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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
de2902a6 7perlaix - Perl version 5 on IBM AIX (UNIX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of IBM's UNIX operating
12system AIX that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl)
a318903f 13is compiled and/or runs.
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14
15=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
16
f19b8045 17For information on compilers on older versions of AIX, see L<Compiling
c5252117 18Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3>.
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19
20When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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21an ANSI compliant C compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
22gcc for AIX are widely available. A version of gcc is also included in
23the AIX Toolbox which is shipped with AIX.
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24
25=head2 Supported Compilers
26
27Currently all versions of IBM's "xlc", "xlc_r", "cc", "cc_r" or
c5252117 28"vac" ANSI/C compiler will work for building Perl if that compiler
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29works on your system.
30
c5252117 31If you plan to link Perl to any module that requires thread-support,
e1051f11 32like DBD::Oracle, it is better to use the _r version of the compiler.
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33This will not build a threaded Perl, but a thread-enabled Perl. See
34also L<Threaded Perl> later on.
e1051f11 35
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36As of writing (2010-09) only the I<IBM XL C for AIX> or I<IBM XL C/C++
37for AIX> compiler is supported by IBM on AIX 5L/6.1/7.1.
7fabfece 38
f19b8045 39The following compiler versions are currently supported by IBM:
7fabfece 40
1a7c1a8a 41 IBM XL C and IBM XL C/C++ V8, V9, V10, V11
7fabfece 42
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43The XL C for AIX is integrated in the XL C/C++ for AIX compiler and
44therefore also supported.
7fabfece 45
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46If you choose XL C/C++ V9 you need APAR IZ35785 installed
47otherwise the integrated SDBM_File do not compile correctly due
48to an optimization bug. You can circumvent this problem by
49adding -qipa to the optimization flags (-Doptimize='-O -qipa').
50The PTF for APAR IZ35785 which solves this problem is available
e3c125ff 51from IBM (April 2009 PTF for XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX, V9.0).
7fabfece 52
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53If you choose XL C/C++ V11 you need the April 2010 PTF (or newer)
54installed otherwise you will not get a working Perl version.
618c9ef5 55
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56Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
57The former is recommended, as not only it can compile Perl with no
58difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later
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59that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
60
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61If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
62complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
63details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the
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64development team.
65
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66=head2 Incompatibility with AIX Toolbox lib gdbm
67
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68If the AIX Toolbox version of lib gdbm < 1.8.3-5 is installed on your
69system then Perl will not work. This library contains the header files
70/opt/freeware/include/gdbm/dbm.h|ndbm.h which conflict with the AIX
71system versions. The lib gdbm will be automatically removed from the
72wanted libraries if the presence of one of these two header files is
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73detected. If you want to build Perl with GDBM support then please install
74at least gdbm-devel-1.8.3-5 (or higher).
75
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76=head2 Perl 5 was successfully compiled and tested on:
77
78 Perl | AIX Level | Compiler Level | w th | w/o th
79 -------+---------------------+-------------------------+------+-------
80 5.12.2 |5.1 TL9 32 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
81 5.12.2 |5.1 TL9 64 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
82 5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
83 5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | gcc 3.2.2 | OK | OK
84 5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
85 5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
86 5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | gcc 4.2.4 | OK | OK
87 5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
88 5.12.2 |5.3 TL10 SP3 32 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Apr 2010 | OK | OK
89 5.12.2 |5.3 TL10 SP3 64 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Apr 2010 | OK | OK
90 5.12.2 |6.1 TL1 SP7 32 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
91 5.12.2 |6.1 TL1 SP7 64 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
92 5.13 |7.1 TL0 SP1 32 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Jul 2010 | OK | OK
93 5.13 |7.1 TL0 SP1 64 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Jul 2010 | OK | OK
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94
95 w th = with thread support
96 w/o th = without thread support
e3c125ff 97 OK = tested
fe5460cc 98
f19b8045 99Successfully tested means that all "make test" runs finish with a
e37e7c83 100result of 100% OK. All tests were conducted with -Duseshrplib set.
fe5460cc 101
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102All tests were conducted on the oldest supported AIX technology level
103with the latest support package applied. If the tested AIX version is
104out of support (AIX 4.3.3, 5.1, 5.2) then the last available support
105level was used.
106
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107=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
108
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109Starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.x / 5.10.x / 5.12.x)
110and AIX 4.3 or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface
111in the so called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface
112that was used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases
1134.2 and earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with
114compiled modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make
115Perl more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
116using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of
117C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions,
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118which was not possible using the emulated interface.
