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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
5aabfad6 4
8736538c 5=head1 NAME
5aabfad6 6
f8dbba82 7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
5aabfad6 8
8736538c 9=head1 SYNOPSIS
5aabfad6 10
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11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
12on Cygwin. This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
5aabfad6 14
f8dbba82 15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
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16version of Perl is provided in the normal Cygwin install. If you do
17not need to customize the configuration, consider using one of those
18packages.
5aabfad6 19
5aabfad6 20
a83b6f46 21=head1 PREREQUISITES FOR COMPILING PERL ON CYGWIN
8736538c 22
f8dbba82 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
8736538c 24
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25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
26platforms. They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
27system calls and environment these programs expect. More information
28about this project can be found at:
8736538c 29
47dafe4d 30 http://www.cygwin.com/
1cab015a 31
f8dbba82 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
8736538c 33
37a78d01 34At the time this document was last updated, Cygwin 1.3.5 was current.
8736538c 35
1cab015a 36
f8dbba82 37=head2 Cygwin Configuration
1cab015a 38
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39While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
40that Perl builds cleanly. These changes are B<not> required for normal
41Perl usage.
1cab015a 42
f8dbba82 43B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
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44They do not depend on your host system (Win9x/WinME, WinNT/Win2K)
45or your Cygwin configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts).
46The only dependencies come from hard-coded pathnames like C</usr/local>.
47However, your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's
48runtime behavior (see L</"TEST">).
1cab015a 49
f8dbba82 50=over 4
1cab015a 51
f8dbba82 52=item * C<PATH>
1cab015a 53
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54Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
55versions of programs. Any Windows directories should be removed or
56moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
1cab015a 57
f8dbba82 58=item * I<nroff>
1cab015a 59
f8dbba82 60If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
b4bcd662 61Configure will B<not> prompt you to install I<man> pages.
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62
63=item * Permissions
64
65On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
66and file permissions may not be set correctly. Since the build process
125a13ce 67creates directories and files, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
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68-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
69
70Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
71that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
72I<Administrators> group. Depending on your umask, you may find that you
73can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
74the owner). When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
75issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
76a UNIX system.
1cab015a 77
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78=back
79
a83b6f46 80=head1 CONFIGURE PERL ON CYGWIN
8736538c 81
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82The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
83F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
84(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
f89d6eaa 85
f8dbba82 86This will run Configure and keep a record:
8736538c 87
f8dbba82 88 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
8736538c 89
b4bcd662 90If you are willing to accept all the defaults run Configure with B<-de>.
f8dbba82 91However, several useful customizations are available.
5aabfad6 92
a83b6f46 93=head2 Stripping Perl Binaries on Cygwin
5aabfad6 94
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95It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
96The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the
97binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
98prompts you,
8736538c 99
f8dbba82 100 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
5db16f6a 101 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
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102 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
103 [none] -s
8736538c 104
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105or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
106near the end of the file.
8736538c 107
a83b6f46 108=head2 Optional Libraries for Perl on Cygwin
8736538c 109
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110Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
111some optional libraries. Configure will find them if they are
112installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
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113searches. Pre-built packages for most of these are available from
114the Cygwin installer.
8736538c 115
f8dbba82 116=over 4
8736538c 117
f8dbba82 118=item * C<-lcrypt>
8736538c 119
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120The crypt package distributed with Cygwin is a Linux compatible 56-bit
121DES crypt port by Corinna Vinschen.
122
123Alternatively, the crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
1cab015a 124
5db16f6a 125The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:
1cab015a 126
b4bcd662 127 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
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128
129NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
130see the glibc README for more details.
1cab015a 131
f8dbba82 132The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
1cab015a 133
b4bcd662 134 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/libcrypt.tgz
1cab015a 135
f8dbba82 136=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
1cab015a 137
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138GDBM is available for Cygwin. GDBM's ndbm/dbm compatibility feature
139also makes C<NDBM_File> and C<ODBM_File> possible (although they add
140little extra value).
1cab015a 141
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142NOTE: The ndbm/dbm emulations only completely work on NTFS partitions.
