This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
perlapi: Add explanation for why certain macros don't exist.
[perl5.git] / handy.h
CommitLineData
a0d0e21e 1/* handy.h
a687059c 2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000,
da5d8dbb 4 * 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012 by Larry Wall and others
a687059c 5 *
6e21c824
LW
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8d063cd8 8 *
8d063cd8
LW
9 */
10
4650c663
KW
11/* IMPORTANT NOTE: Everything whose name begins with an underscore is for
12 * internal core Perl use only. */
13
9d745869
KW
14#ifndef HANDY_H /* Guard against nested #inclusion */
15#define HANDY_H
16
85e6fe83 17#if !defined(__STDC__)
378cc40b
LW
18#ifdef NULL
19#undef NULL
20#endif
a687059c 21# define NULL 0
85e6fe83
LW
22#endif
23
24792b8d
NC
24#ifndef PERL_CORE
25# define Null(type) ((type)NULL)
954c1994
GS
26
27/*
ccfc67b7 28=head1 Handy Values
954c1994 29
3609ea0d 30=for apidoc AmU||Nullch
72d33970
FC
31Null character pointer. (No longer available when C<PERL_CORE> is
32defined.)
2307c6d0 33
954c1994 34=for apidoc AmU||Nullsv
72d33970 35Null SV pointer. (No longer available when C<PERL_CORE> is defined.)
954c1994
GS
36
37=cut
38*/
39
24792b8d
NC
40# define Nullch Null(char*)
41# define Nullfp Null(PerlIO*)
42# define Nullsv Null(SV*)
43#endif
8d063cd8 44
641d3f0b
PP
45#ifdef TRUE
46#undef TRUE
47#endif
48#ifdef FALSE
49#undef FALSE
50#endif
51#define TRUE (1)
52#define FALSE (0)
53
cf3f0ffb
DM
54/* The MUTABLE_*() macros cast pointers to the types shown, in such a way
55 * (compiler permitting) that casting away const-ness will give a warning;
56 * e.g.:
57 *
58 * const SV *sv = ...;
59 * AV *av1 = (AV*)sv; <== BAD: the const has been silently cast away
60 * AV *av2 = MUTABLE_AV(sv); <== GOOD: it may warn
61 */
62
b1bc3f34 63#if defined(__GNUC__) && !defined(PERL_GCC_BRACE_GROUPS_FORBIDDEN)
f065df04 64# define MUTABLE_PTR(p) ({ void *_p = (p); _p; })
b1bc3f34
NC
65#else
66# define MUTABLE_PTR(p) ((void *) (p))
67#endif
68
a062e10d 69#define MUTABLE_AV(p) ((AV *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
ea726b52 70#define MUTABLE_CV(p) ((CV *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
159b6efe 71#define MUTABLE_GV(p) ((GV *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
dbebbdb4 72#define MUTABLE_HV(p) ((HV *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
a45c7426 73#define MUTABLE_IO(p) ((IO *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
b1bc3f34 74#define MUTABLE_SV(p) ((SV *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
27d4fb96 75
f789f6a4 76#if defined(I_STDBOOL) && !defined(PERL_BOOL_AS_CHAR)
bd31be4b
NC
77# include <stdbool.h>
78# ifndef HAS_BOOL
79# define HAS_BOOL 1
80# endif
81#endif
82
8e84507e 83/* bool is built-in for g++-2.6.3 and later, which might be used
c1d22f6b
GS
84 for extensions. <_G_config.h> defines _G_HAVE_BOOL, but we can't
85 be sure _G_config.h will be included before this file. _G_config.h
8e84507e 86 also defines _G_HAVE_BOOL for both gcc and g++, but only g++
c1d22f6b
GS
87 actually has bool. Hence, _G_HAVE_BOOL is pretty useless for us.
88 g++ can be identified by __GNUG__.
89 Andy Dougherty February 2000
5d94fbed 90*/
3609ea0d 91#ifdef __GNUG__ /* GNU g++ has bool built-in */
f789f6a4 92# ifndef PERL_BOOL_AS_CHAR
5d94fbed 93# ifndef HAS_BOOL
c1d22f6b 94# define HAS_BOOL 1
5d94fbed 95# endif
f789f6a4 96# endif
5d94fbed
AD
97#endif
98
99#ifndef HAS_BOOL
f789f6a4
FC
100# ifdef bool
101# undef bool
102# endif
70d5cb32 103# define bool char
c1d22f6b 104# define HAS_BOOL 1
a687059c 105#endif
0d3e774c 106
236415e2
KW
107/* cast-to-bool. A simple (bool) cast may not do the right thing: if bool is
108 * defined as char for example, then the cast from int is
109 * implementation-defined (bool)!!(cbool) in a ternary triggers a bug in xlc on
110 * AIX */
18f5643b 111#define cBOOL(cbool) ((cbool) ? (bool)1 : (bool)0)
f2338a2e 112
46c6c7e2 113/* Try to figure out __func__ or __FUNCTION__ equivalent, if any.
e352bcff
JH
114 * XXX Should really be a Configure probe, with HAS__FUNCTION__
115 * and FUNCTION__ as results.
116 * XXX Similarly, a Configure probe for __FILE__ and __LINE__ is needed. */
46c6c7e2
JH
117#if (defined(__STDC_VERSION__) && __STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L) || (defined(__SUNPRO_C)) /* C99 or close enough. */
118# define FUNCTION__ __func__
119#else
9ea40801 120# if (defined(USING_MSVC6)) || /* MSVC6 has neither __func__ nor __FUNCTION and no good workarounds, either. */ \
be73ebb0 121 (defined(__DECC_VER)) /* Tru64 or VMS, and strict C89 being used, but not modern enough cc (in Tur64, -c99 not known, only -std1). */
46c6c7e2
JH
122# define FUNCTION__ ""
123# else
124# define FUNCTION__ __FUNCTION__ /* Common extension. */
125# endif
126#endif
127
27d4fb96
PP
128/* XXX A note on the perl source internal type system. The
129 original intent was that I32 be *exactly* 32 bits.
130
131 Currently, we only guarantee that I32 is *at least* 32 bits.
132 Specifically, if int is 64 bits, then so is I32. (This is the case
133 for the Cray.) This has the advantage of meshing nicely with
134 standard library calls (where we pass an I32 and the library is
135 expecting an int), but the disadvantage that an I32 is not 32 bits.
136 Andy Dougherty August 1996
24fef2a7 137
dc45a647
MB
138 There is no guarantee that there is *any* integral type with
139 exactly 32 bits. It is perfectly legal for a system to have
140 sizeof(short) == sizeof(int) == sizeof(long) == 8.
693762b4 141
dc45a647
MB
142 Similarly, there is no guarantee that I16 and U16 have exactly 16
143 bits.
693762b4 144
8e84507e
NIS
145 For dealing with issues that may arise from various 32/64-bit
146 systems, we will ask Configure to check out
8175356b 147
3609ea0d
JH
148 SHORTSIZE == sizeof(short)
149 INTSIZE == sizeof(int)
150 LONGSIZE == sizeof(long)
dc45a647 151 LONGLONGSIZE == sizeof(long long) (if HAS_LONG_LONG)
3609ea0d 152 PTRSIZE == sizeof(void *)
dc45a647
MB
153 DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(double)
154 LONG_DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(long double) (if HAS_LONG_DOUBLE).
8175356b 155
27d4fb96
PP
156*/
157
69512466
JH
158#ifdef I_INTTYPES /* e.g. Linux has int64_t without <inttypes.h> */
159# include <inttypes.h>
dd0eed91
JH
160# ifdef INT32_MIN_BROKEN
161# undef INT32_MIN
162# define INT32_MIN (-2147483647-1)
163# endif
164# ifdef INT64_MIN_BROKEN
165# undef INT64_MIN
166# define INT64_MIN (-9223372036854775807LL-1)
167# endif
69512466
JH
168#endif
169
8175356b
JH
170typedef I8TYPE I8;
171typedef U8TYPE U8;
172typedef I16TYPE I16;
173typedef U16TYPE U16;
174typedef I32TYPE I32;
175typedef U32TYPE U32;
16d89be8
JH
176
177#ifdef HAS_QUAD
8175356b
JH
178typedef I64TYPE I64;
179typedef U64TYPE U64;
16d89be8 180#endif
8175356b 181
9c39b21c
JH
182/* INT64_C/UINT64_C are C99 from <stdint.h> (so they will not be
183 * available in strict C89 mode), but they are nice, so let's define
184 * them if necessary. */
0d3bd0a9 185#if defined(HAS_QUAD)
9c39b21c
JH
186# undef PeRl_INT64_C
187# undef PeRl_UINT64_C
188/* Prefer the native integer types (int and long) over long long
189 * (which is not C89) and Win32-specific __int64. */
190# if QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_INT && INTSIZE == 8
191# define PeRl_INT64_C(c) (c)
192# define PeRl_UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,U)
193# endif
194# if QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG && LONGSIZE == 8
195# define PeRl_INT64_C(c) CAT2(c,L)
196# define PeRl_UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,UL)
197# endif
198# if QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG_LONG && defined(HAS_LONG_LONG)
199# define PeRl_INT64_C(c) CAT2(c,LL)
200# define PeRl_UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,ULL)
201# endif
202# if QUADKIND == QUAD_IS___INT64
203# define PeRl_INT64_C(c) CAT2(c,I64)
204# define PeRl_UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,UI64)
205# endif
206# ifndef PeRl_INT64_C
702c92eb
JH
207# define PeRl_INT64_C(c) ((I64)(c)) /* last resort */
208# define PeRl_UINT64_C(c) ((U64)(c))
9c39b21c
JH
209# endif
210/* In OS X the INT64_C/UINT64_C are defined with LL/ULL, which will
211 * not fly with C89-pedantic gcc, so let's undefine them first so that
212 * we can redefine them with our native integer preferring versions. */
8eafc6eb 213# if defined(PERL_DARWIN) && defined(PERL_GCC_PEDANTIC)
9c39b21c
JH
214# undef INT64_C
215# undef UINT64_C
216# endif
217# ifndef INT64_C
218# define INT64_C(c) PeRl_INT64_C(c)
219# endif
220# ifndef UINT64_C
221# define UINT64_C(c) PeRl_UINT64_C(c)
222# endif
e8c95190 223#endif
dc750f2e 224
d8668976 225#if defined(UINT8_MAX) && defined(INT16_MAX) && defined(INT32_MAX)
5ff3f7a4 226
5ff3f7a4
GS
227/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
228 Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
229#define U8_MAX UINT8_MAX
230#define U8_MIN UINT8_MIN
231
5ff3f7a4
GS
232#define I16_MAX INT16_MAX
233#define I16_MIN INT16_MIN
234#define U16_MAX UINT16_MAX
235#define U16_MIN UINT16_MIN
236
5ff3f7a4
GS
237#define I32_MAX INT32_MAX
238#define I32_MIN INT32_MIN
0e983133
GS
239#ifndef UINT32_MAX_BROKEN /* e.g. HP-UX with gcc messes this up */
240# define U32_MAX UINT32_MAX
241#else
242# define U32_MAX 4294967295U
243#endif
5ff3f7a4
GS
244#define U32_MIN UINT32_MIN
245
246#else
247
5c9fa16e
KA
248/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
249 Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
27d4fb96
PP
250#define U8_MAX PERL_UCHAR_MAX
251#define U8_MIN PERL_UCHAR_MIN
79072805 252
27d4fb96
PP
253#define I16_MAX PERL_SHORT_MAX
254#define I16_MIN PERL_SHORT_MIN
255#define U16_MAX PERL_USHORT_MAX
256#define U16_MIN PERL_USHORT_MIN
79072805 257
c4f23d77 258#if LONGSIZE > 4
27d4fb96
PP
259# define I32_MAX PERL_INT_MAX
260# define I32_MIN PERL_INT_MIN
261# define U32_MAX PERL_UINT_MAX
262# define U32_MIN PERL_UINT_MIN
79072805 263#else
27d4fb96
PP
264# define I32_MAX PERL_LONG_MAX
265# define I32_MIN PERL_LONG_MIN
266# define U32_MAX PERL_ULONG_MAX
267# define U32_MIN PERL_ULONG_MIN
79072805
LW
268#endif
269
5ff3f7a4
GS
270#endif
271
58a9a5d5 272/* log(2) is pretty close to 0.30103, just in case anyone is grepping for it */
fc36a67e
PP
273#define BIT_DIGITS(N) (((N)*146)/485 + 1) /* log2(10) =~ 146/485 */
274#define TYPE_DIGITS(T) BIT_DIGITS(sizeof(T) * 8)
275#define TYPE_CHARS(T) (TYPE_DIGITS(T) + 2) /* sign, NUL */
276
88794300 277/* Unused by core; should be deprecated */
ff68c719 278#define Ctl(ch) ((ch) & 037)
8d063cd8 279
98fce2a4
KW
280#if defined(PERL_CORE) || defined(PERL_EXT)
281# ifndef MIN
282# define MIN(a,b) ((a) < (b) ? (a) : (b))
283# endif
284# ifndef MAX
285# define MAX(a,b) ((a) > (b) ? (a) : (b))
286# endif
287#endif
288
4650c663
KW
289/* This is a helper macro to avoid preprocessor issues, replaced by nothing
290 * unless under DEBUGGING, where it expands to an assert of its argument,
291 * followed by a comma (hence the comma operator). If we just used a straight
3e94db23
JH
292 * assert(), we would get a comma with nothing before it when not DEBUGGING.
293 *
294 * We also use empty definition under Coverity since the __ASSERT__
295 * checks often check for things that Really Cannot Happen, and Coverity
296 * detects that and gets all excited. */
297
298#if defined(DEBUGGING) && !defined(__COVERITY__)
0f092d08
KW
299# define __ASSERT_(statement) assert(statement),
300#else
301# define __ASSERT_(statement)
302#endif
303
3fe05580
MHM
304/*
305=head1 SV-Body Allocation
306
307=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs|const char* s
0c395ea5 308Like C<newSVpvn>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of a
30a15352 309string/length pair.
3fe05580 310
84bafc02 311=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs_flags|const char* s|U32 flags
0c395ea5 312Like C<newSVpvn_flags>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of
30a15352 313a string/length pair.
84bafc02 314
3fe05580 315=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs_share|const char* s
0c395ea5 316Like C<newSVpvn_share>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of
30a15352 317a string/length pair and omits the hash parameter.
3fe05580 318
9dcc53ea 319=for apidoc Am|void|sv_catpvs_flags|SV* sv|const char* s|I32 flags
0c395ea5 320Like C<sv_catpvn_flags>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead
30a15352 321of a string/length pair.
9dcc53ea
Z
322
323=for apidoc Am|void|sv_catpvs_nomg|SV* sv|const char* s
0c395ea5
KW
324Like C<sv_catpvn_nomg>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of
325a string/length pair.
9dcc53ea 326
7b4e7469 327=for apidoc Am|void|sv_catpvs|SV* sv|const char* s
0c395ea5
KW
328Like C<sv_catpvn>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of a
329string/length pair.
