This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Bunch of doc patches from Stas; plus regen.
[perl5.git] / pod / perlrun.pod
CommitLineData
a0d0e21e
LW
1=head1 NAME
2
3perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
672fde27 7B<perl> S<[ B<-sTtuUWX> ]>
e0ebc809
PP
8 S<[ B<-hv> ] [ B<-V>[:I<configvar>] ]>
9 S<[ B<-cw> ] [ B<-d>[:I<debugger>] ] [ B<-D>[I<number/list>] ]>
10 S<[ B<-pna> ] [ B<-F>I<pattern> ] [ B<-l>[I<octal>] ] [ B<-0>[I<octal>] ]>
11 S<[ B<-I>I<dir> ] [ B<-m>[B<->]I<module> ] [ B<-M>[B<->]I<'module...'> ]>
12 S<[ B<-P> ]>
13 S<[ B<-S> ]>
14 S<[ B<-x>[I<dir>] ]>
15 S<[ B<-i>[I<extension>] ]>
16 S<[ B<-e> I<'command'> ] [ B<--> ] [ I<programfile> ] [ I<argument> ]...>
a05d7ebb 17 S<[ B<-C [I<number/list>] >]> ]>
a0d0e21e
LW
18
19=head1 DESCRIPTION
20
19799a22
GS
21The normal way to run a Perl program is by making it directly
22executable, or else by passing the name of the source file as an
23argument on the command line. (An interactive Perl environment
24is also possible--see L<perldebug> for details on how to do that.)
25Upon startup, Perl looks for your program in one of the following
a0d0e21e
LW
26places:
27
28=over 4
29
30=item 1.
31
32Specified line by line via B<-e> switches on the command line.
33
34=item 2.
35
36Contained in the file specified by the first filename on the command line.
a3cb178b
GS
37(Note that systems supporting the #! notation invoke interpreters this
38way. See L<Location of Perl>.)
a0d0e21e
LW
39
40=item 3.
41
5f05dabc 42Passed in implicitly via standard input. This works only if there are
19799a22
GS
43no filename arguments--to pass arguments to a STDIN-read program you
44must explicitly specify a "-" for the program name.
a0d0e21e
LW
45
46=back
47
48With methods 2 and 3, Perl starts parsing the input file from the
49beginning, unless you've specified a B<-x> switch, in which case it
50scans for the first line starting with #! and containing the word
19799a22 51"perl", and starts there instead. This is useful for running a program
a0d0e21e 52embedded in a larger message. (In this case you would indicate the end
19799a22 53of the program using the C<__END__> token.)
a0d0e21e 54
5f05dabc
PP
55The #! line is always examined for switches as the line is being
56parsed. Thus, if you're on a machine that allows only one argument
57with the #! line, or worse, doesn't even recognize the #! line, you
58still can get consistent switch behavior regardless of how Perl was
19799a22
GS
59invoked, even if B<-x> was used to find the beginning of the program.
60
61Because historically some operating systems silently chopped off
62kernel interpretation of the #! line after 32 characters, some
63switches may be passed in on the command line, and some may not;
64you could even get a "-" without its letter, if you're not careful.
65You probably want to make sure that all your switches fall either
66before or after that 32-character boundary. Most switches don't
67actually care if they're processed redundantly, but getting a "-"
68instead of a complete switch could cause Perl to try to execute
69standard input instead of your program. And a partial B<-I> switch
a0d0e21e
LW
70could also cause odd results.
71
19799a22
GS
72Some switches do care if they are processed twice, for instance
73combinations of B<-l> and B<-0>. Either put all the switches after
74the 32-character boundary (if applicable), or replace the use of
75B<-0>I<digits> by C<BEGIN{ $/ = "\0digits"; }>.
fb73857a 76
a0d0e21e
LW
77Parsing of the #! switches starts wherever "perl" is mentioned in the line.
78The sequences "-*" and "- " are specifically ignored so that you could,
79if you were so inclined, say
80
81 #!/bin/sh -- # -*- perl -*- -p
19799a22 82 eval 'exec perl -wS $0 ${1+"$@"}'
5f05dabc 83 if $running_under_some_shell;
a0d0e21e 84
44a4342c 85to let Perl see the B<-p> switch.
19799a22
GS
86
87A similar trick involves the B<env> program, if you have it.
88
89 #!/usr/bin/env perl
90
91The examples above use a relative path to the perl interpreter,
92getting whatever version is first in the user's path. If you want
93a specific version of Perl, say, perl5.005_57, you should place
94that directly in the #! line's path.
a0d0e21e
LW
95
96If the #! line does not contain the word "perl", the program named after
97the #! is executed instead of the Perl interpreter. This is slightly
98bizarre, but it helps people on machines that don't do #!, because they
19799a22 99can tell a program that their SHELL is F</usr/bin/perl>, and Perl will then
a0d0e21e
LW
100dispatch the program to the correct interpreter for them.
101
19799a22 102After locating your program, Perl compiles the entire program to an
a0d0e21e 103internal form. If there are any compilation errors, execution of the
19799a22 104program is not attempted. (This is unlike the typical shell script,
54310121 105which might run part-way through before finding a syntax error.)
a0d0e21e 106
19799a22 107If the program is syntactically correct, it is executed. If the program
a0d0e21e
LW
108runs off the end without hitting an exit() or die() operator, an implicit
109C<exit(0)> is provided to indicate successful completion.
110
68dc0745
PP
111=head2 #! and quoting on non-Unix systems
112
113Unix's #! technique can be simulated on other systems:
114
115=over 4
116
117=item OS/2
118
119Put
120
121 extproc perl -S -your_switches
122
19799a22 123as the first line in C<*.cmd> file (B<-S> due to a bug in cmd.exe's
68dc0745
PP
124`extproc' handling).
125
54310121 126=item MS-DOS
68dc0745 127
19799a22 128Create a batch file to run your program, and codify it in
68dc0745
PP
129C<ALTERNATIVE_SHEBANG> (see the F<dosish.h> file in the source
130distribution for more information).
131
132=item Win95/NT
133
6c6a61e2 134The Win95/NT installation, when using the ActiveState installer for Perl,
c8db1d39 135will modify the Registry to associate the F<.pl> extension with the perl
6c6a61e2
GS
136interpreter. If you install Perl by other means (including building from
137the sources), you may have to modify the Registry yourself. Note that
138this means you can no longer tell the difference between an executable
139Perl program and a Perl library file.
