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a0d0e21e 1/* handy.h
a687059c 2 *
4bb101f2 3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999,
acde74e1 4 * 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, by Larry Wall and others
a687059c 5 *
6e21c824
LW
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8d063cd8 8 *
8d063cd8
LW
9 */
10
85e6fe83 11#if !defined(__STDC__)
378cc40b
LW
12#ifdef NULL
13#undef NULL
14#endif
a687059c
LW
15#ifndef I286
16# define NULL 0
17#else
18# define NULL 0L
19#endif
85e6fe83
LW
20#endif
21
378cc40b 22#define Null(type) ((type)NULL)
954c1994
GS
23
24/*
ccfc67b7 25=head1 Handy Values
954c1994 26
3609ea0d 27=for apidoc AmU||Nullch
ccfc67b7 28Null character pointer.
2307c6d0 29
954c1994
GS
30=for apidoc AmU||Nullsv
31Null SV pointer.
32
33=cut
34*/
35
8d063cd8 36#define Nullch Null(char*)
760ac839 37#define Nullfp Null(PerlIO*)
79072805 38#define Nullsv Null(SV*)
8d063cd8 39
641d3f0b
PP
40#ifdef TRUE
41#undef TRUE
42#endif
43#ifdef FALSE
44#undef FALSE
45#endif
46#define TRUE (1)
47#define FALSE (0)
48
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PP
49
50/* XXX Configure ought to have a test for a boolean type, if I can
51 just figure out all the headers such a test needs.
52 Andy Dougherty August 1996
53*/
8e84507e 54/* bool is built-in for g++-2.6.3 and later, which might be used
c1d22f6b
GS
55 for extensions. <_G_config.h> defines _G_HAVE_BOOL, but we can't
56 be sure _G_config.h will be included before this file. _G_config.h
8e84507e 57 also defines _G_HAVE_BOOL for both gcc and g++, but only g++
c1d22f6b
GS
58 actually has bool. Hence, _G_HAVE_BOOL is pretty useless for us.
59 g++ can be identified by __GNUG__.
60 Andy Dougherty February 2000
5d94fbed 61*/
3609ea0d 62#ifdef __GNUG__ /* GNU g++ has bool built-in */
5d94fbed 63# ifndef HAS_BOOL
c1d22f6b 64# define HAS_BOOL 1
5d94fbed 65# endif
5d94fbed
AD
66#endif
67
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68/* The NeXT dynamic loader headers will not build with the bool macro
69 So declare them now to clear confusion.
70*/
8f1f23e8 71#if defined(NeXT) || defined(__NeXT__)
641d3f0b
PP
72# undef FALSE
73# undef TRUE
74 typedef enum bool { FALSE = 0, TRUE = 1 } bool;
75# define ENUM_BOOL 1
76# ifndef HAS_BOOL
77# define HAS_BOOL 1
78# endif /* !HAS_BOOL */
8f1f23e8 79#endif /* NeXT || __NeXT__ */
641d3f0b 80
5d94fbed 81#ifndef HAS_BOOL
61bb5906 82# if defined(UTS) || defined(VMS)
5d94fbed
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83# define bool int
84# else
85# define bool char
86# endif
c1d22f6b 87# define HAS_BOOL 1
a687059c 88#endif
0d3e774c 89
46c6c7e2 90/* Try to figure out __func__ or __FUNCTION__ equivalent, if any.
e352bcff
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91 * XXX Should really be a Configure probe, with HAS__FUNCTION__
92 * and FUNCTION__ as results.
93 * XXX Similarly, a Configure probe for __FILE__ and __LINE__ is needed. */
46c6c7e2
JH
94#if (defined(__STDC_VERSION__) && __STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L) || (defined(__SUNPRO_C)) /* C99 or close enough. */
95# define FUNCTION__ __func__
96#else
97# if (defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER < 1300) || /* Pre-MSVC 7.0 has neither __func__ nor __FUNCTION and no good workarounds, either. */ \
be73ebb0 98 (defined(__DECC_VER)) /* Tru64 or VMS, and strict C89 being used, but not modern enough cc (in Tur64, -c99 not known, only -std1). */
46c6c7e2
JH
99# define FUNCTION__ ""
100# else
101# define FUNCTION__ __FUNCTION__ /* Common extension. */
102# endif
103#endif
104
27d4fb96
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105/* XXX A note on the perl source internal type system. The
106 original intent was that I32 be *exactly* 32 bits.
107
108 Currently, we only guarantee that I32 is *at least* 32 bits.
109 Specifically, if int is 64 bits, then so is I32. (This is the case
110 for the Cray.) This has the advantage of meshing nicely with
111 standard library calls (where we pass an I32 and the library is
112 expecting an int), but the disadvantage that an I32 is not 32 bits.
113 Andy Dougherty August 1996
24fef2a7 114
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115 There is no guarantee that there is *any* integral type with
116 exactly 32 bits. It is perfectly legal for a system to have
117 sizeof(short) == sizeof(int) == sizeof(long) == 8.