3fe05580 330
9dcc53ea 331=for apidoc Am|void|sv_catpvs_mg|SV* sv|const char* s
0c395ea5 332Like C<sv_catpvn_mg>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of a
9dcc53ea
Z
333string/length pair.
334
7b4e7469 335=for apidoc Am|void|sv_setpvs|SV* sv|const char* s
0c395ea5
KW
336Like C<sv_setpvn>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of a
337string/length pair.
3fe05580 338
9dcc53ea 339=for apidoc Am|void|sv_setpvs_mg|SV* sv|const char* s
0c395ea5 340Like C<sv_setpvn_mg>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of a
9dcc53ea
Z
341string/length pair.
342
343=for apidoc Am|SV *|sv_setref_pvs|const char* s
0c395ea5
KW
344Like C<sv_setref_pvn>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of
345a string/length pair.
9dcc53ea 346
3fe05580
MHM
347=head1 Memory Management
348
349=for apidoc Ama|char*|savepvs|const char* s
0c395ea5 350Like C<savepvn>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of a
30a15352 351string/length pair.
3fe05580 352
9dcc53ea
Z
353=for apidoc Ama|char*|savesharedpvs|const char* s
354A version of C<savepvs()> which allocates the duplicate string in memory
355which is shared between threads.
356
3fe05580
MHM
357=head1 GV Functions
358
359=for apidoc Am|HV*|gv_stashpvs|const char* name|I32 create
0c395ea5
KW
360Like C<gv_stashpvn>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of a
361string/length pair.
3fe05580
MHM
362
363=head1 Hash Manipulation Functions
364
365=for apidoc Am|SV**|hv_fetchs|HV* tb|const char* key|I32 lval
0c395ea5
KW
366Like C<hv_fetch>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of a
367string/length pair.
3fe05580
MHM
368
369=for apidoc Am|SV**|hv_stores|HV* tb|const char* key|NULLOK SV* val
0c395ea5
KW
370Like C<hv_store>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of a
371string/length pair
3fe05580
MHM
372and omits the hash parameter.
373
510966aa
Z
374=head1 Lexer interface
375
376=for apidoc Amx|void|lex_stuff_pvs|const char *pv|U32 flags
377
0c395ea5
KW
378Like L</lex_stuff_pvn>, but takes a C<NUL>-terminated literal string instead of
379a string/length pair.
510966aa 380
3fe05580
MHM
381=cut
382*/
383
926bb54c
KW
384/* concatenating with "" ensures that only literal strings are accepted as
385 * argument */
26bfd924 386#define STR_WITH_LEN(s) ("" s ""), (sizeof(s)-1)
2efa8cc7 387
926bb54c
KW
388/* note that STR_WITH_LEN() can't be used as argument to macros or functions
389 * that under some configurations might be macros, which means that it requires
390 * the full Perl_xxx(aTHX_ ...) form for any API calls where it's used.
ba3a79e7
GA
391 */
392
393/* STR_WITH_LEN() shortcuts */
394#define newSVpvs(str) Perl_newSVpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
84bafc02
NC
395#define newSVpvs_flags(str,flags) \
396 Perl_newSVpvn_flags(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), flags)
ba3a79e7 397#define newSVpvs_share(str) Perl_newSVpvn_share(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), 0)
9dcc53ea
Z
398#define sv_catpvs_flags(sv, str, flags) \
399 Perl_sv_catpvn_flags(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str), flags)
400#define sv_catpvs_nomg(sv, str) \
401 Perl_sv_catpvn_flags(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str), 0)
402#define sv_catpvs(sv, str) \
403 Perl_sv_catpvn_flags(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str), SV_GMAGIC)
404#define sv_catpvs_mg(sv, str) \
405 Perl_sv_catpvn_flags(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str), SV_GMAGIC|SV_SMAGIC)
3fe05580 406#define sv_setpvs(sv, str) Perl_sv_setpvn(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str))
9dcc53ea
Z
407#define sv_setpvs_mg(sv, str) Perl_sv_setpvn_mg(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str))
408#define sv_setref_pvs(rv, classname, str) \
409 Perl_sv_setref_pvn(aTHX_ rv, classname, STR_WITH_LEN(str))
ba3a79e7 410#define savepvs(str) Perl_savepvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
9dcc53ea
Z
411#define savesharedpvs(str) Perl_savesharedpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
412#define gv_stashpvs(str, create) \
413 Perl_gv_stashpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), create)
414#define gv_fetchpvs(namebeg, add, sv_type) \
415 Perl_gv_fetchpvn_flags(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(namebeg), add, sv_type)
416#define gv_fetchpvn(namebeg, len, add, sv_type) \
417 Perl_gv_fetchpvn_flags(aTHX_ namebeg, len, add, sv_type)
418#define sv_catxmlpvs(dsv, str, utf8) \
419 Perl_sv_catxmlpvn(aTHX_ dsv, STR_WITH_LEN(str), utf8)
4ac46235 420
ba3a79e7 421
510966aa
Z
422#define lex_stuff_pvs(pv,flags) Perl_lex_stuff_pvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(pv), flags)
423
b96d8cd9
NC
424#define get_cvs(str, flags) \
425 Perl_get_cvn_flags(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), (flags))
5c1737d1 426
954c1994 427/*
ccfc67b7
JH
428=head1 Miscellaneous Functions
429
954c1994 430=for apidoc Am|bool|strNE|char* s1|char* s2
dc6b0978
KW
431Test two C<NUL>-terminated strings to see if they are different. Returns true
432or false.
954c1994
GS
433
434=for apidoc Am|bool|strEQ|char* s1|char* s2
dc6b0978
KW
435Test two C<NUL>-terminated strings to see if they are equal. Returns true or
436false.
954c1994
GS
437
438=for apidoc Am|bool|strLT|char* s1|char* s2
dc6b0978
KW
439Test two C<NUL>-terminated strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than the
440second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
954c1994
GS
441
442=for apidoc Am|bool|strLE|char* s1|char* s2
dc6b0978
KW
443Test two C<NUL>-terminated strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than or
444equal to the second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
954c1994
GS
445
446=for apidoc Am|bool|strGT|char* s1|char* s2
dc6b0978
KW
447Test two C<NUL>-terminated strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than
448the second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
954c1994
GS
449
450=for apidoc Am|bool|strGE|char* s1|char* s2
dc6b0978
KW
451Test two C<NUL>-terminated strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than
452or equal to the second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
954c1994
GS
453
454=for apidoc Am|bool|strnNE|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
dc6b0978
KW
455Test two C<NUL>-terminated strings to see if they are different. The C<len>
456parameter indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A
954c1994
GS
457wrapper for C<strncmp>).
458
459=for apidoc Am|bool|strnEQ|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
dc6b0978
KW
460Test two C<NUL>-terminated strings to see if they are equal. The C<len>
461parameter indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A
462wrapper for C<strncmp>).
954c1994 463
bd18bd40
KW
464=for apidoc Am|bool|memEQ|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
465Test two buffers (which may contain embedded C<NUL> characters, to see if they
466are equal. The C<len> parameter indicates the number of bytes to compare.
467Returns zero if equal, or non-zero if non-equal.
468
469=for apidoc Am|bool|memNE|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
470Test two buffers (which may contain embedded C<NUL> characters, to see if they
471are not equal. The C<len> parameter indicates the number of bytes to compare.
472Returns zero if non-equal, or non-zero if equal.
473
954c1994
GS
474=cut
475*/
476
62946e08 477
8d063cd8
LW
478#define strNE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2))
479#define strEQ(s1,s2) (!strcmp(s1,s2))
480#define strLT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) < 0)
481#define strLE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) <= 0)
482#define strGT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) > 0)
483#define strGE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) >= 0)
62946e08 484
8d063cd8
LW
485#define strnNE(s1,s2,l) (strncmp(s1,s2,l))
486#define strnEQ(s1,s2,l) (!strncmp(s1,s2,l))
378cc40b 487
62946e08
YO
488#define strNEs(s1,s2) (strncmp(s1,"" s2 "", sizeof(s2)-1))
489#define strEQs(s1,s2) (!strncmp(s1,"" s2 "", sizeof(s2)-1))
490
36477c24
PP
491#ifdef HAS_MEMCMP
492# define memNE(s1,s2,l) (memcmp(s1,s2,l))
493# define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!memcmp(s1,s2,l))
494#else
495# define memNE(s1,s2,l) (bcmp(s1,s2,l))
496# define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!bcmp(s1,s2,l))
497#endif
498
085b7534 499/* memEQ and memNE where second comparand is a string constant */
568a785a 500#define memEQs(s1, l, s2) \
777fa2cb 501 (((sizeof(s2)-1) == (l)) && memEQ((s1), ("" s2 ""), (sizeof(s2)-1)))
568a785a
NC
502#define memNEs(s1, l, s2) !memEQs(s1, l, s2)
503
777fa2cb
YO
504/* memEQ and memNE where second comparand is a string constant
505 * and we can assume the length of s1 is at least that of the string */
506#define _memEQs(s1, s2) \
507 (memEQ((s1), ("" s2 ""), (sizeof(s2)-1)))
508#define _memNEs(s1, s2) (memNE((s1),("" s2 ""),(sizeof(s2)-1)))
509
062b6850
KW
510#define memLT(s1,s2,l) (memcmp(s1,s2,l) < 0)
511#define memLE(s1,s2,l) (memcmp(s1,s2,l) <= 0)
512#define memGT(s1,s2,l) (memcmp(s1,s2,l) > 0)
513#define memGE(s1,s2,l) (memcmp(s1,s2,l) >= 0)
514
bbce6d69
PP
515/*
516 * Character classes.
517 *
518 * Unfortunately, the introduction of locales means that we
519 * can't trust isupper(), etc. to tell the truth. And when
520 * it comes to /\w+/ with tainting enabled, we *must* be able
521 * to trust our character classes.
522 *
523 * Therefore, the default tests in the text of Perl will be
524 * independent of locale. Any code that wants to depend on
525 * the current locale will use the tests that begin with "lc".
526 */
527
2304df62
AD
528#ifdef HAS_SETLOCALE /* XXX Is there a better test for this? */
529# ifndef CTYPE256
530# define CTYPE256
531# endif
532#endif
533
954c1994 534/*
ccfc67b7 535
dcccc8ff 536=head1 Character classification
243effed
KW
537This section is about functions (really macros) that classify characters
538into types, such as punctuation versus alphabetic, etc. Most of these are
539analogous to regular expression character classes. (See
540L<perlrecharclass/POSIX Character Classes>.) There are several variants for
541each class. (Not all macros have all variants; each item below lists the
542ones valid for it.) None are affected by C<use bytes>, and only the ones
543with C<LC> in the name are affected by the current locale.
544
545The base function, e.g., C<isALPHA()>, takes an octet (either a C<char> or a
546C<U8>) as input and returns a boolean as to whether or not the character
6aff1f14
KW
547represented by that octet is (or on non-ASCII platforms, corresponds to) an
548ASCII character in the named class based on platform, Unicode, and Perl rules.
549If the input is a number that doesn't fit in an octet, FALSE is returned.
243effed 550
6aff1f14 551Variant C<isFOO_A> (e.g., C<isALPHA_A()>) is identical to the base function
550da823
KW
552with no suffix C<"_A">. This variant is used to emphasize by its name that
553only ASCII-range characters can return TRUE.
4b9734bf
KW
554
555Variant C<isFOO_L1> imposes the Latin-1 (or EBCDIC equivlalent) character set
556onto the platform. That is, the code points that are ASCII are unaffected,
557since ASCII is a subset of Latin-1. But the non-ASCII code points are treated
558as if they are Latin-1 characters. For example, C<isWORDCHAR_L1()> will return
559true when called with the code point 0xDF, which is a word character in both
4650c663 560ASCII and EBCDIC (though it represents different characters in each).
243effed 561
d0da05db 562Variant C<isFOO_uvchr> is like the C<isFOO_L1> variant, but accepts any UV code
243effed
KW
563point as input. If the code point is larger than 255, Unicode rules are used
564to determine if it is in the character class. For example,
d0da05db 565C<isWORDCHAR_uvchr(0x100)> returns TRUE, since 0x100 is LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A
6aff1f14 566WITH MACRON in Unicode, and is a word character.
243effed 567
d0da05db 568Variant C<isFOO_utf8> is like C<isFOO_uvchr>, but the input is a pointer to a
dc6b0978
KW
569(known to be well-formed) UTF-8 encoded string (C<U8*> or C<char*>, and
570possibly containing embedded C<NUL> characters). The classification of just
571the first (possibly multi-byte) character in the string is tested.
243effed 572
31f05a37
KW
573Variant C<isFOO_LC> is like the C<isFOO_A> and C<isFOO_L1> variants, but the
574result is based on the current locale, which is what C<LC> in the name stands
575for. If Perl can determine that the current locale is a UTF-8 locale, it uses
576the published Unicode rules; otherwise, it uses the C library function that
577gives the named classification. For example, C<isDIGIT_LC()> when not in a
578UTF-8 locale returns the result of calling C<isdigit()>. FALSE is always
1a83413c
KW
579returned if the input won't fit into an octet. On some platforms where the C
580library function is known to be defective, Perl changes its result to follow
581the POSIX standard's rules.
243effed
KW
582
583Variant C<isFOO_LC_uvchr> is like C<isFOO_LC>, but is defined on any UV. It
584returns the same as C<isFOO_LC> for input code points less than 256, and
585returns the hard-coded, not-affected-by-locale, Unicode results for larger ones.
586
b7d90381 587Variant C<isFOO_LC_utf8> is like C<isFOO_LC_uvchr>, but the input is a pointer
dc6b0978
KW
588to a (known to be well-formed) UTF-8 encoded string (C<U8*> or C<char*>, and
589possibly containing embedded C<NUL> characters). The classification of just
590the first (possibly multi-byte) character in the string is tested.
ccfc67b7 591
954c1994 592=for apidoc Am|bool|isALPHA|char ch
2787a470 593Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is an
6aff1f14 594alphabetic character, analogous to C<m/[[:alpha:]]/>.
dcccc8ff
KW
595See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
596variants
d0da05db 597C<isALPHA_A>, C<isALPHA_L1>, C<isALPHA_uvchr>, C<isALPHA_utf8>, C<isALPHA_LC>,
243effed 598C<isALPHA_LC_uvchr>, and C<isALPHA_LC_utf8>.
8a58bdcf 599
15861f94
KW
600=for apidoc Am|bool|isALPHANUMERIC|char ch
601Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a either an
6aff1f14 602alphabetic character or decimal digit, analogous to C<m/[[:alnum:]]/>.
dcccc8ff
KW
603See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
604variants
d0da05db 605C<isALPHANUMERIC_A>, C<isALPHANUMERIC_L1>, C<isALPHANUMERIC_uvchr>,
e5ad6aba 606C<isALPHANUMERIC_utf8>, C<isALPHANUMERIC_LC>, C<isALPHANUMERIC_LC_uvchr>, and
15861f94
KW
607C<isALPHANUMERIC_LC_utf8>.