119
120It is highly recommended to use the new interface.
121
122=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
123
124Should yield no problems.
125
126=head2 Threaded Perl
127
1a7c1a8a 128Should yield no problems with AIX 5.1 / 5.2 / 5.3 / 6.1 / 7.1.
7fabfece 129
81189653 130IBM uses the AIX system Perl (V5.6.0 on AIX 5.1 and V5.8.2 on
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131AIX 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1; V5.8.8 on AIX 5.3 TL11 and AIX 6.1 TL4; V5.10.1
132on AIX 7.1) for some AIX system scripts. If you switch the links in
133/usr/bin from the AIX system Perl (/usr/opt/perl5) to the newly build
134Perl then you get the same features as with the IBM AIX system Perl if
135the threaded options are used.
7fabfece 136
c5252117 137The threaded Perl build works also on AIX 5.1 but the IBM Perl
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138build (Perl v5.6.0) is not threaded on AIX 5.1.
139
1a7c1a8a 140Perl 5.12 an newer is not compatible with the IBM fileset perl.libext.
f19b8045 141
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142=head2 64-bit Perl
143
144If your AIX system is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
145configurations to work. If you want to use 64-bit Perl on AIX 6.1
f19b8045 146you need an APAR for a libc.a bug which affects (n)dbm_XXX functions.
81189653 147The APAR number for this problem is IZ39077.
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148
149If you need more memory (larger data segment) for your Perl programs you
150can set:
151
152 /etc/security/limits
153 default: (or your user)
e3c125ff 154 data = -1 (default is 262144 * 512 byte)
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155
156With the default setting the size is limited to 128MB.
f19b8045 157The -1 removes this limit. If the "make test" fails please change
e37e7c83 158your /etc/security/limits as stated above.
7fabfece 159
1a7c1a8a 160=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (threaded/32-bit)
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161
162With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
163passes all make tests in threaded 32-bit mode, which is the default
c5252117 164configuration for the Perl builds that AIX ships with.
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165
166 rm config.sh
167 ./Configure \
168 -d \
169 -Dcc=cc_r \
170 -Duseshrplib \
171 -Dusethreads \
172 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
173
fe5460cc 174The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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175IBM AIX system Perl installation.
176
1a7c1a8a 177=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (32-bit)
7fabfece 178
fe5460cc 179With the following options you get a Perl version which passes
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180all make tests in 32-bit mode.
181
182 rm config.sh
183 ./Configure \
184 -d \
185 -Dcc=cc_r \
186 -Duseshrplib \
187 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
188
189The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
190IBM AIX system Perl installation.
191
1a7c1a8a 192=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (threaded/64-bit)
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193
194With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
195passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
196
197 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
198
199 rm config.sh
200 ./Configure \
201 -d \
202 -Dcc=cc_r \
203 -Duseshrplib \
204 -Dusethreads \
205 -Duse64bitall \
206 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
207
1a7c1a8a 208=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (64-bit)
7fabfece 209
f19b8045 210With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all
fe5460cc 211make tests in 64-bit mode.
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212
213 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
e3c125ff 214
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215 rm config.sh
216 ./Configure \
217 -d \
218 -Dcc=cc_r \
219 -Duseshrplib \
220 -Duse64bitall \
221 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
222
f19b8045 223The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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224IBM AIX system Perl installation.
225
f19b8045 226If you choose gcc to compile 64-bit Perl then you need to add the
e37e7c83 227following option:
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228
229 -Dcc='gcc -maix64'
230
231
232=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3
233
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234Due to the fact that AIX 4.3.3 reached end-of-service in December 31,
2352003 this information is provided as is. The Perl versions prior to
236Perl 5.8.9 could be compiled on AIX up to 4.3.3 with the following
fe5460cc 237settings (your mileage may vary):
7fabfece 238
d5d9880c 239When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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240an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
241gcc for AIX are widely available.
242
243At the moment of writing, AIX supports two different native C compilers,
4951a6f9 244for which you have to pay: B<xlC> and B<vac>. If you decide to use either
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245of these two (which is quite a lot easier than using gcc), be sure to
246upgrade to the latest available patch level. Currently:
247
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248 xlC.C 3.1.4.10 or 3.6.6.0 or 4.0.2.2 or 5.0.2.9 or 6.0.0.3
249 vac.C 4.4.0.3 or 5.0.2.6 or 6.0.0.1
250
251note that xlC has the OS version in the name as of version 4.0.2.0, so
252you will find xlC.C for AIX-5.0 as package
253
254 xlC.aix50.rte 5.0.2.0 or 6.0.0.3
255
66a1b24b 256subversions are not the same "latest" on all OS versions. For example,
c67773d0 257the latest xlC-5 on aix41 is 5.0.2.9, while on aix43, it is 5.0.2.7.
