce6d69 2052
2fba7546
GA
2053=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2054
0be96356
AL
2055(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2056or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2057integers for your architecture.
2058
46314c13
JP
2059=item Integer overflow in version
2060
2061(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2062size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2063because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2064element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2065trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2066100/9.
2067
7253e4e3 2068=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2069
2070(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2071The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2072discovered.
2073
748a9306
LW
2074=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2075
be771a83
GS
2076(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2077you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2078to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2079L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2080Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2081terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2082
7253e4e3 2083=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2084
7253e4e3
RK
2085(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2086<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2087discovered.
a0d0e21e 2088
6df41af2
GS
2089=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2090
75b44862 2091(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2092followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2093operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2094L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2095
09bef843
SB
2096=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2097
2098The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
2099by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2100
2101=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2102
be771a83
GS
2103The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
2104recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2105
c635e13b
PP
2106=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2107
be771a83
GS
2108(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2109L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2110
9e08bc66
ST
2111=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2112
2113(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2114didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2115from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2116The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2117The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2118escape was discovered.
2119
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2120=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2121
2122(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2123or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2124(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2125
7253e4e3 2126=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2127
2128(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2129greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2130C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2131up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2132problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2133
d1573ac7 2134=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2135
2136(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2137character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2138
09bef843
SB
2139=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2140
0120eecf 2141(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2142elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2143parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2144See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2145
b4581f09
JH
2146=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2147
2148(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2149colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2150If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2151list was terminated too soon.
2152
49704364 2153=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2154
49704364
LW
2155(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2156See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2157(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2158silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2159
46314c13
JP
2160=item Invalid version format (multiple underscores)
2161
2162(F) Versions may contain at most a single underscore, which signals
2163that the version is a beta release. See L<version> for the allowed
2164version formats.
2165
2166=item Invalid version format (underscores before decimal)
2167
2168(F) Versions may not contain decimals after the optional underscore.
2169See L<version> for the allowed version formats.
2170
a0d0e21e
LW
2171=item ioctl is not implemented
2172
2173(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2174strange for a machine that supports C.
2175
c289d2f7
JH
2176=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2177
2178(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2179Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2180
fe13d51d 2181=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2182
2183(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2184you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2185with 'useperlio'.
2186
80cbd5ad
JH
2187=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2188
2189(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2190neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2191
b4581f09
JH
2192=item $* is no longer supported
2193
fafcdf9e 2194(S deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2195been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2196C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2197
2198Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2199modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2200expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2201
8ae1fe26
RGS
2202=item $# is no longer supported
2203
fafcdf9e 2204(S deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2205been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2206printf/sprintf functions instead.
2207
6ad11d81
JH
2208=item `%s' is not a code reference
2209
04a80ee0
RGS
2210(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2211needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2212to a subroutine.
2213
2214=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2215
04a80ee0
RGS
2216(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2217unaware of.
6ad11d81 2218
a0d0e21e
LW
2219=item junk on end of regexp
2220
2221(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2222
2223=item Label not found for "last %s"
2224
be771a83
GS
2225(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2226of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2227L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2228
2229=item Label not found for "next %s"
2230
2231(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2232that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2233L<perlfunc/last>.
2234
2235=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2236
2237(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2238that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2239L<perlfunc/last>.
2240
85ab1d1d 2241=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2242
85ab1d1d 2243(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2244effective uids or gids failed.
2245
49704364
LW
2246=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2247
d7f8936a 2248(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2249length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2250an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2251
69282e91 2252=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2253
be771a83
GS
2254(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2255to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2256L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2257
58e23c8d 2258=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2259
2260(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2261handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2262
b88df990
NC
2263=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2264
2265(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2266for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2267hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2268because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2269are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2270You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2271
2f7da168
RK
2272=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2273
2274(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2275by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2276instead on the filehandle.)
2277
96ebfdd7
RK
2278=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2279
2280(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2281values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2282L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2283
49704364
LW
2284=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2285
2286(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2287are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2288
2289=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2290
2291(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2292are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2293
6df41af2
GS
2294=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2295
2296(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2297
2298 prefix1;prefix2
2299
2300or
6df41af2
GS
2301 prefix1 prefix2
2302
be771a83
GS
2303with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2304a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2305appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2306"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2307
2f758a16
ST
2308=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2309
d37a9538
ST
2310(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2311syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2312obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2313when the function is called.