608
8a58bdcf
KW
609=for apidoc Am|bool|isASCII|char ch
610Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is one of the 128
243effed 611characters in the ASCII character set, analogous to C<m/[[:ascii:]]/>.
e5ad6aba 612On non-ASCII platforms, it returns TRUE iff this
8a58bdcf
KW
613character corresponds to an ASCII character. Variants C<isASCII_A()> and
614C<isASCII_L1()> are identical to C<isASCII()>.
dcccc8ff
KW
615See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
616variants
d0da05db 617C<isASCII_uvchr>, C<isASCII_utf8>, C<isASCII_LC>, C<isASCII_LC_uvchr>, and
243effed
KW
618C<isASCII_LC_utf8>. Note, however, that some platforms do not have the C
619library routine C<isascii()>. In these cases, the variants whose names contain
620C<LC> are the same as the corresponding ones without.
621
d98532ea
KW
622Also note, that because all ASCII characters are UTF-8 invariant (meaning they
623have the exact same representation (always a single byte) whether encoded in
624UTF-8 or not), C<isASCII> will give the correct results when called with any
625byte in any string encoded or not in UTF-8. And similarly C<isASCII_utf8> will
626work properly on any string encoded or not in UTF-8.
627
243effed
KW
628=for apidoc Am|bool|isBLANK|char ch
629Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a
6aff1f14 630character considered to be a blank, analogous to C<m/[[:blank:]]/>.
dcccc8ff
KW
631See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
632variants
d0da05db 633C<isBLANK_A>, C<isBLANK_L1>, C<isBLANK_uvchr>, C<isBLANK_utf8>, C<isBLANK_LC>,
243effed
KW
634C<isBLANK_LC_uvchr>, and C<isBLANK_LC_utf8>. Note, however, that some
635platforms do not have the C library routine C<isblank()>. In these cases, the
636variants whose names contain C<LC> are the same as the corresponding ones
637without.
638
639=for apidoc Am|bool|isCNTRL|char ch
640Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a
6aff1f14 641control character, analogous to C<m/[[:cntrl:]]/>.
dcccc8ff
KW
642See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
643variants
d0da05db 644C<isCNTRL_A>, C<isCNTRL_L1>, C<isCNTRL_uvchr>, C<isCNTRL_utf8>, C<isCNTRL_LC>,
6aff1f14
KW
645C<isCNTRL_LC_uvchr>, and C<isCNTRL_LC_utf8>
646On EBCDIC platforms, you almost always want to use the C<isCNTRL_L1> variant.
954c1994 647
954c1994 648=for apidoc Am|bool|isDIGIT|char ch
2787a470 649Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a
6aff1f14 650digit, analogous to C<m/[[:digit:]]/>.
8a58bdcf 651Variants C<isDIGIT_A> and C<isDIGIT_L1> are identical to C<isDIGIT>.
dcccc8ff
KW
652See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
653variants
d0da05db 654C<isDIGIT_uvchr>, C<isDIGIT_utf8>, C<isDIGIT_LC>, C<isDIGIT_LC_uvchr>, and
243effed
KW
655C<isDIGIT_LC_utf8>.
656
657=for apidoc Am|bool|isGRAPH|char ch
658Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a
6aff1f14 659graphic character, analogous to C<m/[[:graph:]]/>.
dcccc8ff
KW
660See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
661variants
d0da05db 662C<isGRAPH_A>, C<isGRAPH_L1>, C<isGRAPH_uvchr>, C<isGRAPH_utf8>, C<isGRAPH_LC>,
243effed 663C<isGRAPH_LC_uvchr>, and C<isGRAPH_LC_utf8>.
954c1994 664
0c82b6df 665=for apidoc Am|bool|isLOWER|char ch
2787a470 666Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a
6aff1f14 667lowercase character, analogous to C<m/[[:lower:]]/>.
dcccc8ff
KW
668See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
669variants
d0da05db 670C<isLOWER_A>, C<isLOWER_L1>, C<isLOWER_uvchr>, C<isLOWER_utf8>, C<isLOWER_LC>,
243effed 671C<isLOWER_LC_uvchr>, and C<isLOWER_LC_utf8>.
0c82b6df 672
c99e91e9 673=for apidoc Am|bool|isOCTAL|char ch
2787a470 674Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is an
6aff1f14 675octal digit, [0-7].
243effed
KW
676The only two variants are C<isOCTAL_A> and C<isOCTAL_L1>; each is identical to
677C<isOCTAL>.
678
679=for apidoc Am|bool|isPUNCT|char ch
680Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a
6aff1f14
KW
681punctuation character, analogous to C<m/[[:punct:]]/>.
682Note that the definition of what is punctuation isn't as
243effed
KW
683straightforward as one might desire. See L<perlrecharclass/POSIX Character
684Classes> for details.
dcccc8ff
KW
685See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
686variants
d0da05db 687C<isPUNCT_A>, C<isPUNCT_L1>, C<isPUNCT_uvchr>, C<isPUNCT_utf8>, C<isPUNCT_LC>,
243effed 688C<isPUNCT_LC_uvchr>, and C<isPUNCT_LC_utf8>.
c99e91e9 689
0c82b6df 690=for apidoc Am|bool|isSPACE|char ch
2787a470 691Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a
6aff1f14 692whitespace character. This is analogous
398d098a 693to what C<m/\s/> matches in a regular expression. Starting in Perl 5.18
779cf272 694this also matches what C<m/[[:space:]]/> does. Prior to 5.18, only the
398d098a
KW
695locale forms of this macro (the ones with C<LC> in their names) matched
696precisely what C<m/[[:space:]]/> does. In those releases, the only difference,
697in the non-locale variants, was that C<isSPACE()> did not match a vertical tab.
698(See L</isPSXSPC> for a macro that matches a vertical tab in all releases.)
dcccc8ff
KW
699See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
700variants
d0da05db 701C<isSPACE_A>, C<isSPACE_L1>, C<isSPACE_uvchr>, C<isSPACE_utf8>, C<isSPACE_LC>,
243effed 702C<isSPACE_LC_uvchr>, and C<isSPACE_LC_utf8>.
0c82b6df 703
398d098a
KW
704=for apidoc Am|bool|isPSXSPC|char ch
705(short for Posix Space)
779cf272
KW
706Starting in 5.18, this is identical in all its forms to the
707corresponding C<isSPACE()> macros.
398d098a
KW
708The locale forms of this macro are identical to their corresponding
709C<isSPACE()> forms in all Perl releases. In releases prior to 5.18, the
710non-locale forms differ from their C<isSPACE()> forms only in that the
711C<isSPACE()> forms don't match a Vertical Tab, and the C<isPSXSPC()> forms do.
712Otherwise they are identical. Thus this macro is analogous to what
713C<m/[[:space:]]/> matches in a regular expression.
dcccc8ff 714See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
d0da05db 715variants C<isPSXSPC_A>, C<isPSXSPC_L1>, C<isPSXSPC_uvchr>, C<isPSXSPC_utf8>,
b7d90381 716C<isPSXSPC_LC>, C<isPSXSPC_LC_uvchr>, and C<isPSXSPC_LC_utf8>.
398d098a 717
954c1994 718=for apidoc Am|bool|isUPPER|char ch
2787a470 719Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is an
6aff1f14 720uppercase character, analogous to C<m/[[:upper:]]/>.
dcccc8ff
KW
721See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
722variants
d0da05db 723C<isUPPER_A>, C<isUPPER_L1>, C<isUPPER_uvchr>, C<isUPPER_utf8>, C<isUPPER_LC>,
243effed 724C<isUPPER_LC_uvchr>, and C<isUPPER_LC_utf8>.
954c1994 725
243effed 726=for apidoc Am|bool|isPRINT|char ch
8eea39dd 727Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a
6aff1f14 728printable character, analogous to C<m/[[:print:]]/>.
dcccc8ff
KW
729See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
730variants
d0da05db 731C<isPRINT_A>, C<isPRINT_L1>, C<isPRINT_uvchr>, C<isPRINT_utf8>, C<isPRINT_LC>,
243effed
KW
732C<isPRINT_LC_uvchr>, and C<isPRINT_LC_utf8>.
733
734=for apidoc Am|bool|isWORDCHAR|char ch
735Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a character
736that is a word character, analogous to what C<m/\w/> and C<m/[[:word:]]/> match
737in a regular expression. A word character is an alphabetic character, a
738decimal digit, a connecting punctuation character (such as an underscore), or
739a "mark" character that attaches to one of those (like some sort of accent).
740C<isALNUM()> is a synonym provided for backward compatibility, even though a
741word character includes more than the standard C language meaning of
742alphanumeric.
dcccc8ff
KW
743See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
744variants
d0da05db 745C<isWORDCHAR_A>, C<isWORDCHAR_L1>, C<isWORDCHAR_uvchr>, and C<isWORDCHAR_utf8>.
1a83413c
KW
746C<isWORDCHAR_LC>, C<isWORDCHAR_LC_uvchr>, and C<isWORDCHAR_LC_utf8> are also as
747described there, but additionally include the platform's native underscore.
8a58bdcf
KW
748
749=for apidoc Am|bool|isXDIGIT|char ch
750Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character is a hexadecimal
243effed
KW
751digit. In the ASCII range these are C<[0-9A-Fa-f]>. Variants C<isXDIGIT_A()>
752and C<isXDIGIT_L1()> are identical to C<isXDIGIT()>.
dcccc8ff
KW
753See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
754variants
d0da05db 755C<isXDIGIT_uvchr>, C<isXDIGIT_utf8>, C<isXDIGIT_LC>, C<isXDIGIT_LC_uvchr>, and
243effed
KW
756C<isXDIGIT_LC_utf8>.
757
3c3ecf18
KW
758=for apidoc Am|bool|isIDFIRST|char ch
759Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character can be the first
760character of an identifier. This is very close to, but not quite the same as
761the official Unicode property C<XID_Start>. The difference is that this
762returns true only if the input character also matches L</isWORDCHAR>.
dcccc8ff
KW
763See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for an explanation of
764variants
d0da05db 765C<isIDFIRST_A>, C<isIDFIRST_L1>, C<isIDFIRST_uvchr>, C<isIDFIRST_utf8>,
3c3ecf18
KW
766C<isIDFIRST_LC>, C<isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr>, and C<isIDFIRST_LC_utf8>.
767
768=for apidoc Am|bool|isIDCONT|char ch
769Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified character can be the
770second or succeeding character of an identifier. This is very close to, but
771not quite the same as the official Unicode property C<XID_Continue>. The
772difference is that this returns true only if the input character also matches
dcccc8ff
KW
773L</isWORDCHAR>. See the L<top of this section|/Character classification> for
774an
d0da05db 775explanation of variants C<isIDCONT_A>, C<isIDCONT_L1>, C<isIDCONT_uvchr>,
3c3ecf18
KW
776C<isIDCONT_utf8>, C<isIDCONT_LC>, C<isIDCONT_LC_uvchr>, and
777C<isIDCONT_LC_utf8>.
778
243effed 779=head1 Miscellaneous Functions
8eea39dd 780
95a59cab 781=for apidoc Am|U8|READ_XDIGIT|char str*
243effed 782Returns the value of an ASCII-range hex digit and advances the string pointer.
95a59cab
YO
783Behaviour is only well defined when isXDIGIT(*str) is true.
784
e7c1e6c1 785=head1 Character case changing
21da7284
KW
786Perl uses "full" Unicode case mappings. This means that converting a single
787character to another case may result in a sequence of more than one character.
788For example, the uppercase of C<E<223>> (LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S) is the two
789character sequence C<SS>. This presents some complications The lowercase of
790all characters in the range 0..255 is a single character, and thus
791C<L</toLOWER_L1>> is furnished. But, C<toUPPER_L1> can't exist, as it couldn't
792return a valid result for all legal inputs. Instead C<L</toUPPER_uvchr>> has
793an API that does allow every possible legal result to be returned.) Likewise
794no other function that is crippled by not being able to give the correct
795results for the full range of possible inputs has been implemented here.
e7c1e6c1 796
1f607577
KW
797=for apidoc Am|U8|toUPPER|U8 ch
798Converts the specified character to uppercase. If the input is anything but an
799ASCII lowercase character, that input character itself is returned. Variant
c753c8d3 800C<toUPPER_A> is equivalent.
954c1994 801
d0da05db
KW
802=for apidoc Am|UV|toUPPER_uvchr|UV cp|U8* s|STRLEN* lenp
803Converts the code point C<cp> to its uppercase version, and
804stores that in UTF-8 in C<s>, and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. The code
805point is interpreted as native if less than 256; otherwise as Unicode. Note
1f607577
KW
806that the buffer pointed to by C<s> needs to be at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1>
807bytes since the uppercase version may be longer than the original character.
808
809The first code point of the uppercased version is returned
21da7284
KW
810(but note, as explained at L<the top of this section|/Character case
811changing>, that there may be more.)
1f607577
KW
812
813=for apidoc Am|UV|toUPPER_utf8|U8* p|U8* s|STRLEN* lenp
814Converts the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its uppercase version, and
815stores that in UTF-8 in C<s>, and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
816that the buffer pointed to by C<s> needs to be at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1>
817bytes since the uppercase version may be longer than the original character.
818
819The first code point of the uppercased version is returned
21da7284
KW
820(but note, as explained at L<the top of this section|/Character case
821changing>, that there may be more).
1f607577
KW
822
823The input character at C<p> is assumed to be well-formed.
824
25200305
KW
825=for apidoc Am|U8|toFOLD|U8 ch
826Converts the specified character to foldcase. If the input is anything but an
827ASCII uppercase character, that input character itself is returned. Variant
828C<toFOLD_A> is equivalent. (There is no equivalent C<to_FOLD_L1> for the full
d0da05db 829Latin1 range, as the full generality of L</toFOLD_uvchr> is needed there.)
25200305 830
d0da05db
KW
831=for apidoc Am|UV|toFOLD_uvchr|UV cp|U8* s|STRLEN* lenp
832Converts the code point C<cp> to its foldcase version, and
833stores that in UTF-8 in C<s>, and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. The code
834point is interpreted as native if less than 256; otherwise as Unicode. Note
1f607577
KW
835that the buffer pointed to by C<s> needs to be at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1>
836bytes since the foldcase version may be longer than the original character.
837
838The first code point of the foldcased version is returned
21da7284
KW
839(but note, as explained at L<the top of this section|/Character case
840changing>, that there may be more).
1f607577
KW
841
842=for apidoc Am|UV|toFOLD_utf8|U8* p|U8* s|STRLEN* lenp
843Converts the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its foldcase version, and
844stores that in UTF-8 in C<s>, and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
845that the buffer pointed to by C<s> needs to be at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1>
846bytes since the foldcase version may be longer than the original character.
847
848The first code point of the foldcased version is returned
21da7284
KW
849(but note, as explained at L<the top of this section|/Character case
850changing>, that there may be more).
1f607577
KW
851
852The input character at C<p> is assumed to be well-formed.
853
854=for apidoc Am|U8|toLOWER|U8 ch
855Converts the specified character to lowercase. If the input is anything but an
856ASCII uppercase character, that input character itself is returned. Variant
c753c8d3 857C<toLOWER_A> is equivalent.
