This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Typo Fixes in Diagnostic
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
CommitLineData
a0d0e21e
LW
1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
a0d0e21e
LW
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
e476b1b5
GS
20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
4438c4b7
JH
34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
6df41af2
GS
38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
a0d0e21e
LW
44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
be771a83
GS
49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
MHM
59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
be771a83
GS
65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
6df41af2
GS
69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
be771a83
GS
76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
c2e66d9e
GS
79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
6df41af2
GS
88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
be771a83
GS
94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
be771a83
GS
100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
6df41af2
GS
106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
496a33f5
SC
115(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
116transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83
GS
117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
118a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash -- and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
6df41af2
GS
125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
b0fdf69e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 135
cc1c2e42
FC
136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
137subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
a0d0e21e
LW
138
139 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 140 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 141 &do_something
a0d0e21e 142
8ea97a1e 143=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 144
06e52bfa
FC
145(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
146such as:
5f05dabc 147
148 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 149 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 150
8ea97a1e 151or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 152
6df41af2
GS
153 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
154 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 155
6df41af2 156=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 157
6df41af2 158(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
be771a83
GS
159name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
160error.
a0d0e21e 161
f86702cc 162=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 163
be771a83
GS
164(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
165that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
166will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 167
b4581f09
JH
168=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
169
170(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
171forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
172data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
173the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
174If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
175the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
176
a0d0e21e
LW
177=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
178
75b44862
GS
179(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
180spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e
LW
181
182=item assertion botched: %s
183
184(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
185
186=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
187
188(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
189
190=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
191
192(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
193must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
194know which context to supply to the right side.
195
96ebfdd7
RK
196=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
197
4447dfc1 198(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
96ebfdd7
RK
199thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
200Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
201created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
202thread. See L<threads>.
203
2393f1b9 204=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 205
49293501 206(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 207the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 208
81689caa
HS
209=item Attempt to bless into a reference
210
211(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
212the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
213supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
214
215 bless $self, $proto;
216
217when you intended
218
219 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
220
221If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
222of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
223example by:
224
225 bless $self, "$proto";
226
96ebfdd7
RK
227=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
228
229(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
230which is not in its key set.
231
232=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
233
234(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
235declared readonly from a restricted hash.
236
a0d0e21e
LW
237=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
238
be771a83
GS
239(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
240that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
241outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 242
54310121 243=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 244
be771a83
GS
245(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
246strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
247strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
248of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 249
a0d0e21e
LW
250=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
251
be771a83
GS
252(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
253free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
254SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
255free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
256try to free it.
a0d0e21e
LW
257
258=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
259
e476b1b5 260(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e
LW
261
262=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
263
be771a83
GS
264(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
265see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
266earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
267This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
268that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
269mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
270corrupted.
a0d0e21e 271
dcdda58d
GS
272=item Attempt to join self
273
274(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
be771a83
GS
275impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
276to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 277
84902520
TB
278=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
279
be771a83
GS
280(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
281function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
282means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
283invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
284literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
285avoid this warning.
84902520 286
087b5369
RD
287=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
288
289(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
290compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
291unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
292L<perlvar/%INC>.
293
1b20cd17
NC
294=item Attempt to set length of freed array
295
296(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
297can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
298of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
299
300 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
301 $$r = 503
302
b7a902f4 303=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
304
be771a83
GS
305(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
306used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
307dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 308
c32124fe
NC
309=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
310
311(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "locked"
312attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
313effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in the next major
314release of Perl 5.
315
f1a3ce43
NC
316=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
317
318(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "unique"
259976bd 319attribute on a array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
320had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in the next major
f1a3ce43
NC
321release of Perl 5.
322
fe13d51d 323=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
a0d0e21e 324
be771a83
GS
325(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
326or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 327S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
a0d0e21e
LW
328S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
329
7a95317d
GS
330=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
331
496a33f5 332(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
7a95317d
GS
333substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
334most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
335
a0d0e21e
LW
336=item Bad filehandle: %s
337
be771a83
GS
338(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
339symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
340open(), or did it in another package.
a0d0e21e
LW
341
342=item Bad free() ignored
343
be771a83
GS
344(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
345been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 346setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 347
9ea8bc6d 348This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
be771a83
GS
349dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
350which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 351
aa689395 352=item Bad hash
353
354(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
355
6df41af2
GS
356=item Badly placed ()'s
357
358(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
359of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
360Perl yourself.
361
a0d0e21e
LW
362=item Bad name after %s::
363
be771a83
GS
364(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
365didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
366of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
LW
367
368 $var = 'myvar';
369 $sym = mypack::$var;
370
371is not the same as
372
373 $var = 'myvar';
374 $sym = "mypack::$var";
375
4ad56ec9
IZ
376=item Bad realloc() ignored
377
be771a83
GS
378(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
379never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
380by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 381
a0d0e21e
LW
382=item Bad symbol for array
383
384(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
385wasn't a symbol table entry.
386
4df3f177
SP
387=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
388
389(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
390that wasn't a symbol table entry.
391
392
a0d0e21e
LW
393=item Bad symbol for filehandle
394
be771a83
GS
395(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
396that wasn't a symbol table entry.
a0d0e21e
LW
397
398=item Bad symbol for hash
399
400(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
401wasn't a symbol table entry.
402
34d09196
GS
403=item Bareword found in conditional
404
be771a83
GS
405(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
406conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
407of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
408
409 open FOO || die;
410
be771a83
GS
411It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
412a bareword:
34d09196
GS
413
414 use constant TYPO => 1;
415 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
416
417The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
418
6df41af2
GS
419=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
420
421(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
be771a83
GS
422subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
423symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
424
425=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
426
be771a83
GS
427(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
428compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
429you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 430
a0d0e21e
LW
431=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
432
be771a83
GS
433(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
434subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
435exited.
a0d0e21e 436
68dc0745 437=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
438
439(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
be771a83
GS
440implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
441occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
442be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
443depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 444
6df41af2
GS
445=item \1 better written as $1
446
be771a83
GS
447(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
448The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
449substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
450because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
451there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 452
252aa082
JH
453=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
454
e476b1b5 455(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
456(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
457L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 458
69282e91 459=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 460
be771a83
GS
461(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
462check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 463
c289d2f7
JH
464=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
465
466(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
467Check you control flow and number of arguments.
468
c5a0f51a
JH
469=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
470
e476b1b5 471(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 472
4633a7c4
LW
473=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
474
be771a83 475(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 476copyable.
4633a7c4 477
f675dbe5
CB
478=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
479
be771a83
GS
480(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
481iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
482which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 483
a0d0e21e
LW
484=item Callback called exit
485
4929bf7b 486(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
487exited by calling exit.
488
6df41af2 489=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 490
be771a83
GS
491(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
492parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
493that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
494early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
495subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
496checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
497function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
498the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 499
49704364 500=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
501
502(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
503compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
504attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
505See L<perlfunc/pack>.