143
f8dbba82 144=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
1cab015a 145
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146BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin. Some details can be found in
147F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
1cab015a 148
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149NOTE: The BerkeleyDB library only completely works on NTFS partitions.
150
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151=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
152
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153A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.
154
155NOTE: This has B<not> been extensively tested. In particular,
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156C<d_semctl_semun> is undefined because it fails a Configure test
157and on Win9x the I<shm*()> functions seem to hang. It also creates
158a compile time dependency because F<perl.h> includes F<<sys/ipc.h>>
159and F<<sys/sem.h>> (which will be required in the future when compiling
160CPAN modules).
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161
162=back
163
a83b6f46 164=head2 Configure-time Options for Perl on Cygwin
f8dbba82 165
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166The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options. Some of
167these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible. Also, some of
168these are experimental. You can either select an option when Configure
169prompts you or you can define (undefine) symbols on the command line.
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170
171=over 4
172
173=item * C<-Uusedl>
174
0a110db2 175Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled statically.
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176
177=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
1cab015a 178
f8dbba82 179By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source. If you
0a110db2 180want to force Perl to build with the system malloc() undefine this symbol.
1cab015a 181
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182=item * C<-Uuseperlio>
183
184Undefining this symbol disables the PerlIO abstraction, which is now the
185default.
186
6b49d266 187=item * C<-Dusemultiplicity>
1cab015a 188
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189Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
190more than one interpreter instance. This works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 191
0a110db2 192=item * C<-Duse64bitint>
1cab015a 193
f8dbba82 194I<gcc> supports 64-bit integers. However, several additional long long
5db16f6a 195functions are necessary to use them within Perl (I<{strtol,strtoul}l>).
f8dbba82 196These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 197
f8dbba82 198=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
1cab015a 199
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200I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes). However, several additional
201long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
5d129265 202(I<{atan2,cos,exp,floor,fmod,frexp,isnan,log,modf,pow,sin,sqrt}l,strtold>).
f8dbba82 203These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 204
f8dbba82 205=item * C<-Dusethreads>
1cab015a 206
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207POSIX threads are B<not> yet implemented in Cygwin.
208
209=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
210
0a110db2 211Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit integers
5db16f6a 212for internal size and position calculations.
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213
214=back
215
a83b6f46 216=head2 Suspicious Warnings on Cygwin
1cab015a 217
f8dbba82 218You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
8736538c 219
f8dbba82 220=over 4
8736538c 221
b4bcd662 222=item * I<dlsym()>
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223
224I<ld2> is needed to build dynamic libraries, but it does not exist
225when dlsym() checking occurs (it is not created until `C<make>' runs).
226You will see the following message:
227
228 Checking whether your dlsym() needs a leading underscore ...
b4bcd662 229 ld2: not found
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230 I can't compile and run the test program.
231 I'm guessing that dlsym doesn't need a leading underscore.
232
233Since the guess is correct, this is not a problem.
234
b4bcd662 235=item * Win9x and C<d_eofnblk>
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236
237Win9x does not correctly report C<EOF> with a non-blocking read on a
238closed pipe. You will see the following messages:
239
240 But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
241 WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
242
243 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
244 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
245 Keep the recommended value? [y]
246
247At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended
248value.
249
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250=item * Compiler/Preprocessor defines
251
252The following error occurs because of the Cygwin C<#define> of
253C<_LONG_DOUBLE>:
254
255 Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
5d129265 256 try.c:<line#>: parse error
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257
258This failure does not seem to cause any problems.
259
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260=back
261
a83b6f46 262=head1 MAKE ON CYGWIN
5aabfad6 263
b4bcd662 264Simply run I<make> and wait:
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265
266 make 2>&1 | tee log.make
267
a83b6f46 268=head2 Warnings on Cygwin
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269
270Warnings like these are normal:
271
272 warning: overriding commands for target <file>
273 warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
274
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275 dllwrap: no export definition file provided
276 dllwrap: creating one, but that may not be what you want
f8dbba82 277
a83b6f46 278=head2 ld2 on Cygwin
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279
280During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
281directory (where you said to put public executables). It does not
282wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
283this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
284fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
285The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>. If this
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286is not the case `C<make>' will fail at some point. If this happens,
287just manually copy I<ld2> from the source directory to somewhere in
288your C<PATH>.
f8dbba82 289
a83b6f46 290=head1 TEST ON CYGWIN
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291
292There are two steps to running the test suite:
293
294 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
295
296 cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
297
298The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
299running as `C<./perl harness>'.