954c1994 858
1f607577 859=for apidoc Am|U8|toLOWER_L1|U8 ch
b7d90381
KW
860Converts the specified Latin1 character to lowercase. The results are
861undefined if the input doesn't fit in a byte.
1f607577
KW
862
863=for apidoc Am|U8|toLOWER_LC|U8 ch
864Converts the specified character to lowercase using the current locale's rules,
865if possible; otherwise returns the input character itself.
866
d0da05db
KW
867=for apidoc Am|UV|toLOWER_uvchr|UV cp|U8* s|STRLEN* lenp
868Converts the code point C<cp> to its lowercase version, and
869stores that in UTF-8 in C<s>, and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. The code
870point is interpreted as native if less than 256; otherwise as Unicode. Note
1f607577
KW
871that the buffer pointed to by C<s> needs to be at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1>
872bytes since the lowercase version may be longer than the original character.
873
874The first code point of the lowercased version is returned
21da7284
KW
875(but note, as explained at L<the top of this section|/Character case
876changing>, that there may be more).
1f607577
KW
877
878=for apidoc Am|UV|toLOWER_utf8|U8* p|U8* s|STRLEN* lenp
879Converts the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its lowercase version, and
880stores that in UTF-8 in C<s>, and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
881that the buffer pointed to by C<s> needs to be at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1>
882bytes since the lowercase version may be longer than the original character.
883
884The first code point of the lowercased version is returned
21da7284
KW
885(but note, as explained at L<the top of this section|/Character case
886changing>, that there may be more).
1f607577
KW
887
888The input character at C<p> is assumed to be well-formed.
889
25200305
KW
890=for apidoc Am|U8|toTITLE|U8 ch
891Converts the specified character to titlecase. If the input is anything but an
892ASCII lowercase character, that input character itself is returned. Variant
b7d90381 893C<toTITLE_A> is equivalent. (There is no C<toTITLE_L1> for the full Latin1
d0da05db 894range, as the full generality of L</toTITLE_uvchr> is needed there. Titlecase is
b7d90381 895not a concept used in locale handling, so there is no functionality for that.)
25200305 896
d0da05db
KW
897=for apidoc Am|UV|toTITLE_uvchr|UV cp|U8* s|STRLEN* lenp
898Converts the code point C<cp> to its titlecase version, and
899stores that in UTF-8 in C<s>, and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. The code
900point is interpreted as native if less than 256; otherwise as Unicode. Note
1f607577
KW
901that the buffer pointed to by C<s> needs to be at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1>
902bytes since the titlecase version may be longer than the original character.
903
904The first code point of the titlecased version is returned
21da7284
KW
905(but note, as explained at L<the top of this section|/Character case
906changing>, that there may be more).
1f607577
KW
907
908=for apidoc Am|UV|toTITLE_utf8|U8* p|U8* s|STRLEN* lenp
909Converts the UTF-8 encoded character at C<p> to its titlecase version, and
910stores that in UTF-8 in C<s>, and its length in bytes in C<lenp>. Note
911that the buffer pointed to by C<s> needs to be at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1>
912bytes since the titlecase version may be longer than the original character.
913
914The first code point of the titlecased version is returned
21da7284
KW
915(but note, as explained at L<the top of this section|/Character case
916changing>, that there may be more).
1f607577
KW
917
918The input character at C<p> is assumed to be well-formed.
919
954c1994 920=cut
353c9b6f 921
d0da05db 922XXX Still undocumented isVERTWS_uvchr and _utf8; it's unclear what their names
25200305 923really should be. Also toUPPER_LC and toFOLD_LC, which are subject to change.
243effed 924
8a58bdcf 925Note that these macros are repeated in Devel::PPPort, so should also be
62fa66b6
KW
926patched there. The file as of this writing is cpan/Devel-PPPort/parts/inc/misc
927
954c1994
GS
928*/
929
7c062697
KW
930/* Specify the widest unsigned type on the platform. Use U64TYPE because U64
931 * is known only in the perl core, and this macro can be called from outside
932 * that */
933#ifdef HAS_QUAD
934# define WIDEST_UTYPE U64TYPE
935#else
936# define WIDEST_UTYPE U32
937#endif
938
3912bc88
KW
939/* FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) returns true if c doesn't have a bit set other than in
940 * the lower 8. It is designed to be hopefully bomb-proof, making sure that no
941 * bits of information are lost even on a 64-bit machine, but to get the
942 * compiler to optimize it out if possible. This is because Configure makes
943 * sure that the machine has an 8-bit byte, so if c is stored in a byte, the
944 * sizeof() guarantees that this evaluates to a constant true at compile time.
7e75d1a1
JH
945 *
946 * For Coverity, be always true, because otherwise Coverity thinks
947 * it finds several expressions that are always true, independent
948 * of operands. Well, they are, but that is kind of the point.
220c71bf 949 */
7e75d1a1 950#ifndef __COVERITY__
6c5b02ac
KW
951 /* The '| 0' part ensures a compiler error if c is not integer (like e.g., a
952 * pointer) */
953#define FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) ( (sizeof(c) == 1) \
ace3ad0f 954 || !(((WIDEST_UTYPE)((c) | 0)) & ~0xFF))
7e75d1a1
JH
955#else
956#define FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) (1)
957#endif
cf301eb7 958
41f43cc2 959#ifdef EBCDIC
b6340bd0 960# ifndef _ALL_SOURCE
0852beac
KW
961 /* The native libc isascii() et.al. functions return the wrong results
962 * on at least z/OS unless this is defined. */
b6340bd0
KW
963# error _ALL_SOURCE should probably be defined
964# endif
41f43cc2 965#else
0852beac
KW
966 /* There is a simple definition of ASCII for ASCII platforms. But the
967 * EBCDIC one isn't so simple, so is defined using table look-up like the
9c903d59 968 * other macros below.
3f3c579d
KW
969 *
970 * The cast here is used instead of '(c) >= 0', because some compilers emit
971 * a warning that that test is always true when the parameter is an
972 * unsigned type. khw supposes that it could be written as
973 * && ((c) == '\0' || (c) > 0)
974 * to avoid the message, but the cast will likely avoid extra branches even
975 * with stupid compilers.
976 *
977 * The '| 0' part ensures a compiler error if c is not integer (like e.g.,
978 * a pointer) */
9c903d59 979# define isASCII(c) ((WIDEST_UTYPE)((c) | 0) < 128)
41f43cc2
KW
980#endif
981
38694112
KW
982/* Take the eight possible bit patterns of the lower 3 bits and you get the
983 * lower 3 bits of the 8 octal digits, in both ASCII and EBCDIC, so those bits
984 * can be ignored. If the rest match '0', we have an octal */
985#define isOCTAL_A(c) (((WIDEST_UTYPE)((c) | 0) & ~7) == '0')
c2da0b36 986
9fb1bf9d 987#ifdef H_PERL /* If have access to perl.h, lookup in its table */
f4cdb42c 988
a500dc72
KW
989/* Character class numbers. For internal core Perl use only. The ones less
990 * than 32 are used in PL_charclass[] and the ones up through the one that
991 * corresponds to <_HIGHEST_REGCOMP_DOT_H_SYNC> are used by regcomp.h and
992 * related files. PL_charclass ones use names used in l1_char_class_tab.h but
993 * their actual definitions are here. If that file has a name not used here,
994 * it won't compile.
1709d539
KW
995 *
996 * The first group of these is ordered in what I (khw) estimate to be the
31c7f561
KW
997 * frequency of their use. This gives a slight edge to exiting a loop earlier
998 * (in reginclass() in regexec.c) */
1709d539
KW
999# define _CC_WORDCHAR 0 /* \w and [:word:] */
1000# define _CC_DIGIT 1 /* \d and [:digit:] */
1001# define _CC_ALPHA 2 /* [:alpha:] */
1002# define _CC_LOWER 3 /* [:lower:] */
1003# define _CC_UPPER 4 /* [:upper:] */
1004# define _CC_PUNCT 5 /* [:punct:] */
1005# define _CC_PRINT 6 /* [:print:] */
15861f94 1006# define _CC_ALPHANUMERIC 7 /* [:alnum:] */
1709d539 1007# define _CC_GRAPH 8 /* [:graph:] */
359b005e 1008# define _CC_CASED 9 /* [:lower:] or [:upper:] under /i */
1709d539 1009
b0d691b2 1010#define _FIRST_NON_SWASH_CC 10
1709d539
KW
1011/* The character classes above are implemented with swashes. The second group
1012 * (just below) contains the ones implemented without. These are also sorted
1013 * in rough order of the frequency of their use, except that \v should be last,
1014 * as it isn't a real Posix character class, and some (small) inefficiencies in
1015 * regular expression handling would be introduced by putting it in the middle
1016 * of those that are. Also, cntrl and ascii come after the others as it may be
1017 * useful to group these which have no members that match above Latin1, (or
1018 * above ASCII in the latter case) */
1019
779cf272 1020# define _CC_SPACE 10 /* \s, [:space:] */
b0d691b2
KW
1021# define _CC_BLANK 11 /* [:blank:] */
1022# define _CC_XDIGIT 12 /* [:xdigit:] */
779cf272
KW
1023# define _CC_CNTRL 13 /* [:cntrl:] */
1024# define _CC_ASCII 14 /* [:ascii:] */
1025# define _CC_VERTSPACE 15 /* \v */
1709d539 1026
a0947d7b
KW
1027# define _HIGHEST_REGCOMP_DOT_H_SYNC _CC_VERTSPACE
1028
1709d539 1029/* The members of the third group below do not need to be coordinated with data
3ffc8c70 1030 * structures in regcomp.[ch] and regexec.c. */
779cf272
KW
1031# define _CC_IDFIRST 16
1032# define _CC_CHARNAME_CONT 17
1033# define _CC_NONLATIN1_FOLD 18
1034# define _CC_NONLATIN1_SIMPLE_FOLD 19
1035# define _CC_QUOTEMETA 20
1036# define _CC_NON_FINAL_FOLD 21
1037# define _CC_IS_IN_SOME_FOLD 22
1038# define _CC_MNEMONIC_CNTRL 23
073c22b3
KW
1039
1040/* This next group is only used on EBCDIC platforms, so theoretically could be
1041 * shared with something entirely different that's only on ASCII platforms */
5d5376e2
KW
1042# define _CC_UTF8_START_BYTE_IS_FOR_AT_LEAST_SURROGATE 28
1043# define _CC_UTF8_IS_START 29
1044# define _CC_UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START 30
1045# define _CC_UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION 31
1046/* Unused: 24-27
f4cdb42c
KW
1047 * If more bits are needed, one could add a second word for non-64bit
1048 * QUAD_IS_INT systems, using some #ifdefs to distinguish between having a 2nd
37ede926
KW
1049 * word or not. The IS_IN_SOME_FOLD bit is the most easily expendable, as it
1050 * is used only for optimization (as of this writing), and differs in the
1051 * Latin1 range from the ALPHA bit only in two relatively unimportant
a500dc72 1052 * characters: the masculine and feminine ordinal indicators, so removing it
073c22b3
KW
1053 * would just cause /i regexes which match them to run less efficiently.