506
49704364 507=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
508
509(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
510format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
511
5c1f4d79
NC
512=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
513
514(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
515then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
516triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
517from that type of reference to a typeglob.
518
ba2fdce6
NC
519=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
520
521(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
522be directly assigned not.
523
96ebfdd7
RK
524=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
525
526(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
527integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
528to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
529
a0d0e21e
LW
530=item Can't bless non-reference value
531
532(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
533encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
534
dc57907a
RGS
535=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
536
0d863452
RH
537(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
538a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
539
540=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 541
0d863452
RH
542(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
543
a0d0e21e
LW
544=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
545
546(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
547functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
548in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
549
6df41af2
GS
550=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
551
552(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
553object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
554like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
555
556 $BADREF = undef;
557 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
558 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
559
a0d0e21e
LW
560=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
561
54310121 562(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
563ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
564didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
565object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
566
567=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
568
569(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
570object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
571defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
572Something like this will reproduce the error:
573
574 $BADREF = 42;
575 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
576 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
577
a0d0e21e
LW
578=item Can't chdir to %s
579
580(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
581that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
582
0545a864 583=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 584
be771a83
GS
585(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
586nosuid.
104d25b7 587
6df41af2
GS
588=item Can't coerce array into hash
589
590(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
591information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
592only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
593
a0d0e21e
LW
594=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
595
596(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 597(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
598say things like:
599
600 *foo += 1;
601
602You CAN say
603
604 $foo = *foo;
605 $foo += 1;
606
607but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
608
609=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
610
611(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 612(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
613
614=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
615
616(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 617(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 618
0d863452 619=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 620
0d863452
RH
621(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
622or C<default> block.
623
a0d0e21e
LW
624=item Can't create pipe mailbox
625
be771a83
GS
626(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
627quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 628
eb64745e 629=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 630
2f7e735d 631(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 632class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 633extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
634
635=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
636
30c282f6
NC
637(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
638"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 639
6df41af2
GS
640=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
641
be771a83
GS
642(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
643a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 644
a0d0e21e
LW
645=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
646
be771a83
GS
647(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
648reason.
a0d0e21e 649
54310121 650=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 651
be771a83
GS
652(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
653reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
654C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 655
10f9c03d 656=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 657
e476b1b5 658(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
659characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
660inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 661
7253e4e3 662=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 663
b45f050a 664(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 665regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 666regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 667
a0d0e21e
LW
668=item Can't do waitpid with flags
669
be771a83
GS
670(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
671waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 672
a0d0e21e
LW
673=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
674
be771a83
GS
675(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
676point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
677line.
a0d0e21e 678
1109a392
MHM
679=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
680
681(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
682or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
683little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
684See L<perlfunc/pack>.
685
a0d0e21e
LW
686=item Can't exec "%s": %s
687
d1be9408 688(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
689named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
690permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
691C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
692architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
693can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
694#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
695
696=item Can't exec %s
697
be771a83
GS
698(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
699that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
700need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
701
702=item Can't execute %s
703
be771a83
GS
704(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
705found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 706
6df41af2 707=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 708
be771a83
GS
709(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
710is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 711
56ca2fc0
JH
712=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
713
714(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
89d60977 715could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property
56ca2fc0
JH
716(remember that the names of character properties consist only of
717alphanumeric characters), or maybe you forgot the C<Is> or C<In> prefix?
718
6df41af2
GS
719=item Can't find label %s
720
be771a83
GS
721(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
722possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
723
724=item Can't find %s on PATH
725
be771a83
GS
726(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
727found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 728
6df41af2 729=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 730
be771a83
GS
731(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
732found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
733script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
734
735=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
736
be771a83
GS
737(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
738that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
739nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 740
fb73857a 741 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
742
be771a83
GS
743If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
744unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
745editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 746
660a4616
TS
747=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
748
749(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
750example C<\p{Lu}> is all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
751Unicode property, see L<perlunicode> for the list of known properties.
752If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
753by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
754possible C<\E>).
755
b3647a36 756=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 757
be771a83
GS
758(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
759pipeline.
a0d0e21e 760
b3647a36
SR
761=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
762
c973c02e 763(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
764after five seconds.
765
748a9306
LW
766=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
767
be771a83
GS
768(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
769between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
770Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
771the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
772account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
773the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
774the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
775the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
776if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
777because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
778appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
779and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
780routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
781shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
782only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 783
a0d0e21e
LW
784=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
785
be771a83
GS
786(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
787pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
788
789=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
790
748a9306
LW
791(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
792mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 793
6df41af2 794=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 795
be771a83
GS
796(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
797loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
798
799=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
800
be771a83
GS
801(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
802a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
803you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
804See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 805
9850bf21 806=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 807
9850bf21
RH
808(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
809comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
810as the reduce() function in List::Util).
811
c74ace89 812=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 813
be771a83 814(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 815"string" or block.
b150fb22 816
6df41af2
GS
817=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
818
be771a83
GS
819(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
820subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
821cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
822routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 823
0b5b802d
GS
824=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
825
be771a83
GS
826(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
827signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
828signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
829processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
830situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
831may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 832
e2c0f81f
DG
833=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
834
835(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
836attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
837process identifier.
838
6df41af2 839=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 840
6df41af2 841(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
842except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
843block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
844block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
845usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
846inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
847L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 848
2c7d6b9c
RGS
849=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
850
851(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
852package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
853
b8170e59
JB
854=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
855
856(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
857may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
858incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
859between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 860extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
861installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
862extensions.
863
748a9306
LW
864=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
865
2ba9eb46 866(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 867lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
868localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
869package name.
870
6df41af2 871=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 872
6df41af2
GS
873(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
874handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 875pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 876that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 877
ea071790 878=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
879
880(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
881found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
882unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
883need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
884the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
885to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
886L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 887
6df41af2
GS
888=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
889
be771a83
GS
890(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
891autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
892are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
893the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 894
b8170e59
JB
895=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
896
897(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
898for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
899unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
900
a0d0e21e
LW
901=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
902
903(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
904functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 905method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
906
907=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
908
be771a83
GS
909(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
910doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 911
2f7da168
RK
912=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
913
914(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
915e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
916
3e3baf6d
TB
917=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
918
be771a83
GS
919(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
920VMS.
3e3baf6d 921
a0d0e21e
LW
922=item Can't modify %s in %s
923
be771a83
GS
924(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
925to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 926
54310121 927=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
928
929(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
930a NULL.
931
6df41af2
GS
932=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
933
934(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
935such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
936
5f05dabc 937=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 938
5f05dabc 939(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
940buffer.
941
6df41af2
GS
942=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
943
944(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
945there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
946count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
947grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
948though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
949once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 950
a0d0e21e
LW
951=item Can't open %s: %s
952
c47ff5f1 953(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
954filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
955switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
956is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
957the command line.
a0d0e21e 958
9a869a14
RGS
959=item Can't open a reference
960
961(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
962using the 3-arg open() syntax :
963
964 open FH, '>', $ref;
965
966but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
967open is not supported.
