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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
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94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
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100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
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106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
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115(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
116transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 118a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
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125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
b0fdf69e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 135
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136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
137subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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138
139 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 140 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 141 &do_something
a0d0e21e 142
8ea97a1e 143=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 144
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145(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
146such as:
5f05dabc 147
148 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 149 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 150
8ea97a1e 151or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 152
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153 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
154 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 155
6df41af2 156=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 157
6df41af2 158(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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159name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
160error.
a0d0e21e 161
f86702cc 162=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 163
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164(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
165that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
166will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 167
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168=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
169
170(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
171forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
172data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
173the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
174If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
175the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
176
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177=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
178
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179(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
180spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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181
182=item assertion botched: %s
183
184(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
185
186=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
187
188(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
189
190=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
191
192(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
193must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
194know which context to supply to the right side.
195
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196=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
197
4447dfc1 198(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
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199thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
200Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
201created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
202thread. See L<threads>.
203
2393f1b9 204=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 205
49293501 206(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 207the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 208
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209=item Attempt to bless into a reference
210
211(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
212the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
213supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
214
215 bless $self, $proto;
216
217when you intended
218
219 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
220
221If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
222of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
223example by:
224
225 bless $self, "$proto";
226
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227=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
228
229(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
230which is not in its key set.
231
232=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
233
234(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
235declared readonly from a restricted hash.
236
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237=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
238
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239(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
240that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
241outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 242
54310121 243=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 244
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245(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
246strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
247strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
248of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 249
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250=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
251
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252(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
253free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
254SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
255free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
256try to free it.
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257
258=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
259
e476b1b5 260(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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261
262=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
263
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264(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
265see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
266earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
267This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
268that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
269mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
270corrupted.
a0d0e21e 271
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272=item Attempt to join self
273
274(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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275impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
276to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 277
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278=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
279
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280(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
281function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
282means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
283invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
284literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
285avoid this warning.
84902520 286
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287=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
288
289(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
290compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
291unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
292L<perlvar/%INC>.
293
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294=item Attempt to set length of freed array
295
296(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
297can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
298of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
299
300 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
301 $$r = 503
302
b7a902f4 303=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
304
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305(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
306used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
307dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 308
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309=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
310
311(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "locked"
312attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
313effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in the next major
314release of Perl 5.
315
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316=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
317
318(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 319attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
259976bd 320had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in the next major
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321release of Perl 5.
322
fe13d51d 323=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
a0d0e21e 324
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325(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
326or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 327S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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328S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
329
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330=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
331
496a33f5 332(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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333substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
334most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
335
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336=item Bad filehandle: %s
337
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338(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
339symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
340open(), or did it in another package.
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341
342=item Bad free() ignored
343
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344(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
345been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 346setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 347
9ea8bc6d 348This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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349dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
350which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 351
aa689395 352=item Bad hash
353
354(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
355
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356=item Badly placed ()'s
357
358(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
359of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
360Perl yourself.
361
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362=item Bad name after %s::
363
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364(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
365didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
366of quotes, so
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367
368 $var = 'myvar';
369 $sym = mypack::$var;
370
371is not the same as
372
373 $var = 'myvar';
374 $sym = "mypack::$var";
375
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376=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
377
378(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
379plugin API.
380
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381=item Bad realloc() ignored
382
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383(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
384never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
385by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 386
a0d0e21e
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387=item Bad symbol for array
388
389(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
390wasn't a symbol table entry.
391
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392=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
393
394(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
395that wasn't a symbol table entry.
396
397
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398=item Bad symbol for filehandle
399
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400(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
401that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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402
403=item Bad symbol for hash
404
405(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
406wasn't a symbol table entry.
407
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408=item Bareword found in conditional
409
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410(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
411conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
412of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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413
414 open FOO || die;
415
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416It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
417a bareword:
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418
419 use constant TYPO => 1;
420 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
421
422The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
423
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424=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
425
426(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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427subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
428symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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429
430=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
431
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432(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
433compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
434you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 435
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436=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
437
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438(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
439subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
440exited.
a0d0e21e 441
68dc0745 442=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
443
444(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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445implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
446occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
447be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
448depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 449
6df41af2
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450=item \1 better written as $1
451
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452(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
453The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
454substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
455because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
456there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 457
252aa082
JH
458=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
459
e476b1b5 460(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
461(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
462L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 463
69282e91 464=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 465
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466(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
467check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 468
c289d2f7
JH
469=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
470
471(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
472Check you control flow and number of arguments.
473
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JH
474=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
475
e476b1b5 476(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 477
4633a7c4
LW
478=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
479
be771a83 480(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 481copyable.
4633a7c4 482
f675dbe5
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483=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
484
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485(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
486iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
487which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 488
a0d0e21e
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489=item Callback called exit
490
4929bf7b 491(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
492exited by calling exit.
493
6df41af2 494=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 495
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496(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
497parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
498that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
499early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
500subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
501checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
502function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
503the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 504
49704364 505=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
506
507(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
508compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
509attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
510See L<perlfunc/pack>.
511
49704364 512=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
513
514(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
515format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
516
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NC
517=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
518
519(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
520then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
521triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
522from that type of reference to a typeglob.
523
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NC
524=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
525
526(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
527be directly assigned not.
528
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RGS
529=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
530
531(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
532either with open() or binmode().
533
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RK
534=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
535
536(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
537integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
538to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
539
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540=item Can't bless non-reference value
541
542(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
543encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
544
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545=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
546
0d863452
RH
547(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
548a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
549
550=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 551
0d863452
RH
552(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
553
a0d0e21e
LW
554=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
555
556(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
557functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
558in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
559
6df41af2
GS
560=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
561
562(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
563object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
564like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
565
566 $BADREF = undef;
567 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
568 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
569
a0d0e21e
LW
570=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
571
54310121 572(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
573ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
574didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
575object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
576
577=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
578
579(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
580object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
581defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
582Something like this will reproduce the error:
583
584 $BADREF = 42;
585 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
586 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
587
a0d0e21e
LW
588=item Can't chdir to %s
589
590(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
591that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
592
0545a864 593=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 594
be771a83
GS
595(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
596nosuid.
104d25b7 597
6df41af2
GS
598=item Can't coerce array into hash
599
600(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
601information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
602only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
603
a0d0e21e
LW
604=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
605
606(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 607(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
608say things like:
609
610 *foo += 1;
611
612You CAN say
613
614 $foo = *foo;
615 $foo += 1;
616
617but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
618
619=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
620
621(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 622(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
623
624=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
625
626(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 627(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 628
0d863452 629=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 630
0d863452
RH
631(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
632or C<default> block.