1054 * Similarly the EBCDIC-only bits are used just for speed, and could be
1055 * replaced by other means */
96ac0975 1056
3a371f2f
KW
1057#if defined(PERL_CORE) || defined(PERL_EXT)
1058/* An enum version of the character class numbers, to help compilers
1059 * optimize */
1060typedef enum {
3a371f2f 1061 _CC_ENUM_ALPHA = _CC_ALPHA,
e8d596e0
KW
1062 _CC_ENUM_ALPHANUMERIC = _CC_ALPHANUMERIC,
1063 _CC_ENUM_ASCII = _CC_ASCII,
1064 _CC_ENUM_BLANK = _CC_BLANK,
b0d691b2 1065 _CC_ENUM_CASED = _CC_CASED,
e8d596e0 1066 _CC_ENUM_CNTRL = _CC_CNTRL,
3a371f2f
KW
1067 _CC_ENUM_DIGIT = _CC_DIGIT,
1068 _CC_ENUM_GRAPH = _CC_GRAPH,
1069 _CC_ENUM_LOWER = _CC_LOWER,
1070 _CC_ENUM_PRINT = _CC_PRINT,
1071 _CC_ENUM_PUNCT = _CC_PUNCT,
e8d596e0 1072 _CC_ENUM_SPACE = _CC_SPACE,
3a371f2f 1073 _CC_ENUM_UPPER = _CC_UPPER,
e8d596e0 1074 _CC_ENUM_VERTSPACE = _CC_VERTSPACE,
3a371f2f 1075 _CC_ENUM_WORDCHAR = _CC_WORDCHAR,
e8d596e0 1076 _CC_ENUM_XDIGIT = _CC_XDIGIT
3a371f2f
KW
1077} _char_class_number;
1078#endif
1079
63c61c3f 1080#define POSIX_SWASH_COUNT _FIRST_NON_SWASH_CC
86f72d56 1081#define POSIX_CC_COUNT (_HIGHEST_REGCOMP_DOT_H_SYNC + 1)
63c61c3f 1082
b7d90381
KW
1083#if defined(PERL_IN_UTF8_C) \
1084 || defined(PERL_IN_REGCOMP_C) \
1085 || defined(PERL_IN_REGEXEC_C)
922e8cb4 1086# if _CC_WORDCHAR != 0 || _CC_DIGIT != 1 || _CC_ALPHA != 2 || _CC_LOWER != 3 \
b0d691b2
KW
1087 || _CC_UPPER != 4 || _CC_PUNCT != 5 || _CC_PRINT != 6 \
1088 || _CC_ALPHANUMERIC != 7 || _CC_GRAPH != 8 || _CC_CASED != 9
922e8cb4
KW
1089 #error Need to adjust order of swash_property_names[]
1090# endif
1091
b44daeeb
KW
1092/* This is declared static in each of the few files that this is #defined for
1093 * to keep them from being publicly accessible. Hence there is a small amount
1094 * of wasted space */
1095
922e8cb4
KW
1096static const char* const swash_property_names[] = {
1097 "XPosixWord",
1098 "XPosixDigit",
1099 "XPosixAlpha",
1100 "XPosixLower",
1101 "XPosixUpper",
1102 "XPosixPunct",
1103 "XPosixPrint",
1104 "XPosixAlnum",
b0d691b2
KW
1105 "XPosixGraph",
1106 "Cased"
922e8cb4
KW
1107};
1108#endif
1109
6635f04f 1110START_EXTERN_C
96ac0975
NC
1111# ifdef DOINIT
1112EXTCONST U32 PL_charclass[] = {
1113# include "l1_char_class_tab.h"
1114};
1115
1116# else /* ! DOINIT */
1117EXTCONST U32 PL_charclass[];
1118# endif
6635f04f 1119END_EXTERN_C
96ac0975 1120
265c1f46 1121 /* The 1U keeps Solaris from griping when shifting sets the uppermost bit */
430b7c70 1122# define _CC_mask(classnum) (1U << (classnum))
4650c663
KW
1123
1124 /* For internal core Perl use only: the base macro for defining macros like
1125 * isALPHA */
ff7ecfc3 1126# define _generic_isCC(c, classnum) cBOOL(FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) \
f4cd282c 1127 && (PL_charclass[(U8) (c)] & _CC_mask(classnum)))
4eeeb416 1128
f4cdb42c
KW
1129 /* The mask for the _A versions of the macros; it just adds in the bit for
1130 * ASCII. */
1131# define _CC_mask_A(classnum) (_CC_mask(classnum) | _CC_mask(_CC_ASCII))
1132
4650c663
KW
1133 /* For internal core Perl use only: the base macro for defining macros like
1134 * isALPHA_A. The foo_A version makes sure that both the desired bit and
1135 * the ASCII bit are present */
b7d90381
KW
1136# define _generic_isCC_A(c, classnum) (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) \
1137 && ((PL_charclass[(U8) (c)] & _CC_mask_A(classnum)) \
1138 == _CC_mask_A(classnum)))
f4cdb42c 1139
f4cdb42c 1140# define isALPHA_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_ALPHA)
15861f94 1141# define isALPHANUMERIC_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_ALPHANUMERIC)
f4cdb42c
KW
1142# define isBLANK_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_BLANK)
1143# define isCNTRL_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_CNTRL)
96ca48da 1144# define isDIGIT_A(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_DIGIT) /* No non-ASCII digits */
f4cdb42c
KW
1145# define isGRAPH_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_GRAPH)
1146# define isLOWER_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_LOWER)
1147# define isPRINT_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_PRINT)
f4cdb42c
KW
1148# define isPUNCT_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_PUNCT)
1149# define isSPACE_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_SPACE)
1150# define isUPPER_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_UPPER)
1151# define isWORDCHAR_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_WORDCHAR)
b7d90381
KW
1152# define isXDIGIT_A(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_XDIGIT) /* No non-ASCII xdigits
1153 */
d95f8b6a 1154# define isIDFIRST_A(c) _generic_isCC_A(c, _CC_IDFIRST)
3ded5eb0
KW
1155# define isALPHA_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_ALPHA)
1156# define isALPHANUMERIC_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_ALPHANUMERIC)
1157# define isBLANK_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_BLANK)
1158
1159 /* continuation character for legal NAME in \N{NAME} */
1160# define isCHARNAME_CONT(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_CHARNAME_CONT)
1161
1162# define isCNTRL_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_CNTRL)
1163# define isGRAPH_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_GRAPH)
1164# define isLOWER_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_LOWER)
1165# define isPRINT_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_PRINT)
b7d90381 1166# define isPSXSPC_L1(c) isSPACE_L1(c)
3ded5eb0
KW
1167# define isPUNCT_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_PUNCT)
1168# define isSPACE_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_SPACE)
1169# define isUPPER_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_UPPER)
1170# define isWORDCHAR_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_WORDCHAR)
1171# define isIDFIRST_L1(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_IDFIRST)
f4cdb42c 1172
0852beac
KW
1173# ifdef EBCDIC
1174# define isASCII(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_ASCII)
1175# endif
1176
f12c0118
KW
1177 /* Participates in a single-character fold with a character above 255 */
1178# define _HAS_NONLATIN1_SIMPLE_FOLD_CLOSURE_ONLY_FOR_USE_BY_REGCOMP_DOT_C_AND_REGEXEC_DOT_C(c) ((! cBOOL(FITS_IN_8_BITS(c))) || (PL_charclass[(U8) (c)] & _CC_mask(_CC_NONLATIN1_SIMPLE_FOLD)))
1179
1180 /* Like the above, but also can be part of a multi-char fold */
f4cd282c 1181# define _HAS_NONLATIN1_FOLD_CLOSURE_ONLY_FOR_USE_BY_REGCOMP_DOT_C_AND_REGEXEC_DOT_C(c) ((! cBOOL(FITS_IN_8_BITS(c))) || (PL_charclass[(U8) (c)] & _CC_mask(_CC_NONLATIN1_FOLD)))
430b7c70 1182
4eeeb416 1183# define _isQUOTEMETA(c) _generic_isCC(c, _CC_QUOTEMETA)
26faadbd 1184# define _IS_NON_FINAL_FOLD_ONLY_FOR_USE_BY_REGCOMP_DOT_C(c) \
b7d90381 1185 _generic_isCC(c, _CC_NON_FINAL_FOLD)
37ede926 1186# define _IS_IN_SOME_FOLD_ONLY_FOR_USE_BY_REGCOMP_DOT_C(c) \
b7d90381 1187 _generic_isCC(c, _CC_IS_IN_SOME_FOLD)
8e35b056
KW
1188# define _IS_MNEMONIC_CNTRL_ONLY_FOR_USE_BY_REGCOMP_DOT_C(c) \
1189 _generic_isCC(c, _CC_MNEMONIC_CNTRL)
687c8d01 1190#else /* else we don't have perl.h H_PERL */
3ded5eb0
KW
1191
1192 /* If we don't have perl.h, we are compiling a utility program. Below we
1193 * hard-code various macro definitions that wouldn't otherwise be available
fc273927 1194 * to it. Most are coded based on first principles. These are written to
74665a89 1195 * avoid EBCDIC vs. ASCII #ifdef's as much as possible. */
0852beac
KW
1196# define isDIGIT_A(c) ((c) <= '9' && (c) >= '0')
1197# define isBLANK_A(c) ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\t')
74665a89
KW
1198# define isSPACE_A(c) (isBLANK_A(c) \
1199 || (c) == '\n' \
1200 || (c) == '\r' \
1201 || (c) == '\v' \
0852beac 1202 || (c) == '\f')
74665a89
KW
1203 /* On EBCDIC, there are gaps between 'i' and 'j'; 'r' and 's'. Same for
1204 * uppercase. The tests for those aren't necessary on ASCII, but hurt only
1205 * performance (if optimization isn't on), and allow the same code to be
1206 * used for both platform types */
1207# define isLOWER_A(c) ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'z' \
1208 && ( (c) <= 'i' \
1209 || ((c) >= 'j' && (c) <= 'r') \
1210 || (c) >= 's'))
1211# define isUPPER_A(c) ((c) >= 'A' && (c) <= 'Z' \
1212 && ( (c) <= 'I' \
1213 || ((c) >= 'J' && (c) <= 'R') \
1214 || (c) >= 'S'))
a4d7a999
KW
1215# define isALPHA_A(c) (isUPPER_A(c) || isLOWER_A(c))
1216# define isALPHANUMERIC_A(c) (isALPHA_A(c) || isDIGIT_A(c))
3ded5eb0 1217# define isWORDCHAR_A(c) (isALPHANUMERIC_A(c) || (c) == '_')
0852beac 1218# define isIDFIRST_A(c) (isALPHA_A(c) || (c) == '_')
74665a89
KW
1219# define isXDIGIT_A(c) (isDIGIT_A(c) \
1220 || ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'f') \
a4d7a999 1221 || ((c) <= 'F' && (c) >= 'A'))
74665a89
KW
1222# define isPUNCT_A(c) ((c) == '-' || (c) == '!' || (c) == '"' \
1223 || (c) == '#' || (c) == '$' || (c) == '%' \
1224 || (c) == '&' || (c) == '\'' || (c) == '(' \
1225 || (c) == ')' || (c) == '*' || (c) == '+' \
1226 || (c) == ',' || (c) == '.' || (c) == '/' \
1227 || (c) == ':' || (c) == ';' || (c) == '<' \
1228 || (c) == '=' || (c) == '>' || (c) == '?' \
1229 || (c) == '@' || (c) == '[' || (c) == '\\' \
1230 || (c) == ']' || (c) == '^' || (c) == '_' \
1231 || (c) == '`' || (c) == '{' || (c) == '|' \
1232 || (c) == '}' || (c) == '~')
1233# define isGRAPH_A(c) (isALPHANUMERIC_A(c) || isPUNCT_A(c))
1234# define isPRINT_A(c) (isGRAPH_A(c) || (c) == ' ')
3ded5eb0 1235
0852beac 1236# ifdef EBCDIC
74665a89
KW
1237 /* The below is accurate for the 3 EBCDIC code pages traditionally
1238 * supported by perl. The only difference between them in the controls
1239 * is the position of \n, and that is represented symbolically below */
1240# define isCNTRL_A(c) ((c) == '\0' || (c) == '\a' || (c) == '\b' \
1241 || (c) == '\f' || (c) == '\n' || (c) == '\r' \
1242 || (c) == '\t' || (c) == '\v' \
1243 || ((c) <= 3 && (c) >= 1) /* SOH, STX, ETX */ \
1244 || (c) == 7 /* U+7F DEL */ \
1245 || ((c) <= 0x13 && (c) >= 0x0E) /* SO, SI */ \
1246 /* DLE, DC[1-3] */ \
1247 || (c) == 0x18 /* U+18 CAN */ \
1248 || (c) == 0x19 /* U+19 EOM */ \
1249 || ((c) <= 0x1F && (c) >= 0x1C) /* [FGRU]S */ \
1250 || (c) == 0x26 /* U+17 ETB */ \
1251 || (c) == 0x27 /* U+1B ESC */ \
1252 || (c) == 0x2D /* U+05 ENQ */ \
1253 || (c) == 0x2E /* U+06 ACK */ \
1254 || (c) == 0x32 /* U+16 SYN */ \
1255 || (c) == 0x37 /* U+04 EOT */ \
1256 || (c) == 0x3C /* U+14 DC4 */ \
1257 || (c) == 0x3D /* U+15 NAK */ \
1258 || (c) == 0x3F)/* U+1A SUB */
0852beac 1259# define isASCII(c) (isCNTRL_A(c) || isPRINT_A(c))
74665a89
KW
1260# else /* isASCII is already defined for ASCII platforms, so can use that to
1261 define isCNTRL */
1262# define isCNTRL_A(c) (isASCII(c) && ! isPRINT_A(c))
0852beac
KW
1263# endif
1264
3ffc8c70 1265 /* The _L1 macros may be unnecessary for the utilities; I (khw) added them
caa94d35
KW
1266 * during debugging, and it seems best to keep them. We may be called
1267 * without NATIVE_TO_LATIN1 being defined. On ASCII platforms, it doesn't
1268 * do anything anyway, so make it not a problem */
1269# if ! defined(EBCDIC) && ! defined(NATIVE_TO_LATIN1)
1270# define NATIVE_TO_LATIN1(ch) (ch)
1271# endif
3ded5eb0
KW
1272# define isALPHA_L1(c) (isUPPER_L1(c) || isLOWER_L1(c))
1273# define isALPHANUMERIC_L1(c) (isALPHA_L1(c) || isDIGIT_A(c))
1274# define isBLANK_L1(c) (isBLANK_A(c) \
1275 || (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) \
1276 && NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xA0))
1277# define isCNTRL_L1(c) (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) && (! isPRINT_L1(c)))
1278# define isGRAPH_L1(c) (isPRINT_L1(c) && (! isBLANK_L1(c)))
1279# define isLOWER_L1(c) (isLOWER_A(c) \
1280 || (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) \
1281 && ((NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) >= 0xDF \
1282 && NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) != 0xF7) \
1283 || NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xAA \
1284 || NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xBA \
1285 || NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xB5)))
1286# define isPRINT_L1(c) (isPRINT_A(c) \
1287 || (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) \
1288 && NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) >= 0xA0))
3ded5eb0
KW
1289# define isPUNCT_L1(c) (isPUNCT_A(c) \
1290 || (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) \
1291 && (NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xA1 \
1292 || NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xA7 \
1293 || NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xAB \
1294 || NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xB6 \
1295 || NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xB7 \
1296 || NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xBB \
1297 || NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xBF)))
1298# define isSPACE_L1(c) (isSPACE_A(c) \
1299 || (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) \
1300 && (NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0x85 \
1301 || NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) == 0xA0)))
1302# define isUPPER_L1(c) (isUPPER_A(c) \
1303 || (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) \
1304 && (NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) >= 0xC0 \
1305 && NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) <= 0xDE \
1306 && NATIVE_TO_LATIN1((U8) c) != 0xD7)))
1307# define isWORDCHAR_L1(c) (isIDFIRST_L1(c) || isDIGIT_A(c))
1308# define isIDFIRST_L1(c) (isALPHA_L1(c) || NATIVE_TO_LATIN1(c) == '_')
1309# define isCHARNAME_CONT(c) (isWORDCHAR_L1(c) \
1310 || isBLANK_L1(c) \
1311 || (c) == '-' \
1312 || (c) == '(' \
1313 || (c) == ')')
1314 /* The following are not fully accurate in the above-ASCII range. I (khw)
1315 * don't think it's necessary to be so for the purposes where this gets
1316 * compiled */
1317# define _isQUOTEMETA(c) (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) && ! isWORDCHAR_L1(c))
1318# define _IS_IN_SOME_FOLD_ONLY_FOR_USE_BY_REGCOMP_DOT_C(c) isALPHA_L1(c)
1319
1320 /* And these aren't accurate at all. They are useful only for above
1321 * Latin1, which utilities and bootstrapping don't deal with */
1322# define _IS_NON_FINAL_FOLD_ONLY_FOR_USE_BY_REGCOMP_DOT_C(c) 0
6838b41e 1323# define _HAS_NONLATIN1_SIMPLE_FOLD_CLOSURE_ONLY_FOR_USE_BY_REGCOMP_DOT_C_AND_REGEXEC_DOT_C(c) 0
3ded5eb0
KW
1324# define _HAS_NONLATIN1_FOLD_CLOSURE_ONLY_FOR_USE_BY_REGCOMP_DOT_C_AND_REGEXEC_DOT_C(c) 0
1325
1326 /* Many of the macros later in this file are defined in terms of these. By
1327 * implementing them with a function, which converts the class number into
1328 * a call to the desired macro, all of the later ones work. However, that
1329 * function won't be actually defined when building a utility program (no
1330 * perl.h), and so a compiler error will be generated if one is attempted
1331 * to be used. And the above-Latin1 code points require Unicode tables to
1332 * be present, something unlikely to be the case when bootstrapping */
1333# define _generic_isCC(c, classnum) \
1334 (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) && S_bootstrap_ctype((U8) (c), (classnum), TRUE))
1335# define _generic_isCC_A(c, classnum) \
1336 (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) && S_bootstrap_ctype((U8) (c), (classnum), FALSE))
687c8d01 1337#endif /* End of no perl.h H_PERL */
8a58bdcf 1338
e66b99e9
KW
1339#define isALPHANUMERIC(c) isALPHANUMERIC_A(c)
1340#define isALPHA(c) isALPHA_A(c)
0852beac
KW
1341#define isASCII_A(c) isASCII(c)
1342#define isASCII_L1(c) isASCII(c)
e66b99e9
KW
1343#define isBLANK(c) isBLANK_A(c)
1344#define isCNTRL(c) isCNTRL_A(c)
1345#define isDIGIT(c) isDIGIT_A(c)
1346#define isGRAPH(c) isGRAPH_A(c)
1347#define isIDFIRST(c) isIDFIRST_A(c)
1348#define isLOWER(c) isLOWER_A(c)
1349#define isPRINT(c) isPRINT_A(c)
779cf272 1350#define isPSXSPC_A(c) isSPACE_A(c)
e66b99e9 1351#define isPSXSPC(c) isPSXSPC_A(c)
779cf272 1352#define isPSXSPC_L1(c) isSPACE_L1(c)
e66b99e9
KW
1353#define isPUNCT(c) isPUNCT_A(c)
1354#define isSPACE(c) isSPACE_A(c)
1355#define isUPPER(c) isUPPER_A(c)
1356#define isWORDCHAR(c) isWORDCHAR_A(c)
1357#define isXDIGIT(c) isXDIGIT_A(c)
1358
1359/* ASCII casing. These could also be written as
1360 #define toLOWER(c) (isASCII(c) ? toLOWER_LATIN1(c) : (c))
1361 #define toUPPER(c) (isASCII(c) ? toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD(c) : (c))
1362 which uses table lookup and mask instead of subtraction. (This would
1363 work because the _MOD does not apply in the ASCII range) */
68067e4e
DM
1364#define toLOWER(c) (isUPPER(c) ? (U8)((c) + ('a' - 'A')) : (c))
1365#define toUPPER(c) (isLOWER(c) ? (U8)((c) - ('a' - 'A')) : (c))
bbce6d69 1366
25200305
KW
1367/* In the ASCII range, these are equivalent to what they're here defined to be.