68dc0745
PP
140
141=item Macintosh
142
19799a22 143A Macintosh perl program will have the appropriate Creator and
68dc0745
PP
144Type, so that double-clicking them will invoke the perl application.
145
bd3fa61c
CB
146=item VMS
147
148Put
149
150 $ perl -mysw 'f$env("procedure")' 'p1' 'p2' 'p3' 'p4' 'p5' 'p6' 'p7' 'p8' !
151 $ exit++ + ++$status != 0 and $exit = $status = undef;
152
19799a22
GS
153at the top of your program, where B<-mysw> are any command line switches you
154want to pass to Perl. You can now invoke the program directly, by saying
155C<perl program>, or as a DCL procedure, by saying C<@program> (or implicitly
156via F<DCL$PATH> by just using the name of the program).
bd3fa61c
CB
157
158This incantation is a bit much to remember, but Perl will display it for
159you if you say C<perl "-V:startperl">.
160
68dc0745
PP
161=back
162
163Command-interpreters on non-Unix systems have rather different ideas
164on quoting than Unix shells. You'll need to learn the special
165characters in your command-interpreter (C<*>, C<\> and C<"> are
166common) and how to protect whitespace and these characters to run
19799a22 167one-liners (see B<-e> below).
68dc0745
PP
168
169On some systems, you may have to change single-quotes to double ones,
e6f03d26 170which you must I<not> do on Unix or Plan 9 systems. You might also
68dc0745
PP
171have to change a single % to a %%.
172
173For example:
174
175 # Unix
176 perl -e 'print "Hello world\n"'
177
54310121 178 # MS-DOS, etc.
68dc0745
PP
179 perl -e "print \"Hello world\n\""
180
54310121 181 # Macintosh
68dc0745
PP
182 print "Hello world\n"
183 (then Run "Myscript" or Shift-Command-R)
184
185 # VMS
186 perl -e "print ""Hello world\n"""
187
19799a22
GS
188The problem is that none of this is reliable: it depends on the
189command and it is entirely possible neither works. If B<4DOS> were
190the command shell, this would probably work better:
68dc0745
PP
191
192 perl -e "print <Ctrl-x>"Hello world\n<Ctrl-x>""
193
19799a22 194B<CMD.EXE> in Windows NT slipped a lot of standard Unix functionality in
68dc0745
PP
195when nobody was looking, but just try to find documentation for its
196quoting rules.
197
54310121 198Under the Macintosh, it depends which environment you are using. The MacPerl
68dc0745 199shell, or MPW, is much like Unix shells in its support for several
54310121 200quoting variants, except that it makes free use of the Macintosh's non-ASCII
68dc0745
PP
201characters as control characters.
202
203There is no general solution to all of this. It's just a mess.
204
a3cb178b
GS
205=head2 Location of Perl
206
207It may seem obvious to say, but Perl is useful only when users can
19799a22
GS
208easily find it. When possible, it's good for both F</usr/bin/perl>
209and F</usr/local/bin/perl> to be symlinks to the actual binary. If
210that can't be done, system administrators are strongly encouraged
211to put (symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities into a
212directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in some other
213obvious and convenient place.
214
215In this documentation, C<#!/usr/bin/perl> on the first line of the program
216will stand in for whatever method works on your system. You are
217advised to use a specific path if you care about a specific version.
a3cb178b 218
19799a22 219 #!/usr/local/bin/perl5.00554
a3cb178b 220
19799a22
GS
221or if you just want to be running at least version, place a statement
222like this at the top of your program:
a0d0e21e 223
19799a22 224 use 5.005_54;
a0d0e21e 225
19799a22
GS
226=head2 Command Switches
227
228As with all standard commands, a single-character switch may be
229clustered with the following switch, if any.
230
231 #!/usr/bin/perl -spi.orig # same as -s -p -i.orig
a0d0e21e
LW
232
233Switches include:
234
235=over 5
236
e0ebc809 237=item B<-0>[I<digits>]
a0d0e21e 238
55497cff 239specifies the input record separator (C<$/>) as an octal number. If there are
a0d0e21e
LW
240no digits, the null character is the separator. Other switches may
241precede or follow the digits. For example, if you have a version of
242B<find> which can print filenames terminated by the null character, you
243can say this:
244
19799a22 245 find . -name '*.orig' -print0 | perl -n0e unlink
a0d0e21e
LW
246
247The special value 00 will cause Perl to slurp files in paragraph mode.
5f05dabc 248The value 0777 will cause Perl to slurp files whole because there is no
a0d0e21e
LW
249legal character with that value.
250
251=item B<-a>
252
253turns on autosplit mode when used with a B<-n> or B<-p>. An implicit
254split command to the @F array is done as the first thing inside the
255implicit while loop produced by the B<-n> or B<-p>.
256
257 perl -ane 'print pop(@F), "\n";'
258
259is equivalent to
260
261 while (<>) {
262 @F = split(' ');
263 print pop(@F), "\n";
264 }
265
266An alternate delimiter may be specified using B<-F>.
267
a05d7ebb 268=item B<-C [I<number/list>]>
46487f74 269
a05d7ebb
JH
270The C<-C> flag controls some Unicode of the Perl Unicode features.
271
272As of 5.8.1, the C<-C> can be followed either by a number or a list
f3f8427d 273of option letters. The letters, their numeric values, and effects
8aa8f774 274are as follows; listing the letters is equal to summing the numbers.
9f21530f
JH
275
276 I 1 STDIN is assumed to be in UTF-8
277 O 2 STDOUT will be in UTF-8
278 E 4 STDERR will be in UTF-8
279 S 7 I + O + E
44505768
JH
280 i 8 UTF-8 is the default PerlIO layer for input streams
281 o 16 UTF-8 is the default PerlIO layer for output streams
9f21530f 282 D 24 i + o
44505768 283 A 32 the @ARGV elements are expected to be strings encoded in UTF-8
ce81ff12 284 L 64 normally the "IOEioA" are unconditional,
9f21530f 285 the L makes them conditional on the locale environment
ce81ff12
JH
286 variables (the LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, and LANG, in the order
287 of decreasing precedence) -- if the variables indicate
288 UTF-8, then the selected "IOEioA" are in effect
9f21530f
JH
289
290For example, C<-COE> and C<-C6> will both turn on UTF-8-ness on both
291STDOUT and STDERR. Repeating letters is just redundant, not cumulative
292nor toggling.
a05d7ebb 293
44505768
JH
294The C<io> options mean that any subsequent open() (or similar I/O
295operations) will have the C<:utf8> PerlIO layer implicitly applied
296to them, in other words, UTF-8 is expected from any input stream,
297and UTF-8 is produced to any output stream. This is just the default,
298with explicit layers in open() and with binmode() one can manipulate
299streams as usual.