633
a0d0e21e
LW
634=item Can't create pipe mailbox
635
be771a83
GS
636(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
637quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 638
eb64745e 639=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 640
2f7e735d 641(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 642class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 643extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
644
645=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
646
30c282f6
NC
647(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
648"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 649
6df41af2
GS
650=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
651
be771a83
GS
652(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
653a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 654
a0d0e21e
LW
655=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
656
be771a83
GS
657(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
658reason.
a0d0e21e 659
54310121 660=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 661
be771a83
GS
662(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
663reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
664C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 665
10f9c03d 666=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 667
e476b1b5 668(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
669characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
670inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 671
7253e4e3 672=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 673
b45f050a 674(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 675regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 676regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 677
a0d0e21e
LW
678=item Can't do waitpid with flags
679
be771a83
GS
680(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
681waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 682
a0d0e21e
LW
683=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
684
be771a83
GS
685(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
686point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
687line.
a0d0e21e 688
1109a392
MHM
689=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
690
691(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
692or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
693little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
694See L<perlfunc/pack>.
695
a0d0e21e
LW
696=item Can't exec "%s": %s
697
d1be9408 698(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
699named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
700permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
701C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
702architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
703can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
704#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
705
706=item Can't exec %s
707
be771a83
GS
708(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
709that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
710need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
711
712=item Can't execute %s
713
be771a83
GS
714(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
715found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 716
6df41af2 717=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 718
be771a83
GS
719(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
720is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 721
56ca2fc0
JH
722=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
723
724(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
725could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
726See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
727for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 728
6df41af2
GS
729=item Can't find label %s
730
be771a83
GS
731(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
732possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
733
734=item Can't find %s on PATH
735
be771a83
GS
736(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
737found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 738
6df41af2 739=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 740
be771a83
GS
741(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
742found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
743script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
744
745=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
746
be771a83
GS
747(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
748that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
749nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 750
fb73857a 751 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
752
be771a83
GS
753If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
754unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
755editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 756
660a4616
TS
757=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
758
759(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
e1b711da
KW
760example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
761Unicode property, see
762L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
763for a complete list of available properties.
660a4616
TS
764If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
765by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
766possible C<\E>).
767
b3647a36 768=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 769
be771a83
GS
770(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
771pipeline.
a0d0e21e 772
b3647a36
SR
773=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
774
c973c02e 775(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
776after five seconds.
777
748a9306
LW
778=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
779
be771a83
GS
780(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
781between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
782Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
783the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
784account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
785the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
786the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
787the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
788if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
789because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
790appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
791and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
792routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
793shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
794only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 795
a0d0e21e
LW
796=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
797
be771a83
GS
798(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
799pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
800
801=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
802
748a9306
LW
803(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
804mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 805
6df41af2 806=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 807
be771a83
GS
808(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
809loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
810
811=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
812
be771a83
GS
813(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
814a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
815you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
816See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 817
9850bf21 818=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 819
9850bf21
RH
820(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
821comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
822as the reduce() function in List::Util).
823
c74ace89 824=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 825
be771a83 826(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 827"string" or block.
b150fb22 828
6df41af2
GS
829=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
830
be771a83
GS
831(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
832subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
833cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
834routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 835
0b5b802d
GS
836=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
837
be771a83
GS
838(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
839signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
840signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
841processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
842situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
843may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 844
e2c0f81f
DG
845=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
846
847(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
848attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
849process identifier.
850
6df41af2 851=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 852
6df41af2 853(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
854except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
855block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
856block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
857usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
858inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
859L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 860
2c7d6b9c
RGS
861=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
862
863(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
864package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
865
b8170e59
JB
866=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
867
868(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
869may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
870incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
871between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 872extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
873installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
874extensions.
875
748a9306
LW
876=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
877
2ba9eb46 878(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 879lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
880localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
881package name.
882
6df41af2 883=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 884
6df41af2
GS
885(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
886handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 887pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 888that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 889
ea071790 890=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
891
892(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
893found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
894unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
895need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
896the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
897to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
898L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 899
6df41af2
GS
900=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
901
be771a83
GS
902(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
903autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
904are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
905the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 906
b8170e59
JB
907=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
908
909(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
910for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
911unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
912
a0d0e21e
LW
913=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
914
915(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
916functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 917method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
918
919=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
920
be771a83
GS
921(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
922doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 923
2f7da168
RK
924=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
925
926(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
927e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
928
3e3baf6d
TB
929=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
930
be771a83
GS
931(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
932VMS.
3e3baf6d 933
a0d0e21e
LW
934=item Can't modify %s in %s
935
be771a83
GS
936(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
937to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 938
54310121 939=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
940
941(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
942a NULL.
943
6df41af2
GS
944=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
945
946(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
947such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
948
5f05dabc 949=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 950
5f05dabc 951(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
952buffer.
953
6df41af2
GS
954=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
955
956(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
957there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
958count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
959grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
960though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
961once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 962
a0d0e21e
LW
963=item Can't open %s: %s
964
c47ff5f1 965(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
966filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
967switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
968is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
969the command line.
a0d0e21e 970
9a869a14
RGS
971=item Can't open a reference
972
973(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
974using the 3-arg open() syntax :
975
976 open FH, '>', $ref;
977
978but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
979open is not supported.
980
a0d0e21e
LW
981=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
982
be771a83
GS
983(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
984You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
985as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
986">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 987
748a9306
LW
988=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
989
be771a83
GS
990(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
991redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
992the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
993
994=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
995
be771a83
GS
996(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
997redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
998command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
999
1000=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1001
be771a83
GS
1002(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1003redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1004the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1005
1006=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1007
be771a83
GS
1008(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1009redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1010for stdout.
748a9306 1011
2b8ca739 1012=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1013
1014(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1015
fa3aa65a
JC
1016If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1017shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1018you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1019
6df41af2
GS
1020=item Can't read CRTL environ
1021
1022(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1023from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1024missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1025or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1026searched.
6df41af2 1027
6df41af2
GS
1028=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1029
1030(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1031there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1032count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1033or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1034though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1035loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1036
64977eb6 1037=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1038
be771a83
GS
1039(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1040file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1041the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1042
a0d0e21e
LW
1043=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1044
e476b1b5 1045(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1046probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1047
748a9306
LW
1048=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1049
be771a83
GS
1050(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1051to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1052
fe13d51d 1053=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1054
be771a83
GS
1055(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1056to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1057method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1058
cd06dffe
GS
1059=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1060
be771a83
GS
1061(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1062temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1063is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1064
96ebfdd7
RK
1065=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1066
1067(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1068there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1069
78f9721b
SM
1070=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1071
1072(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1073but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1074to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1075the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1076list context.