1368 * But by creating these definitions, other code doesn't have to be aware of
1369 * this detail */
1370#define toFOLD(c) toLOWER(c)
25200305
KW
1371#define toTITLE(c) toUPPER(c)
1372
c753c8d3
KW
1373#define toLOWER_A(c) toLOWER(c)
1374#define toUPPER_A(c) toUPPER(c)
25200305
KW
1375#define toFOLD_A(c) toFOLD(c)
1376#define toTITLE_A(c) toTITLE(c)
1a0901db 1377
4650c663 1378/* Use table lookup for speed; returns the input itself if is out-of-range */
b2bf251f 1379#define toLOWER_LATIN1(c) ((! FITS_IN_8_BITS(c)) \
8e7c6e7d 1380 ? (c) \
f4cd282c 1381 : PL_latin1_lc[ (U8) (c) ])
c753c8d3
KW
1382#define toLOWER_L1(c) toLOWER_LATIN1(c) /* Synonym for consistency */
1383
1a0901db 1384/* Modified uc. Is correct uc except for three non-ascii chars which are
4650c663
KW
1385 * all mapped to one of them, and these need special handling; returns the
1386 * input itself if is out-of-range */
b2bf251f 1387#define toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD(c) ((! FITS_IN_8_BITS(c)) \
8e7c6e7d 1388 ? (c) \
f4cd282c 1389 : PL_mod_latin1_uc[ (U8) (c) ])
31f05a37 1390#define IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE PL_in_utf8_CTYPE_locale
84061b6a 1391
beab9ebe
KW
1392/* Use foo_LC_uvchr() instead of these for beyond the Latin1 range */
1393
1394/* For internal core Perl use only: the base macro for defining macros like
1395 * isALPHA_LC, which uses the current LC_CTYPE locale. 'c' is the code point
31f05a37
KW
1396 * (0-255) to check. In a UTF-8 locale, the result is the same as calling
1397 * isFOO_L1(); the 'utf8_locale_classnum' parameter is something like
1398 * _CC_UPPER, which gives the class number for doing this. For non-UTF-8
1399 * locales, the code to actually do the test this is passed in 'non_utf8'. If
1400 * 'c' is above 255, 0 is returned. For accessing the full range of possible
1401 * code points under locale rules, use the macros based on _generic_LC_uvchr
1402 * instead of this. */
beab9ebe
KW
1403#define _generic_LC_base(c, utf8_locale_classnum, non_utf8) \
1404 (! FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) \
1405 ? 0 \
31f05a37
KW
1406 : IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE \
1407 ? cBOOL(PL_charclass[(U8) (c)] & _CC_mask(utf8_locale_classnum)) \
beab9ebe
KW
1408 : cBOOL(non_utf8))
1409
1410/* For internal core Perl use only: a helper macro for defining macros like
1411 * isALPHA_LC. 'c' is the code point (0-255) to check. The function name to
1412 * actually do this test is passed in 'non_utf8_func', which is called on 'c',
1413 * casting 'c' to the macro _LC_CAST, which should not be parenthesized. See
1414 * _generic_LC_base for more info */
1415#define _generic_LC(c, utf8_locale_classnum, non_utf8_func) \
1416 _generic_LC_base(c,utf8_locale_classnum, \
1417 non_utf8_func( (_LC_CAST) (c)))
1418
1419/* For internal core Perl use only: like _generic_LC, but also returns TRUE if
1420 * 'c' is the platform's native underscore character */
1421#define _generic_LC_underscore(c,utf8_locale_classnum,non_utf8_func) \
1422 _generic_LC_base(c, utf8_locale_classnum, \
1423 (non_utf8_func( (_LC_CAST) (c)) \
1424 || (char)(c) == '_'))
1425
1426/* These next three are also for internal core Perl use only: case-change
1427 * helper macros */
1428#define _generic_toLOWER_LC(c, function, cast) (! FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) \
1429 ? (c) \
31f05a37
KW
1430 : (IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE) \
1431 ? PL_latin1_lc[ (U8) (c) ] \
d2a8cf7f 1432 : (cast)function((cast)(c)))
beab9ebe 1433
31f05a37
KW
1434/* Note that the result can be larger than a byte in a UTF-8 locale. It
1435 * returns a single value, so can't adequately return the upper case of LATIN
1436 * SMALL LETTER SHARP S in a UTF-8 locale (which should be a string of two
1437 * values "SS"); instead it asserts against that under DEBUGGING, and
1438 * otherwise returns its input */
beab9ebe
KW
1439#define _generic_toUPPER_LC(c, function, cast) \
1440 (! FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) \
1441 ? (c) \
31f05a37 1442 : ((! IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE) \
b7d90381 1443 ? (cast)function((cast)(c)) \
31f05a37
KW
1444 : ((((U8)(c)) == MICRO_SIGN) \
1445 ? GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_MU \
1446 : ((((U8)(c)) == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS) \
1447 ? LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS \
1448 : ((((U8)(c)) == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S) \
1449 ? (__ASSERT_(0) (c)) \
1450 : PL_mod_latin1_uc[ (U8) (c) ])))))
1451
1452/* Note that the result can be larger than a byte in a UTF-8 locale. It
1453 * returns a single value, so can't adequately return the fold case of LATIN
1454 * SMALL LETTER SHARP S in a UTF-8 locale (which should be a string of two
1455 * values "ss"); instead it asserts against that under DEBUGGING, and
1456 * otherwise returns its input */
beab9ebe 1457#define _generic_toFOLD_LC(c, function, cast) \
4d7db1b9 1458 ((UNLIKELY((c) == MICRO_SIGN) && IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE) \
31f05a37 1459 ? GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_MU \
4d7db1b9
KW
1460 : (__ASSERT_(! IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE \
1461 || (c) != LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S) \
1462 _generic_toLOWER_LC(c, function, cast)))
beab9ebe 1463
84061b6a 1464/* Use the libc versions for these if available. */
f05550c0 1465#if defined(HAS_ISASCII)
84061b6a
KW
1466# define isASCII_LC(c) (FITS_IN_8_BITS(c) && isascii( (U8) (c)))
1467#else
1468# define isASCII_LC(c) isASCII(c)
1469#endif
1470
f05550c0 1471#if defined(HAS_ISBLANK)
84061b6a 1472# define isBLANK_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_BLANK, isblank)
95f34b6f 1473#else /* Unlike isASCII, varies if in a UTF-8 locale */
278b2b56 1474# define isBLANK_LC(c) ((IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE) ? isBLANK_L1(c) : isBLANK(c))
84061b6a
KW
1475#endif
1476
f05550c0 1477#define _LC_CAST U8
bbce6d69 1478
f05550c0 1479#ifdef WIN32
375f5f06
KW
1480 /* The Windows functions don't bother to follow the POSIX standard, which
1481 * for example says that something can't both be a printable and a control.
1482 * But Windows treats the \t control as a printable, and does such things
1483 * as making superscripts into both digits and punctuation. This tames
1484 * these flaws by assuming that the definitions of both controls and space
1485 * are correct, and then making sure that other definitions don't have
1486 * weirdnesses, by making sure that isalnum() isn't also ispunct(), etc.
1487 * Not all possible weirdnesses are checked for, just the ones that were
1488 * detected on actual Microsoft code pages */
1489
b7d90381
KW
1490# define isCNTRL_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_CNTRL, iscntrl)
1491# define isSPACE_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_SPACE, isspace)
1492
1493# define isALPHA_LC(c) (_generic_LC(c, _CC_ALPHA, isalpha) \
1494 && isALPHANUMERIC_LC(c))
1495# define isALPHANUMERIC_LC(c) (_generic_LC(c, _CC_ALPHANUMERIC, isalnum) && \
1496 ! isPUNCT_LC(c))
1497# define isDIGIT_LC(c) (_generic_LC(c, _CC_DIGIT, isdigit) && \
1498 isALPHANUMERIC_LC(c))
1499# define isGRAPH_LC(c) (_generic_LC(c, _CC_GRAPH, isgraph) && isPRINT_LC(c))
1500# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) (((c) == '_') \
1501 || (_generic_LC(c, _CC_IDFIRST, isalpha) && ! isPUNCT_LC(c)))
1502# define isLOWER_LC(c) (_generic_LC(c, _CC_LOWER, islower) && isALPHA_LC(c))
1503# define isPRINT_LC(c) (_generic_LC(c, _CC_PRINT, isprint) && ! isCNTRL_LC(c))
1504# define isPUNCT_LC(c) (_generic_LC(c, _CC_PUNCT, ispunct) && ! isCNTRL_LC(c))
1505# define isUPPER_LC(c) (_generic_LC(c, _CC_UPPER, isupper) && isALPHA_LC(c))
f05550c0 1506# define isWORDCHAR_LC(c) (((c) == '_') || isALPHANUMERIC_LC(c))
b7d90381
KW
1507# define isXDIGIT_LC(c) (_generic_LC(c, _CC_XDIGIT, isxdigit) \
1508 && isALPHANUMERIC_LC(c))
f05550c0
BF
1509
1510# define toLOWER_LC(c) _generic_toLOWER_LC((c), tolower, U8)
1511# define toUPPER_LC(c) _generic_toUPPER_LC((c), toupper, U8)
1512# define toFOLD_LC(c) _generic_toFOLD_LC((c), tolower, U8)
1513
1514#elif defined(CTYPE256) || (!defined(isascii) && !defined(HAS_ISASCII))
4650c663 1515 /* For most other platforms */
beab9ebe 1516
f05550c0
BF
1517# define isALPHA_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_ALPHA, isalpha)
1518# define isALPHANUMERIC_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_ALPHANUMERIC, isalnum)
1519# define isCNTRL_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_CNTRL, iscntrl)
1520# define isDIGIT_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_DIGIT, isdigit)
1521# define isGRAPH_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_GRAPH, isgraph)
1522# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) _generic_LC_underscore(c, _CC_IDFIRST, isalpha)
1523# define isLOWER_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_LOWER, islower)
1524# define isPRINT_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_PRINT, isprint)
1525# define isPUNCT_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_PUNCT, ispunct)
1526# define isSPACE_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_SPACE, isspace)
1527# define isUPPER_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_UPPER, isupper)
1528# define isWORDCHAR_LC(c) _generic_LC_underscore(c, _CC_WORDCHAR, isalnum)
1529# define isXDIGIT_LC(c) _generic_LC(c, _CC_XDIGIT, isxdigit)
1530
1531
1532# define toLOWER_LC(c) _generic_toLOWER_LC((c), tolower, U8)
1533# define toUPPER_LC(c) _generic_toUPPER_LC((c), toupper, U8)
1534# define toFOLD_LC(c) _generic_toFOLD_LC((c), tolower, U8)
1535
1536#else /* The final fallback position */
1537
b7d90381
KW
1538# define isALPHA_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isalpha(c))
1539# define isALPHANUMERIC_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isalnum(c))
1540# define isCNTRL_LC(c) (isascii(c) && iscntrl(c))
1541# define isDIGIT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isdigit(c))
1542# define isGRAPH_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isgraph(c))
f05550c0 1543# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) (isascii(c) && (isalpha(c) || (c) == '_'))
b7d90381
KW
1544# define isLOWER_LC(c) (isascii(c) && islower(c))
1545# define isPRINT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isprint(c))
1546# define isPUNCT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && ispunct(c))
1547# define isSPACE_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isspace(c))
1548# define isUPPER_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isupper(c))
f05550c0 1549# define isWORDCHAR_LC(c) (isascii(c) && (isalnum(c) || (c) == '_'))
b7d90381 1550# define isXDIGIT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isxdigit(c))
f05550c0
BF
1551
1552# define toLOWER_LC(c) (isascii(c) ? tolower(c) : (c))
1553# define toUPPER_LC(c) (isascii(c) ? toupper(c) : (c))
1554# define toFOLD_LC(c) (isascii(c) ? tolower(c) : (c))
bbce6d69 1555
f05550c0 1556#endif
55204971 1557
eba68aa0
KW
1558#define isIDCONT(c) isWORDCHAR(c)
1559#define isIDCONT_A(c) isWORDCHAR_A(c)
1560#define isIDCONT_L1(c) isWORDCHAR_L1(c)
1561#define isIDCONT_LC(c) isWORDCHAR_LC(c)
13380643 1562#define isPSXSPC_LC(c) isSPACE_LC(c)
aaa51d5e 1563
4650c663 1564/* For internal core Perl use only: the base macros for defining macros like
d0da05db
KW
1565 * isALPHA_uvchr. 'c' is the code point to check. 'classnum' is the POSIX class
1566 * number defined earlier in this file. _generic_uvchr() is used for POSIX
4650c663
KW
1567 * classes where there is a macro or function 'above_latin1' that takes the
1568 * single argument 'c' and returns the desired value. These exist for those
1569 * classes which have simple definitions, avoiding the overhead of a hash
d0da05db 1570 * lookup or inversion list binary search. _generic_swash_uvchr() can be used
4650c663 1571 * for classes where that overhead is faster than a direct lookup.