300
8aa8f774
JH
301C<-C> on its own (not followed by any number or option list), or the
302empty string C<""> for the C<$ENV{PERL_UNICODE}, has the same effect
ce81ff12
JH
303as <-CSDL>. In other words, the standard I/O handles and the default
304C<open()> layer are UTF-8-fied B<but> only if the locale environment
8aa8f774 305variables indicate a UTF-8 locale. This behaviour follows the
5b4f334e 306I<implicit> (and problematic) UTF-8 behaviour of Perl 5.8.0.
a05d7ebb 307
ab9e1bb7 308You can use C<-C0> (or C<"0"> for $ENV{PERL_UNICODE}) to explicitly
5b4f334e 309disable all the above Unicode features.
fde18df1 310
8aa8f774 311The read-only magic variable C<${^UNICODE}> reflects the numeric value
ab9e1bb7
JH
312of this setting. This is variable is set during Perl startup and is
313thereafter read-only. If you want runtime effects, use the three-arg
2307c6d0 314open() (see L<perlfunc/open>), the two-arg binmode() (see L<perlfunc/binmode>),
ab9e1bb7 315and the C<open> pragma (see L<open>).
fde18df1
JH
316
317(In Perls earlier than 5.8.1 the C<-C> switch was a Win32-only switch
318that enabled the use of Unicode-aware "wide system call" Win32 APIs.
319This feature was practically unused, however, and the command line
320switch was therefore "recycled".)
46487f74 321
a0d0e21e
LW
322=item B<-c>
323
19799a22 324causes Perl to check the syntax of the program and then exit without
7d30b5c4 325executing it. Actually, it I<will> execute C<BEGIN>, C<CHECK>, and
4f25aa18
GS
326C<use> blocks, because these are considered as occurring outside the
327execution of your program. C<INIT> and C<END> blocks, however, will
328be skipped.
a0d0e21e
LW
329
330=item B<-d>
331
19799a22 332runs the program under the Perl debugger. See L<perldebug>.
a0d0e21e 333
70c94a19 334=item B<-d:>I<foo[=bar,baz]>
3c81428c 335
19799a22
GS
336runs the program under the control of a debugging, profiling, or
337tracing module installed as Devel::foo. E.g., B<-d:DProf> executes
70c94a19
RR
338the program using the Devel::DProf profiler. As with the B<-M>
339flag, options may be passed to the Devel::foo package where they
340will be received and interpreted by the Devel::foo::import routine.
341The comma-separated list of options must follow a C<=> character.
342See L<perldebug>.
3c81428c 343
db2ba183 344=item B<-D>I<letters>
a0d0e21e 345
db2ba183 346=item B<-D>I<number>
a0d0e21e 347
19799a22 348sets debugging flags. To watch how it executes your program, use
db2ba183
TB
349B<-Dtls>. (This works only if debugging is compiled into your
350Perl.) Another nice value is B<-Dx>, which lists your compiled
4197b13f 351syntax tree. And B<-Dr> displays compiled regular expressions;
44a4342c 352the format of the output is explained in L<perldebguts>.
4197b13f
MJD
353
354As an alternative, specify a number instead of list of letters (e.g.,
355B<-D14> is equivalent to B<-Dtls>):
a0d0e21e 356
db2ba183
TB
357 1 p Tokenizing and parsing
358 2 s Stack snapshots
d6721266 359 with v, displays all stacks
db2ba183
TB
360 4 l Context (loop) stack processing
361 8 t Trace execution
362 16 o Method and overloading resolution
363 32 c String/numeric conversions
1045810a 364 64 P Print profiling info, preprocessor command for -P, source file input state
db2ba183
TB
365 128 m Memory allocation
366 256 f Format processing
367 512 r Regular expression parsing and execution
368 1024 x Syntax tree dump
369 2048 u Tainting checks
7bab3ede 370 4096 (Obsolete, previously used for LEAKTEST)
db2ba183
TB
371 8192 H Hash dump -- usurps values()
372 16384 X Scratchpad allocation
373 32768 D Cleaning up
8b73bbec 374 65536 S Thread synchronization
607df283 375 131072 T Tokenising
04932ac8 376 262144 R Include reference counts of dumped variables (eg when using -Ds)
1045810a 377 524288 J Do not s,t,P-debug (Jump over) opcodes within package DB
d6721266 378 1048576 v Verbose: use in conjunction with other flags
46187eeb 379 2097152 C Copy On Write
a0d0e21e 380
19799a22 381All these flags require B<-DDEBUGGING> when you compile the Perl
1045810a 382executable (but see L<Devel::Peek>, L<re> which may change this).
44a4342c 383See the F<INSTALL> file in the Perl source distribution
19799a22 384for how to do this. This flag is automatically set if you include B<-g>
8c52afec
IZ
385option when C<Configure> asks you about optimizer/debugger flags.
386
19799a22
GS
387If you're just trying to get a print out of each line of Perl code
388as it executes, the way that C<sh -x> provides for shell scripts,
44a4342c 389you can't use Perl's B<-D> switch. Instead do this
19799a22 390
c406981e
JH
391 # If you have "env" utility
392 env=PERLDB_OPTS="NonStop=1 AutoTrace=1 frame=2" perl -dS program
393
19799a22
GS
394 # Bourne shell syntax
395 $ PERLDB_OPTS="NonStop=1 AutoTrace=1 frame=2" perl -dS program
396
397 # csh syntax
398 % (setenv PERLDB_OPTS "NonStop=1 AutoTrace=1 frame=2"; perl -dS program)
399
400See L<perldebug> for details and variations.