1077
a0d0e21e
LW
1078=item Can't stat script "%s"
1079
be771a83
GS
1080(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1081open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1082
a0d0e21e
LW
1083=item Can't take log of %g
1084
fb73857a 1085(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1086negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1087standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1088negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1089
1090=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1091
1092(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1093negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1094with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1095
1096=item Can't undef active subroutine
1097
1098(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1099however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1100redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1101
1102=item Can't unshift
1103
1104(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1105as the main Perl stack.
1106
c81225bc 1107=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1108
be771a83
GS
1109(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1110into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1111specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1112indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1113
1db89ea5
BS
1114=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1115
e27ad1f2 1116(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1117table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1118for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1119
96ebfdd7
RK
1120=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1121
1122(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1123be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1124
6df41af2
GS
1125=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1126
be771a83
GS
1127(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1128references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1129
90b75b61 1130=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1131
1132(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1133Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1134provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1135
1109a392
MHM
1136=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1137
1138(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1139byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1140allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1141
6df41af2
GS
1142=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1143
be771a83
GS
1144(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1145foreach.
6df41af2 1146
aab6a793 1147=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1148
be771a83
GS
1149(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1150is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1151(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1152have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1153weren't.
1154
6d3b25aa
RGS
1155=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1156
1157(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1158that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1159For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1160is inside a big-endian group.
1161
28ccebc4
RGS
1162=item Can't use keyword '%s' as a label
1163
1164(F) You attempted to use a reserved keyword, such as C<print> or C<BEGIN>,
1165as a statement label. This is disallowed since Perl 5.11.0.
1166
c07a80fd 1167=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1168
1169(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1170You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1171and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1172Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1173lexical variable.
1174
a0d0e21e
LW
1175=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1176
1177(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1178reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1179test the type of the reference, if need be.
1180
748a9306 1181=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1182
be771a83
GS
1183(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1184references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1185
748a9306
LW
1186=item Can't use subscript on %s
1187
1188(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1189subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1190didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1191
6df41af2
GS
1192=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1193
75b44862
GS
1194(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1195creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1196backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1197expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1198value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1199instead.
6df41af2 1200
0d863452 1201=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1202
0d863452
RH
1203(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1204loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1205from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1206or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1207
810b8aa5
GS
1208=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1209
1210(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1211references can be weakened.
1212
5f05dabc 1213=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1214
be771a83
GS
1215(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1216with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1217Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1218
f337b084 1219=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1220
1221(W pack) You said
1222
1223 pack("C", $x)
1224
1225where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1226only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1227and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1228
1229 pack("C", $x & 255)
1230
1231If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1232instead.
1233
f337b084
TH
1234=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1235
1236(W pack) You said
1237
1238 pack("U0W", $x)
1239
1240where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1241all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1242meant:
1243
1244 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1245
1246=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1247
1248(W pack) You said
1249
1250 pack("c", $x)
1251
1252where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1253is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1254and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1255
1256 pack("c", $x & 255);
1257
1258If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1259instead.
1260
f337b084
TH
1261=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1262
1263(W unpack) You tried something like
1264
1265 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1266
1a147d38 1267where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1268below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1269modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1270
1271 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1272
1273=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1274
1275(W pack) You tried something like
1276
1277 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1278
1a147d38
YO
1279where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1280value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1281uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1282
1283 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1284
1285=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1286
1287(W unpack) You tried something like
1288
1289 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1290
1a147d38
YO
1291where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1292value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1293uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1294
1295 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1296
96ebfdd7
RK
1297=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1298
1299(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1300
abc7ecad
SP
1301=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1302
1303(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1304a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1305
49704364
WL
1306=item Code missing after '/'
1307
1308(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1309template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1310
6df41af2
GS
1311=item %s: Command not found
1312
be771a83
GS
1313(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1314Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1315
7a2e2cd6 1316=item Compilation failed in require
1317
1318(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1319Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1320encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1321
c3464db5
DD
1322=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1323
be771a83
GS
1324(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1325situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1326to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1327arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1328recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1329under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1330in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1331that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1332on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1333
38875929
DM
1334=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1335
1336(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1337cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1338function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1339cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1340has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1341first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1342after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1343lock.
1344
38875929
DM
1345=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1346
1347(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1348cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1349function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1350cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1351has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1352first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1353after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1354lock.
1355
69282e91 1356=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1357
be771a83
GS
1358(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1359to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1360L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1361
41ab332f 1362=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1363
be771a83
GS
1364(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1365an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1366specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1367corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1368L<overload>.
6df41af2 1369
fc8cd66c
YO
1370=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1371
1a147d38
YO
1372(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1373the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1374forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1375See L<charnames>.
1376
1377
779c5bc9
GS
1378=item Constant is not %s reference
1379
1380(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1381is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1382The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1383usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1384See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1385
4cee8e80
CS
1386=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1387
bb028877 1388(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1389eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1390commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1391
9607fc9c 1392=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1393
be771a83
GS
1394(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1395for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1396workarounds.
9607fc9c 1397
e7ea3e70
IZ
1398=item Copy method did not return a reference
1399
64977eb6 1400(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1401L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1402
6798c92b
GS
1403=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1404
1405(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1406
a0d0e21e
LW
1407=item corrupted regexp pointers
1408
1409(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1410expression compiler gave it.
1411
1412=item corrupted regexp program
1413
be771a83
GS
1414(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1415valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1416
6df41af2
GS
1417=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1418
1419(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1420
49704364
WL
1421=item Count after length/code in unpack
1422
1423(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1424you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1425L<perlfunc/pack>.
1426
a0d0e21e
LW
1427=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1428
be771a83
GS
1429(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1430100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1431infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1432which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1433
aad1d01f
NC
1434This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1435setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1436
f10b0346 1437=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1438
be771a83
GS
1439(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1440checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1441array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1442
f10b0346 1443=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1444
be771a83
GS
1445(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1446checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1447is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1448
62658f4d
PM
1449=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1450
1451(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1452there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1453
fc36a67e 1454=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1455
be771a83
GS
1456(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1457long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1458that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1459
6d3b25aa
RGS
1460=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1461
1462(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1463There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1464not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1465conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1466static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1467relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1468declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1469
6d3b25aa
RGS
1470 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1471
1472becomes
1473
1474 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1475
36fb85f3
RGS
1476Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1477have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1478
1479 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1480
500ab966
RGS
1481=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1482
1483(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1484just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1485to create a dangling reference.
1486
3cdd684c
TP
1487=item Did not produce a valid header
1488
1489See Server error.
1490
6df41af2
GS
1491=item %s did not return a true value
1492
1493(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1494it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1495traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1496do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1497
cc507455 1498=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1499
be771a83
GS
1500(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1501such.
4633a7c4 1502
cc507455 1503=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1504
be771a83
GS
1505(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1506variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1507seems superfluous.