968
a0d0e21e
LW
969=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
970
be771a83
GS
971(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
972You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
973as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
974">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 975
748a9306
LW
976=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
977
be771a83
GS
978(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
979redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
980the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
981
982=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
983
be771a83
GS
984(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
985redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
986command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
987
988=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
989
be771a83
GS
990(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
991redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
992the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
993
994=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
995
be771a83
GS
996(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
997redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
998for stdout.
748a9306 999
2b8ca739 1000=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1001
1002(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1003
fa3aa65a
JC
1004If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1005shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1006you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1007
6df41af2
GS
1008=item Can't read CRTL environ
1009
1010(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1011from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1012missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1013or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1014searched.
6df41af2 1015
6df41af2
GS
1016=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1017
1018(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1019there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1020count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1021or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1022though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1023loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1024
64977eb6 1025=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1026
be771a83
GS
1027(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1028file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1029the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1030
a0d0e21e
LW
1031=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1032
e476b1b5 1033(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1034probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1035
748a9306
LW
1036=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1037
be771a83
GS
1038(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1039to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1040
fe13d51d 1041=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1042
be771a83
GS
1043(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1044to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1045method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1046
cd06dffe
GS
1047=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1048
be771a83
GS
1049(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1050temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1051is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1052
96ebfdd7
RK
1053=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1054
1055(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1056there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1057
78f9721b
SM
1058=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1059
1060(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1061but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1062to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1063the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1064list context.
1065
a0d0e21e
LW
1066=item Can't stat script "%s"
1067
be771a83
GS
1068(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1069open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1070
a0d0e21e
LW
1071=item Can't take log of %g
1072
fb73857a 1073(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1074negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1075standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1076negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1077
1078=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1079
1080(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1081negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1082with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1083
1084=item Can't undef active subroutine
1085
1086(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1087however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1088redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1089
1090=item Can't unshift
1091
1092(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1093as the main Perl stack.
1094
c81225bc 1095=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1096
be771a83
GS
1097(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1098into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1099specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1100indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1101
1db89ea5
BS
1102=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1103
e27ad1f2 1104(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1105table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1106for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1107
96ebfdd7
RK
1108=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1109
1110(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1111be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1112
6df41af2
GS
1113=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1114
be771a83
GS
1115(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1116references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1117
90b75b61 1118=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1119
1120(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1121Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1122provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1123
1109a392
MHM
1124=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1125
1126(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1127byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1128allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1129
6df41af2
GS
1130=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1131
be771a83
GS
1132(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1133foreach.
6df41af2 1134
aab6a793 1135=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1136
be771a83
GS
1137(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1138is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1139(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1140have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1141weren't.
1142
6d3b25aa
RGS
1143=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1144
1145(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1146that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1147For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1148is inside a big-endian group.
1149
c07a80fd 1150=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1151
1152(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1153You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1154and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1155Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1156lexical variable.
1157
a0d0e21e
LW
1158=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1159
1160(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1161reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1162test the type of the reference, if need be.
1163
748a9306 1164=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1165
be771a83
GS
1166(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1167references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1168
748a9306
LW
1169=item Can't use subscript on %s
1170
1171(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1172subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1173didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1174
6df41af2
GS
1175=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1176
75b44862
GS
1177(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1178creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1179backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1180expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1181value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1182instead.
6df41af2 1183
0d863452 1184=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1185
0d863452
RH
1186(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1187loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1188from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1189or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1190
810b8aa5
GS
1191=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1192
1193(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1194references can be weakened.
1195
5f05dabc 1196=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1197
be771a83
GS
1198(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1199with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1200Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1201
f337b084 1202=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1203
1204(W pack) You said
1205
1206 pack("C", $x)
1207
1208where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1209only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1210and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1211
1212 pack("C", $x & 255)
1213
1214If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1215instead.
1216
f337b084
TH
1217=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1218
1219(W pack) You said
1220
1221 pack("U0W", $x)
1222
1223where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1224all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1225meant:
1226
1227 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1228
1229=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1230
1231(W pack) You said
1232
1233 pack("c", $x)
1234
1235where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1236is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1237and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1238
1239 pack("c", $x & 255);
1240
1241If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1242instead.
1243
f337b084
TH
1244=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1245
1246(W unpack) You tried something like
1247
1248 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1249
1a147d38 1250where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1251below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1252modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1253
1254 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1255
1256=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1257
1258(W pack) You tried something like
1259
1260 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1261
1a147d38
YO
1262where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1263value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1264uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1265
1266 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1267
1268=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1269
1270(W unpack) You tried something like
1271
1272 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1273
1a147d38
YO
1274where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1275value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1276uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1277
1278 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1279
96ebfdd7
RK
1280=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1281
1282(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1283
abc7ecad
SP
1284=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1285
1286(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1287a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1288
49704364
WL
1289=item Code missing after '/'
1290
1291(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1292template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1293
6df41af2
GS
1294=item %s: Command not found
1295
be771a83
GS
1296(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1297Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1298
7a2e2cd6 1299=item Compilation failed in require
1300
1301(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1302Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1303encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1304
c3464db5
DD
1305=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1306
be771a83
GS
1307(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1308situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1309to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1310arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1311recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1312under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1313in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1314that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1315on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1316
38875929
DM
1317=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1318
1319(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1320cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1321function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1322cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1323has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1324first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1325after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1326lock.
1327
38875929
DM
1328=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1329
1330(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1331cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1332function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1333cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1334has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1335first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1336after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1337lock.
1338
69282e91 1339=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1340
be771a83
GS
1341(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1342to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1343L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1344
41ab332f 1345=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1346
be771a83
GS
1347(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1348an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1349specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1350corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1351L<overload>.
6df41af2 1352
fc8cd66c
YO
1353=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1354
1a147d38
YO
1355(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1356the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1357forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1358See L<charnames>.
1359
1360
779c5bc9
GS
1361=item Constant is not %s reference
1362
1363(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1364is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1365The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1366usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1367See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1368
4cee8e80
CS
1369=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1370
bb028877 1371(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1372eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1373commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1374
9607fc9c 1375=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1376
be771a83
GS
1377(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1378for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1379workarounds.
9607fc9c 1380
e7ea3e70
IZ
1381=item Copy method did not return a reference
1382
64977eb6 1383(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1384L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1385
6798c92b
GS
1386=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1387
1388(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1389
a0d0e21e
LW
1390=item corrupted regexp pointers
1391
1392(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1393expression compiler gave it.
1394
1395=item corrupted regexp program
1396
be771a83
GS
1397(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1398valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1399
6df41af2
GS
1400=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1401
1402(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1403
49704364
WL
1404=item Count after length/code in unpack
1405
1406(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1407you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1408L<perlfunc/pack>.