401
a0d0e21e
LW
402=item B<-e> I<commandline>
403
19799a22
GS
404may be used to enter one line of program. If B<-e> is given, Perl
405will not look for a filename in the argument list. Multiple B<-e>
406commands may be given to build up a multi-line script. Make sure
407to use semicolons where you would in a normal program.
a0d0e21e 408
e0ebc809 409=item B<-F>I<pattern>
a0d0e21e 410
e0ebc809 411specifies the pattern to split on if B<-a> is also in effect. The
5f05dabc 412pattern may be surrounded by C<//>, C<"">, or C<''>, otherwise it will be
e0ebc809 413put in single quotes.
a0d0e21e 414
e0ebc809
PP
415=item B<-h>
416
417prints a summary of the options.
418
419=item B<-i>[I<extension>]
a0d0e21e 420
2d259d92
CK
421specifies that files processed by the C<E<lt>E<gt>> construct are to be
422edited in-place. It does this by renaming the input file, opening the
423output file by the original name, and selecting that output file as the
424default for print() statements. The extension, if supplied, is used to
425modify the name of the old file to make a backup copy, following these
426rules:
427
428If no extension is supplied, no backup is made and the current file is
429overwritten.
430
19799a22
GS
431If the extension doesn't contain a C<*>, then it is appended to the
432end of the current filename as a suffix. If the extension does
433contain one or more C<*> characters, then each C<*> is replaced
434with the current filename. In Perl terms, you could think of this
435as:
2d259d92 436
66606d78 437 ($backup = $extension) =~ s/\*/$file_name/g;
2d259d92
CK
438
439This allows you to add a prefix to the backup file, instead of (or in
440addition to) a suffix:
441
19799a22 442 $ perl -pi 'orig_*' -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA # backup to 'orig_fileA'
2d259d92
CK
443
444Or even to place backup copies of the original files into another
445directory (provided the directory already exists):
446
19799a22 447 $ perl -pi 'old/*.orig' -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA # backup to 'old/fileA.orig'
2d259d92 448
66606d78
CK
449These sets of one-liners are equivalent:
450
451 $ perl -pi -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA # overwrite current file
19799a22 452 $ perl -pi '*' -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA # overwrite current file
66606d78 453
19799a22
GS
454 $ perl -pi '.orig' -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA # backup to 'fileA.orig'
455 $ perl -pi '*.orig' -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA # backup to 'fileA.orig'
66606d78 456
2d259d92 457From the shell, saying
a0d0e21e 458
19799a22 459 $ perl -p -i.orig -e "s/foo/bar/; ... "
a0d0e21e 460
19799a22 461is the same as using the program:
a0d0e21e 462
19799a22 463 #!/usr/bin/perl -pi.orig
a0d0e21e
LW
464 s/foo/bar/;
465
466which is equivalent to
467
468 #!/usr/bin/perl
19799a22
GS
469 $extension = '.orig';
470 LINE: while (<>) {
a0d0e21e 471 if ($ARGV ne $oldargv) {
66606d78
CK
472 if ($extension !~ /\*/) {
473 $backup = $ARGV . $extension;
474 }
475 else {
476 ($backup = $extension) =~ s/\*/$ARGV/g;
477 }
478 rename($ARGV, $backup);
a0d0e21e
LW
479 open(ARGVOUT, ">$ARGV");
480 select(ARGVOUT);
481 $oldargv = $ARGV;
482 }
483 s/foo/bar/;
484 }
485 continue {
486 print; # this prints to original filename
487 }
488 select(STDOUT);
489
490except that the B<-i> form doesn't need to compare $ARGV to $oldargv to
491know when the filename has changed. It does, however, use ARGVOUT for
66606d78
CK
492the selected filehandle. Note that STDOUT is restored as the default
493output filehandle after the loop.
494
495As shown above, Perl creates the backup file whether or not any output
496is actually changed. So this is just a fancy way to copy files:
497
cd2d1bac 498 $ perl -p -i'/some/file/path/*' -e 1 file1 file2 file3...
19799a22 499or
cd2d1bac 500 $ perl -p -i'.orig' -e 1 file1 file2 file3...
66606d78
CK
501
502You can use C<eof> without parentheses to locate the end of each input
503file, in case you want to append to each file, or reset line numbering
504(see example in L<perlfunc/eof>).
505
506If, for a given file, Perl is unable to create the backup file as
507specified in the extension then it will skip that file and continue on
508with the next one (if it exists).
509
19799a22 510For a discussion of issues surrounding file permissions and B<-i>,
cea6626f 511see L<perlfaq5/Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does -i clobber protected files? Isn't this a bug in Perl?>.
66606d78
CK
512
513You cannot use B<-i> to create directories or to strip extensions from
514files.
a0d0e21e 515
19799a22
GS
516Perl does not expand C<~> in filenames, which is good, since some
517folks use it for their backup files:
a0d0e21e 518
19799a22
GS
519 $ perl -pi~ -e 's/foo/bar/' file1 file2 file3...
520
521Finally, the B<-i> switch does not impede execution when no
a2008d6d
GS
522files are given on the command line. In this case, no backup is made
523(the original file cannot, of course, be determined) and processing
524proceeds from STDIN to STDOUT as might be expected.
525
a0d0e21e
LW
526=item B<-I>I<directory>
527
e0ebc809 528Directories specified by B<-I> are prepended to the search path for
1fef88e7 529modules (C<@INC>), and also tells the C preprocessor where to search for
e0ebc809
PP
530include files. The C preprocessor is invoked with B<-P>; by default it
531searches /usr/include and /usr/lib/perl.
a0d0e21e 532
e0ebc809 533=item B<-l>[I<octnum>]
a0d0e21e 534
19799a22
GS
535enables automatic line-ending processing. It has two separate
536effects. First, it automatically chomps C<$/> (the input record
537separator) when used with B<-n> or B<-p>. Second, it assigns C<$\>
538(the output record separator) to have the value of I<octnum> so
539that any print statements will have that separator added back on.