693762b4 118
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119 Similarly, there is no guarantee that I16 and U16 have exactly 16
120 bits.
693762b4 121
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122 For dealing with issues that may arise from various 32/64-bit
123 systems, we will ask Configure to check out
8175356b 124
3609ea0d
JH
125 SHORTSIZE == sizeof(short)
126 INTSIZE == sizeof(int)
127 LONGSIZE == sizeof(long)
dc45a647 128 LONGLONGSIZE == sizeof(long long) (if HAS_LONG_LONG)
3609ea0d 129 PTRSIZE == sizeof(void *)
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130 DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(double)
131 LONG_DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(long double) (if HAS_LONG_DOUBLE).
8175356b 132
27d4fb96
PP
133*/
134
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135#ifdef I_INTTYPES /* e.g. Linux has int64_t without <inttypes.h> */
136# include <inttypes.h>
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137# ifdef INT32_MIN_BROKEN
138# undef INT32_MIN
139# define INT32_MIN (-2147483647-1)
140# endif
141# ifdef INT64_MIN_BROKEN
142# undef INT64_MIN
143# define INT64_MIN (-9223372036854775807LL-1)
144# endif
69512466
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145#endif
146
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147typedef I8TYPE I8;
148typedef U8TYPE U8;
149typedef I16TYPE I16;
150typedef U16TYPE U16;
151typedef I32TYPE I32;
152typedef U32TYPE U32;
6b8eaf93
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153#ifdef PERL_CORE
154# ifdef HAS_QUAD
8175356b
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155typedef I64TYPE I64;
156typedef U64TYPE U64;
6b8eaf93
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157# endif
158#endif /* PERL_CORE */
8175356b 159
69512466
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160#if defined(HAS_QUAD) && defined(USE_64_BIT_INT)
161# ifndef UINT64_C /* usually from <inttypes.h> */
162# if defined(HAS_LONG_LONG) && QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG_LONG
163# define INT64_C(c) CAT2(c,LL)
164# define UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,ULL)
165# else
166# if LONGSIZE == 8 && QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG
167# define INT64_C(c) CAT2(c,L)
168# define UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,UL)
169# else
170# define INT64_C(c) ((I64TYPE)(c))
171# define UINT64_C(c) ((U64TYPE)(c))
172# endif
173# endif
e8c95190
JH
174# endif
175#endif
dc750f2e 176
cae3d67c 177/* HMB H.Merijn Brand - a placeholder for preparing Configure patches */
233e16ce 178#if defined(HAS_MALLOC_SIZE) && defined(LOCALTIME_R_NEEDS_TZSET) && defined(HAS_DIR_DD_FD) && defined(HAS_PSEUDOFORK)
cae3d67c 179/* Not (yet) used at top level, but mention them for metaconfig */
dc750f2e 180#endif
e8c95190 181
a22e52b9
JH
182/* Mention I8SIZE, U8SIZE, I16SIZE, U16SIZE, I32SIZE, U32SIZE,
183 I64SIZE, and U64SIZE here so that metaconfig pulls them in. */
184
d8668976 185#if defined(UINT8_MAX) && defined(INT16_MAX) && defined(INT32_MAX)
5ff3f7a4 186
5ff3f7a4
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187/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
188 Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
189#define U8_MAX UINT8_MAX
190#define U8_MIN UINT8_MIN
191
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192#define I16_MAX INT16_MAX
193#define I16_MIN INT16_MIN
194#define U16_MAX UINT16_MAX
195#define U16_MIN UINT16_MIN
196
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197#define I32_MAX INT32_MAX
198#define I32_MIN INT32_MIN
0e983133
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199#ifndef UINT32_MAX_BROKEN /* e.g. HP-UX with gcc messes this up */
200# define U32_MAX UINT32_MAX
201#else
202# define U32_MAX 4294967295U
203#endif
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204#define U32_MIN UINT32_MIN
205
206#else
207
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208/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
209 Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
27d4fb96
PP
210#define U8_MAX PERL_UCHAR_MAX
211#define U8_MIN PERL_UCHAR_MIN
79072805 212
27d4fb96
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213#define I16_MAX PERL_SHORT_MAX
214#define I16_MIN PERL_SHORT_MIN
215#define U16_MAX PERL_USHORT_MAX
216#define U16_MIN PERL_USHORT_MIN
79072805 217
c4f23d77 218#if LONGSIZE > 4
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219# define I32_MAX PERL_INT_MAX
220# define I32_MIN PERL_INT_MIN
221# define U32_MAX PERL_UINT_MAX
222# define U32_MIN PERL_UINT_MIN
79072805 223#else
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PP
224# define I32_MAX PERL_LONG_MAX
225# define I32_MIN PERL_LONG_MIN
226# define U32_MAX PERL_ULONG_MAX
227# define U32_MIN PERL_ULONG_MIN
79072805
LW
228#endif
229
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GS
230#endif
231
58a9a5d5 232/* log(2) is pretty close to 0.30103, just in case anyone is grepping for it */
fc36a67e
PP
233#define BIT_DIGITS(N) (((N)*146)/485 + 1) /* log2(10) =~ 146/485 */
234#define TYPE_DIGITS(T) BIT_DIGITS(sizeof(T) * 8)
235#define TYPE_CHARS(T) (TYPE_DIGITS(T) + 2) /* sign, NUL */
236
ff68c719 237#define Ctl(ch) ((ch) & 037)
8d063cd8 238
3fe05580
MHM
239/*
240=head1 SV-Body Allocation
241
242=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs|const char* s
243Like C<newSVpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
244
245=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs_share|const char* s
246Like C<newSVpvn_share>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length
247pair and omits the hash parameter.