1409
a0d0e21e
LW
1410=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1411
be771a83
GS
1412(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1413100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1414infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1415which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1416
aad1d01f
NC
1417This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1418setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1419
f10b0346 1420=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1421
be771a83
GS
1422(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1423checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1424array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1425
f10b0346 1426=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1427
be771a83
GS
1428(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1429checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1430is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1431
62658f4d
PM
1432=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1433
1434(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1435there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1436
fc36a67e 1437=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1438
be771a83
GS
1439(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1440long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1441that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1442
6d3b25aa
RGS
1443=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1444
1445(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1446There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1447not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1448conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1449static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1450relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1451declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1452
6d3b25aa
RGS
1453 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1454
1455becomes
1456
1457 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1458
36fb85f3
RGS
1459Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1460have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1461
1462 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1463
500ab966
RGS
1464=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1465
1466(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1467just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1468to create a dangling reference.
1469
3cdd684c
TP
1470=item Did not produce a valid header
1471
1472See Server error.
1473
6df41af2
GS
1474=item %s did not return a true value
1475
1476(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1477it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1478traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1479do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1480
cc507455 1481=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1482
be771a83
GS
1483(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1484such.
4633a7c4 1485
cc507455 1486=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1487
be771a83
GS
1488(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1489variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1490seems superfluous.
33633739 1491
cc507455 1492=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1493
be771a83
GS
1494(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1495@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1496carried away.
748a9306 1497
7e1af8bc 1498=item Died
5f05dabc 1499
1500(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1501you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1502
3cdd684c
TP
1503=item Document contains no data
1504
1505See Server error.
1506
62658f4d
PM
1507=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1508
1509(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1510define a C<$VERSION.>
1511
49704364
WL
1512=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1513
1514(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1515See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1516
a0d0e21e
LW
1517=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1518
1519(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1520
1521=item do_study: out of memory
1522
1523(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1524
6df41af2
GS
1525=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1526
56da5a46
RGS
1527(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1528"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1529name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1530because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1531"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1532something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1533subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1534"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1535
ac206dc8
RGS
1536=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1537
1538(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1539qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1540
84d78eb7
YO
1541=item dump is not supported
1542
1543(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1544
a0d0e21e
LW
1545=item Duplicate free() ignored
1546
be771a83
GS
1547(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1548already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1549
1109a392
MHM
1550=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1551
1552(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1553in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1554
4633a7c4
LW
1555=item elseif should be elsif
1556
56da5a46
RGS
1557(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1558ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1559"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1560unlikely to be what you want.
1561
ab13f0c7
JH
1562=item Empty %s
1563
af6f566e
HS
1564(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1565described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1566a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1567
85ab1d1d 1568=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1569
85ab1d1d 1570(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1571effective uids or gids failed.
1572
c038024b
RGS
1573=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1574
1575(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1576aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1577program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1578
748a9306
LW
1579=item Error converting file specification %s
1580
5f05dabc 1581(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1582specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1583single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1584an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1585conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1586
e4d48cc9
GS
1587=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1588
be771a83
GS
1589(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1590expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1591is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1592
fc8f615e 1593=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1594
be771a83
GS
1595(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1596C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1597pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1598is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1599building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1600that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1601
6df41af2
GS
1602=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1603
be771a83
GS
1604(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1605assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1606pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1607
1a147d38
YO
1608=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1609
1610(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1611any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1612
1613The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1614discovered.
1615
fc36a67e 1616=item Excessively long <> operator
1617
1618(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1619Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1620filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1621variable and glob that.
1622
ed9aa3b7
SG
1623=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1624
1625(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1626
fe13d51d 1627=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1628
1629(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1630
1631=item Exiting eval via %s
1632
be771a83
GS
1633(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1634goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1635
1636=item Exiting format via %s
1637
9a2ff54b 1638(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1639goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1640
0a753a76 1641=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1642
be771a83
GS
1643(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1644sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1645loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1646
a0d0e21e
LW
1647=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1648
be771a83
GS
1649(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1650as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1651
1652=item Exiting substitution via %s
1653
be771a83
GS
1654(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1655as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1656
7b8d334a
GS
1657=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1658
be771a83
GS
1659(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1660the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1661usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1662e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1663
6df41af2
GS
1664=item %s: Expression syntax
1665
be771a83
GS
1666(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1667Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1668
1669=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1670
3c10abe3
AG
1671(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1672CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1673queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1674
7253e4e3 1675=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1676
be771a83 1677(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1678character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1679in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1680"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1681problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1682
748a9306 1683=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1684
be771a83
GS
1685(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1686system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1687details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1688you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1689
1690=item fcntl is not implemented
1691
1692(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1693PDP-11 or something?
1694
22846ab4
AB
1695=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1696
1697(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1698is not possible.
1699
f337b084
TH
1700=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1701
1702(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1703which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1704a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1705C<u63> as format.
1706
af8c498a 1707=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1708
6c8d78fb
HS
1709(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1710it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1711"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1712write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1713
af8c498a 1714=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1715
6c8d78fb
HS
1716(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1717you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1718with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1719intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1720Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1721(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1722
1723=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1724
1725(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1726as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1727previously.
1728
1729=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1730
1731(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1732as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1733
1734=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1735
1736(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1737a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1738happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1739name.
a0d0e21e 1740
56e90b21
GS
1741=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1742
be771a83 1743(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1744some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1745filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1746same name?
56e90b21 1747
6df41af2
GS
1748=item Format not terminated
1749
1750(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1751to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1752
a0d0e21e
LW
1753=item Format %s redefined
1754
e476b1b5 1755(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1756
1757 {
271595cc 1758 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1759 eval "format NAME =...";
1760 }
1761
a0d0e21e
LW
1762=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1763
e476b1b5 1764(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1765
1766 if ($foo = 123)
1767
1768when you meant
1769
1770 if ($foo == 123)
1771
1772(or something like that).
1773
6df41af2
GS
1774=item %s found where operator expected
1775
56da5a46
RGS
1776(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1777If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1778operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1779operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1780
a0d0e21e
LW
1781=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1782
1783(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1784
1785=item gethostent not implemented
1786
1787(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1788because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1789on the Internet.