540If I<octnum> is omitted, sets C<$\> to the current value of
541C<$/>. For instance, to trim lines to 80 columns:
a0d0e21e
LW
542
543 perl -lpe 'substr($_, 80) = ""'
544
545Note that the assignment C<$\ = $/> is done when the switch is processed,
546so the input record separator can be different than the output record
547separator if the B<-l> switch is followed by a B<-0> switch:
548
549 gnufind / -print0 | perl -ln0e 'print "found $_" if -p'
550
1fef88e7 551This sets C<$\> to newline and then sets C<$/> to the null character.
a0d0e21e 552
e0ebc809
PP
553=item B<-m>[B<->]I<module>
554
555=item B<-M>[B<->]I<module>
c07a80fd 556
e0ebc809
PP
557=item B<-M>[B<->]I<'module ...'>
558
559=item B<-[mM]>[B<->]I<module=arg[,arg]...>
3c81428c 560
19799a22
GS
561B<-m>I<module> executes C<use> I<module> C<();> before executing your
562program.
3c81428c 563
19799a22
GS
564B<-M>I<module> executes C<use> I<module> C<;> before executing your
565program. You can use quotes to add extra code after the module name,
566e.g., C<'-Mmodule qw(foo bar)'>.
3c81428c 567
19799a22 568If the first character after the B<-M> or B<-m> is a dash (C<->)
a5f75d66
AD
569then the 'use' is replaced with 'no'.
570
54310121 571A little builtin syntactic sugar means you can also say
19799a22
GS
572B<-mmodule=foo,bar> or B<-Mmodule=foo,bar> as a shortcut for
573C<'-Mmodule qw(foo bar)'>. This avoids the need to use quotes when
574importing symbols. The actual code generated by B<-Mmodule=foo,bar> is
e0ebc809 575C<use module split(/,/,q{foo,bar})>. Note that the C<=> form
19799a22 576removes the distinction between B<-m> and B<-M>.
3c81428c 577
a0d0e21e
LW
578=item B<-n>
579
19799a22 580causes Perl to assume the following loop around your program, which
a0d0e21e
LW
581makes it iterate over filename arguments somewhat like B<sed -n> or
582B<awk>:
583
19799a22 584 LINE:
a0d0e21e 585 while (<>) {
19799a22 586 ... # your program goes here
a0d0e21e
LW
587 }
588
589Note that the lines are not printed by default. See B<-p> to have
08e9d68e 590lines printed. If a file named by an argument cannot be opened for
19799a22 591some reason, Perl warns you about it and moves on to the next file.
08e9d68e
DD
592
593Here is an efficient way to delete all files older than a week:
a0d0e21e 594
19799a22 595 find . -mtime +7 -print | perl -nle unlink
a0d0e21e 596
19799a22
GS
597This is faster than using the B<-exec> switch of B<find> because you don't
598have to start a process on every filename found. It does suffer from
599the bug of mishandling newlines in pathnames, which you can fix if
44a4342c 600you follow the example under B<-0>.
a0d0e21e
LW
601
602C<BEGIN> and C<END> blocks may be used to capture control before or after
19799a22 603the implicit program loop, just as in B<awk>.
a0d0e21e
LW
604
605=item B<-p>
606
19799a22 607causes Perl to assume the following loop around your program, which
a0d0e21e
LW
608makes it iterate over filename arguments somewhat like B<sed>:
609
610
19799a22 611 LINE:
a0d0e21e 612 while (<>) {
19799a22 613 ... # your program goes here
a0d0e21e 614 } continue {
08e9d68e 615 print or die "-p destination: $!\n";
a0d0e21e
LW
616 }
617
08e9d68e
DD
618If a file named by an argument cannot be opened for some reason, Perl
619warns you about it, and moves on to the next file. Note that the
c2611fb3 620lines are printed automatically. An error occurring during printing is
08e9d68e
DD
621treated as fatal. To suppress printing use the B<-n> switch. A B<-p>
622overrides a B<-n> switch.
a0d0e21e
LW
623
624C<BEGIN> and C<END> blocks may be used to capture control before or after
19799a22 625the implicit loop, just as in B<awk>.
a0d0e21e
LW
626
627=item B<-P>
628
079a94c4
JH
629B<NOTE: Use of -P is strongly discouraged because of its inherent
630problems, including poor portability.>
631
632This option causes your program to be run through the C preprocessor before
efdf3af0 633compilation by Perl. Because both comments and B<cpp> directives begin
a0d0e21e 634with the # character, you should avoid starting comments with any words
efdf3af0 635recognized by the C preprocessor such as C<"if">, C<"else">, or C<"define">.
079a94c4
JH
636
637If you're considering using C<-P>, you might also want to look at the
638Filter::cpp module from CPAN.
639
640The problems of -P include, but are not limited to:
641
642=over 10
643
644=item *
645
646The C<#!> line is stripped, so any switches there don't apply.
647
648=item *
649
650A C<-P> on a C<#!> line doesn't work.
651
652=item *
653
654B<All> lines that begin with (whitespace and) a C<#> but
655do not look like cpp commands, are stripped, including anything
44a4342c 656inside Perl strings, regular expressions, and here-docs .
079a94c4
JH
657
658=item *
659
660In some platforms the C preprocessor knows too much: it knows about
661the C++ -style until-end-of-line comments starting with C<"//">.
efdf3af0
JH
662This will cause problems with common Perl constructs like
663
664 s/foo//;
665
666because after -P this will became illegal code
667
668 s/foo
669
670The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than C<"/">,
671like for example C<"!">:
672
673 s!foo!!;
a0d0e21e 674
079a94c4
JH
675
676
677=item *
678
679It requires not only a working C preprocessor but also a working
680F<sed>. If not on UNIX, you are probably out of luck on this.
681
682=item *
683
684Script line numbers are not preserved.
685
686=item *
687
688The C<-x> does not work with C<-P>.
689
690=back
9a1f07e7 691
a0d0e21e
LW
692=item B<-s>
693
19799a22
GS
694enables rudimentary switch parsing for switches on the command
695line after the program name but before any filename arguments (or before
3bbcc830
JP
696an argument of B<-->). This means you can have switches with two leading
697dashes (B<--help>). Any switch found there is removed from @ARGV and sets the
19799a22 698corresponding variable in the Perl program. The following program
3c0facb2
GS
699prints "1" if the program is invoked with a B<-xyz> switch, and "abc"
700if it is invoked with B<-xyz=abc>.
a0d0e21e
LW
701
702 #!/usr/bin/perl -s
3c0facb2 703 if ($xyz) { print "$xyz\n" }
a0d0e21e 704
3bbcc830
JP
705Do note that B<--help> creates the variable ${-help}, which is not compliant
706with C<strict refs>.