20d11268 258
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259Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
260The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
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261difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
262require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
263
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264The IBM's compiler patch levels 5.0.0.0 and 5.0.1.0 have compiler
265optimization bugs that affect compiling perl.c and regcomp.c,
266respectively. If Perl's configuration detects those compiler patch
267levels, optimization is turned off for the said source code files.
268Upgrading to at least 5.0.2.0 is recommended.
269
20d11268 270If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
eed1f4d3 271complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
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272details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the development
273team.
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274
275=head2 OS level
276
277Before installing the patches to the IBM C-compiler you need to know the
278level of patching for the Operating System. IBM's command 'oslevel' will
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279show the base, but is not always complete (in this example oslevel shows
2804.3.NULL, whereas the system might run most of 4.3.THREE):
1a3e4d88 281
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282 # oslevel
283 4.3.0.0
284 # lslpp -l | grep 'bos.rte '
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285 bos.rte 4.3.3.75 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
286 bos.rte 4.3.2.0 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
287 #
288
c5252117 289The same might happen to AIX 5.1 or other OS levels. As a side note, Perl
64cb7701 290cannot be built without bos.adt.syscalls and bos.adt.libm installed
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291
292 # lslpp -l | egrep "syscalls|libm"
293 bos.adt.libm 5.1.0.25 COMMITTED Base Application Development
c67773d0 294 bos.adt.syscalls 5.1.0.36 COMMITTED System Calls Application
64cb7701 295 #
20d11268 296
f19b8045 297=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX E<lt> 5L
20d11268 298
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299AIX supports dynamically loadable objects as well as shared libraries.
300Shared libraries by convention end with the suffix .a, which is a bit
301misleading, as an archive can contain static as well as dynamic members.
c5252117 302For Perl dynamically loaded objects we use the .so suffix also used on
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303many other platforms.
304
305Note that starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.0) and AIX 4.3
306or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
307called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
308used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
309earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
c5252117 310modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
efc3b6b5 311more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
8218ea5d 312using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++
c5252117 313code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions, which
8218ea5d 314was not possible using the emulated interface.
12f54d27 315
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316=head2 The IBM ANSI C Compiler
317
318All defaults for Configure can be used.
319
320If you've chosen to use vac 4, be sure to run 4.4.0.3. Older versions
4951a6f9 321will turn up nasty later on. For vac 5 be sure to run at least 5.0.1.0,
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322but vac 5.0.2.6 or up is highly recommended. Note that since IBM has
323removed vac 5.0.2.1 through 5.0.2.5 from the software depot, these
324versions should be considered obsolete.
20d11268 325
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326Here's a brief lead of how to upgrade the compiler to the latest
327level. Of course this is subject to changes. You can only upgrade
328versions from ftp-available updates if the first three digit groups
329are the same (in where you can skip intermediate unlike the patches
c5252117 330in the developer snapshots of Perl), or to one version up where the
66a1b24b 331"base" is available. In other words, the AIX compiler patches are
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332cumulative.
333
334 vac.C.4.4.0.1 => vac.C.4.4.0.3 is OK (vac.C.4.4.0.2 not needed)
335 xlC.C.3.1.3.3 => xlC.C.3.1.4.10 is NOT OK (xlC.C.3.1.4.0 is not available)
336
337 # ftp ftp.software.ibm.com
338 Connected to service.boulder.ibm.com.
339 : welcome message ...
340 Name (ftp.software.ibm.com:merijn): anonymous
341 331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
342 Password:
343 ... accepted login stuff
344 ftp> cd /aix/fixes/v4/
345 ftp> dir other other.ll
346 output to local-file: other.ll? y
347 200 PORT command successful.
348 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
349 226 Transfer complete.
350 ftp> dir xlc xlc.ll
351 output to local-file: xlc.ll? y
352 200 PORT command successful.
353 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
354 226 Transfer complete.