1790
69282e91 1791=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1792
be771a83
GS
1793(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1794socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1795
748a9306
LW
1796=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1797
1798(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1799C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1800
6df41af2
GS
1801=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1802
be771a83
GS
1803(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1804forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1805L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1806
1807=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1808
a4edf47d 1809(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1810that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1811declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1812which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1813
e476b1b5
GS
1814=item glob failed (%s)
1815
be771a83
GS
1816(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1817C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1818C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1819nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1820resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1821broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1822config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1823were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1824empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1825think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1826C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1827
a0d0e21e
LW
1828=item Glob not terminated
1829
1830(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1831a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1832not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1833earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1834
6df41af2 1835=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1836
6df41af2
GS
1837(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1838version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1839
1840=item goto must have label
1841
1842(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1843unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1844
49704364 1845=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1846
49704364 1847(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1848supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1849 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1850
fe13d51d 1851=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1852
1853(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1854
a0d0e21e
LW
1855=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1856
be771a83
GS
1857(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1858to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1859created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1860
1861=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1862
be771a83
GS
1863(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1864spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1865
6df41af2
GS
1866=item %s has too many errors
1867
1868(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1869Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1870
252aa082
JH
1871=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1872
e476b1b5 1873(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1874(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1875L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1876
8903cb82 1877=item Identifier too long
1878
1879(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1880about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1881names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1882of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1883
fc8cd66c
YO
1884=item Ignoring %s in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1885
38a44b82 1886(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return multi-char
fc8cd66c 1887or zero length sequences. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 1888its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
1889been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
1890
6df41af2 1891=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1892
6df41af2 1893(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1894
6df41af2 1895=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1896
be771a83
GS
1897(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1898binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1899offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1900
4fdae800 1901=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1902
d5898338 1903(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1904would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1905when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1906version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1907to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1908
d37a9538
ST
1909=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
1910
420cdfc1 1911(W syntax) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration. Legal
d37a9538
ST
1912characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
1913
904d85c5
RGS
1914=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
1915
1916(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
1917you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
1918
8e742a20
MHM
1919=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
1920
1921(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
1922
a0d0e21e
LW
1923=item Illegal division by zero
1924
be771a83
GS
1925(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1926your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1927meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1928
6df41af2
GS
1929=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1930
be771a83
GS
1931(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1932A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1933number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1934
a0d0e21e
LW
1935=item Illegal modulus zero
1936
be771a83
GS
1937(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1938numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1939
6df41af2 1940=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1941
6df41af2
GS
1942(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1943two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1944
1945=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 1946
d1be9408 1947(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 1948
399388f4 1949=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1950
d1be9408 1951(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 1952Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1953
fe13d51d 1954=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 1955
6df41af2 1956(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 1957following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 1958
6df41af2 1959=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1960
75b44862 1961(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1962internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1963delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1964
6df41af2 1965=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1966
be771a83
GS
1967(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1968name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1969didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1970ignored.
54310121 1971
6df41af2 1972=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1973
be771a83
GS
1974(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1975the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1976system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
1977times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
1978would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 1979
be771a83
GS
1980Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
1981also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 1982
2c7d6b9c
RGS
1983=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
1984
1985(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
1986C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
1987documentation in L<mro> for more information.
1988
979699d9
JH
1989=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
1990
1991(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
1992Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
1993encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
1994
1a147d38
YO
1995=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1996
1997(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
1998text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1999either consume text or fail.
2000
2001The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2002discovered.
2003
6dbe9451
NC
2004=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2005
2006(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2007of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2008C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2009as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2010
a0d0e21e
LW
2011=item Insecure dependency in %s
2012
8b1a09fc 2013(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2014The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2015setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2016tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2017from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2018such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2019L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2020
2021=item Insecure directory in %s
2022
be771a83
GS
2023(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2024setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2025the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2026See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2027
62f468fc 2028=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2029
2030(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2031setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2032C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2033supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2034the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2035
a7ae9550
GS
2036=item Integer overflow in %s number
2037
75b44862 2038(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2039either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2040your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2041On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2042representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
20430b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2044transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2045internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2046operations.
bbce6d69 2047
2fba7546
GA
2048=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2049
0be96356
AL
2050(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2051or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2052integers for your architecture.
2053
46314c13
JP
2054=item Integer overflow in version
2055
2056(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2057size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2058because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2059element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2060trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2061100/9.
2062
7253e4e3 2063=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2064
2065(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2066The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2067discovered.
2068
748a9306
LW
2069=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2070
be771a83
GS
2071(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2072you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2073to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2074L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2075Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2076terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2077
7253e4e3 2078=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2079
7253e4e3
RK
2080(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2081<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2082discovered.
a0d0e21e 2083
6df41af2
GS
2084=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2085
75b44862 2086(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2087followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2088operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2089L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2090
09bef843
SB
2091=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2092
2093The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
2094by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2095
2096=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2097
be771a83
GS
2098The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
2099recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2100
c635e13b 2101=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2102
be771a83
GS
2103(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2104L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2105
9e08bc66
TS
2106=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2107
2108(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2109didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2110from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2111The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2112The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2113escape was discovered.
2114
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2115=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2116
2117(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2118or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2119(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2120
7253e4e3 2121=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2122
2123(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2124greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2125C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2126up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2127problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2128
d1573ac7 2129=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2130
2131(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2132character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2133
09bef843
SB
2134=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2135
0120eecf 2136(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2137elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2138parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2139See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2140
b4581f09
JH
2141=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2142
2143(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2144colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2145If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2146list was terminated too soon.
2147
49704364 2148=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2149
49704364
WL
2150(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2151See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2152(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2153silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2154
46314c13
JP
2155=item Invalid version format (multiple underscores)
2156
2157(F) Versions may contain at most a single underscore, which signals
2158that the version is a beta release. See L<version> for the allowed
2159version formats.
2160
2161=item Invalid version format (underscores before decimal)
2162
2163(F) Versions may not contain decimals after the optional underscore.
2164See L<version> for the allowed version formats.
2165
a0d0e21e
LW
2166=item ioctl is not implemented
2167
2168(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2169strange for a machine that supports C.
2170
c289d2f7
JH
2171=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2172
2173(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2174Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2175
fe13d51d 2176=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2177
2178(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2179you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2180with 'useperlio'.
2181
80cbd5ad
JH
2182=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2183
2184(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2185neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2186
b4581f09
JH
2187=item $* is no longer supported
2188
fafcdf9e 2189(S deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2190been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2191C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2192
2193Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2194modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2195expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2196
8ae1fe26
RGS
2197=item $# is no longer supported
2198
fafcdf9e 2199(S deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2200been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2201printf/sprintf functions instead.
2202
6ad11d81
JH
2203=item `%s' is not a code reference
2204
04a80ee0
RGS
2205(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2206needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2207to a subroutine.
2208
2209=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2210
04a80ee0
RGS
2211(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2212unaware of.
6ad11d81 2213
a0d0e21e
LW
2214=item junk on end of regexp
2215
2216(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2217
2218=item Label not found for "last %s"
2219
be771a83
GS
2220(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2221of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2222L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2223
2224=item Label not found for "next %s"
2225
2226(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2227that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2228L<perlfunc/last>.
2229
2230=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2231
2232(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2233that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2234L<perlfunc/last>.
2235
85ab1d1d 2236=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2237
85ab1d1d 2238(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2239effective uids or gids failed.
2240
49704364
WL
2241=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2242
d7f8936a 2243(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
WL
2244length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2245an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2246
69282e91 2247=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2248
be771a83
GS
2249(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2250to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2251L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2252
58e23c8d 2253=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2254
2255(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2256handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2257
b88df990
NC
2258=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2259
2260(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2261for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2262hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2263because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2264are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2265You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2266
2f7da168
RK
2267=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2268
2269(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2270by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2271instead on the filehandle.)
2272
96ebfdd7
RK
2273=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2274
2275(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2276values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2277L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2278
49704364
WL
2279=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2280
2281(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2282are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2283
2284=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2285
2286(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2287are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2288
6df41af2
GS
2289=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2290
2291(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2292
2293 prefix1;prefix2
2294
2295or
6df41af2
GS
2296 prefix1 prefix2
2297
be771a83
GS
2298with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2299a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2300appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2301"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2302
2f758a16
ST
2303=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2304
d37a9538
ST
2305(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2306syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2307obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2308when the function is called.