707
a0d0e21e
LW
708=item B<-S>
709
710makes Perl use the PATH environment variable to search for the
19799a22
GS
711program (unless the name of the program contains directory separators).
712
2a92aaa0
GS
713On some platforms, this also makes Perl append suffixes to the
714filename while searching for it. For example, on Win32 platforms,
715the ".bat" and ".cmd" suffixes are appended if a lookup for the
716original name fails, and if the name does not already end in one
717of those suffixes. If your Perl was compiled with DEBUGGING turned
718on, using the -Dp switch to Perl shows how the search progresses.
719
2a92aaa0
GS
720Typically this is used to emulate #! startup on platforms that
721don't support #!. This example works on many platforms that
722have a shell compatible with Bourne shell:
a0d0e21e
LW
723
724 #!/usr/bin/perl
a3cb178b 725 eval 'exec /usr/bin/perl -wS $0 ${1+"$@"}'
a0d0e21e
LW
726 if $running_under_some_shell;
727
19799a22
GS
728The system ignores the first line and feeds the program to F</bin/sh>,
729which proceeds to try to execute the Perl program as a shell script.
a0d0e21e
LW
730The shell executes the second line as a normal shell command, and thus
731starts up the Perl interpreter. On some systems $0 doesn't always
732contain the full pathname, so the B<-S> tells Perl to search for the
19799a22 733program if necessary. After Perl locates the program, it parses the
a0d0e21e 734lines and ignores them because the variable $running_under_some_shell
19799a22 735is never true. If the program will be interpreted by csh, you will need
a3cb178b
GS
736to replace C<${1+"$@"}> with C<$*>, even though that doesn't understand
737embedded spaces (and such) in the argument list. To start up sh rather
a0d0e21e
LW
738than csh, some systems may have to replace the #! line with a line
739containing just a colon, which will be politely ignored by Perl. Other
740systems can't control that, and need a totally devious construct that
19799a22 741will work under any of B<csh>, B<sh>, or Perl, such as the following:
a0d0e21e 742
19799a22 743 eval '(exit $?0)' && eval 'exec perl -wS $0 ${1+"$@"}'
a3cb178b 744 & eval 'exec /usr/bin/perl -wS $0 $argv:q'
5f05dabc 745 if $running_under_some_shell;
a0d0e21e 746
19799a22
GS
747If the filename supplied contains directory separators (i.e., is an
748absolute or relative pathname), and if that file is not found,
749platforms that append file extensions will do so and try to look
750for the file with those extensions added, one by one.
751
752On DOS-like platforms, if the program does not contain directory
753separators, it will first be searched for in the current directory
754before being searched for on the PATH. On Unix platforms, the
755program will be searched for strictly on the PATH.
756
6537fe72
MS
757=item B<-t>
758
759Like B<-T>, but taint checks will issue warnings rather than fatal
317ea90d
MS
760errors. These warnings can be controlled normally with C<no warnings
761qw(taint)>.
1dbad523
JH
762
763B<NOTE: this is not a substitute for -T.> This is meant only to be
764used as a temporary development aid while securing legacy code:
765for real production code and for new secure code written from scratch
766always use the real B<-T>.
6537fe72 767
a0d0e21e
LW
768=item B<-T>
769
a3cb178b 770forces "taint" checks to be turned on so you can test them. Ordinarily
19799a22
GS
771these checks are done only when running setuid or setgid. It's a
772good idea to turn them on explicitly for programs that run on behalf
773of someone else whom you might not necessarily trust, such as CGI
774programs or any internet servers you might write in Perl. See
775L<perlsec> for details. For security reasons, this option must be
776seen by Perl quite early; usually this means it must appear early
777on the command line or in the #! line for systems which support
778that construct.
a0d0e21e
LW
779
780=item B<-u>
781
19799a22
GS
782This obsolete switch causes Perl to dump core after compiling your
783program. You can then in theory take this core dump and turn it
784into an executable file by using the B<undump> program (not supplied).
785This speeds startup at the expense of some disk space (which you
786can minimize by stripping the executable). (Still, a "hello world"
787executable comes out to about 200K on my machine.) If you want to
788execute a portion of your program before dumping, use the dump()
789operator instead. Note: availability of B<undump> is platform
790specific and may not be available for a specific port of Perl.
791
792This switch has been superseded in favor of the new Perl code
793generator backends to the compiler. See L<B> and L<B::Bytecode>
794for details.
a0d0e21e
LW
795
796=item B<-U>
797
798allows Perl to do unsafe operations. Currently the only "unsafe"
799operations are the unlinking of directories while running as superuser,
800and running setuid programs with fatal taint checks turned into
19799a22
GS
801warnings. Note that the B<-w> switch (or the C<$^W> variable) must
802be used along with this option to actually I<generate> the
fb73857a 803taint-check warnings.
a0d0e21e
LW
804
805=item B<-v>
806
19799a22 807prints the version and patchlevel of your perl executable.
a0d0e21e 808
3c81428c
PP
809=item B<-V>
810
811prints summary of the major perl configuration values and the current
19799a22 812values of @INC.
3c81428c 813
e0ebc809 814=item B<-V:>I<name>
3c81428c
PP
815
816Prints to STDOUT the value of the named configuration variable.
44a4342c 817For example,
3c81428c 818
19799a22
GS
819 $ perl -V:man.dir
820
821will provide strong clues about what your MANPATH variable should
822be set to in order to access the Perl documentation.
a0d0e21e 823
19799a22 824=item B<-w>
774d564b 825
19799a22
GS
826prints warnings about dubious constructs, such as variable names
827that are mentioned only once and scalar variables that are used
828before being set, redefined subroutines, references to undefined
829filehandles or filehandles opened read-only that you are attempting
830to write on, values used as a number that doesn't look like numbers,
831using an array as though it were a scalar, if your subroutines
832recurse more than 100 deep, and innumerable other things.
833
b40da996 834This switch really just enables the internal C<$^W> variable. You
19799a22
GS
835can disable or promote into fatal errors specific warnings using
836C<__WARN__> hooks, as described in L<perlvar> and L<perlfunc/warn>.
837See also L<perldiag> and L<perltrap>. A new, fine-grained warning
838facility is also available if you want to manipulate entire classes
9f1b1f2d 839of warnings; see L<warnings> or L<perllexwarn>.
a0d0e21e 840
0453d815
PM
841=item B<-W>
842
3c0facb2 843Enables all warnings regardless of C<no warnings> or C<$^W>.