d0da05db 1572 * _generic_uvchr() won't compile if 'c' isn't unsigned, as it won't match the
4650c663
KW
1573 * 'above_latin1' prototype. _generic_isCC() macro does bounds checking, so
1574 * have duplicate checks here, so could create versions of the macros that
1575 * don't, but experiments show that gcc optimizes them out anyway. */
66c17564
KW
1576
1577/* Note that all ignore 'use bytes' */
d0da05db 1578#define _generic_uvchr(classnum, above_latin1, c) ((c) < 256 \
cd500f2f
KW
1579 ? _generic_isCC(c, classnum) \
1580 : above_latin1(c))
d0da05db 1581#define _generic_swash_uvchr(classnum, c) ((c) < 256 \
cd500f2f 1582 ? _generic_isCC(c, classnum) \
922e8cb4 1583 : _is_uni_FOO(classnum, c))
d0da05db
KW
1584#define isALPHA_uvchr(c) _generic_swash_uvchr(_CC_ALPHA, c)
1585#define isALPHANUMERIC_uvchr(c) _generic_swash_uvchr(_CC_ALPHANUMERIC, c)
1586#define isASCII_uvchr(c) isASCII(c)
1587#define isBLANK_uvchr(c) _generic_uvchr(_CC_BLANK, is_HORIZWS_cp_high, c)
1588#define isCNTRL_uvchr(c) isCNTRL_L1(c) /* All controls are in Latin1 */
1589#define isDIGIT_uvchr(c) _generic_swash_uvchr(_CC_DIGIT, c)
1590#define isGRAPH_uvchr(c) _generic_swash_uvchr(_CC_GRAPH, c)
1591#define isIDCONT_uvchr(c) _generic_uvchr(_CC_WORDCHAR, _is_uni_perl_idcont, c)
1592#define isIDFIRST_uvchr(c) _generic_uvchr(_CC_IDFIRST, _is_uni_perl_idstart, c)
1593#define isLOWER_uvchr(c) _generic_swash_uvchr(_CC_LOWER, c)
1594#define isPRINT_uvchr(c) _generic_swash_uvchr(_CC_PRINT, c)
1595
1596#define isPUNCT_uvchr(c) _generic_swash_uvchr(_CC_PUNCT, c)
1597#define isSPACE_uvchr(c) _generic_uvchr(_CC_SPACE, is_XPERLSPACE_cp_high, c)
1598#define isPSXSPC_uvchr(c) isSPACE_uvchr(c)
1599
1600#define isUPPER_uvchr(c) _generic_swash_uvchr(_CC_UPPER, c)
1601#define isVERTWS_uvchr(c) _generic_uvchr(_CC_VERTSPACE, is_VERTWS_cp_high, c)
1602#define isWORDCHAR_uvchr(c) _generic_swash_uvchr(_CC_WORDCHAR, c)
1603#define isXDIGIT_uvchr(c) _generic_uvchr(_CC_XDIGIT, is_XDIGIT_cp_high, c)
1604
1605#define toFOLD_uvchr(c,s,l) to_uni_fold(c,s,l)
1606#define toLOWER_uvchr(c,s,l) to_uni_lower(c,s,l)
1607#define toTITLE_uvchr(c,s,l) to_uni_title(c,s,l)
1608#define toUPPER_uvchr(c,s,l) to_uni_upper(c,s,l)
1609
1610/* For backwards compatibility, even though '_uni' should mean official Unicode
1611 * code points, in Perl it means native for those below 256 */
1612#define isALPHA_uni(c) isALPHA_uvchr(c)
1613#define isALPHANUMERIC_uni(c) isALPHANUMERIC_uvchr(c)
1614#define isASCII_uni(c) isASCII_uvchr(c)
1615#define isBLANK_uni(c) isBLANK_uvchr(c)
1616#define isCNTRL_uni(c) isCNTRL_uvchr(c)
1617#define isDIGIT_uni(c) isDIGIT_uvchr(c)
1618#define isGRAPH_uni(c) isGRAPH_uvchr(c)
1619#define isIDCONT_uni(c) isIDCONT_uvchr(c)
1620#define isIDFIRST_uni(c) isIDFIRST_uvchr(c)
1621#define isLOWER_uni(c) isLOWER_uvchr(c)
1622#define isPRINT_uni(c) isPRINT_uvchr(c)
1623#define isPUNCT_uni(c) isPUNCT_uvchr(c)
1624#define isSPACE_uni(c) isSPACE_uvchr(c)
1625#define isPSXSPC_uni(c) isPSXSPC_uvchr(c)
1626#define isUPPER_uni(c) isUPPER_uvchr(c)
1627#define isVERTWS_uni(c) isVERTWS_uvchr(c)
1628#define isWORDCHAR_uni(c) isWORDCHAR_uvchr(c)
1629#define isXDIGIT_uni(c) isXDIGIT_uvchr(c)
1630#define toFOLD_uni(c,s,l) toFOLD_uvchr(c,s,l)
1631#define toLOWER_uni(c,s,l) toLOWER_uvchr(c,s,l)
1632#define toTITLE_uni(c,s,l) toTITLE_uvchr(c,s,l)
1633#define toUPPER_uni(c,s,l) toUPPER_uvchr(c,s,l)
a0ed51b3 1634
4650c663
KW
1635/* For internal core Perl use only: the base macros for defining macros like
1636 * isALPHA_LC_uvchr. These are like isALPHA_LC, but the input can be any code
d0da05db 1637 * point, not just 0-255. Like _generic_uvchr, there are two versions, one for
4650c663 1638 * simple class definitions; the other for more complex. These are like
d0da05db 1639 * _generic_uvchr, so see it for more info. */
cd500f2f
KW
1640#define _generic_LC_uvchr(latin1, above_latin1, c) \
1641 (c < 256 ? latin1(c) : above_latin1(c))
1642#define _generic_LC_swash_uvchr(latin1, classnum, c) \
1643 (c < 256 ? latin1(c) : _is_uni_FOO(classnum, c))
1644
1645#define isALPHA_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_swash_uvchr(isALPHA_LC, _CC_ALPHA, c)
1646#define isALPHANUMERIC_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_swash_uvchr(isALPHANUMERIC_LC, \
1647 _CC_ALPHANUMERIC, c)
b7d90381
KW
1648#define isASCII_LC_uvchr(c) isASCII_LC(c)
1649#define isBLANK_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_uvchr(isBLANK_LC, \
1650 is_HORIZWS_cp_high, c)
feeab5a9 1651#define isCNTRL_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isCNTRL_LC(c) : 0)
cd500f2f
KW
1652#define isDIGIT_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_swash_uvchr(isDIGIT_LC, _CC_DIGIT, c)
1653#define isGRAPH_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_swash_uvchr(isGRAPH_LC, _CC_GRAPH, c)
b7d90381 1654#define isIDCONT_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_uvchr(isIDCONT_LC, \
eba68aa0 1655 _is_uni_perl_idcont, c)
b7d90381 1656#define isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_uvchr(isIDFIRST_LC, \
cd500f2f
KW
1657 _is_uni_perl_idstart, c)
1658#define isLOWER_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_swash_uvchr(isLOWER_LC, _CC_LOWER, c)
1659#define isPRINT_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_swash_uvchr(isPRINT_LC, _CC_PRINT, c)
b7d90381 1660#define isPSXSPC_LC_uvchr(c) isSPACE_LC_uvchr(c)
cd500f2f 1661#define isPUNCT_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_swash_uvchr(isPUNCT_LC, _CC_PUNCT, c)
b7d90381 1662#define isSPACE_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_uvchr(isSPACE_LC, \
509fb054 1663 is_XPERLSPACE_cp_high, c)
cd500f2f 1664#define isUPPER_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_swash_uvchr(isUPPER_LC, _CC_UPPER, c)
b7d90381 1665#define isWORDCHAR_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_swash_uvchr(isWORDCHAR_LC, \
cd500f2f 1666 _CC_WORDCHAR, c)
b7d90381
KW
1667#define isXDIGIT_LC_uvchr(c) _generic_LC_uvchr(isXDIGIT_LC, \
1668 is_XDIGIT_cp_high, c)
e712593e 1669
b7d90381 1670#define isBLANK_LC_uni(c) isBLANK_LC_uvchr(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c))
aaa51d5e 1671
4650c663
KW
1672/* For internal core Perl use only: the base macros for defining macros like
1673 * isALPHA_utf8. These are like the earlier defined macros, but take an input
1674 * UTF-8 encoded string 'p'. If the input is in the Latin1 range, use
1675 * the Latin1 macro 'classnum' on 'p'. Otherwise use the value given by the
1676 * 'utf8' parameter. This relies on the fact that ASCII characters have the
1677 * same representation whether utf8 or not. Note that it assumes that the utf8
1678 * has been validated, and ignores 'use bytes' */
cd500f2f 1679#define _generic_utf8(classnum, p, utf8) (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*(p)) \
aea0c08c 1680 ? _generic_isCC(*(p), classnum) \
7d7a6efc 1681 : (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*(p))) \
aea0c08c 1682 ? _generic_isCC( \
a62b247b 1683 EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*(p), \
aea0c08c 1684 *((p)+1 )), \
94bb8c36 1685 classnum) \
252810d0 1686 : utf8)
b7d90381
KW
1687/* Like the above, but calls 'above_latin1(p)' to get the utf8 value.
1688 * 'above_latin1' can be a macro */
cd500f2f
KW
1689#define _generic_func_utf8(classnum, above_latin1, p) \
1690 _generic_utf8(classnum, p, above_latin1(p))
4650c663 1691/* Like the above, but passes classnum to _isFOO_utf8(), instead of having an
cd500f2f 1692 * 'above_latin1' parameter */
922e8cb4 1693#define _generic_swash_utf8(classnum, p) \
cd500f2f 1694 _generic_utf8(classnum, p, _is_utf8_FOO(classnum, p))
922e8cb4 1695
cc8ab7c0 1696/* Like the above, but should be used only when it is known that there are no
ff7ecfc3
KW
1697 * characters in the upper-Latin1 range (128-255 on ASCII platforms) which the
1698 * class is TRUE for. Hence it can skip the tests for this range.
1699 * 'above_latin1' should include its arguments */
3ded5eb0 1700#define _generic_utf8_no_upper_latin1(classnum, p, above_latin1) \
cc8ab7c0
KW
1701 (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*(p)) \
1702 ? _generic_isCC(*(p), classnum) \
1703 : (UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1(*(p))) \
3ded5eb0 1704 ? above_latin1 \
cc8ab7c0
KW
1705 : 0)
1706
84238efa
KW
1707/* NOTE that some of these macros have very similar ones in regcharclass.h.
1708 * For example, there is (at the time of this writing) an 'is_SPACE_utf8()'
1709 * there, differing in name only by an underscore from the one here
1710 * 'isSPACE_utf8(). The difference is that the ones here are probably more
1711 * efficient and smaller, using an O(1) array lookup for Latin1-range code
1712 * points; the regcharclass.h ones are implemented as a series of
1713 * "if-else-if-else ..." */
1714
b7d90381
KW
1715#define isALPHA_utf8(p) _generic_swash_utf8(_CC_ALPHA, p)
1716#define isALPHANUMERIC_utf8(p) _generic_swash_utf8(_CC_ALPHANUMERIC, p)
1717#define isASCII_utf8(p) isASCII(*p) /* Because ASCII is invariant under
509fb054
KW
1718 utf8, the non-utf8 macro works
1719 */
b7d90381 1720#define isBLANK_utf8(p) _generic_func_utf8(_CC_BLANK, is_HORIZWS_high, p)
e8fa43e2
KW
1721
1722#ifdef EBCDIC
1723 /* Because all controls are UTF-8 invariants in EBCDIC, we can use this
1724 * more efficient macro instead of the more general one */
88794300 1725# define isCNTRL_utf8(p) isCNTRL_L1(*(p))
e8fa43e2
KW
1726#else
1727# define isCNTRL_utf8(p) _generic_utf8(_CC_CNTRL, p, 0)
1728#endif
1729
cd500f2f
KW
1730#define isDIGIT_utf8(p) _generic_utf8_no_upper_latin1(_CC_DIGIT, p, \
1731 _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_DIGIT, p))
922e8cb4 1732#define isGRAPH_utf8(p) _generic_swash_utf8(_CC_GRAPH, p)
eba68aa0 1733#define isIDCONT_utf8(p) _generic_func_utf8(_CC_WORDCHAR, \
2f4622f0 1734 _is_utf8_perl_idcont, p)
e5dcd934 1735
c11ff943
KW
1736/* To prevent S_scan_word in toke.c from hanging, we have to make sure that
1737 * IDFIRST is an alnum. See
c8362b00 1738 * http://rt.perl.org/rt3/Ticket/Display.html?id=74022 for more detail than you
f91dcd13
KW
1739 * ever wanted to know about. (In the ASCII range, there isn't a difference.)