33633739 1508
cc507455 1509=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1510
be771a83
GS
1511(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1512@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1513carried away.
748a9306 1514
7e1af8bc 1515=item Died
5f05dabc 1516
1517(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1518you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1519
3cdd684c
TP
1520=item Document contains no data
1521
1522See Server error.
1523
62658f4d
PM
1524=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1525
1526(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1527define a C<$VERSION.>
1528
49704364
WL
1529=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1530
1531(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1532See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1533
a0d0e21e
LW
1534=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1535
1536(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1537
1538=item do_study: out of memory
1539
1540(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1541
6df41af2
GS
1542=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1543
56da5a46
RGS
1544(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1545"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1546name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1547because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1548"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1549something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1550subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1551"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1552
ac206dc8
RGS
1553=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1554
1555(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1556qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1557
84d78eb7
YO
1558=item dump is not supported
1559
1560(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1561
a0d0e21e
LW
1562=item Duplicate free() ignored
1563
be771a83
GS
1564(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1565already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1566
1109a392
MHM
1567=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1568
1569(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1570in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1571
4633a7c4
LW
1572=item elseif should be elsif
1573
56da5a46
RGS
1574(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1575ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1576"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1577unlikely to be what you want.
1578
ab13f0c7
JH
1579=item Empty %s
1580
af6f566e
HS
1581(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1582described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1583a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1584
85ab1d1d 1585=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1586
85ab1d1d 1587(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1588effective uids or gids failed.
1589
c038024b
RGS
1590=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1591
1592(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1593aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1594program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1595
748a9306
LW
1596=item Error converting file specification %s
1597
5f05dabc 1598(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1599specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1600single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1601an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1602conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1603
e4d48cc9
GS
1604=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1605
be771a83
GS
1606(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1607expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1608is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1609
fc8f615e 1610=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1611
be771a83
GS
1612(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1613C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1614pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1615is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1616building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1617that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1618
6df41af2
GS
1619=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1620
be771a83
GS
1621(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1622assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1623pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1624
1a147d38
YO
1625=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1626
1627(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1628any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1629
1630The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1631discovered.
1632
fc36a67e 1633=item Excessively long <> operator
1634
1635(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1636Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1637filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1638variable and glob that.
1639
ed9aa3b7
SG
1640=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1641
1642(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1643
fe13d51d 1644=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1645
1646(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1647
1648=item Exiting eval via %s
1649
be771a83
GS
1650(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1651goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1652
1653=item Exiting format via %s
1654
9a2ff54b 1655(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1656goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1657
0a753a76 1658=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1659
be771a83
GS
1660(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1661sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1662loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1663
a0d0e21e
LW
1664=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1665
be771a83
GS
1666(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1667as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1668
1669=item Exiting substitution via %s
1670
be771a83
GS
1671(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1672as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1673
7b8d334a
GS
1674=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1675
be771a83
GS
1676(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1677the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1678usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1679e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1680
6df41af2
GS
1681=item %s: Expression syntax
1682
be771a83
GS
1683(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1684Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1685
1686=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1687
3c10abe3
AG
1688(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1689CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1690queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1691
7253e4e3 1692=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1693
be771a83 1694(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1695character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1696in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1697"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1698problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1699
748a9306 1700=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1701
be771a83
GS
1702(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1703system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1704details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1705you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1706
1707=item fcntl is not implemented
1708
1709(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1710PDP-11 or something?
1711
22846ab4
AB
1712=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1713
1714(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1715is not possible.
1716
f337b084
TH
1717=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1718
1719(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1720which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1721a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1722C<u63> as format.
1723
af8c498a 1724=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1725
6c8d78fb
HS
1726(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1727it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1728"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1729write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1730
af8c498a 1731=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1732
6c8d78fb
HS
1733(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1734you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1735with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1736intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1737Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1738(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1739
1740=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1741
1742(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1743as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1744previously.
1745
1746=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1747
1748(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1749as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1750
1751=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1752
1753(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1754a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1755happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1756name.
a0d0e21e 1757
56e90b21
GS
1758=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1759
be771a83 1760(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1761some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1762filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1763same name?
56e90b21 1764
6df41af2
GS
1765=item Format not terminated
1766
1767(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1768to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1769
a0d0e21e
LW
1770=item Format %s redefined
1771
e476b1b5 1772(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1773
1774 {
271595cc 1775 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1776 eval "format NAME =...";
1777 }
1778
a0d0e21e
LW
1779=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1780
e476b1b5 1781(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1782
1783 if ($foo = 123)
1784
1785when you meant
1786
1787 if ($foo == 123)
1788
1789(or something like that).
1790
6df41af2
GS
1791=item %s found where operator expected
1792
56da5a46
RGS
1793(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1794If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1795operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1796operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1797
a0d0e21e
LW
1798=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1799
1800(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1801
1802=item gethostent not implemented
1803
1804(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1805because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1806on the Internet.
1807
69282e91 1808=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1809
be771a83
GS
1810(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1811socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1812
748a9306
LW
1813=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1814
1815(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1816C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1817
6df41af2
GS
1818=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1819
be771a83
GS
1820(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1821forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1822L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1823
1824=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1825
a4edf47d 1826(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1827that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1828declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1829which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1830
e476b1b5
GS
1831=item glob failed (%s)
1832
be771a83
GS
1833(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1834C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1835C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1836nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1837resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1838broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1839config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1840were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1841empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1842think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1843C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1844
a0d0e21e
LW
1845=item Glob not terminated
1846
1847(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1848a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1849not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1850earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1851
8b56d6ff
FC
1852=item gmtime(%.0f) too large
1853
1854(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was beyond the 64-bit
1855range that it accepts, and some rounding resulted. This warning is also
1856triggered with nan (the special not-a-number value).