5aabfad6 300
f8dbba82 301Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
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302configuration. If a test can pass in some Cygwin setup, it is always
303attempted and explainable test failures are documented. It is possible
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304for Perl to pass all the tests, but it is more likely that some tests
305will fail for one of the reasons listed below.
1cab015a 306
a83b6f46 307=head2 File Permissions on Cygwin
1cab015a 308
f8dbba82 309UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
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310{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}. By default Cygwin
311only tracks the Win32 read-only attribute represented as the UNIX file
312user write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they
313have a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are
314always readable and executable). On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN>
315setting, the additional mode bits are stored as extended file attributes.
316On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard
317WinNT security descriptors and access control lists. Without one of
318these options, these tests will fail:
1cab015a 319
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320 Failed Test List of failed
321 ------------------------------------
322 io/fs.t 5, 7, 9-10
323 lib/anydbm.t 2
324 lib/db-btree.t 20
325 lib/db-hash.t 16
326 lib/db-recno.t 18
327 lib/gdbm.t 2
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328 lib/ndbm.t 2
329 lib/odbm.t 2
330 lib/sdbm.t 2
331 op/stat.t 9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
1cab015a 332
a83b6f46 333=head2 Script Portability on Cygwin
1cab015a 334
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335Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on top of
336Win32 systems. However, in addition to the items noted above, there are
337some differences that you should know about. This is a very brief guide
338to portability, more information can be found in the Cygwin documentation.
1cab015a 339
f8dbba82 340=over 4
1cab015a 341
f8dbba82 342=item * Pathnames
1cab015a 343
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344Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\>)
345slashes. They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
346Naming Codes (F<//UNC>). DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
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347F<com*>, F<lpt?>, F<nul>) are invalid as base filenames. However, they
348can be used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>). Names may contain all
349printable characters except these:
1cab015a 350
f8dbba82 351 : * ? " < > |
1cab015a 352
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353File names are case insensitive, but case preserving. A pathname that
354contains a backslash or drive letter is a Win32 pathname (and not subject
355to the translations applied to POSIX style pathnames).
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356
357=item * Text/Binary
358
359When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode. In text mode
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360a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations. With Cygwin, the default
361mode for an open() is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies
362the file. Perl provides a binmode() function to set binary mode on files
363that otherwise would be treated as text. sysopen() with the C<O_TEXT>
364flag sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:
365
366 sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
f8dbba82 367
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368lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files opened in binary mode.
369
370The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.
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371
372=item * F<.exe>
373
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374The Cygwin stat(), lstat() and readlink() functions make the F<.exe>
375extension transparent by looking for F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo>
376(unless a F<foo> also exists). Cygwin does not require a F<.exe>
377extension, but I<gcc> adds it automatically when building a program.
378However, when accessing an executable as a normal file (e.g., I<cp>
379in a makefile) the F<.exe> is not transparent. The I<install> included
380with Cygwin automatically appends a F<.exe> when necessary.
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381
382=item * chown()
383
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384On WinNT chown() can change a file's user and group IDs. On Win9x chown()
385is a no-op, although this is appropriate since there is no security model.
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386
387=item * Miscellaneous
388
389File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
390returns C<ENOSYS>.
391
f8dbba82 392Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
1cab015a 393
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394The Cygwin chroot() implementation has holes (it can not restrict file
395access by native Win32 programs).
396
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397=back
398
a83b6f46 399=head1 INSTALL PERL ON CYGWIN
f8dbba82 400
b4bcd662 401This will install Perl, including I<man> pages.
f8dbba82 402
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403 make install | tee log.make-install
404
405NOTE: If C<STDERR> is redirected `C<make install>' will B<not> prompt
406you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 407
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408You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'. If you
409are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
1cab015a 410
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411Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
412found in the F<INSTALL> document.