2f758a16 2309
ba210ebe
JH
2310=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2311
2575c402
JW
2312(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2313encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2314
2575c402
JW
2315One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2316you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
23178-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2318
2319If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2320sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2321set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2322message.
2323
2324See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2325
dea0fc0b
JH
2326=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2327
2328Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2329doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2330
f337b084
TH
2331=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2332
2333(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2334rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2335
2336=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2337
2338(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2339rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2340
2341=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2342
2343(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2344rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2345
fe13d51d 2346=item Maximal count of pending signals (%d) exceeded
2563cec5 2347
fe13d51d 2348(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2349usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2350too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2351resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2352safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2353
49704364 2354=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2355
2356(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2357regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2358shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2359See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2360
25f58aea
PN
2361=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2362
2363(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2364interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2365"use" or "my".
2366
49704364 2367=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2368
2369(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2370checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2371See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2372
a0d0e21e
LW
2373=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2374
2375(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2376doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2377
3cdd684c
TP
2378=item Method %s not permitted
2379
2380See Server error.
2381
a0d0e21e
LW
2382=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2383
2384(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2385by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2386ended earlier on the current line.
2387
2388=item Misplaced _ in number
2389
d4ced10d
JH
2390(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2391separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2392
9e81e6a1
RGS
2393=item Missing argument to -%c
2394
2395(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2396immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2397
4a2d328f 2398=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 2399
4a2d328f 2400(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
2401double-quotish context.
2402
a0d0e21e
LW
2403=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2404
2405(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2406"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2407
06eaf0bc
GS
2408=item Missing command in piped open
2409
be771a83
GS
2410(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2411C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2412blank.
06eaf0bc 2413
961ce445
RGS
2414=item Missing control char name in \c
2415
2416(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2417character name.
2418
6df41af2
GS
2419=item Missing name in "my sub"
2420
be771a83
GS
2421(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2422they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2423
2424=item Missing $ on loop variable
2425
be771a83
GS
2426(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2427are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2428can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2429
cc507455 2430=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2431
56da5a46
RGS
2432(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2433"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2434
ab13f0c7
JH
2435=item Missing right brace on %s
2436
6f5e54b9 2437(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}> or C<\P{...}>.
ab13f0c7 2438
d98d5fff 2439=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2440
be771a83
GS
2441(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2442ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2443were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2444
6df41af2
GS
2445=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2446
56da5a46
RGS
2447(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2448"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2449the previous line just because you saw this message.
2450
a0d0e21e
LW
2451=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2452
2453(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2454constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2455catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2456
2457 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2458 mod(2);
2459
2460Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2461
c5674021
PDF
2462Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2463is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2464
2465 $x = 1;
2466 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2467 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2468 }
c5674021 2469
7a4340ed 2470=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2471
2472(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2473subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2474backwards.
2475
7a4340ed 2476=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2477
be771a83
GS
2478(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2479couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2480
2481=item Module name must be constant
2482
2483(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2484
be98fb35 2485=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2486
be98fb35
GS
2487(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2488you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2489about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2490
fe13d51d 2491=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2492
2493(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2494can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2495list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2496See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2497
a0d0e21e
LW
2498=item msg%s not implemented
2499
2500(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2501
2502=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2503
75b44862
GS
2504(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2505They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2506
49704364 2507=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2508
49704364
WL
2509(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2510follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2511See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2512
2513=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2514
be771a83
GS
2515(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2516that yet.
6df41af2 2517
30c282f6 2518=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2519
be771a83
GS
2520(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2521sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2522local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2523
8b1a09fc 2524=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2525
e476b1b5 2526(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2527If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2528again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2529provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2530
64b374f4
FD
2531NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2532%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2533the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2534will not trigger this warning.
2535
49704364
WL
2536=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2537
2538(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2539negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2540
a0d0e21e
LW
2541=item Negative length
2542
be771a83
GS
2543(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2544length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2545
ed9aa3b7
SG
2546=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2547
2548(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2549greater than or equal to zero.
2550
7253e4e3 2551=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2552
b45f050a 2553(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2554things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2555expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2556
7253e4e3 2557Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2558C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2559
6df41af2 2560=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2561
be771a83
GS
2562(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2563scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2564
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2565=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2566
2567(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2568real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2569See L<mro>.
2570
a0d0e21e
LW
2571=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2572
be771a83
GS
2573(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2574setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2575will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2576securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2577
a0d0e21e
LW
2578=item No comma allowed after %s
2579
2580(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2581allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2582Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2583
0a753a76 2584One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2585constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2586importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2587does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2588explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2589L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2590would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2591remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2592constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2593list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2594this error was triggered?
2595
748a9306
LW
2596=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2597
be771a83
GS
2598(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2599redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2600doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2601
a0d0e21e
LW
2602=item No DB::DB routine defined
2603
be771a83 2604(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2605for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2606module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2607statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2608
2609=item No dbm on this machine
2610
2611(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2612supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2613
ccafdc96 2614=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2615
ccafdc96
RGS
2616(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2617for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2618module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2619of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2620
96ebfdd7
RK
2621=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2622
2623(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2624
c47ff5f1 2625=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2626
be771a83
GS
2627(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2628redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2629find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2630
49704364
WL
2631=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2632
2633(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2634matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2635
c47ff5f1 2636=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2637
be771a83
GS
2638(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2639redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2640name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2641
6df41af2
GS
2642=item No #! line
2643
2644(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2645even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2646
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2647=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2648
2649(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2650in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2651it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2652or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2653
6df41af2
GS
2654=item "no" not allowed in expression
2655
be771a83
GS
2656(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2657returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2658
c47ff5f1 2659=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2660
be771a83
GS
2661(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2662redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2663doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2664
c47ff5f1 2665=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2666
be771a83
GS
2667(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2668redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2669find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2670
1ec3e8de
GS
2671=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2672
be771a83
GS
2673(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2674declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2675semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2676
a0d0e21e
LW
2677=item No Perl script found in input
2678
2679(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2680with #! and containing the word "perl".
2681
2682=item No setregid available
2683
2684(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2685your system.
2686
2687=item No setreuid available
2688
2689(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2690your system.
2691
6df41af2
GS
2692=item No %s specified for -%c
2693
2694(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2695you haven't specified one.