1857
6df41af2 1858=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1859
6df41af2
GS
1860(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1861version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1862
1863=item goto must have label
1864
1865(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1866unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1867
49704364 1868=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1869
49704364 1870(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1871supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1872 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1873
fe13d51d 1874=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1875
1876(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1877
a0d0e21e
LW
1878=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1879
be771a83
GS
1880(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1881to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1882created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1883
1884=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1885
be771a83
GS
1886(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1887spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1888
6df41af2
GS
1889=item %s has too many errors
1890
1891(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1892Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1893
252aa082
JH
1894=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1895
e476b1b5 1896(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1897(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1898L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1899
8903cb82 1900=item Identifier too long
1901
1902(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1903about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1904names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1905of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1906
fc8cd66c
YO
1907=item Ignoring %s in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1908
38a44b82 1909(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return multi-char
fc8cd66c 1910or zero length sequences. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 1911its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
1912been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
1913
6df41af2 1914=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1915
6df41af2 1916(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1917
6df41af2 1918=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1919
be771a83
GS
1920(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1921binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1922offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1923
4fdae800 1924=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1925
d5898338 1926(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1927would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1928when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1929version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1930to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1931
d37a9538
ST
1932=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
1933
197afce1
MT
1934(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
1935Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 1936
904d85c5
RGS
1937=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
1938
1939(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
1940you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
1941
8e742a20
MHM
1942=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
1943
1944(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
1945
a0d0e21e
LW
1946=item Illegal division by zero
1947
be771a83
GS
1948(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1949your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1950meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1951
6df41af2
GS
1952=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1953
be771a83
GS
1954(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1955A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1956number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1957
a0d0e21e
LW
1958=item Illegal modulus zero
1959
be771a83
GS
1960(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1961numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1962
6df41af2 1963=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1964
6df41af2
GS
1965(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1966two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1967
1968=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 1969
d1be9408 1970(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 1971
399388f4 1972=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1973
d1be9408 1974(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 1975Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1976
fe13d51d 1977=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 1978
6df41af2 1979(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 1980following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 1981
6df41af2 1982=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1983
75b44862 1984(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1985internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1986delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1987
6df41af2 1988=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1989
be771a83
GS
1990(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1991name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1992didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1993ignored.
54310121 1994
6df41af2 1995=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1996
be771a83
GS
1997(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1998the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1999system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2000times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2001would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2002
be771a83
GS
2003Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2004also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2005
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2006=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2007
2008(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2009C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2010documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2011
979699d9
JH
2012=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2013
2014(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2015Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2016encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2017
1a147d38
YO
2018=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2019
2020(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2021text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2022either consume text or fail.
2023
2024The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2025discovered.
2026
6dbe9451
NC
2027=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2028
2029(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2030of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2031C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2032as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2033
a0d0e21e
LW
2034=item Insecure dependency in %s
2035
8b1a09fc 2036(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2037The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2038setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2039tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2040from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2041such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2042L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2043
2044=item Insecure directory in %s
2045
be771a83
GS
2046(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2047setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2048the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2049See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2050
62f468fc 2051=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2052
2053(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2054setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2055C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2056supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2057the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2058
a7ae9550
GS
2059=item Integer overflow in %s number
2060
75b44862 2061(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2062either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2063your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2064On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2065representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
20660b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2067transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2068internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2069operations.
bbce6d69 2070
2fba7546
GA
2071=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2072
0be96356
AL
2073(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2074or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2075integers for your architecture.
2076
46314c13
JP
2077=item Integer overflow in version
2078
2079(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2080size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2081because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2082element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2083trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2084100/9.
2085
7253e4e3 2086=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2087
2088(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2089The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2090discovered.
2091
748a9306
LW
2092=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2093
be771a83
GS
2094(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2095you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2096to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2097L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2098Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2099terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2100
7253e4e3 2101=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2102
7253e4e3
RK
2103(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2104<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2105discovered.
a0d0e21e 2106
6df41af2
GS
2107=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2108
75b44862 2109(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2110followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2111operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2112L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2113
09bef843
SB
2114=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2115
2116The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
2117by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2118
2119=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2120
be771a83
GS
2121The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
2122recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2123
c635e13b 2124=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2125
be771a83
GS
2126(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2127L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2128
9e08bc66
TS
2129=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2130
2131(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2132didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2133from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2134The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2135The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2136escape was discovered.
2137
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2138=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2139
2140(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2141or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2142(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2143
7253e4e3 2144=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2145
2146(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2147greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2148C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2149up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2150problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2151
d1573ac7 2152=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2153
2154(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2155character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2156
09bef843
SB
2157=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2158
0120eecf 2159(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2160elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2161parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2162See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2163
b4581f09
JH
2164=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2165
2166(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2167colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2168If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2169list was terminated too soon.
2170
49704364 2171=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2172
49704364
WL
2173(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2174See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2175(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2176silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2177
46314c13
JP
2178=item Invalid version format (multiple underscores)
2179
2180(F) Versions may contain at most a single underscore, which signals
2181that the version is a beta release. See L<version> for the allowed
2182version formats.
2183
2184=item Invalid version format (underscores before decimal)
2185
2186(F) Versions may not contain decimals after the optional underscore.
2187See L<version> for the allowed version formats.
2188
a0d0e21e
LW
2189=item ioctl is not implemented
2190
2191(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2192strange for a machine that supports C.
2193
c289d2f7
JH
2194=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2195
2196(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2197Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2198
fe13d51d 2199=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2200
2201(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2202you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2203with 'useperlio'.
2204
80cbd5ad
JH
2205=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2206
2207(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2208neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2209
b4581f09
JH
2210=item $* is no longer supported
2211
d1d15184 2212(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2213been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2214C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2215
2216Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2217modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2218expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2219
8ae1fe26
RGS
2220=item $# is no longer supported
2221
d1d15184 2222(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2223been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2224printf/sprintf functions instead.
2225
6ad11d81
JH
2226=item `%s' is not a code reference
2227
04a80ee0
RGS
2228(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2229needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2230to a subroutine.
2231
2232=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2233
04a80ee0
RGS
2234(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2235unaware of.
6ad11d81 2236
a0d0e21e
LW
2237=item junk on end of regexp
2238
2239(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2240
2241=item Label not found for "last %s"
2242
be771a83
GS
2243(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2244of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2245L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2246
2247=item Label not found for "next %s"
2248
2249(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2250that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2251L<perlfunc/last>.
2252
2253=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2254
2255(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2256that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2257L<perlfunc/last>.
2258
85ab1d1d 2259=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2260
85ab1d1d 2261(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2262effective uids or gids failed.
2263
49704364
WL
2264=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2265
d7f8936a 2266(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
WL
2267length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2268an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2269
f0e67a1d
Z
2270=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2271
2272(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2273(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2274tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2275This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2276reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2277plain ASCII is recommended.
2278
2279=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2280
2281(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2282detectable way.
2283
69282e91 2284=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2285
be771a83
GS
2286(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2287to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2288L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2289
8b56d6ff
FC
2290=item localtime(%.0f) too large
2291
2292(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was beyond the
229364-bit range that it accepts, and some rounding resulted. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special not-a-number value).
2294
58e23c8d 2295=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2296
2297(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2298handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2299
b88df990
NC
2300=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2301
2302(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2303for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2304hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2305because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2306are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2307You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2308
2f7da168
RK
2309=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2310
2311(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2312by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2313instead on the filehandle.)
2314
885ef6f5
GG
2315=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2316
963d9ce9 2317(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
885ef6f5
GG
2318by declaring the subroutine with a lvalue attribute is not
2319possible. To make the the subroutine a lvalue subroutine add the
2320lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the the declaration before
2321the definition.