248
7b4e7469 249=for apidoc Am|void|sv_catpvs|SV* sv|const char* s
3fe05580
MHM
250Like C<sv_catpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
251
7b4e7469 252=for apidoc Am|void|sv_setpvs|SV* sv|const char* s
3fe05580
MHM
253Like C<sv_setpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
254
255=head1 Memory Management
256
257=for apidoc Ama|char*|savepvs|const char* s
258Like C<savepvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
259
260=head1 GV Functions
261
262=for apidoc Am|HV*|gv_stashpvs|const char* name|I32 create
263Like C<gv_stashpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
264
265=head1 Hash Manipulation Functions
266
267=for apidoc Am|SV**|hv_fetchs|HV* tb|const char* key|I32 lval
268Like C<hv_fetch>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
269
270=for apidoc Am|SV**|hv_stores|HV* tb|const char* key|NULLOK SV* val
271Like C<hv_store>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair
272and omits the hash parameter.
273
274=cut
275*/
276
65177ae0 277/* concatenating with "" ensures that only literal strings are accepted as argument */
2efa8cc7
GA
278#define STR_WITH_LEN(s) (s ""), (sizeof(s)-1)
279
ba3a79e7
GA
280/* note that STR_WITH_LEN() can't be used as argument to macros or functions that
281 * under some configurations might be macros, which means that it requires the full
282 * Perl_xxx(aTHX_ ...) form for any API calls where it's used.
283 */
284
285/* STR_WITH_LEN() shortcuts */
286#define newSVpvs(str) Perl_newSVpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
287#define newSVpvs_share(str) Perl_newSVpvn_share(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), 0)
288#define sv_catpvs(sv, str) Perl_sv_catpvn_flags(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str), SV_GMAGIC)
3fe05580 289#define sv_setpvs(sv, str) Perl_sv_setpvn(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str))
ba3a79e7
GA
290#define savepvs(str) Perl_savepvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
291#define gv_stashpvs(str, create) Perl_gv_stashpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), create)
5c1737d1 292#define gv_fetchpvs(namebeg, add, sv_type) Perl_gv_fetchpvn_flags(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(namebeg), add, sv_type)
a4fc7abc 293#define hv_fetchs(hv,key,lval) Perl_hv_fetch(aTHX_ hv, STR_WITH_LEN(key), lval)
3fe05580 294#define hv_stores(hv,key,val) Perl_hv_store(aTHX_ hv, STR_WITH_LEN(key), val, 0)
ba3a79e7 295
5c1737d1 296
954c1994 297/*
ccfc67b7
JH
298=head1 Miscellaneous Functions
299
954c1994
GS
300=for apidoc Am|bool|strNE|char* s1|char* s2
301Test two strings to see if they are different. Returns true or
302false.
303
304=for apidoc Am|bool|strEQ|char* s1|char* s2
305Test two strings to see if they are equal. Returns true or false.
306
307=for apidoc Am|bool|strLT|char* s1|char* s2
308Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than the second,
309C<s2>. Returns true or false.
310
311=for apidoc Am|bool|strLE|char* s1|char* s2
312Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than or equal to the
313second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
314
315=for apidoc Am|bool|strGT|char* s1|char* s2
316Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than the second,
317C<s2>. Returns true or false.
318
319=for apidoc Am|bool|strGE|char* s1|char* s2
320Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than or equal to
321the second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
322
323=for apidoc Am|bool|strnNE|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
324Test two strings to see if they are different. The C<len> parameter
325indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A
326wrapper for C<strncmp>).
327
328=for apidoc Am|bool|strnEQ|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
329Test two strings to see if they are equal. The C<len> parameter indicates
330the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A wrapper for
331C<strncmp>).
332
333=cut
334*/
335
8d063cd8
LW
336#define strNE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2))
337#define strEQ(s1,s2) (!strcmp(s1,s2))
338#define strLT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) < 0)
339#define strLE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) <= 0)
340#define strGT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) > 0)
341#define strGE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) >= 0)
342#define strnNE(s1,s2,l) (strncmp(s1,s2,l))
343#define strnEQ(s1,s2,l) (!strncmp(s1,s2,l))
378cc40b 344
36477c24
PP
345#ifdef HAS_MEMCMP
346# define memNE(s1,s2,l) (memcmp(s1,s2,l))
347# define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!memcmp(s1,s2,l))
348#else
349# define memNE(s1,s2,l) (bcmp(s1,s2,l))
350# define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!bcmp(s1,s2,l))
351#endif
352
bbce6d69
PP
353/*
354 * Character classes.