2696
e75d1f10
RD
2697=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2698
2699(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2700but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2701package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2702
2c692339
RGS
2703=item No such class %s
2704
30c282f6 2705(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2706this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2707
3c20a832
SP
2708=item No such hook: %s
2709
2710(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2711accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2712
6df41af2
GS
2713=item No such pipe open
2714
2715(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2716close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2717earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2718
a0d0e21e
LW
2719=item No such signal: SIG%s
2720
be771a83
GS
2721(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2722not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2723names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2724
2725=item Not a CODE reference
2726
2727(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2728subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2729use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2730also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2731
2732=item Not a format reference
2733
2734(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2735format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2736
2737=item Not a GLOB reference
2738
be771a83
GS
2739(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2740symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2741something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2742kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2743
2744=item Not a HASH reference
2745
be771a83
GS
2746(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2747reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2748find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2749
6df41af2
GS
2750=item Not an ARRAY reference
2751
be771a83
GS
2752(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2753a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2754to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2755
a0d0e21e
LW
2756=item Not a perl script
2757
2758(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2759even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2760mention perl.
2761
2762=item Not a SCALAR reference
2763
be771a83
GS
2764(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2765a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2766to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2767
2768=item Not a subroutine reference
2769
2770(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2771subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2772use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2773also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2774
e7ea3e70 2775=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2776
2777(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2778doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2779
a0d0e21e
LW
2780=item Not enough arguments for %s
2781
2782(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2783
6df41af2
GS
2784=item Not enough format arguments
2785
be771a83
GS
2786(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2787supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2788
2789=item %s: not found
2790
be771a83
GS
2791(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2792of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2793yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2794
2795=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2796
6df41af2
GS
2797(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2798timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2799to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2800F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2801need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 2802
4ef2275c
GA
2803=item Non-string passed as bitmask
2804
2805(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
2806Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
2807select. See L<perlfunc/select>
2808
a0d0e21e
LW
2809=item Null filename used
2810
be771a83
GS
2811(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2812machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2813
6df41af2
GS
2814=item NULL OP IN RUN
2815
be771a83
GS
2816(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2817pointer.
6df41af2 2818
55497cff 2819=item Null picture in formline
2820
2821(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2822specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2823supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2824
a0d0e21e
LW
2825=item Null realloc
2826
2827(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2828
2829=item NULL regexp argument
2830
5f05dabc 2831(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2832
2833=item NULL regexp parameter
2834
2835(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2836
fc36a67e 2837=item Number too long
2838
be771a83 2839(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 2840about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
2841versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2842the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2843"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2844
6df41af2
GS
2845=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2846
be771a83
GS
2847(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2848The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2849future version.
6df41af2 2850
252aa082
JH
2851=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2852
75b44862 2853(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2854(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2855L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2856
2857See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2858
6ad11d81
JH
2859=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
2860
04a80ee0
RGS
2861(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
2862arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 2863
b21befc1
MG
2864=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
2865
2866(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2867which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
2868
1930e939 2869=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2870
be771a83
GS
2871(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2872which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2873
bbce6d69 2874=item Offset outside string
2875
42bc49da
JH
2876(F, W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
2877with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
2878imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
2879take place when going past the end of the string when either
2880C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
2881for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
2882with real files).
bbce6d69 2883
c289d2f7 2884=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
2885
2886(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
2887never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
2888call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
2889
96ebfdd7
RK
2890=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
2891
2892(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
2893that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2894
a0d0e21e
LW
2895=item oops: oopsAV
2896
e476b1b5 2897(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2898
2899=item oops: oopsHV
2900
e476b1b5 2901(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2902
abc718f2
RGS
2903=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
2904
2905(W io deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
2906a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
2907Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
2908and is deprecated.
2909
2910=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
2911
2912(W io deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
2913a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
2914Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
2915and is deprecated.
2916
a0288114 2917=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2918
be771a83
GS
2919(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2920handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2921of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2922C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2923
748a9306
LW
2924=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2925
be771a83
GS
2926(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2927was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2928use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2929example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2930"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2931
6df41af2
GS
2932=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2933
be771a83
GS
2934(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2935in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2936
a80b8354
GS
2937=item Out of memory!
2938
2939(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2940remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2941no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2942
19a52907
JH
2943At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
2944process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
2945C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
2946the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
2947and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
2948
6d3b25aa
RGS
2949=item Out of memory during %s extend
2950
2951(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
2952the largest possible memory allocation.
2953
6df41af2 2954=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 2955
6df41af2
GS
2956(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2957remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
2958the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
2959possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 2960
1b979e0a 2961=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2962
be771a83
GS
2963(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
2964insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
2965request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2966
2967The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2968depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
2969However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
2970emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
2971is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
2972where the failed request happened.
55497cff 2973
1b979e0a
IZ
2974=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2975
2976(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
2977is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
2978C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 2979
6df41af2
GS
2980=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2981
be771a83
GS
2982(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
2983parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
2984otherwise.
6df41af2 2985
28be1210
TH
2986=item '.' outside of string in pack
2987
2988(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
2989position to before the start of the packed string being built.
2990
49704364 2991=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 2992
49704364 2993(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
2994the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2995
f337b084
TH
2996=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
2997
2998(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
2999the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3000UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3001
6df41af2
GS
3002=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3003
be771a83
GS
3004(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3005package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3006some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3007mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3008
96ebfdd7
RK
3009=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3010
3011(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3012signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3013
a0d0e21e
LW
3014=item page overflow
3015
be771a83
GS
3016(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3017page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3018
6df41af2
GS
3019=item panic: %s
3020
3021(P) An internal error.
3022
c99a1475
NC
3023=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3024
3025(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3026an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3027platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3028enter this branch on this platform.
3029
a0d0e21e
LW
3030=item panic: ck_grep
3031
3032(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3033
3034=item panic: ck_split
3035
3036(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
3037
3038=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
3039
be771a83
GS
3040(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
3041there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 3042
810b8aa5
GS
3043=item panic: del_backref
3044
3045(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
3046reference.
3047
7619c85e
RG
3048=item panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
3049
3050(P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
3051last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called from
3052an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is
3053a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.
3054
a0d0e21e
LW
3055=item panic: die %s
3056
3057(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
3058it wasn't an eval context.
3059
a0d0e21e
LW
3060=item panic: do_subst
3061
be771a83
GS
3062(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
3063data.
a0d0e21e 3064
2269b42e 3065=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 3066
2269b42e 3067(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 3068data.
a0d0e21e 3069
b7f7fd0b
NC
3070=item panic: fold_constants JMPENV_PUSH returned %d
3071
10203f38 3072(P) While attempting folding constants an exception other than an C<eval>
b7f7fd0b
NC
3073failure was caught.
3074
c635e13b 3075=item panic: frexp
3076
3077(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
3078
a0d0e21e
LW
3079=item panic: goto
3080
3081(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
3082and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
3083
23976bdd
NC
3084=item panic: hfreeentries failed to free hash
3085
3086(P) The internal routine used to clear a hashes entries tried repeatedly,
3087but each time something added more entries to the hash. Most likely the hash
3088contains an object with a reference back to the hash and a destructor that
3089adds a new object to the hash.
3090
a0d0e21e
LW
3091=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
3092
3093(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
3094
3095=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
3096
3097(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
3098
e446cec8
IZ
3099=item panic: kid popen errno read
3100
3101(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
3102
a0d0e21e
LW
3103=item panic: last
3104
3105(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
3106it wasn't a block context.