2322
96ebfdd7
RK
2323=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2324
2325(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2326values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2327L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2328
49704364
WL
2329=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2330
2331(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2332are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2333
2334=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2335
2336(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2337are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2338
6df41af2
GS
2339=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2340
2341(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2342
2343 prefix1;prefix2
2344
2345or
6df41af2
GS
2346 prefix1 prefix2
2347
be771a83
GS
2348with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2349a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2350appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2351"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2352
2f758a16
ST
2353=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2354
d37a9538
ST
2355(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2356syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2357obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2358when the function is called.
2f758a16 2359
ba210ebe
JH
2360=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2361
2575c402
JW
2362(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2363encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2364
2575c402
JW
2365One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2366you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
23678-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2368
2369If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2370sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2371set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2372message.
2373
2374See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2375
dea0fc0b
JH
2376=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2377
183097aa 2378(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2379doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2380
f337b084
TH
2381=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2382
2383(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2384rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2385
2386=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2387
2388(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2389rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2390
2391=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2392
2393(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2394rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2395
fe13d51d 2396=item Maximal count of pending signals (%d) exceeded
2563cec5 2397
fe13d51d 2398(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2399usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2400too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2401resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2402safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2403
49704364 2404=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2405
2406(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2407regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2408shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2409See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2410
25f58aea
PN
2411=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2412
2413(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2414interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2415"use" or "my".
2416
49704364 2417=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2418
2419(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2420checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2421See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2422
a0d0e21e
LW
2423=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2424
2425(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2426doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2427
3cdd684c
TP
2428=item Method %s not permitted
2429
2430See Server error.
2431
a0d0e21e
LW
2432=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2433
2434(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2435by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2436ended earlier on the current line.
2437
2438=item Misplaced _ in number
2439
d4ced10d
JH
2440(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2441separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2442
7baa4690
HS
2443=item Missing argument in %s
2444
2445(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2446supplied.
2447
9e81e6a1
RGS
2448=item Missing argument to -%c
2449
2450(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2451immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2452
4a2d328f 2453=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 2454
4a2d328f 2455(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
2456double-quotish context.
2457
a0d0e21e
LW
2458=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2459
2460(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2461"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2462
06eaf0bc
GS
2463=item Missing command in piped open
2464
be771a83
GS
2465(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2466C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2467blank.
06eaf0bc 2468
961ce445
RGS
2469=item Missing control char name in \c
2470
2471(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2472character name.
2473
6df41af2
GS
2474=item Missing name in "my sub"
2475
be771a83
GS
2476(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2477they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2478
2479=item Missing $ on loop variable
2480
be771a83
GS
2481(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2482are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2483can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2484
cc507455 2485=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2486
56da5a46
RGS
2487(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2488"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2489
ab13f0c7
JH
2490=item Missing right brace on %s
2491
6f5e54b9 2492(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}> or C<\P{...}>.
ab13f0c7 2493
d98d5fff 2494=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2495
be771a83
GS
2496(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2497ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2498were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2499
6df41af2
GS
2500=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2501
56da5a46
RGS
2502(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2503"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2504the previous line just because you saw this message.
2505
a0d0e21e
LW
2506=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2507
2508(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2509constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2510catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2511
2512 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2513 mod(2);
2514
2515Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2516
c5674021
PDF
2517Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2518is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2519
2520 $x = 1;
2521 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2522 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2523 }
c5674021 2524
7a4340ed 2525=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2526
2527(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2528subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2529backwards.
2530
7a4340ed 2531=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2532
be771a83
GS
2533(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2534couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2535
2536=item Module name must be constant
2537
2538(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2539
be98fb35 2540=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2541
be98fb35
GS
2542(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2543you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2544about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2545
fe13d51d 2546=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2547
2548(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2549can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2550list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2551See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2552
a0d0e21e
LW
2553=item msg%s not implemented
2554
2555(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2556
2557=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2558
75b44862
GS
2559(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2560They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2561
49704364 2562=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2563
49704364
WL
2564(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2565follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2566See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2567
2568=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2569
be771a83
GS
2570(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2571that yet.
6df41af2 2572
30c282f6 2573=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2574
be771a83
GS
2575(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2576sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2577local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2578
8b1a09fc 2579=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2580
e476b1b5 2581(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2582If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2583again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2584provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2585
64b374f4
FD
2586NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2587%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2588the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2589will not trigger this warning.
2590
49704364
WL
2591=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2592
2593(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2594negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2595
a0d0e21e
LW
2596=item Negative length
2597
be771a83
GS
2598(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2599length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2600
ed9aa3b7
SG
2601=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2602
2603(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2604greater than or equal to zero.
2605
7253e4e3 2606=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2607
b45f050a 2608(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2609things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2610expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2611
7253e4e3 2612Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2613C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2614
6df41af2 2615=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2616
be771a83
GS
2617(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2618scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2619
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2620=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2621
2622(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2623real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2624See L<mro>.
2625
a0d0e21e
LW
2626=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2627
be771a83
GS
2628(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2629setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2630will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2631securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2632
a0d0e21e
LW
2633=item No comma allowed after %s
2634
2635(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2636allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2637Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2638
0a753a76 2639One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2640constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2641importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2642does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2643explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2644L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2645would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2646remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2647constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2648list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2649this error was triggered?
2650
748a9306
LW
2651=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2652
be771a83
GS
2653(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2654redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2655doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2656
a0d0e21e
LW
2657=item No DB::DB routine defined
2658
be771a83 2659(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2660for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2661module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2662statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2663
2664=item No dbm on this machine
2665
2666(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2667supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2668
ccafdc96 2669=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2670
ccafdc96
RGS
2671(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2672for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2673module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2674of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2675
96ebfdd7
RK
2676=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2677
2678(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2679
c47ff5f1 2680=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2681
be771a83
GS
2682(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2683redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2684find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2685
49704364
WL
2686=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2687
2688(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2689matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2690
c47ff5f1 2691=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2692
be771a83
GS
2693(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2694redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2695name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2696
6df41af2
GS
2697=item No #! line
2698
2699(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2700even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2701
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2702=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2703
2704(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2705in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2706it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2707or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2708
6df41af2
GS
2709=item "no" not allowed in expression
2710
be771a83
GS
2711(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2712returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2713
c47ff5f1 2714=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2715
be771a83
GS
2716(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2717redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2718doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2719
c47ff5f1 2720=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2721
be771a83
GS
2722(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2723redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2724find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2725
1ec3e8de
GS
2726=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2727
be771a83
GS
2728(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2729declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2730semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2731
a0d0e21e
LW
2732=item No Perl script found in input
2733
2734(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2735with #! and containing the word "perl".
2736
2737=item No setregid available
2738
2739(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2740your system.