355 *
356 * Unfortunately, the introduction of locales means that we
357 * can't trust isupper(), etc. to tell the truth. And when
358 * it comes to /\w+/ with tainting enabled, we *must* be able
359 * to trust our character classes.
360 *
361 * Therefore, the default tests in the text of Perl will be
362 * independent of locale. Any code that wants to depend on
363 * the current locale will use the tests that begin with "lc".
364 */
365
2304df62
AD
366#ifdef HAS_SETLOCALE /* XXX Is there a better test for this? */
367# ifndef CTYPE256
368# define CTYPE256
369# endif
370#endif
371
954c1994 372/*
ccfc67b7
JH
373
374=head1 Character classes
375
954c1994 376=for apidoc Am|bool|isALNUM|char ch
4375e838 377Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII alphanumeric
f1cbbd6e 378character (including underscore) or digit.
954c1994
GS
379
380=for apidoc Am|bool|isALPHA|char ch
4375e838 381Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII alphabetic
954c1994
GS
382character.
383
384=for apidoc Am|bool|isSPACE|char ch
385Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is whitespace.
386
387=for apidoc Am|bool|isDIGIT|char ch
4375e838 388Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII
954c1994
GS
389digit.
390
391=for apidoc Am|bool|isUPPER|char ch
392Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an uppercase
393character.
394
395=for apidoc Am|bool|isLOWER|char ch
396Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a lowercase
397character.
398
399=for apidoc Am|char|toUPPER|char ch
400Converts the specified character to uppercase.
401
402=for apidoc Am|char|toLOWER|char ch
403Converts the specified character to lowercase.
404
405=cut
406*/
407
bbce6d69
PP
408#define isALNUM(c) (isALPHA(c) || isDIGIT(c) || (c) == '_')
409#define isIDFIRST(c) (isALPHA(c) || (c) == '_')
410#define isALPHA(c) (isUPPER(c) || isLOWER(c))
411#define isSPACE(c) \
412 ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\t' || (c) == '\n' || (c) =='\r' || (c) == '\f')
aaa51d5e
JF
413#define isPSXSPC(c) (isSPACE(c) || (c) == '\v')
414#define isBLANK(c) ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\t')
bbce6d69 415#define isDIGIT(c) ((c) >= '0' && (c) <= '9')
9d116dd7
JH
416#ifdef EBCDIC
417 /* In EBCDIC we do not do locales: therefore() isupper() is fine. */
418# define isUPPER(c) isupper(c)
419# define isLOWER(c) islower(c)
b8c5462f
JH
420# define isALNUMC(c) isalnum(c)
421# define isASCII(c) isascii(c)
422# define isCNTRL(c) iscntrl(c)
423# define isGRAPH(c) isgraph(c)
9d116dd7 424# define isPRINT(c) isprint(c)
b8c5462f
JH
425# define isPUNCT(c) ispunct(c)
426# define isXDIGIT(c) isxdigit(c)
9d116dd7
JH
427# define toUPPER(c) toupper(c)
428# define toLOWER(c) tolower(c)
429#else
430# define isUPPER(c) ((c) >= 'A' && (c) <= 'Z')
431# define isLOWER(c) ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'z')
b8c5462f
JH
432# define isALNUMC(c) (isALPHA(c) || isDIGIT(c))
433# define isASCII(c) ((c) <= 127)
7be5a6cf 434# define isCNTRL(c) ((c) < ' ' || (c) == 127)
b8c5462f 435# define isGRAPH(c) (isALNUM(c) || isPUNCT(c))
f79b3095 436# define isPRINT(c) (((c) > 32 && (c) < 127) || (c) == ' ')
b8c5462f 437# define isPUNCT(c) (((c) >= 33 && (c) <= 47) || ((c) >= 58 && (c) <= 64) || ((c) >= 91 && (c) <= 96) || ((c) >= 123 && (c) <= 126))
c302d089 438# define isXDIGIT(c) (isDIGIT(c) || ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'f') || ((c) >= 'A' && (c) <= 'F'))
9d116dd7
JH
439# define toUPPER(c) (isLOWER(c) ? (c) - ('a' - 'A') : (c))
440# define toLOWER(c) (isUPPER(c) ? (c) + ('a' - 'A') : (c))
441#endif
bbce6d69
PP
442
443#ifdef USE_NEXT_CTYPE
444
445# define isALNUM_LC(c) \
37bd1396 446 (NXIsAlNum((unsigned int)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
ff68c719
PP
447# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) \
448 (NXIsAlpha((unsigned int)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
449# define isALPHA_LC(c) NXIsAlpha((unsigned int)(c))
450# define isSPACE_LC(c) NXIsSpace((unsigned int)(c))
451# define isDIGIT_LC(c) NXIsDigit((unsigned int)(c))
452# define isUPPER_LC(c) NXIsUpper((unsigned int)(c))
453# define isLOWER_LC(c) NXIsLower((unsigned int)(c))
37bd1396 454# define isALNUMC_LC(c) NXIsAlNum((unsigned int)(c))
b8c5462f
JH
455# define isCNTRL_LC(c) NXIsCntrl((unsigned int)(c))
456# define isGRAPH_LC(c) NXIsGraph((unsigned int)(c))
ff68c719 457# define isPRINT_LC(c) NXIsPrint((unsigned int)(c))
b8c5462f 458# define isPUNCT_LC(c) NXIsPunct((unsigned int)(c))
ff68c719
PP
459# define toUPPER_LC(c) NXToUpper((unsigned int)(c))
460# define toLOWER_LC(c) NXToLower((unsigned int)(c))
bbce6d69
PP
461
462#else /* !USE_NEXT_CTYPE */
b8c5462f 463
bbce6d69
PP
464# if defined(CTYPE256) || (!defined(isascii) && !defined(HAS_ISASCII))
465
b8c5462f 466# define isALNUM_LC(c) (isalnum((unsigned char)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