2f758a16 2314
ba210ebe
JH
2315=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2316
2575c402
JW
2317(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2318encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2319
2575c402
JW
2320One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2321you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
23228-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2323
2324If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2325sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2326set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2327message.
2328
2329See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2330
dea0fc0b
JH
2331=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2332
2333Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2334doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2335
f337b084
TH
2336=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2337
2338(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2339rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2340
2341=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2342
2343(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2344rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2345
2346=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2347
2348(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2349rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2350
fe13d51d 2351=item Maximal count of pending signals (%d) exceeded
2563cec5 2352
fe13d51d 2353(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2354usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2355too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2356resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2357safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2358
49704364 2359=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2360
2361(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2362regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2363shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2364See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2365
25f58aea
PN
2366=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2367
2368(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2369interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2370"use" or "my".
2371
49704364 2372=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2373
2374(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2375checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2376See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2377
a0d0e21e
LW
2378=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2379
2380(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2381doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2382
3cdd684c
TP
2383=item Method %s not permitted
2384
2385See Server error.
2386
a0d0e21e
LW
2387=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2388
2389(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2390by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2391ended earlier on the current line.
2392
2393=item Misplaced _ in number
2394
d4ced10d
JH
2395(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2396separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2397
9e81e6a1
RGS
2398=item Missing argument to -%c
2399
2400(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2401immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2402
4a2d328f 2403=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 2404
4a2d328f 2405(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
2406double-quotish context.
2407
a0d0e21e
LW
2408=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2409
2410(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2411"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2412
06eaf0bc
GS
2413=item Missing command in piped open
2414
be771a83
GS
2415(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2416C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2417blank.
06eaf0bc 2418
961ce445
RGS
2419=item Missing control char name in \c
2420
2421(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2422character name.
2423
6df41af2
GS
2424=item Missing name in "my sub"
2425
be771a83
GS
2426(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2427they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2428
2429=item Missing $ on loop variable
2430
be771a83
GS
2431(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2432are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2433can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2434
cc507455 2435=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2436
56da5a46
RGS
2437(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2438"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2439
ab13f0c7
JH
2440=item Missing right brace on %s
2441
6f5e54b9 2442(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}> or C<\P{...}>.
ab13f0c7 2443
d98d5fff 2444=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2445
be771a83
GS
2446(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2447ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2448were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2449
6df41af2
GS
2450=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2451
56da5a46
RGS
2452(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2453"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2454the previous line just because you saw this message.
2455
a0d0e21e
LW
2456=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2457
2458(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2459constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2460catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2461
2462 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2463 mod(2);
2464
2465Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2466
c5674021
PDF
2467Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2468is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2469
2470 $x = 1;
2471 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2472 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2473 }
c5674021 2474
7a4340ed 2475=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2476
2477(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2478subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2479backwards.
2480
7a4340ed 2481=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2482
be771a83
GS
2483(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2484couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2485
2486=item Module name must be constant
2487
2488(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2489
be98fb35 2490=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2491
be98fb35
GS
2492(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2493you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2494about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2495
fe13d51d 2496=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2497
2498(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2499can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2500list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2501See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2502
a0d0e21e
LW
2503=item msg%s not implemented
2504
2505(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2506
2507=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2508
75b44862
GS
2509(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2510They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2511
49704364 2512=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2513
49704364
LW
2514(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2515follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2516See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2517
2518=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2519
be771a83
GS
2520(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2521that yet.
6df41af2 2522
30c282f6 2523=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2524
be771a83
GS
2525(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2526sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2527local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2528
8b1a09fc
PP
2529=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2530
e476b1b5 2531(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2532If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2533again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2534provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2535
64b374f4
FD
2536NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2537%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2538the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2539will not trigger this warning.
2540
49704364
LW
2541=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2542
2543(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2544negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2545
a0d0e21e
LW
2546=item Negative length
2547
be771a83
GS
2548(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2549length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2550
ed9aa3b7
SG
2551=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2552
2553(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2554greater than or equal to zero.