2741
2742=item No setreuid available
2743
2744(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2745your system.
2746
6df41af2
GS
2747=item No %s specified for -%c
2748
2749(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2750you haven't specified one.
2751
e75d1f10
RD
2752=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2753
2754(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2755but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2756package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2757
2c692339
RGS
2758=item No such class %s
2759
30c282f6 2760(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2761this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2762
3c20a832
SP
2763=item No such hook: %s
2764
2765(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2766accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2767
6df41af2
GS
2768=item No such pipe open
2769
2770(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2771close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2772earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2773
a0d0e21e
LW
2774=item No such signal: SIG%s
2775
be771a83
GS
2776(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2777not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2778names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2779
2780=item Not a CODE reference
2781
2782(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2783subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2784use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2785also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2786
2787=item Not a format reference
2788
2789(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2790format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2791
2792=item Not a GLOB reference
2793
be771a83
GS
2794(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2795symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2796something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2797kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2798
2799=item Not a HASH reference
2800
be771a83
GS
2801(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2802reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2803find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2804
6df41af2
GS
2805=item Not an ARRAY reference
2806
be771a83
GS
2807(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2808a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2809to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2810
a0d0e21e
LW
2811=item Not a perl script
2812
2813(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2814even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2815mention perl.
2816
2817=item Not a SCALAR reference
2818
be771a83
GS
2819(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2820a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2821to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2822
2823=item Not a subroutine reference
2824
2825(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2826subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2827use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2828also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2829
e7ea3e70 2830=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2831
2832(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2833doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2834
a0d0e21e
LW
2835=item Not enough arguments for %s
2836
2837(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2838
6df41af2
GS
2839=item Not enough format arguments
2840
be771a83
GS
2841(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2842supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2843
2844=item %s: not found
2845
be771a83
GS
2846(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2847of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2848yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2849
2850=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2851
6df41af2
GS
2852(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2853timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2854to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2855F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2856need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 2857
4ef2275c
GA
2858=item Non-string passed as bitmask
2859
2860(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
2861Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
2862select. See L<perlfunc/select>
2863
a0d0e21e
LW
2864=item Null filename used
2865
be771a83
GS
2866(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2867machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2868
6df41af2
GS
2869=item NULL OP IN RUN
2870
be771a83
GS
2871(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2872pointer.
6df41af2 2873
55497cff 2874=item Null picture in formline
2875
2876(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2877specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2878supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2879
a0d0e21e
LW
2880=item Null realloc
2881
2882(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2883
2884=item NULL regexp argument
2885
5f05dabc 2886(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2887
2888=item NULL regexp parameter
2889
2890(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2891
fc36a67e 2892=item Number too long
2893
be771a83 2894(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 2895about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
2896versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2897the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2898"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2899
6df41af2
GS
2900=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2901
be771a83
GS
2902(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2903The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2904future version.
6df41af2 2905
252aa082
JH
2906=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2907
75b44862 2908(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2909(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2910L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2911
2912See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2913
6ad11d81
JH
2914=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
2915
04a80ee0
RGS
2916(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
2917arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 2918
b21befc1
MG
2919=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
2920
2921(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2922which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
2923
1930e939 2924=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2925
be771a83
GS
2926(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2927which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2928
bbce6d69 2929=item Offset outside string
2930
42bc49da
JH
2931(F, W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
2932with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
2933imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
2934take place when going past the end of the string when either
2935C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
2936for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
2937with real files).
bbce6d69 2938
c289d2f7 2939=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
2940
2941(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
2942never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
2943call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
2944
96ebfdd7
RK
2945=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
2946
2947(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
2948that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2949
a0d0e21e
LW
2950=item oops: oopsAV
2951
e476b1b5 2952(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2953
2954=item oops: oopsHV
2955
e476b1b5 2956(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2957
abc718f2
RGS
2958=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
2959
2960(W io deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
2961a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
2962Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
2963and is deprecated.
2964
2965=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
2966
2967(W io deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
2968a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
2969Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
2970and is deprecated.
2971
a0288114 2972=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2973
be771a83
GS
2974(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2975handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2976of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2977C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2978
748a9306
LW
2979=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2980
be771a83
GS
2981(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2982was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2983use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2984example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2985"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2986
6df41af2
GS
2987=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2988
be771a83
GS
2989(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2990in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2991
a80b8354
GS
2992=item Out of memory!
2993
2994(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2995remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2996no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2997
19a52907
JH
2998At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
2999process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3000C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3001the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3002and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3003
6d3b25aa
RGS
3004=item Out of memory during %s extend
3005
3006(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3007the largest possible memory allocation.
3008
6df41af2 3009=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3010
6df41af2
GS
3011(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3012remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3013the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3014possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3015
1b979e0a 3016=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3017
be771a83
GS
3018(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3019insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3020request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3021
3022The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3023depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3024However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3025emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3026is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3027where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3028
1b979e0a
IZ
3029=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3030
3031(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3032is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3033C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3034
6df41af2
GS
3035=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3036
be771a83
GS
3037(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3038parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3039otherwise.
6df41af2 3040
28be1210
TH
3041=item '.' outside of string in pack
3042
3043(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3044position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3045
49704364 3046=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3047
49704364 3048(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3049the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3050
f337b084
TH
3051=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3052
3053(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3054the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3055UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3056
7cb0cfe6
BM
3057=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3058
3059(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3060but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3061L<overload>.
3062
3063=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3064
3065(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3066overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3067
6df41af2
GS
3068=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3069
be771a83
GS
3070(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3071package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3072some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3073mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3074
96ebfdd7
RK
3075=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3076
3077(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3078signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3079
a0d0e21e
LW
3080=item page overflow
3081
be771a83
GS
3082(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3083page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3084
6df41af2
GS
3085=item panic: %s
3086
3087(P) An internal error.
3088
c99a1475
NC
3089=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3090
3091(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3092an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3093platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3094enter this branch on this platform.
3095
a0d0e21e
LW
3096=item panic: ck_grep
3097
3098(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3099
3100=item panic: ck_split
3101
3102(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
3103
3104=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
3105
be771a83
GS
3106(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
3107there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 3108
810b8aa5
GS
3109=item panic: del_backref
3110
3111(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
3112reference.
3113
7619c85e
RG
3114=item panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
3115
3116(P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
3117last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called from
3118an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is
3119a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.
3120
a0d0e21e
LW
3121=item panic: die %s
3122
3123(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
3124it wasn't an eval context.
3125
a0d0e21e
LW
3126=item panic: do_subst
3127
be771a83
GS
3128(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
3129data.
a0d0e21e 3130
2269b42e 3131=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 3132
2269b42e 3133(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 3134data.
a0d0e21e 3135
b7f7fd0b
NC
3136=item panic: fold_constants JMPENV_PUSH returned %d
3137
10203f38 3138(P) While attempting folding constants an exception other than an C<eval>
b7f7fd0b
NC
3139failure was caught.