0453d815
PM
844See L<perllexwarn>.
845
846=item B<-X>
847
3c0facb2 848Disables all warnings regardless of C<use warnings> or C<$^W>.
0453d815
PM
849See L<perllexwarn>.
850
a0d0e21e
LW
851=item B<-x> I<directory>
852
19799a22
GS
853tells Perl that the program is embedded in a larger chunk of unrelated
854ASCII text, such as in a mail message. Leading garbage will be
855discarded until the first line that starts with #! and contains the
856string "perl". Any meaningful switches on that line will be applied.
857If a directory name is specified, Perl will switch to that directory
858before running the program. The B<-x> switch controls only the
859disposal of leading garbage. The program must be terminated with
860C<__END__> if there is trailing garbage to be ignored (the program
861can process any or all of the trailing garbage via the DATA filehandle
862if desired).
a0d0e21e 863
1e422769
PP
864=back
865
866=head1 ENVIRONMENT
867
868=over 12
869
870=item HOME
871
872Used if chdir has no argument.
873
874=item LOGDIR
875
876Used if chdir has no argument and HOME is not set.
877
878=item PATH
879
19799a22 880Used in executing subprocesses, and in finding the program if B<-S> is
1e422769
PP
881used.
882
883=item PERL5LIB
884
885A colon-separated list of directories in which to look for Perl library
886files before looking in the standard library and the current
951ba7fe
GS
887directory. Any architecture-specific directories under the specified
888locations are automatically included if they exist. If PERL5LIB is not
889defined, PERLLIB is used.
890
891When running taint checks (either because the program was running setuid
892or setgid, or the B<-T> switch was used), neither variable is used.
893The program should instead say:
1e422769
PP
894
895 use lib "/my/directory";
896
54310121
PP
897=item PERL5OPT
898
899Command-line options (switches). Switches in this variable are taken
1c4db469 900as if they were on every Perl command line. Only the B<-[DIMUdmtw]>
19799a22 901switches are allowed. When running taint checks (because the program
54310121 902was running setuid or setgid, or the B<-T> switch was used), this
74288ac8
GS
903variable is ignored. If PERL5OPT begins with B<-T>, tainting will be
904enabled, and any subsequent options ignored.
54310121 905
16537909
JH
906=item PERLIO
907
44a4342c 908A space (or colon) separated list of PerlIO layers. If perl is built
03d9e98a 909to use PerlIO system for IO (the default) these layers effect perl's IO.
44a4342c
NIS
910
911It is conventional to start layer names with a colon e.g. C<:perlio> to
912emphasise their similarity to variable "attributes". But the code that parses
913layer specification strings (which is also used to decode the PERLIO
914environment variable) treats the colon as a separator.
915
916The list becomes the default for I<all> perl's IO. Consequently only built-in
917layers can appear in this list, as external layers (such as :encoding()) need
918IO in order to load them!. See L<"open pragma"|open> for how to add external
919encodings as defaults.
920
921The layers that it makes sense to include in the PERLIO environment
922variable are summarised below. For more details see L<PerlIO>.
16537909
JH
923
924=over 8
925
926=item :bytes
927
44a4342c 928Turns I<off> the C<:utf8> flag for the layer below.
99366417 929Unlikely to be useful in global PERLIO environment variable.
16537909
JH
930
931=item :crlf
932
44a4342c
NIS
933A layer that implements DOS/Windows like CRLF line endings.
934On read converts pairs of CR,LF to a single "\n" newline character.
935On write converts each "\n" to a CR,LF pair.
936Based on the C<:perlio> layer.
937
938=item :mmap
939
940A layer which implements "reading" of files by using C<mmap()> to
941make (whole) file appear in the process's address space, and then
942using that as PerlIO's "buffer". This I<may> be faster in certain
943circumstances for large files, and may result in less physical memory
944use when multiple processes are reading the same file.
16537909 945
44a4342c
NIS
946Files which are not C<mmap()>-able revert to behaving like the C<:perlio>
947layer. Writes also behave like C<:perlio> layer as C<mmap()> for write
948needs extra house-keeping (to extend the file) which negates any advantage.
16537909 949
44a4342c 950The C<:mmap> layer will not exist if platform does not support C<mmap()>.
16537909 951
44a4342c 952=item :perlio
16537909 953
44a4342c
NIS
954A from scratch implementation of buffering for PerlIO. Provides fast
955access to the buffer for C<sv_gets> which implements perl's readline/E<lt>E<gt>
956and in general attempts to minimize data copying.
16537909 957
44a4342c 958C<:perlio> will insert a C<:unix> layer below itself to do low level IO.
16537909 959
44a4342c 960=item :raw
16537909 961
0226bbdb
NIS
962Applying the <:raw> layer is equivalent to calling C<binmode($fh)>.
963It makes the stream pass each byte as-is without any translation.
964In particular CRLF translation, and/or :utf8 inuited from locale
965are disabled.
1cbfc93d 966
0226bbdb 967Arranges for all accesses go straight to the lowest buffered layer provided
44a4342c 968by the configration. That is it strips off any layers above that layer.
16537909 969
fae2c0fb
RGS
970In Perl 5.6 and some books the C<:raw> layer (previously sometimes also
971referred to as a "discipline") is documented as the inverse of the
972C<:crlf> layer. That is no longer the case - other layers which would
973alter binary nature of the stream are also disabled. If you want UNIX
974line endings on a platform that normally does CRLF translation, but still
975want UTF-8 or encoding defaults the appropriate thing to do is to add
976C<:perlio> to PERLIO environment variable.
16537909 977
44a4342c
NIS
978=item :stdio
979
980This layer provides PerlIO interface by wrapping system's ANSI C "stdio"
981library calls. The layer provides both buffering and IO.
982Note that C<:stdio> layer does I<not> do CRLF translation even if that
983is platforms normal behaviour. You will need a C<:crlf> layer above it
984to do that.
985
986=item :unix
987
988Lowest level layer which provides basic PerlIO operations in terms of
989UNIX/POSIX numeric file descriptor calls
990C<open(), read(), write(), lseek(), close()>
16537909
JH
991
992=item :utf8
993
44a4342c
NIS
994Turns on a flag on the layer below to tell perl that data sent to the
995stream should be converted to perl internal "utf8" form and that data from the
996stream should be considered as so encoded. On ASCII based platforms the
997encoding is UTF-8 and on EBCDIC platforms UTF-EBCDIC.