2555
7253e4e3 2556=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2557
b45f050a 2558(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2559things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2560expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2561
7253e4e3 2562Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2563C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2564
6df41af2 2565=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2566
be771a83
GS
2567(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2568scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2569
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2570=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2571
2572(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2573real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2574See L<mro>.
2575
a0d0e21e
LW
2576=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2577
be771a83
GS
2578(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2579setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2580will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2581securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2582
a0d0e21e
LW
2583=item No comma allowed after %s
2584
2585(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2586allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2587Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2588
0a753a76
PP
2589One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2590constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2591importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2592does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2593explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2594L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2595would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2596remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2597constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2598list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2599this error was triggered?
2600
748a9306
LW
2601=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2602
be771a83
GS
2603(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2604redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2605doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2606
a0d0e21e
LW
2607=item No DB::DB routine defined
2608
be771a83 2609(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2610for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2611module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2612statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2613
2614=item No dbm on this machine
2615
2616(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2617supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2618
ccafdc96 2619=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2620
ccafdc96
RGS
2621(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2622for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2623module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2624of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2625
96ebfdd7
RK
2626=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2627
2628(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2629
c47ff5f1 2630=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2631
be771a83
GS
2632(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2633redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2634find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2635
49704364
LW
2636=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2637
2638(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2639matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2640
c47ff5f1 2641=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2642
be771a83
GS
2643(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2644redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2645name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2646
6df41af2
GS
2647=item No #! line
2648
2649(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2650even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2651
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2652=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2653
2654(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2655in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2656it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2657or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2658
6df41af2
GS
2659=item "no" not allowed in expression
2660
be771a83
GS
2661(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2662returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2663
c47ff5f1 2664=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2665
be771a83
GS
2666(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2667redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2668doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2669
c47ff5f1 2670=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2671
be771a83
GS
2672(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2673redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2674find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2675
1ec3e8de
GS
2676=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2677
be771a83
GS
2678(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2679declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2680semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2681
a0d0e21e
LW
2682=item No Perl script found in input
2683
2684(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2685with #! and containing the word "perl".
2686
2687=item No setregid available
2688
2689(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2690your system.
2691
2692=item No setreuid available
2693
2694(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2695your system.
2696
6df41af2
GS
2697=item No %s specified for -%c
2698
2699(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2700you haven't specified one.
2701
e75d1f10
RD
2702=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2703
2704(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2705but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2706package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2707
2c692339
RGS
2708=item No such class %s
2709
30c282f6 2710(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2711this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2712
3c20a832
SP
2713=item No such hook: %s
2714
2715(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2716accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2717
6df41af2
GS
2718=item No such pipe open
2719
2720(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2721close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2722earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2723
a0d0e21e
LW
2724=item No such signal: SIG%s
2725
be771a83
GS
2726(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2727not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2728names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2729
2730=item Not a CODE reference
2731
2732(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2733subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2734use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2735also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2736
2737=item Not a format reference
2738
2739(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2740format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2741
2742=item Not a GLOB reference
2743
be771a83
GS
2744(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2745symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2746something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2747kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2748
2749=item Not a HASH reference
2750
be771a83
GS
2751(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2752reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2753find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2754
6df41af2
GS
2755=item Not an ARRAY reference
2756
be771a83
GS
2757(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2758a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2759to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2760
a0d0e21e
LW
2761=item Not a perl script
2762
2763(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2764even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2765mention perl.
2766
2767=item Not a SCALAR reference
2768
be771a83
GS
2769(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2770a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2771to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2772
2773=item Not a subroutine reference
2774
2775(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2776subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2777use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2778also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2779
e7ea3e70 2780=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2781
2782(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2783doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2784
a0d0e21e
LW
2785=item Not enough arguments for %s
2786
2787(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2788
6df41af2
GS
2789=item Not enough format arguments
2790
be771a83
GS
2791(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2792supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2793
2794=item %s: not found
2795
be771a83
GS
2796(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2797of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2798yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2799
2800=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2801
6df41af2
GS
2802(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2803timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2804to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2805F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2806need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 2807
4ef2275c
GA
2808=item Non-string passed as bitmask
2809
2810(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
2811Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
2812select. See L<perlfunc/select>
2813
a0d0e21e
LW
2814=item Null filename used
2815
be771a83
GS
2816(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2817machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2818
6df41af2
GS
2819=item NULL OP IN RUN
2820
be771a83
GS
2821(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2822pointer.