3140
c635e13b 3141=item panic: frexp
3142
3143(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
3144
a0d0e21e
LW
3145=item panic: goto
3146
3147(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
3148and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
3149
23976bdd
NC
3150=item panic: hfreeentries failed to free hash
3151
3152(P) The internal routine used to clear a hashes entries tried repeatedly,
3153but each time something added more entries to the hash. Most likely the hash
3154contains an object with a reference back to the hash and a destructor that
3155adds a new object to the hash.
3156
a0d0e21e
LW
3157=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
3158
3159(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
3160
3161=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
3162
3163(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
3164
e446cec8
IZ
3165=item panic: kid popen errno read
3166
3167(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
3168
a0d0e21e
LW
3169=item panic: last
3170
3171(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
3172it wasn't a block context.
3173
3174=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
3175
be771a83
GS
3176(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
3177scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
3178
3179=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
3180
3181(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
3182invalid enum on the top of it.
3183
810b8aa5
GS
3184=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
3185
3186(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
3187references to an object.
3188
6df41af2
GS
3189=item panic: malloc
3190
3191(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
3192
27d5b266
JH
3193=item panic: memory wrap
3194
3195(P) Something tried to allocate more memory than possible.
3196
a0d0e21e
LW
3197=item panic: pad_alloc
3198
3199(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3200and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3201
3202=item panic: pad_free curpad
3203
3204(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3205and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3206
3207=item panic: pad_free po
3208
3209(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3210
3211=item panic: pad_reset curpad
3212
3213(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3214and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3215
3216=item panic: pad_sv po
3217
3218(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3219
3220=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
3221
3222(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3223and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3224
3225=item panic: pad_swipe po
3226
3227(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3228
3229=item panic: pp_iter
3230
3231(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
3232
96ebfdd7
RK
3233=item panic: pp_match%s
3234
3235(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
3236data.
3237
2269b42e
JH
3238=item panic: pp_split
3239
3240(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
3241
a0d0e21e
LW
3242=item panic: realloc
3243
3244(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
3245
3246=item panic: restartop
3247
3248(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
3249didn't supply the destination.
3250
3251=item panic: return
3252
3253(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
3254then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
3255
3256=item panic: scan_num
3257
3258(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
3259
6c65d5f9
NC
3260=item panic: sv_chop %s
3261
3262(P) The sv_chop() routine was passed a position that is not within the
3263scalar's string buffer.
3264
a0d0e21e
LW
3265=item panic: sv_insert
3266
3267(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
3268was string.
3269
3270=item panic: top_env
3271
6224f72b 3272(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e 3273
65bca31a
NC
3274=item panic: unimplemented op %s (#%d) called
3275
3276(P) The compiler is screwed up and attempted to use an op that isn't permitted
3277at run time.
3278
dea0fc0b
JH
3279=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
3280
3281(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
64977eb6 3282to even) byte length.
dea0fc0b 3283
e0ea5e2d
NC
3284=item panic: utf16_to_utf8_reversed: odd bytelen
3285
3286(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8_reversed with an odd (as opposed
3287to even) byte length.
3288
2f7da168
RK
3289=item panic: yylex
3290
3291(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
3292
1a147d38
YO
3293=item Pattern subroutine nesting without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3294
3295(F) You used a pattern that uses too many nested subpattern calls without
3296consuming any text. Restructure the pattern so text is consumed before the
3297nesting limit is exceeded.
3298
3299The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
3300discovered.
3301
7b8d334a 3302=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 3303
e476b1b5 3304(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
3305
3306 my $foo, $bar = @_;
3307
3308when you meant
3309
3310 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
3311
30c282f6 3312Remember that "my", "our", "local" and "state" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 3313
96ebfdd7
RK
3314=item C<-p> destination: %s
3315
3316(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
3317command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
3318redirected it with select().)
3319
3320=item (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
3321
3322(F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3323"Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"". It often means
3324that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.
3325
1109a392
MHM
3326=item Perl_my_%s() not available
3327
3328(F) Your platform has very uncommon byte-order and integer size,
3329so it was not possible to set up some or all fixed-width byte-order
3330conversion functions. This is only a problem when you're using the
3331'<' or '>' modifiers in (un)pack templates. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3332
879d0c72
NC
3333=item Perl_pmflag() is deprecated, and will be removed from the XS API
3334
3335(D deprecated) XS code called the C function C<Perl_pmflag>. This was part of
3336Perl's listed public API for extending or embedding the perl interpreter. It has
3337now been removed from the public API, and will be removed in a future release,
3338hence XS code should be re-written not to use it.
3339
6d3b25aa
RGS
3340=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
3341
3342(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
3343recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
3344you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
3345
6df41af2
GS
3346=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3347
3348(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
fecfaeb8 3349C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 3350
96ebfdd7
RK
3351=item PERL_SIGNALS illegal: "%s"
3352
3353See L<perlrun/PERL_SIGNALS> for legal values.
3354
6df41af2
GS
3355=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3356
3357(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3358
3359 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3360 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3361 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3362 LANG = (unset)
3363 are supported and installed on your system.
3364 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3365
3366Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3367settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
0ea6b70f
JH
3368This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your operating
3369system supplier and/or system administrator have set up the so-called
3370locale system but Perl could not use those settings. This was not
3371dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that
3372Perl can and will use, the script will be run. Before you really fix
3373the problem, however, you will get the same error message each time
3374you run Perl. How to really fix the problem can be found in
3375L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 3376
bd3fa61c 3377=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 3378
be771a83
GS
3379(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
3380process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
3381fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 3382
49704364 3383=item 'P' must have an explicit size in unpack
3bf38418
WL
3384
3385(F) The unpack format P must have an explicit size, not "*".
3386
96ebfdd7
RK
3387=item POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3388
3389(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. The <-- HERE
3390shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
3391Note that the POSIX character classes do B<not> have the C<is> prefix
3392the corresponding C interfaces have: in other words, it's C<[[:print:]]>,
3393not C<isprint>. See L<perlre>.
3394
3395=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
3396
3397(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
3398the BSD version, which takes a pid.
3399
49704364 3400=item POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 3401
9a0b3859 3402(W regexp) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
7253e4e3
RK
3403I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for example:
3404/[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not currently
3405implemented; they are simply placeholders for future extensions and will
3406cause fatal errors. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
3407where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3408
49704364 3409=item POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3410
3411(F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
7253e4e3
RK
3412beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
3413If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
3414expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
3415backslash: "\[." and ".\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
3416about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3417
49704364 3418=item POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 3419