3107
3108=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
3109
be771a83
GS
3110(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
3111scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
3112
3113=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
3114
3115(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
3116invalid enum on the top of it.
3117
810b8aa5
GS
3118=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
3119
3120(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
3121references to an object.
3122
6df41af2
GS
3123=item panic: malloc
3124
3125(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
3126
27d5b266
JH
3127=item panic: memory wrap
3128
3129(P) Something tried to allocate more memory than possible.
3130
a0d0e21e
LW
3131=item panic: pad_alloc
3132
3133(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3134and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3135
3136=item panic: pad_free curpad
3137
3138(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3139and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3140
3141=item panic: pad_free po
3142
3143(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3144
3145=item panic: pad_reset curpad
3146
3147(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3148and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3149
3150=item panic: pad_sv po
3151
3152(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3153
3154=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
3155
3156(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3157and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3158
3159=item panic: pad_swipe po
3160
3161(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3162
3163=item panic: pp_iter
3164
3165(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
3166
96ebfdd7
RK
3167=item panic: pp_match%s
3168
3169(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
3170data.
3171
2269b42e
JH
3172=item panic: pp_split
3173
3174(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
3175
a0d0e21e
LW
3176=item panic: realloc
3177
3178(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
3179
3180=item panic: restartop
3181
3182(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
3183didn't supply the destination.
3184
3185=item panic: return
3186
3187(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
3188then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
3189
3190=item panic: scan_num
3191
3192(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
3193
6c65d5f9
NC
3194=item panic: sv_chop %s
3195
3196(P) The sv_chop() routine was passed a position that is not within the
3197scalar's string buffer.
3198
a0d0e21e
LW
3199=item panic: sv_insert
3200
3201(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
3202was string.
3203
3204=item panic: top_env
3205
6224f72b 3206(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e 3207
65bca31a
NC
3208=item panic: unimplemented op %s (#%d) called
3209
3210(P) The compiler is screwed up and attempted to use an op that isn't permitted
3211at run time.
3212
dea0fc0b
JH
3213=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
3214
3215(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
64977eb6 3216to even) byte length.
dea0fc0b 3217
2f7da168
RK
3218=item panic: yylex
3219
3220(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
3221
1a147d38
YO
3222=item Pattern subroutine nesting without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3223
3224(F) You used a pattern that uses too many nested subpattern calls without
3225consuming any text. Restructure the pattern so text is consumed before the
3226nesting limit is exceeded.
3227
3228The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
3229discovered.
3230
7b8d334a 3231=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 3232
e476b1b5 3233(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
3234
3235 my $foo, $bar = @_;
3236
3237when you meant
3238
3239 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
3240
30c282f6 3241Remember that "my", "our", "local" and "state" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 3242
96ebfdd7
RK
3243=item C<-p> destination: %s
3244
3245(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
3246command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
3247redirected it with select().)
3248
3249=item (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
3250
3251(F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3252"Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"". It often means
3253that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.
3254
1109a392
MHM
3255=item Perl_my_%s() not available
3256
3257(F) Your platform has very uncommon byte-order and integer size,
3258so it was not possible to set up some or all fixed-width byte-order
3259conversion functions. This is only a problem when you're using the
3260'<' or '>' modifiers in (un)pack templates. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3261
6d3b25aa
RGS
3262=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
3263
3264(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
3265recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
3266you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
3267
6df41af2
GS
3268=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3269
3270(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
fecfaeb8 3271C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 3272
96ebfdd7
RK
3273=item PERL_SIGNALS illegal: "%s"
3274
3275See L<perlrun/PERL_SIGNALS> for legal values.
3276
6df41af2
GS
3277=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3278
3279(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3280
3281 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3282 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3283 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3284 LANG = (unset)
3285 are supported and installed on your system.
3286 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3287
3288Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3289settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
0ea6b70f
JH
3290This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your operating
3291system supplier and/or system administrator have set up the so-called
3292locale system but Perl could not use those settings. This was not
3293dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that
3294Perl can and will use, the script will be run. Before you really fix
3295the problem, however, you will get the same error message each time
3296you run Perl. How to really fix the problem can be found in
3297L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 3298
bd3fa61c 3299=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 3300
be771a83
GS
3301(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
3302process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
3303fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 3304
49704364 3305=item 'P' must have an explicit size in unpack
3bf38418
WL
3306
3307(F) The unpack format P must have an explicit size, not "*".
3308
96ebfdd7
RK
3309=item POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3310
3311(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. The <-- HERE
3312shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
3313Note that the POSIX character classes do B<not> have the C<is> prefix
3314the corresponding C interfaces have: in other words, it's C<[[:print:]]>,
3315not C<isprint>. See L<perlre>.
3316
3317=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
3318
3319(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
3320the BSD version, which takes a pid.
3321
49704364 3322=item POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 3323
9a0b3859 3324(W regexp) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
7253e4e3
RK
3325I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for example:
3326/[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not currently
3327implemented; they are simply placeholders for future extensions and will
3328cause fatal errors. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
3329where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3330
49704364 3331=item POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3332
3333(F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
7253e4e3
RK
3334beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
3335If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
3336expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
3337backslash: "\[." and ".\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
3338about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3339
49704364 3340=item POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 3341
7253e4e3
RK
3342(F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
3343with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions. If you
3344need to represent those character sequences inside a regular expression
3345character class, just quote the square brackets with the backslash: "\[="
3346and "=\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
3347problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3348
bbce6d69 3349=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
3350
e476b1b5 3351(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
75b44862 3352strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as
be771a83
GS
3353literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
3354parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 3355
774d564b 3356You probably wrote something like this:
3357
54310121 3358 @list = qw(
774d564b 3359 a # a comment
bbce6d69 3360 b # another comment
774d564b 3361 );
bbce6d69 3362
3363when you should have written this:
3364
774d564b 3365 @list = qw(
54310121 3366 a
3367 b
774d564b 3368 );
3369
3370If you really want comments, build your list the
3371old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
3372
3373 @list = (
3374 'a', # a comment
3375 'b', # another comment
3376 );
bbce6d69 3377
3378=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
3379
be771a83
GS
3380(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
3381commas aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used
3382different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
3383frequently used.)
bbce6d69 3384
54310121 3385You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 3386
774d564b 3387 qw! a, b, c !;
3388
3389which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
3390commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 3391
774d564b 3392 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 3393
a0d0e21e
LW
3394=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
3395
3396(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
3397Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
3398end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
3399Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
3400
276b2a0c
RGS
3401=item Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator
3402
3403(W precedence) Your program uses a bitwise logical operator in conjunction
3404with a numeric comparison operator, like this :
3405
3406 if ($x & $y == 0) { ... }
3407
3408This expression is actually equivalent to C<$x & ($y == 0)>, due to the
3409higher precedence of C<==>. This is probably not what you want. (If you
96a925ab
YST
3410really meant to write this, disable the warning, or, better, put the
3411parentheses explicitly and write C<$x & ($y == 0)>).
276b2a0c 3412
18623440
PS
3413=item Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string
3414