6df41af2 2823
55497cff
PP
2824=item Null picture in formline
2825
2826(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2827specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2828supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2829
a0d0e21e
LW
2830=item Null realloc
2831
2832(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2833
2834=item NULL regexp argument
2835
5f05dabc 2836(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2837
2838=item NULL regexp parameter
2839
2840(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2841
fc36a67e
PP
2842=item Number too long
2843
be771a83 2844(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 2845about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
2846versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2847the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2848"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2849
6df41af2
GS
2850=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2851
be771a83
GS
2852(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2853The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2854future version.
6df41af2 2855
252aa082
JH
2856=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2857
75b44862 2858(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2859(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2860L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2861
2862See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2863
6ad11d81
JH
2864=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
2865
04a80ee0
RGS
2866(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
2867arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 2868
b21befc1
MG
2869=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
2870
2871(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2872which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
2873
1930e939 2874=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2875
be771a83
GS
2876(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2877which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2878
bbce6d69
PP
2879=item Offset outside string
2880
42bc49da
JH
2881(F, W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
2882with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
2883imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
2884take place when going past the end of the string when either
2885C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
2886for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
2887with real files).
bbce6d69 2888
c289d2f7 2889=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
2890
2891(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
2892never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
2893call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
2894
96ebfdd7
RK
2895=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
2896
2897(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
2898that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2899
a0d0e21e
LW
2900=item oops: oopsAV
2901
e476b1b5 2902(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2903
2904=item oops: oopsHV
2905
e476b1b5 2906(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2907
abc718f2
RGS
2908=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
2909
2910(W io deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
2911a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
2912Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
2913and is deprecated.
2914
2915=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
2916
2917(W io deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
2918a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
2919Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
2920and is deprecated.
2921
a0288114 2922=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2923
be771a83
GS
2924(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2925handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2926of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2927C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2928
748a9306
LW
2929=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2930
be771a83
GS
2931(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2932was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2933use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2934example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2935"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2936
6df41af2
GS
2937=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2938
be771a83
GS
2939(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2940in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2941
a80b8354
GS
2942=item Out of memory!
2943
2944(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2945remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2946no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2947
19a52907
JH
2948At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
2949process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
2950C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
2951the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
2952and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
2953
6d3b25aa
RGS
2954=item Out of memory during %s extend
2955
2956(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
2957the largest possible memory allocation.
2958
6df41af2 2959=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 2960
6df41af2
GS
2961(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2962remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
2963the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
2964possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 2965
1b979e0a 2966=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2967
be771a83
GS
2968(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
2969insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
2970request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2971
2972The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2973depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
2974However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
2975emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
2976is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
2977where the failed request happened.
55497cff 2978
1b979e0a
IZ
2979=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2980
2981(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
2982is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
2983C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 2984
6df41af2
GS
2985=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2986
be771a83
GS
2987(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
2988parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
2989otherwise.
6df41af2 2990
28be1210
TH
2991=item '.' outside of string in pack
2992
2993(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
2994position to before the start of the packed string being built.
2995
49704364 2996=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 2997
49704364 2998(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
2999the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3000
f337b084
TH
3001=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3002
3003(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3004the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3005UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3006
6df41af2
GS
3007=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3008
be771a83
GS
3009(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3010package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3011some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3012mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3013
96ebfdd7
RK
3014=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3015
3016(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3017signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3018
a0d0e21e
LW
3019=item page overflow
3020
be771a83
GS
3021(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3022page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3023
6df41af2
GS
3024=item panic: %s
3025
3026(P) An internal error.
3027
c99a1475
NC
3028=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3029
3030(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3031an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3032platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3033enter this branch on this platform.
3034
a0d0e21e
LW
3035=item panic: ck_grep
3036
3037(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3038
3039=item panic: ck_split
3040
3041(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
3042
3043=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
3044
be771a83
GS
3045(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
3046there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 3047
810b8aa5
GS
3048=item panic: del_backref
3049
3050(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
3051reference.