ff68c719 467# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) (isalpha((unsigned char)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
bbce6d69
PP
468# define isALPHA_LC(c) isalpha((unsigned char)(c))
469# define isSPACE_LC(c) isspace((unsigned char)(c))
470# define isDIGIT_LC(c) isdigit((unsigned char)(c))
471# define isUPPER_LC(c) isupper((unsigned char)(c))
472# define isLOWER_LC(c) islower((unsigned char)(c))
b8c5462f
JH
473# define isALNUMC_LC(c) isalnum((unsigned char)(c))
474# define isCNTRL_LC(c) iscntrl((unsigned char)(c))
475# define isGRAPH_LC(c) isgraph((unsigned char)(c))
bbce6d69 476# define isPRINT_LC(c) isprint((unsigned char)(c))
b8c5462f 477# define isPUNCT_LC(c) ispunct((unsigned char)(c))
bbce6d69
PP
478# define toUPPER_LC(c) toupper((unsigned char)(c))
479# define toLOWER_LC(c) tolower((unsigned char)(c))
480
481# else
482
3609ea0d 483# define isALNUM_LC(c) (isascii(c) && (isalnum(c) || (c) == '_'))
bbce6d69
PP
484# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) (isascii(c) && (isalpha(c) || (c) == '_'))
485# define isALPHA_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isalpha(c))
486# define isSPACE_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isspace(c))
487# define isDIGIT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isdigit(c))
488# define isUPPER_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isupper(c))
489# define isLOWER_LC(c) (isascii(c) && islower(c))
b8c5462f
JH
490# define isALNUMC_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isalnum(c))
491# define isCNTRL_LC(c) (isascii(c) && iscntrl(c))
492# define isGRAPH_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isgraph(c))
bbce6d69 493# define isPRINT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isprint(c))
b8c5462f 494# define isPUNCT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && ispunct(c))
bbce6d69
PP
495# define toUPPER_LC(c) toupper(c)
496# define toLOWER_LC(c) tolower(c)
497
498# endif
a0d0e21e 499#endif /* USE_NEXT_CTYPE */
55204971 500
aaa51d5e
JF
501#define isPSXSPC_LC(c) (isSPACE_LC(c) || (c) == '\v')
502#define isBLANK_LC(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
503
a0ed51b3
LW
504#define isALNUM_uni(c) is_uni_alnum(c)
505#define isIDFIRST_uni(c) is_uni_idfirst(c)
506#define isALPHA_uni(c) is_uni_alpha(c)
507#define isSPACE_uni(c) is_uni_space(c)
508#define isDIGIT_uni(c) is_uni_digit(c)
509#define isUPPER_uni(c) is_uni_upper(c)
510#define isLOWER_uni(c) is_uni_lower(c)
b8c5462f
JH
511#define isALNUMC_uni(c) is_uni_alnumc(c)
512#define isASCII_uni(c) is_uni_ascii(c)
513#define isCNTRL_uni(c) is_uni_cntrl(c)
514#define isGRAPH_uni(c) is_uni_graph(c)
a0ed51b3 515#define isPRINT_uni(c) is_uni_print(c)
b8c5462f
JH
516#define isPUNCT_uni(c) is_uni_punct(c)
517#define isXDIGIT_uni(c) is_uni_xdigit(c)
a2a2844f
JH
518#define toUPPER_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_upper(c,s,l)
519#define toTITLE_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_title(c,s,l)
520#define toLOWER_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_lower(c,s,l)
b8d68ded 521#define toFOLD_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_fold(c,s,l)
a0ed51b3 522
aaa51d5e
JF
523#define isPSXSPC_uni(c) (isSPACE_uni(c) ||(c) == '\f')
524#define isBLANK_uni(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
525
9041c2e3
NIS
526#define isALNUM_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALNUM_LC(c) : is_uni_alnum_lc(c))
527#define isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isIDFIRST_LC(c) : is_uni_idfirst_lc(c))
528#define isALPHA_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALPHA_LC(c) : is_uni_alpha_lc(c))
529#define isSPACE_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isSPACE_LC(c) : is_uni_space_lc(c))
530#define isDIGIT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isDIGIT_LC(c) : is_uni_digit_lc(c))
531#define isUPPER_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isUPPER_LC(c) : is_uni_upper_lc(c))
532#define isLOWER_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isLOWER_LC(c) : is_uni_lower_lc(c))
533#define isALNUMC_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALNUMC_LC(c) : is_uni_alnumc_lc(c))
534#define isCNTRL_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isCNTRL_LC(c) : is_uni_cntrl_lc(c))
535#define isGRAPH_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isGRAPH_LC(c) : is_uni_graph_lc(c))
536#define isPRINT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isPRINT_LC(c) : is_uni_print_lc(c))
537#define isPUNCT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isPUNCT_LC(c) : is_uni_punct_lc(c))
a0ed51b3 538
aaa51d5e
JF
539#define isPSXSPC_LC_uni(c) (isSPACE_LC_uni(c) ||(c) == '\f')
540#define isBLANK_LC_uni(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
541
a0ed51b3 542#define isALNUM_utf8(p) is_utf8_alnum(p)
82686b01
JH
543/* The ID_Start of Unicode is quite limiting: it assumes a L-class
544 * character (meaning that you cannot have, say, a CJK character).