355 ftp> bye
356 ... goodbye messages
357 # ls -l *.ll
358 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 1169432 Nov 2 17:29 other.ll
359 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 29170 Nov 2 17:29 xlc.ll
360
361On AIX 4.2 using xlC, we continue:
362
363 # lslpp -l | fgrep 'xlC.C '
364 xlC.C 3.1.4.9 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
365 xlC.C 3.1.4.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
366 # grep 'xlC.C.3.1.4.*.bff' xlc.ll
367 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6286336 Jul 22 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.1.bff
368 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6173696 Aug 24 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
369 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6319104 Aug 14 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.2.bff
370 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6316032 Oct 21 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.3.bff
371 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6315008 Dec 20 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.4.bff
372 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6178816 Mar 28 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.5.bff
373 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6188032 May 22 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.6.bff
374 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6191104 Sep 5 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.7.bff
375 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6185984 Jan 13 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.8.bff
376 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6169600 May 27 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.9.bff
377 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/xlc/xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
378 #
379
380On AIX 4.3 using vac, we continue:
381
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382 # lslpp -l | grep 'vac.C '
383 vac.C 5.0.2.2 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
384 vac.C 5.0.2.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
385 # grep 'vac.C.5.0.2.*.bff' other.ll
386 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 13592576 Apr 16 2001 vac.C.5.0.2.0.bff
387 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14133248 Apr 9 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.3.bff
388 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14173184 May 20 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.4.bff
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389 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14192640 Nov 22 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
390 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/other/vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
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391 #
392
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393Likewise on all other OS levels. Then execute the following command, and
394fill in its choices
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395
396 # smit install_update
397 -> Install and Update from LATEST Available Software
c67773d0 398 * INPUT device / directory for software [ vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff ]
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399 [ OK ]
400 [ OK ]
401
402Follow the messages ... and you're done.
403
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404If you like a more web-like approach, a good start point can be
405http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/downloadaz.jsp and click
406"C for AIX", and follow the instructions.
407
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408=head2 The usenm option
409
410If linking miniperl
411
412 cc -o miniperl ... miniperlmain.o opmini.o perl.o ... -lm -lc ...
413
414causes error like this
415
416 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .aintl
417 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .copysignl
418 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .syscall
419 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .eaccess
420 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresuid
421 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresgid
422 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setproctitle
423 ld: 0711-345 Use the -bloadmap or -bnoquiet option to obtain more information.
424
425you could retry with
426
427 make realclean
428 rm config.sh
429 ./Configure -Dusenm ...
430
431which makes Configure to use the C<nm> tool when scanning for library
432symbols, which usually is not done in AIX.
433
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434Related to this, you probably should not use the C<-r> option of
435Configure in AIX, because that affects of how the C<nm> tool is used.
436
c5252117 437=head2 Using GNU's gcc for building Perl
20d11268 438
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439Using gcc-3.x (tested with 3.0.4, 3.1, and 3.2) now works out of the box,
440as do recent gcc-2.9 builds available directly from IBM as part of their
441Linux compatibility packages, available here:
818c4caa 442
4238f5a6 443 http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/
20d11268 444
f19b8045 445=head2 Using Large Files with Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 446
60ecc970 447Should yield no problems.
20d11268 448
f19b8045 449=head2 Threaded Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 450
60ecc970 451Threads seem to work OK, though at the moment not all tests pass when
1d69df2b 452threads are used in combination with 64-bit configurations.
20d11268 453
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454You may get a warning when doing a threaded build:
455
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456 "pp_sys.c", line 4640.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment
457 between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.
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458
459The exact line number may vary, but if the warning (W) comes from a line
460line this
461
462 hent = PerlSock_gethostbyaddr(addr, (Netdb_hlen_t) addrlen, addrtype);
463
464in the "pp_ghostent" function, you may ignore it safely. The warning
465is caused by the reentrant variant of gethostbyaddr() having a slightly
466different prototype than its non-reentrant variant, but the difference
467is not really significant here.
468
f19b8045 469=head2 64-bit Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 470
1d69df2b 471If your AIX is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
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472configurations to work. In combination with threads some tests might
473still fail.
20d11268 474
12f54d27 475=head2 AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
20d11268 476
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477In AIX 4.2 Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics
478may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized.
479In newer AIX releases this has been solved by linking Perl with
480the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library
481has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time
482(such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and
483therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against the libC_r.
20d11268 484
7fabfece 485=head1 AUTHORS
20d11268 486
7fabfece 487Rainer Tammer <tammer@tammer.net>
20d11268 488
20d11268 489=cut