3052
7619c85e
RG
3053=item panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
3054
3055(P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
3056last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called from
3057an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is
3058a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.
3059
a0d0e21e
LW
3060=item panic: die %s
3061
3062(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
3063it wasn't an eval context.
3064
a0d0e21e
LW
3065=item panic: do_subst
3066
be771a83
GS
3067(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
3068data.
a0d0e21e 3069
2269b42e 3070=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 3071
2269b42e 3072(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 3073data.
a0d0e21e 3074
b7f7fd0b
NC
3075=item panic: fold_constants JMPENV_PUSH returned %d
3076
10203f38 3077(P) While attempting folding constants an exception other than an C<eval>
b7f7fd0b
NC
3078failure was caught.
3079
c635e13b
PP
3080=item panic: frexp
3081
3082(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
3083
a0d0e21e
LW
3084=item panic: goto
3085
3086(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
3087and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
3088
23976bdd
NC
3089=item panic: hfreeentries failed to free hash
3090
3091(P) The internal routine used to clear a hashes entries tried repeatedly,
3092but each time something added more entries to the hash. Most likely the hash
3093contains an object with a reference back to the hash and a destructor that
3094adds a new object to the hash.
3095
a0d0e21e
LW
3096=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
3097
3098(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
3099
3100=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
3101
3102(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
3103
e446cec8
IZ
3104=item panic: kid popen errno read
3105
3106(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
3107
a0d0e21e
LW
3108=item panic: last
3109
3110(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
3111it wasn't a block context.
3112
3113=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
3114
be771a83
GS
3115(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
3116scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
3117
3118=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
3119
3120(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
3121invalid enum on the top of it.
3122
810b8aa5
GS
3123=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
3124
3125(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
3126references to an object.
3127
6df41af2
GS
3128=item panic: malloc
3129
3130(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
3131
27d5b266
JH
3132=item panic: memory wrap
3133
3134(P) Something tried to allocate more memory than possible.
3135
a0d0e21e
LW
3136=item panic: pad_alloc
3137
3138(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3139and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3140
3141=item panic: pad_free curpad
3142
3143(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3144and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3145
3146=item panic: pad_free po
3147
3148(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3149
3150=item panic: pad_reset curpad
3151
3152(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3153and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3154
3155=item panic: pad_sv po
3156
3157(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3158
3159=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
3160
3161(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3162and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3163
3164=item panic: pad_swipe po
3165
3166(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3167
3168=item panic: pp_iter
3169
3170(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
3171
96ebfdd7
RK
3172=item panic: pp_match%s
3173
3174(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
3175data.
3176
2269b42e
JH
3177=item panic: pp_split
3178
3179(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
3180
a0d0e21e
LW
3181=item panic: realloc
3182
3183(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
3184
3185=item panic: restartop
3186
3187(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
3188didn't supply the destination.
3189
3190=item panic: return
3191
3192(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
3193then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
3194
3195=item panic: scan_num
3196
3197(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
3198
6c65d5f9
NC
3199=item panic: sv_chop %s
3200
3201(P) The sv_chop() routine was passed a position that is not within the
3202scalar's string buffer.
3203
a0d0e21e
LW
3204=item panic: sv_insert
3205
3206(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
3207was string.
3208
3209=item panic: top_env
3210
6224f72b 3211(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e 3212
65bca31a
NC
3213=item panic: unimplemented op %s (#%d) called
3214
3215(P) The compiler is screwed up and attempted to use an op that isn't permitted
3216at run time.
3217
dea0fc0b
JH
3218=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
3219
3220(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
64977eb6 3221to even) byte length.
dea0fc0b 3222
2f7da168
RK
3223=item panic: yylex
3224
3225(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
3226
1a147d38
YO
3227=item Pattern subroutine nesting without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3228
3229(F) You used a pattern that uses too many nested subpattern calls without
3230consuming any text. Restructure the pattern so text is consumed before the
3231nesting limit is exceeded.
3232
3233The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
3234discovered.