545 * Instead, let's allow ID_Continue but not digits. */
546#define isIDFIRST_utf8(p) (is_utf8_idcont(p) && !is_utf8_digit(p))
a0ed51b3
LW
547#define isALPHA_utf8(p) is_utf8_alpha(p)
548#define isSPACE_utf8(p) is_utf8_space(p)
549#define isDIGIT_utf8(p) is_utf8_digit(p)
550#define isUPPER_utf8(p) is_utf8_upper(p)
551#define isLOWER_utf8(p) is_utf8_lower(p)
b8c5462f
JH
552#define isALNUMC_utf8(p) is_utf8_alnumc(p)
553#define isASCII_utf8(p) is_utf8_ascii(p)
554#define isCNTRL_utf8(p) is_utf8_cntrl(p)
555#define isGRAPH_utf8(p) is_utf8_graph(p)
a0ed51b3 556#define isPRINT_utf8(p) is_utf8_print(p)
b8c5462f
JH
557#define isPUNCT_utf8(p) is_utf8_punct(p)
558#define isXDIGIT_utf8(p) is_utf8_xdigit(p)
a2a2844f
JH
559#define toUPPER_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_upper(p,s,l)
560#define toTITLE_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_title(p,s,l)
561#define toLOWER_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_lower(p,s,l)
a0ed51b3 562
aaa51d5e
JF
563#define isPSXSPC_utf8(c) (isSPACE_utf8(c) ||(c) == '\f')
564#define isBLANK_utf8(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
565
9041c2e3
NIS
566#define isALNUM_LC_utf8(p) isALNUM_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
567#define isIDFIRST_LC_utf8(p) isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
568#define isALPHA_LC_utf8(p) isALPHA_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
569#define isSPACE_LC_utf8(p) isSPACE_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
570#define isDIGIT_LC_utf8(p) isDIGIT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
571#define isUPPER_LC_utf8(p) isUPPER_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
572#define isLOWER_LC_utf8(p) isLOWER_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
573#define isALNUMC_LC_utf8(p) isALNUMC_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
574#define isCNTRL_LC_utf8(p) isCNTRL_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
575#define isGRAPH_LC_utf8(p) isGRAPH_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
576#define isPRINT_LC_utf8(p) isPRINT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
577#define isPUNCT_LC_utf8(p) isPUNCT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
a0ed51b3 578
aaa51d5e
JF
579#define isPSXSPC_LC_utf8(c) (isSPACE_LC_utf8(c) ||(c) == '\f')
580#define isBLANK_LC_utf8(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
581
9d116dd7 582#ifdef EBCDIC
20b634c2
JH
583# ifdef PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT
584# define toCTRL(c) Perl_ebcdic_control(aTHX_ c)
585# else
586# define toCTRL Perl_ebcdic_control
587# endif
9d116dd7
JH
588#else
589 /* This conversion works both ways, strangely enough. */
590# define toCTRL(c) (toUPPER(c) ^ 64)
591#endif
bbce6d69 592
dea28490
JJ
593/* Line numbers are unsigned, 32 bits. */
594typedef U32 line_t;
dea28490 595#define NOLINE ((line_t) 4294967295UL)
378cc40b 596
8c52afec 597
8e84507e 598/*
ccfc67b7
JH
599=head1 Memory Management
600
a02a5408 601=for apidoc Am|void|Newx|void* ptr|int nitems|type
954c1994
GS
602The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function.
