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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
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4
5=head1 NAME
6
d66be8f9 7README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
12(HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
13compiled and/or runs.
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14
15=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
16
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17When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. The C compiler
18that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
19used to build new kernels.
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20
21Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The
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22former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
23difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
24require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
f2a260d6 25
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26If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
27complete, and be sure to read the Perl README file for more gcc-specific
28details.
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29
30=head2 PA-RISC
31
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32HP's current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
33(PA-RISC) chip. HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
34chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
35document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
36Motorola chipset.
f2a260d6 37
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38The most recent version of PA-RISC at the time of this document's last
39update is 2.0.
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40
41=head2 PA-RISC 1.0
42
43The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with this chip.
44
45The following systems contain PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
46
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47 600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850, 852,
48 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
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49
50=head2 PA-RISC 1.1
51
52An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many different
53system.
54
55The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
56
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57 705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 745, 747, 750,
58 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811, 813, 816, 817,
59 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849, 851, 856, 857, 859,
60 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C, B115, B120, B132L, B132L+,
61 B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120, C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250,
62 D260, D310, D320, D330, D350, D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DZO, E25, E35, E45,
63 E55, F10, F20, F30, G30, G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70,
64 I30, I40, I50, I60, I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230,
65 K400, K410, K420, S700i, S715, S724, S760, T500, T520
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66
67=head2 PA-RISC 2.0
68
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69The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
7064-bit integer data.
f2a260d6 71
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72As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
73contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
f2a260d6 74
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75 700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889, 893,
76 895, 896, 898, 899, B1000, C130, C140, C160, C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+,
77 C400+, C3000, C360, CB260, D270, D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240,
78 J280, J282, J400, J410, J5000, J7000, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
79 K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000, L2000,
80 N4000, R380, R390, T540, T600, V2000, V2200, V2250, V2500
f2a260d6 81
d66be8f9 82A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
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83/opt/langtools/lib/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the
84output of the "uname -m" command (without the leading "9000/"). The
85second column is the PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact
86chip type used.
d66be8f9 87
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88=head2 Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
89
90An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
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91PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
92HP-UX. If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want that
93Perl to to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable and
94+DS32 should be used.
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96It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
97the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms.
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98
99=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
100
101HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
102Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl.
103
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104Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC
105version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
106default. However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using the
107same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
108mentioned above).
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109
110To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
111
112 1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
113 which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC). The linker will
114 tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
115
116 2. Link the shared library using the -b flag. If the code calls
117 any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
118 be included on this line.
119
120(Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the extension's
121Makefile).
122
123If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
124time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when the
125library is loaded.
126
a75f7dba 127You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
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128may be either an archive library or a shared library. If this second
129library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library". The
130dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
131is not linked into the shared library. Instead, it is loaded when the
132main shared library is loaded. This can cause problems if you build an
133extension on one system and move it to another system where the
134libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
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135
136If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
137simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC). These
138modules are then linked into the shared library.
139
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140Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
141library that is already linked into perl.
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142
143It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries.
144
145=head2 The HP ANSI C Compiler
146
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147When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
148flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
149file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below).
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150
151=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
152
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153Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
154may be created and manipulated. Three separate methods of doing this
155are available. Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to compile
156using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure. This causes Perl to be
157compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits wide,
158rather than 32 bits wide. (Note that this will only work with HP's ANSI
159C compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get
160a version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
161
162There are some drawbacks to this approach. One is that any extension
163which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
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164(just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install"
165procedure).
60ed1d8c 166
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167The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
168creat, fgetpos, fopen,
169freopen, fsetpos, fstat,
170fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev, ftruncate,
171ftw, lockf, lseek,
172lstat, mmap, nftw,
173open, prealloc, stat,
174statvfs, statvfsdev, tmpfile,
175truncate, getrlimit, setrlimit
f2a260d6 176
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177Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0. This
178drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
179and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
180
181It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run
182Configure. If you do not do this, but later answer the question about
183large files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that
184cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
185
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186=head2 Threaded Perl
187
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188It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
189HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
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190HP-UX 11.00 at least.
191
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192To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of
193Configure. Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
194automatically added to the list of flags. Also make sure that -lpthread
195is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl with.
f2a260d6 196
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197As of the date of this document, Perl threads are not fully supported on
198HP-UX.
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200HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a seperate installation of a POSIX
201threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
202on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
203April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, available
204though worldwide HP-UX mirrors of precompiled packages
205(e.g. http://hpux.tn.tudelft.nl/hppd/hpux/alpha.html)
206
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207=head2 64-bit Perl
208
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209Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
210advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
211Pointers are 64 bits wide).
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213Work is being performed on Perl to make it 64-bit compliant on all
214versions of Unix. Once this is complete, scalar variables will be able
215to hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.
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216
217As of the date of this document, Perl is not 64-bit compliant on HP-UX.
218
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219Should a user wish to experiment with compiling Perl in the LP64
220environment, use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure. This will force
221Perl to be compiled in a pure LP64 environment (via the +DD64 flag).
f74a9bd3 222
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223You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure. Although there
224are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
225the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl user's
226perspective.
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228In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
229you run Configure. If you do not use do this, but later answer the
230questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
231configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as
232expected.
f74a9bd3 233
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234(Note that these Configure flags will only work with HP's ANSI C
235compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get a
236version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
f2a260d6 237
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238=head2 GDBM and Threads
239
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240If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
241link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
242starts up. The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
243library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.
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244
245=head2 NFS filesystems and utime(2)
246
247If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the test
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248io/fs.t may fail on test #18. This appears to be a bug in HP-UX and no
249fix is currently available.
d66be8f9 250
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251=head2 perl -P and //
252
efdf3af0 253In HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if the
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254-P flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before
255perl sees it) is used. The problem is that C<//>, being a C++-style
256until-end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder
257of the line. This means that common Perl constructs like
258
efdf3af0 259 s/foo//;
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260
261will turn into illegal code
262
efdf3af0 263 s/foo
183968aa 264
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265The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than C<"/">,
266like for example C<"!">:
183968aa 267
efdf3af0 268 s!foo!!;
183968aa 269
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270=head1 AUTHOR
271
272Jeff Okamoto <okamoto@corp.hp.com>
273
274With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.
275
276=head1 DATE
277
c7d9b096 278Version 0.6.2: 2001-02-02
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279
280=cut