998May be useful in PERLIO environment variable to make UTF-8 the
999default. (To turn off that behaviour use C<:bytes> layer.)
1000
1001=item :win32
1002
ab4f7683 1003On Win32 platforms this I<experimental> layer uses native "handle" IO
44a4342c
NIS
1004rather than unix-like numeric file descriptor layer. Known to be
1005buggy in this release.
16537909
JH
1006
1007=back
1008
44a4342c
NIS
1009On all platforms the default set of layers should give acceptable results.
1010
ab4f7683 1011For UNIX platforms that will equivalent of "unix perlio" or "stdio".
44a4342c
NIS
1012Configure is setup to prefer "stdio" implementation if system's library
1013provides for fast access to the buffer, otherwise it uses the "unix perlio"
1014implementation.
1015
1016On Win32 the default in this release is "unix crlf". Win32's "stdio"
1017has a number of bugs/mis-features for perl IO which are somewhat
99366417 1018C compiler vendor/version dependent. Using our own C<crlf> layer as
44a4342c
NIS
1019the buffer avoids those issues and makes things more uniform.
1020The C<crlf> layer provides CRLF to/from "\n" conversion as well as
1021buffering.
1022
1023This release uses C<unix> as the bottom layer on Win32 and so still uses C
1024compiler's numeric file descriptor routines. There is an experimental native
1025C<win32> layer which is expected to be enhanced and should eventually replace
1026the C<unix> layer.
1027
1028=item PERLIO_DEBUG
1029
1030If set to the name of a file or device then certain operations of PerlIO
1031sub-system will be logged to that file (opened as append). Typical uses
1032are UNIX:
1033
1034 PERLIO_DEBUG=/dev/tty perl script ...
1035
1036and Win32 approximate equivalent:
1037
1038 set PERLIO_DEBUG=CON
1039 perl script ...
1040
16537909 1041
1e422769
PP
1042=item PERLLIB
1043
1044A colon-separated list of directories in which to look for Perl library
1045files before looking in the standard library and the current directory.
1046If PERL5LIB is defined, PERLLIB is not used.
1047
1048=item PERL5DB
1049
1050The command used to load the debugger code. The default is:
1051
1052 BEGIN { require 'perl5db.pl' }
1053
19799a22 1054=item PERL5SHELL (specific to the Win32 port)
174c211a
GS
1055
1056May be set to an alternative shell that perl must use internally for
ce1da67e
GS
1057executing "backtick" commands or system(). Default is C<cmd.exe /x/c>
1058on WindowsNT and C<command.com /c> on Windows95. The value is considered
19799a22 1059to be space-separated. Precede any character that needs to be protected
ce1da67e
GS
1060(like a space or backslash) with a backslash.
1061
1062Note that Perl doesn't use COMSPEC for this purpose because
1063COMSPEC has a high degree of variability among users, leading to
1064portability concerns. Besides, perl can use a shell that may not be
1065fit for interactive use, and setting COMSPEC to such a shell may
1066interfere with the proper functioning of other programs (which usually
1067look in COMSPEC to find a shell fit for interactive use).
174c211a 1068
1e422769
PP
1069=item PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS
1070
67ce8856 1071Relevant only if perl is compiled with the malloc included with the perl
a3cb178b
GS
1072distribution (that is, if C<perl -V:d_mymalloc> is 'define').
1073If set, this causes memory statistics to be dumped after execution. If set
1e422769
PP
1074to an integer greater than one, also causes memory statistics to be dumped
1075after compilation.
1076
1077=item PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL
1078
1079Relevant only if your perl executable was built with B<-DDEBUGGING>,
1080this controls the behavior of global destruction of objects and other
64cea5fd 1081references. See L<perlhack/PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL> for more information.
a0d0e21e 1082
5d170f3a
JH
1083=item PERL_ENCODING
1084
1085If using the C<encoding> pragma without an explicit encoding name, the
1086PERL_ENCODING environment variable is consulted for an encoding name.
1087
3d0ae7ba
GS
1088=item PERL_ROOT (specific to the VMS port)
1089
1090A translation concealed rooted logical name that contains perl and the
1091logical device for the @INC path on VMS only. Other logical names that
44a4342c
NIS
1092affect perl on VMS include PERLSHR, PERL_ENV_TABLES, and
1093SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL but are optional and discussed further in
3d0ae7ba
GS
1094L<perlvms> and in F<README.vms> in the Perl source distribution.
1095
4ffa73a3
JH
1096=item PERL_SIGNALS
1097
1098In Perls 5.8.1 and later. If set to C<unsafe> the pre-Perl-5.8.0
1099signals behaviour (immediate but unsafe) is restored. If set to
1100C<safe> the safe signals are used.
1101
a05d7ebb 1102=item PERL_UNICODE
acae81db 1103
bf61ac64
JH
1104Equivalent to the B<-C> command-line switch. Note that this is not
1105a boolean variable-- setting this to C<"1"> is not the right way to
5b4f334e 1106"enable Unicode" (whatever that would mean). You can use C<"0"> to
e654d908
JH
1107"disable Unicode", though (or alternatively unset PERL_UNICODE in
1108your shell before starting Perl). See the description of the C<-C>
1109switch for more information.
acae81db 1110
3d0ae7ba
GS
1111=item SYS$LOGIN (specific to the VMS port)
1112
1113Used if chdir has no argument and HOME and LOGDIR are not set.
1114
a0d0e21e 1115=back
1e422769
PP
1116
1117Perl also has environment variables that control how Perl handles data
1118specific to particular natural languages. See L<perllocale>.
1119
1120Apart from these, Perl uses no other environment variables, except
19799a22
GS
1121to make them available to the program being executed, and to child
1122processes. However, programs running setuid would do well to execute
1e422769
PP
1123the following lines before doing anything else, just to keep people
1124honest:
1125
19799a22 1126 $ENV{PATH} = '/bin:/usr/bin'; # or whatever you need
7bac28a0 1127 $ENV{SHELL} = '/bin/sh' if exists $ENV{SHELL};
c90c0ff4 1128 delete @ENV{qw(IFS CDPATH ENV BASH_ENV)};