603
c5008215
JC
604In 5.9.3, Newx() and friends replace the older New() API, and drops
605the first parameter, I<x>, a debug aid which allowed callers to identify
37b8b4c9 606themselves. This aid has been superseded by a new build option,
c5008215
JC
607PERL_MEM_LOG (see L<perlhack/PERL_MEM_LOG>). The older API is still
608there for use in XS modules supporting older perls.
609
a02a5408 610=for apidoc Am|void|Newxc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
954c1994 611The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function, with
c5008215 612cast. See also C<Newx>.
954c1994 613
a02a5408 614=for apidoc Am|void|Newxz|void* ptr|int nitems|type
954c1994 615The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function. The allocated
c5008215 616memory is zeroed with C<memzero>. See also C<Newx>.
a02a5408 617
954c1994
GS
618=for apidoc Am|void|Renew|void* ptr|int nitems|type
619The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function.
620
621=for apidoc Am|void|Renewc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
622The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function, with
623cast.
624
49b8b560 625=for apidoc Am|void|Safefree|void* ptr
954c1994
GS
626The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<free> function.
627
628=for apidoc Am|void|Move|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
629The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memmove> function. The C<src> is the
630source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
631the type. Can do overlapping moves. See also C<Copy>.
632
e90e2364
NC
633=for apidoc Am|void *|MoveD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
634Like C<Move> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
635optimise.
636
954c1994
GS
637=for apidoc Am|void|Copy|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
638The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memcpy> function. The C<src> is the
639source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
640the type. May fail on overlapping copies. See also C<Move>.
641
e90e2364
NC
642=for apidoc Am|void *|CopyD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
643
644Like C<Copy> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
645optimise.
646
954c1994
GS
647=for apidoc Am|void|Zero|void* dest|int nitems|type
648
649The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memzero> function. The C<dest> is the
650destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is the type.
651
e90e2364
NC
652=for apidoc Am|void *|ZeroD|void* dest|int nitems|type
653
654Like C<Zero> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
655optimise.
656
954c1994 657=for apidoc Am|void|StructCopy|type src|type dest|type
4375e838 658This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure to another.
954c1994 659
7e337ee0
JH
660=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonWith|void* dest|int nitems|type|U8 byte
661
662Fill up memory with a byte pattern (a byte repeated over and over
663again) that hopefully catches attempts to access uninitialized memory.
664
665=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonNew|void* dest|int nitems|type
666
667PoisonWith(0xAB) for catching access to allocated but uninitialized memory.
668
1c12ffb4 669=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonFree|void* dest|int nitems|type
7e337ee0
JH
670
671PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
672
9965345d
JH
673=for apidoc Am|void|Poison|void* dest|int nitems|type
674
7e337ee0 675PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
9965345d
JH
676
677=cut */
954c1994 678
561b68a9
SH
679/* Maintained for backwards-compatibility only. Use newSV() instead. */
680#ifndef PERL_CORE
ff06c60c 681#define NEWSV(x,len) newSV(len)
561b68a9 682#endif
ff06c60c 683
2720f793
JH
684/* The +0.0 in MEM_WRAP_CHECK_ is an attempt to foil
685 * overly eager compilers that will bleat about e.g.
686 * (U16)n > (size_t)~0/sizeof(U16) always being false. */
27d5b266 687#ifdef PERL_MALLOC_WRAP
fabdb6c0 688#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t) MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,PL_memory_wrap)
27d5b266 689#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a) \
2720f793 690 (void)(sizeof(t) > 1 && ((MEM_SIZE)(n)+0.0) > ((MEM_SIZE)~0)/sizeof(t) && (Perl_croak_nocontext(a),0))
8b44ba4c 691#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t),
27d5b266 692
6fff79ce 693#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) ((void)(((n) > (MEM_SIZE)~0 - 2 * PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM) ? (Perl_croak_nocontext(PL_memory_wrap),0):0),((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
1936d2a7 694
27d5b266
JH
695#else
696
410319be
NC
697#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t)
698#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a)
699#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_2(n,t,a,b)
8b44ba4c
NC
700#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t)
701
6fff79ce 702#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) (((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
27d5b266 703
1936d2a7 704#endif
8b44ba4c 705
fe4f188c 706#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
46c6c7e2 707/*
9f653bb5 708 * If PERL_MEM_LOG is defined, all Newx()s, Renew()s, and Safefree()s
46c6c7e2
JH
709 * go through functions, which are handy for debugging breakpoints, but
710 * which more importantly get the immediate calling environment (file and
e352bcff
JH
711 * line number, and C function name if available) passed in. This info can
712 * then be used for logging the calls, for which one gets a sample
713 * implementation if PERL_MEM_LOG_STDERR is defined.
3609ea0d 714 *
46c6c7e2
JH
715 * Known problems:
716 * - all memory allocs do not get logged, only those
717 * that go through Newx() and derivatives (while all
718 * Safefrees do get logged)
719 * - __FILE__ and __LINE__ do not work everywhere
720 * - __func__ or __FUNCTION__ even less so
721 * - I think more goes on after the perlio frees but
722 * the thing is that STDERR gets closed (as do all
723 * the file descriptors)
724 * - no deeper calling stack than the caller of the Newx()
725 * or the kind, but do I look like a C reflection/introspection
726 * utility to you?