3235
7b8d334a 3236=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 3237
e476b1b5 3238(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
3239
3240 my $foo, $bar = @_;
3241
3242when you meant
3243
3244 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
3245
30c282f6 3246Remember that "my", "our", "local" and "state" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 3247
96ebfdd7
RK
3248=item C<-p> destination: %s
3249
3250(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
3251command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
3252redirected it with select().)
3253
3254=item (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
3255
3256(F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3257"Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"". It often means
3258that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.
3259
1109a392
MHM
3260=item Perl_my_%s() not available
3261
3262(F) Your platform has very uncommon byte-order and integer size,
3263so it was not possible to set up some or all fixed-width byte-order
3264conversion functions. This is only a problem when you're using the
3265'<' or '>' modifiers in (un)pack templates. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3266
6d3b25aa
RGS
3267=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
3268
3269(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
3270recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
3271you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
3272
6df41af2
GS
3273=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3274
3275(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
fecfaeb8 3276C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 3277
96ebfdd7
RK
3278=item PERL_SIGNALS illegal: "%s"
3279
3280See L<perlrun/PERL_SIGNALS> for legal values.
3281
6df41af2
GS
3282=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3283
3284(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3285
3286 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3287 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3288 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3289 LANG = (unset)
3290 are supported and installed on your system.
3291 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3292
3293Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3294settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
0ea6b70f
JH
3295This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your operating
3296system supplier and/or system administrator have set up the so-called
3297locale system but Perl could not use those settings. This was not
3298dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that
3299Perl can and will use, the script will be run. Before you really fix
3300the problem, however, you will get the same error message each time
3301you run Perl. How to really fix the problem can be found in
3302L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 3303
bd3fa61c 3304=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 3305
be771a83
GS
3306(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
3307process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
3308fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 3309
49704364 3310=item 'P' must have an explicit size in unpack
3bf38418
WL
3311
3312(F) The unpack format P must have an explicit size, not "*".
3313
96ebfdd7
RK
3314=item POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3315
3316(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. The <-- HERE
3317shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
3318Note that the POSIX character classes do B<not> have the C<is> prefix
3319the corresponding C interfaces have: in other words, it's C<[[:print:]]>,
3320not C<isprint>. See L<perlre>.
3321
3322=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
3323
3324(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
3325the BSD version, which takes a pid.
3326
49704364 3327=item POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 3328
9a0b3859 3329(W regexp) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
7253e4e3
RK
3330I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for example:
3331/[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not currently
3332implemented; they are simply placeholders for future extensions and will
3333cause fatal errors. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
3334where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3335
49704364 3336=item POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3337
3338(F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
7253e4e3
RK
3339beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
3340If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
3341expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
3342backslash: "\[." and ".\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
3343about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3344
49704364 3345=item POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 3346
7253e4e3
RK
3347(F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
3348with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions. If you
3349need to represent those character sequences inside a regular expression
3350character class, just quote the square brackets with the backslash: "\[="
3351and "=\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
3352problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3353
bbce6d69
PP
3354=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
3355
e476b1b5 3356(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
75b44862 3357strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as
be771a83
GS
3358literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
3359parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 3360
774d564b
PP
3361You probably wrote something like this:
3362
54310121 3363 @list = qw(
774d564b 3364 a # a comment
bbce6d69 3365 b # another comment
774d564b 3366 );
bbce6d69
PP
3367
3368when you should have written this:
3369
774d564b 3370 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
3371 a
3372 b
774d564b
PP
3373 );
3374
3375If you really want comments, build your list the
3376old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
3377
3378 @list = (
3379 'a', # a comment
3380 'b', # another comment
3381 );
bbce6d69
PP
3382
3383=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
3384
be771a83
GS
3385(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
3386commas aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used
3387different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
3388frequently used.)
bbce6d69 3389
54310121 3390You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 3391
774d564b
PP
3392 qw! a, b, c !;
3393
3394which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
3395commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 3396
774d564b 3397 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 3398
a0d0e21e
LW
3399=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
3400
3401(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
3402Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
3403end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
3404Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
3405
276b2a0c
RGS
3406=item Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator
3407
3408(W precedence) Your program uses a bitwise logical operator in conjunction
3409with a numeric comparison operator, like this :
3410
3411 if ($x & $y == 0) { ... }