1cab015a 413
a83b6f46 414=head1 MANIFEST ON CYGWIN
1cab015a 415
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416These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
417These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
418code. Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
419be kept as clean as possible.
1cab015a 420
f8dbba82 421=over 4
1cab015a 422
f8dbba82 423=item Documentation
1cab015a 424
47dafe4d 425 INSTALL README.cygwin README.win32 MANIFEST
5d129265 426 Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004 Changes5.6
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427 pod/perl.pod pod/perlport.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod
428 pod/perldelta.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod pod/perl56delta.pod
429 pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod pod/buildtoc.PL pod/perltoc.pod
1cab015a 430
f8dbba82 431=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
1cab015a 432
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433 cygwin/Makefile.SHs
434 cygwin/ld2.in
435 cygwin/perlld.in
436 ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
437 ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
438 ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
439 hints/cygwin.sh
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440 Configure - help finding hints from uname,
441 shared libperl required for dynamic loading
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442 Makefile.SH - linklibperl
443 Porting/patchls - cygwin in port list
f8dbba82 444 installman - man pages with :: translated to .
5db16f6a 445 installperl - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
6b49d266 446 makedepend.SH - uwinfix
1cab015a 447
f8dbba82 448=item Tests
1cab015a 449
f8dbba82 450 t/io/tell.t - binmode
5d129265 451 t/lib/b.t - ignore Cwd from os_extras
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452 t/lib/glob-basic.t - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
453 t/op/magic.t - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
454 t/op/stat.t - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
455 (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
456 previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
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457
458=item Compiled Perl Source
459
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460 EXTERN.h - __declspec(dllimport)
461 XSUB.h - __declspec(dllexport)
b4bcd662 462 cygwin/cygwin.c - os_extras (getcwd, spawn)
6b49d266 463 perl.c - os_extras
f8dbba82 464 perl.h - binmode
6b49d266 465 doio.c - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
b4bcd662 466 pp_sys.c - do not define h_errno, pp_system with spawn
47dafe4d 467 util.c - use setenv
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468
469=item Compiled Module Source
470
471 ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs - tzname defined externally
472 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
473 - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
474 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
475 - binary open
476
477=item Perl Modules/Scripts
478
6b49d266 479 lib/Cwd.pm - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
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480 lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
481 - require MM_Cygwin.pm
482 lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
483 - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
497711e7 484 lib/File/Find.pm - on remote drives stat() always sets st_nlink to 1
6b49d266 485 lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
5d129265 486 lib/File/Temp.pm - no directory sticky bit
6b49d266 487 lib/perl5db.pl - use stdin not /dev/tty
6b49d266 488 utils/perldoc.PL - version comment
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489
490=back
f89d6eaa 491
a83b6f46 492=head1 BUGS ON CYGWIN
f8dbba82 493
b4bcd662 494When I<make> starts, it warns about overriding commands for F<perlmain.o>.
f8dbba82 495
125a13ce 496`C<make clean>' does not remove library F<.def> or F<.exe.stackdump>
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497files.
498
499The I<ld2> script contains references to the source directory. You should
b4bcd662 500change these to $installbin after `C<make install>'.
f8dbba82 501
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502Support for swapping real and effective user and group IDs is incomplete.
503On WinNT Cygwin provides setuid(), seteuid(), setgid() and setegid().
504However, additional Cygwin calls for manipulating WinNT access tokens
505and security contexts are required.
506
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507When building DLLs, `C<dllwrap --export-all-symbols>' is used to export
508global symbols. It might be better to generate an explicit F<.def> file
509(see F<makedef.pl>). Also, DLLs can now be build with `C<gcc -shared>'.
510
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511=head1 AUTHORS
512
b4bcd662 513Charles Wilson <cwilson@ece.gatech.edu>,
47dafe4d 514Eric Fifer <egf7@columbia.edu>,
b4bcd662
GS
515alexander smishlajev <als@turnhere.com>,
516Steven Morlock <newspost@morlock.net>,
517Sebastien Barre <Sebastien.Barre@utc.fr>,
518Teun Burgers <burgers@ecn.nl>.
f8dbba82
GS
519
520=head1 HISTORY
521
b53af0b8 522Last updated: 9 November 2000