727 * - the function prototypes for the logging functions
728 * probably should maybe be somewhere else than handy.h
729 * - one could consider inlining (macrofying) the logging
730 * for speed, but I am too lazy
731 * - one could imagine recording the allocations in a hash,
732 * (keyed by the allocation address?), and maintain that
733 * through reallocs and frees, but how to do that without
734 * any News() happening...?
735 */
736
737Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_alloc(const UV n, const UV typesize, const char *typename, Malloc_t newalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
738
739Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_realloc(const UV n, const UV typesize, const char *typename, Malloc_t oldalloc, Malloc_t newalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
740
741Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_free(Malloc_t oldalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
742
fe4f188c
JH
743#endif
744
745#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
46c6c7e2
JH
746#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a) Perl_mem_log_alloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
747#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) Perl_mem_log_realloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),v,a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
748#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a) Perl_mem_log_free(a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
fe4f188c
JH
749#endif
750
751#ifndef MEM_LOG_ALLOC
752#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a) (a)
753#endif
754#ifndef MEM_LOG_REALLOC
755#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) (a)
756#endif
757#ifndef MEM_LOG_FREE
758#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a) (a)
759#endif
760
761#define Newx(v,n,t) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,(t*)safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
762#define Newxc(v,n,t,c) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,(c*)safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
3341f577 763#define Newxz(v,n,t) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,(t*)safecalloc((n),sizeof(t)))))
a6f6820f
NC
764
765#ifndef PERL_CORE
a02a5408
JC
766/* pre 5.9.x compatibility */
767#define New(x,v,n,t) Newx(v,n,t)
768#define Newc(x,v,n,t,c) Newxc(v,n,t,c)
4541904d 769#define Newz(x,v,n,t) Newxz(v,n,t)
a6f6820f 770#endif
a02a5408 771
ff68c719 772#define Renew(v,n,t) \
fe4f188c 773 (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,(t*)saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
ff68c719 774#define Renewc(v,n,t,c) \
fe4f188c 775 (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,(c*)saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
94010e71
NC
776
777#ifdef PERL_POISON
778#define Safefree(d) \
06c0cc96 779 ((d) ? (void)(safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d))), Poison(&(d), 1, Malloc_t)) : (void) 0)
94010e71 780#else
fe4f188c 781#define Safefree(d) safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d)))
94010e71 782#endif
55497cff 783
8b44ba4c
NC
784#define Move(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
785#define Copy(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
786#define Zero(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
55497cff 787
8b44ba4c
NC
788#define MoveD(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
789#define CopyD(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
e90e2364 790#ifdef HAS_MEMSET
8b44ba4c 791#define ZeroD(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
e90e2364 792#else
8b44ba4c
NC
793/* Using bzero(), which returns void. */
794#define ZeroD(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)),d)
e90e2364
NC
795#endif
796
7e337ee0
JH
797#define PoisonWith(d,n,t,b) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memset((char*)(d), (U8)(b), (n) * sizeof(t)))
798#define PoisonNew(d,n,t) PoisonWith(d,n,t,0xAB)
799#define PoisonFree(d,n,t) PoisonWith(d,n,t,0xEF)
800#define Poison(d,n,t) PoisonFree(d,n,t)
27d5b266 801
2304df62 802#ifdef USE_STRUCT_COPY
ff68c719 803#define StructCopy(s,d,t) (*((t*)(d)) = *((t*)(s)))
bee1dbe2
LW
804#else
805#define StructCopy(s,d,t) Copy(s,d,1,t)
806#endif
2cc61e15 807
622913ab
IZ
808#define C_ARRAY_LENGTH(a) (sizeof(a)/sizeof((a)[0]))
809
2cc61e15
DD
810#ifdef NEED_VA_COPY
811# ifdef va_copy
812# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) va_copy(d, s)
2cc61e15 813# else
a1866d1b
JH
814# if defined(__va_copy)
815# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) __va_copy(d, s)
816# else
817# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) Copy(s, d, 1, va_list)
818# endif
2cc61e15
DD
819# endif
820#endif
821
472d47bc
SB
822/* convenience debug macros */
823#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
824#define pTHX_FORMAT "Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
825#define pTHX__FORMAT ", Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
f54cb97a
AL
826#define pTHX_VALUE_ (void *)my_perl,
827#define pTHX_VALUE (void *)my_perl
828#define pTHX__VALUE_ ,(void *)my_perl,
829#define pTHX__VALUE ,(void *)my_perl
472d47bc 830#else
3609ea0d 831#define pTHX_FORMAT
472d47bc 832#define pTHX__FORMAT
3609ea0d 833#define pTHX_VALUE_
472d47bc 834#define pTHX_VALUE
3609ea0d 835#define pTHX__VALUE_
472d47bc
SB
836#define pTHX__VALUE
837#endif /* USE_ITHREADS */
3609ea0d 838