1740 * This used to be not the XID version, but we decided to go with the more
1741 * modern Unicode definition */
b7d90381 1742#define isIDFIRST_utf8(p) _generic_func_utf8(_CC_IDFIRST, \
509fb054 1743 _is_utf8_perl_idstart, p)
e5dcd934 1744
b7d90381
KW
1745#define isLOWER_utf8(p) _generic_swash_utf8(_CC_LOWER, p)
1746#define isPRINT_utf8(p) _generic_swash_utf8(_CC_PRINT, p)
1747#define isPSXSPC_utf8(p) isSPACE_utf8(p)
1748#define isPUNCT_utf8(p) _generic_swash_utf8(_CC_PUNCT, p)
1749#define isSPACE_utf8(p) _generic_func_utf8(_CC_SPACE, is_XPERLSPACE_high, p)
1750#define isUPPER_utf8(p) _generic_swash_utf8(_CC_UPPER, p)
1751#define isVERTWS_utf8(p) _generic_func_utf8(_CC_VERTSPACE, is_VERTWS_high, p)
1752#define isWORDCHAR_utf8(p) _generic_swash_utf8(_CC_WORDCHAR, p)
1753#define isXDIGIT_utf8(p) _generic_utf8_no_upper_latin1(_CC_XDIGIT, p, \
cd500f2f 1754 is_XDIGIT_high(p))
a0ed51b3 1755
7d2b61dd 1756#define toFOLD_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_fold(p,s,l)
509fb054
KW
1757#define toLOWER_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_lower(p,s,l)
1758#define toTITLE_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_title(p,s,l)
1759#define toUPPER_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_upper(p,s,l)
2e8adce6 1760
4650c663
KW
1761/* For internal core Perl use only: the base macros for defining macros like
1762 * isALPHA_LC_utf8. These are like _generic_utf8, but if the first code point
1763 * in 'p' is within the 0-255 range, it uses locale rules from the passed-in
1764 * 'macro' parameter */
94bb8c36
KW
1765#define _generic_LC_utf8(macro, p, utf8) \
1766 (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*(p)) \
1767 ? macro(*(p)) \
1768 : (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*(p))) \
a62b247b 1769 ? macro(EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*(p), *((p)+1)))\
9201a572
KW
1770 : utf8)
1771
cd500f2f
KW
1772#define _generic_LC_swash_utf8(macro, classnum, p) \
1773 _generic_LC_utf8(macro, p, _is_utf8_FOO(classnum, p))
1774#define _generic_LC_func_utf8(macro, above_latin1, p) \
4650c663 1775 _generic_LC_utf8(macro, p, above_latin1(p))
9201a572 1776
b7d90381 1777#define isALPHANUMERIC_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_swash_utf8(isALPHANUMERIC_LC, \
cd500f2f 1778 _CC_ALPHANUMERIC, p)
b7d90381
KW
1779#define isALPHA_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_swash_utf8(isALPHA_LC, _CC_ALPHA, p)
1780#define isASCII_LC_utf8(p) isASCII_LC(*p)
1781#define isBLANK_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_func_utf8(isBLANK_LC, \
1782 is_HORIZWS_high, p)
1783#define isCNTRL_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_utf8(isCNTRL_LC, p, 0)
1784#define isDIGIT_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_swash_utf8(isDIGIT_LC, _CC_DIGIT, p)
1785#define isGRAPH_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_swash_utf8(isGRAPH_LC, _CC_GRAPH, p)
1786#define isIDCONT_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_func_utf8(isIDCONT_LC, \
1787 _is_utf8_perl_idcont, p)
1788#define isIDFIRST_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_func_utf8(isIDFIRST_LC, \
1789 _is_utf8_perl_idstart, p)
1790#define isLOWER_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_swash_utf8(isLOWER_LC, _CC_LOWER, p)
1791#define isPRINT_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_swash_utf8(isPRINT_LC, _CC_PRINT, p)
1792#define isPSXSPC_LC_utf8(p) isSPACE_LC_utf8(p)
1793#define isPUNCT_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_swash_utf8(isPUNCT_LC, _CC_PUNCT, p)
1794#define isSPACE_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_func_utf8(isSPACE_LC, \
1795 is_XPERLSPACE_high, p)
1796#define isUPPER_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_swash_utf8(isUPPER_LC, _CC_UPPER, p)
cd500f2f
KW
1797#define isWORDCHAR_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_swash_utf8(isWORDCHAR_LC, \
1798 _CC_WORDCHAR, p)
b7d90381
KW
1799#define isXDIGIT_LC_utf8(p) _generic_LC_func_utf8(isXDIGIT_LC, \
1800 is_XDIGIT_high, p)
aaa51d5e 1801
fbc19f27
KW
1802/* Macros for backwards compatibility and for completeness when the ASCII and
1803 * Latin1 values are identical */
b7d90381
KW
1804#define isALPHAU(c) isALPHA_L1(c)
1805#define isDIGIT_L1(c) isDIGIT_A(c)
1806#define isOCTAL(c) isOCTAL_A(c)
1807#define isOCTAL_L1(c) isOCTAL_A(c)
1808#define isXDIGIT_L1(c) isXDIGIT_A(c)
1809#define isALNUM(c) isWORDCHAR(c)
1810#define isALNUMU(c) isWORDCHAR_L1(c)
1811#define isALNUM_LC(c) isWORDCHAR_LC(c)
1812#define isALNUM_uni(c) isWORDCHAR_uni(c)
2e28f0b9 1813#define isALNUM_LC_uvchr(c) isWORDCHAR_LC_uvchr(c)
b7d90381
KW
1814#define isALNUM_utf8(p) isWORDCHAR_utf8(p)
1815#define isALNUM_LC_utf8(p) isWORDCHAR_LC_utf8(p)
1816#define isALNUMC_A(c) isALPHANUMERIC_A(c) /* Mnemonic: "C's alnum" */
1817#define isALNUMC_L1(c) isALPHANUMERIC_L1(c)
1818#define isALNUMC(c) isALPHANUMERIC(c)
1819#define isALNUMC_LC(c) isALPHANUMERIC_LC(c)
1820#define isALNUMC_uni(c) isALPHANUMERIC_uni(c)
15861f94 1821#define isALNUMC_LC_uvchr(c) isALPHANUMERIC_LC_uvchr(c)
b7d90381 1822#define isALNUMC_utf8(p) isALPHANUMERIC_utf8(p)
15861f94 1823#define isALNUMC_LC_utf8(p) isALPHANUMERIC_LC_utf8(p)
fbc19f27 1824
2bd1cbf6
KW
1825/* On EBCDIC platforms, CTRL-@ is 0, CTRL-A is 1, etc, just like on ASCII,
1826 * except that they don't necessarily mean the same characters, e.g. CTRL-D is
1827 * 4 on both systems, but that is EOT on ASCII; ST on EBCDIC.
1828 * '?' is special-cased on EBCDIC to APC, which is the control there that is
1829 * the outlier from the block that contains the other controls, just like
1830 * toCTRL('?') on ASCII yields DEL, the control that is the outlier from the C0
1831 * block. If it weren't special cased, it would yield a non-control.
88794300
KW
1832 * The conversion works both ways, so toCTRL('D') is 4, and toCTRL(4) is D,
1833 * etc. */
2bd1cbf6 1834#ifndef EBCDIC
75763b3a 1835# define toCTRL(c) (__ASSERT_(FITS_IN_8_BITS(c)) toUPPER(((U8)(c))) ^ 64)
2bd1cbf6 1836#else
75763b3a
KW
1837# define toCTRL(c) (__ASSERT_(FITS_IN_8_BITS(c)) \
1838 ((isPRINT_A(c)) \
1839 ? (UNLIKELY((c) == '?') \
1840 ? QUESTION_MARK_CTRL \
1841 : (NATIVE_TO_LATIN1(toUPPER((U8) (c))) ^ 64)) \
1842 : (UNLIKELY((c) == QUESTION_MARK_CTRL) \
1843 ? '?' \
1844 : (LATIN1_TO_NATIVE(((U8) (c)) ^ 64)))))
2bd1cbf6 1845#endif
bbce6d69 1846
dea28490
JJ
1847/* Line numbers are unsigned, 32 bits. */
1848typedef U32 line_t;
e5dcd934 1849#define NOLINE ((line_t) 4294967295UL) /* = FFFFFFFF */
378cc40b 1850
91152fc1
DG
1851/* Helpful alias for version prescan */
1852#define is_LAX_VERSION(a,b) \
1853 (a != Perl_prescan_version(aTHX_ a, FALSE, b, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL))
1854
1855#define is_STRICT_VERSION(a,b) \
1856 (a != Perl_prescan_version(aTHX_ a, TRUE, b, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL))
1857
1858#define BADVERSION(a,b,c) \
1859 if (b) { \
1860 *b = c; \
1861 } \
1862 return a;
8c52afec 1863
cb27eebd
KW
1864/* Converts a character known to represent a hexadecimal digit (0-9, A-F, or
1865 * a-f) to its numeric value. READ_XDIGIT's argument is a string pointer,
1866 * which is advanced. The input is validated only by an assert() in DEBUGGING
1867 * builds. In both ASCII and EBCDIC the last 4 bits of the digits are 0-9; and
1868 * the last 4 bits of A-F and a-f are 1-6, so adding 9 yields 10-15 */
1869#define XDIGIT_VALUE(c) (__ASSERT_(isXDIGIT(c)) (0xf & (isDIGIT(c) \
1870 ? (c) \
1871 : ((c) + 9))))
902008b8
KW
1872#define READ_XDIGIT(s) (__ASSERT_(isXDIGIT(*s)) (0xf & (isDIGIT(*(s)) \
1873 ? (*(s)++) \
1874 : (*(s)++ + 9))))
95a59cab 1875
cb27eebd
KW
1876/* Converts a character known to represent an octal digit (0-7) to its numeric
1877 * value. The input is validated only by an assert() in DEBUGGING builds. In
1878 * both ASCII and EBCDIC the last 3 bits of the octal digits range from 0-7. */
1879#define OCTAL_VALUE(c) (__ASSERT_(isOCTAL(c)) (7 & (c)))
1880
305b8651
KW
1881/* Efficiently returns a boolean as to if two native characters are equivalent
1882 * case-insenstively. At least one of the characters must be one of [A-Za-z];
1883 * the ALPHA in the name is to remind you of that. This is asserted() in
1884 * DEBUGGING builds. Because [A-Za-z] are invariant under UTF-8, this macro
1885 * works (on valid input) for both non- and UTF-8-encoded bytes.
1886 *
1887 * When one of the inputs is a compile-time constant and gets folded by the
1888 * compiler, this reduces to an AND and a TEST. On both EBCDIC and ASCII
1889 * machines, 'A' and 'a' differ by a single bit; the same with the upper and
1890 * lower case of all other ASCII-range alphabetics. On ASCII platforms, they
96ca48da
KW
1891 * are 32 apart; on EBCDIC, they are 64. At compile time, this uses an
1892 * exclusive 'or' to find that bit and then inverts it to form a mask, with
1893 * just a single 0, in the bit position where the upper- and lowercase differ.
1894 * */
305b8651
KW
1895#define isALPHA_FOLD_EQ(c1, c2) \
1896 (__ASSERT_(isALPHA_A(c1) || isALPHA_A(c2)) \
1897 ((c1) & ~('A' ^ 'a')) == ((c2) & ~('A' ^ 'a')))
1898#define isALPHA_FOLD_NE(c1, c2) (! isALPHA_FOLD_EQ((c1), (c2)))
1899
8e84507e 1900/*
ccfc67b7
JH
1901=head1 Memory Management
1902
a02a5408 1903=for apidoc Am|void|Newx|void* ptr|int nitems|type
954c1994
GS
1904The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function.
1905
596f7718 1906Memory obtained by this should B<ONLY> be freed with L</"Safefree">.
0d7b2759 1907
c5008215
JC
1908In 5.9.3, Newx() and friends replace the older New() API, and drops
1909the first parameter, I<x>, a debug aid which allowed callers to identify
37b8b4c9 1910themselves. This aid has been superseded by a new build option,
d10b4965 1911PERL_MEM_LOG (see L<perlhacktips/PERL_MEM_LOG>). The older API is still
c5008215
JC
1912there for use in XS modules supporting older perls.
1913
a02a5408 1914=for apidoc Am|void|Newxc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
954c1994 1915The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function, with
fbe13c60 1916cast. See also C<L</Newx>>.
954c1994 1917
596f7718 1918Memory obtained by this should B<ONLY> be freed with L</"Safefree">.
0d7b2759 1919
a02a5408 1920=for apidoc Am|void|Newxz|void* ptr|int nitems|type
954c1994 1921The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function. The allocated
fbe13c60 1922memory is zeroed with C<memzero>. See also C<L</Newx>>.
a02a5408 1923
596f7718 1924Memory obtained by this should B<ONLY> be freed with L</"Safefree">.
0d7b2759 1925
954c1994
GS
1926=for apidoc Am|void|Renew|void* ptr|int nitems|type
1927The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function.
1928
596f7718 1929Memory obtained by this should B<ONLY> be freed with L</"Safefree">.
0d7b2759 1930
954c1994
GS
1931=for apidoc Am|void|Renewc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
1932The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function, with
1933cast.
1934
596f7718 1935Memory obtained by this should B<ONLY> be freed with L</"Safefree">.
0d7b2759 1936
49b8b560 1937=for apidoc Am|void|Safefree|void* ptr
954c1994
GS
1938The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<free> function.
1939
596f7718 1940This should B<ONLY> be used on memory obtained using L</"Newx"> and friends.
0d7b2759 1941
954c1994
GS
1942=for apidoc Am|void|Move|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
1943The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memmove> function. The C<src> is the
926bb54c 1944source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and
fbe13c60 1945C<type> is the type. Can do overlapping moves. See also C<L</Copy>>.
954c1994 1946
e90e2364 1947=for apidoc Am|void *|MoveD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
796b6530 1948Like C<Move> but returns C<dest>. Useful
72d33970 1949for encouraging compilers to tail-call
e90e2364
NC
1950optimise.
1951
954c1994
GS
1952=for apidoc Am|void|Copy|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
1953The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memcpy> function. The C<src> is the
926bb54c 1954source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and
fbe13c60 1955C<type> is the type. May fail on overlapping copies. See also C<L</Move>>.
954c1994 1956
e90e2364
NC
1957=for apidoc Am|void *|CopyD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
1958
796b6530 1959Like C<Copy> but returns C<dest>. Useful
72d33970 1960for encouraging compilers to tail-call
e90e2364
NC
1961optimise.
1962
954c1994
GS
1963=for apidoc Am|void|Zero|void* dest|int nitems|type
1964
1965The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memzero> function. The C<dest> is the
1966destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is the type.
1967
e90e2364
NC
1968=for apidoc Am|void *|ZeroD|void* dest|int nitems|type
1969
72d33970
FC
1970Like C<Zero> but returns dest. Useful
1971for encouraging compilers to tail-call
e90e2364
NC
1972optimise.
1973
da5d8dbb 1974=for apidoc Am|void|StructCopy|type *src|type *dest|type
4375e838 1975This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure to another.
954c1994 1976
7e337ee0
JH
1977=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonWith|void* dest|int nitems|type|U8 byte
1978
1979Fill up memory with a byte pattern (a byte repeated over and over
1980again) that hopefully catches attempts to access uninitialized memory.
1981
1982=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonNew|void* dest|int nitems|type
1983
1984PoisonWith(0xAB) for catching access to allocated but uninitialized memory.
1985
1c12ffb4 1986=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonFree|void* dest|int nitems|type
7e337ee0
JH
1987
1988PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
1989
9965345d
JH
1990=for apidoc Am|void|Poison|void* dest|int nitems|type
1991
7e337ee0 1992PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
9965345d
JH
1993
1994=cut */
954c1994 1995
561b68a9
SH
1996/* Maintained for backwards-compatibility only. Use newSV() instead. */
1997#ifndef PERL_CORE
ff06c60c 1998#define NEWSV(x,len) newSV(len)
561b68a9 1999#endif
ff06c60c 2000
19a94d75
JH
2001#define MEM_SIZE_MAX ((MEM_SIZE)~0)
2002
e6bdf523 2003
27d5b266 2004#ifdef PERL_MALLOC_WRAP
e6bdf523
DM
2005
2006/* This expression will be constant-folded at compile time. It checks
2007 * whether or not the type of the count n is so small (e.g. U8 or U16, or
2008 * U32 on 64-bit systems) that there's no way a wrap-around could occur.
2009 * As well as avoiding the need for a run-time check in some cases, it's
2010 * designed to avoid compiler warnings like:
2011 * comparison is always false due to limited range of data type
73e8ff00
DM
2012 * It's mathematically equivalent to
2013 * max(n) * sizeof(t) > MEM_SIZE_MAX
e6bdf523
DM
2014 */
2015
2016# define _MEM_WRAP_NEEDS_RUNTIME_CHECK(n,t) \
004073ba 2017 (8 * sizeof(n) + sizeof(t) > sizeof(MEM_SIZE))
e6bdf523 2018
88f9f128 2019/* This is written in a slightly odd way to avoid various spurious
d98e5cde
DM
2020 * compiler warnings. We *want* to write the expression as
2021 * _MEM_WRAP_NEEDS_RUNTIME_CHECK(n,t) && (n > C)
2022 * (for some compile-time constant C), but even when the LHS
2023 * constant-folds to false at compile-time, g++ insists on emitting
2024 * warnings about the RHS (e.g. "comparison is always false"), so instead
2025 * we write it as
e6bdf523 2026 *
d98e5cde 2027 * (cond ? n : X) > C
88f9f128 2028 *
d98e5cde
DM
2029 * where X is a constant with X > C always false. Choosing a value for X
2030 * is tricky. If 0, some compilers will complain about 0 > C always being
2031 * false; if 1, Coverity complains when n happens to be the constant value
2032 * '1', that cond ? 1 : 1 has the same value on both branches; so use C
2033 * for X and hope that nothing else whines.
e6bdf523
DM
2034 */
2035
2036# define _MEM_WRAP_WILL_WRAP(n,t) \
88f9f128
DM
2037 ((_MEM_WRAP_NEEDS_RUNTIME_CHECK(n,t) ? (MEM_SIZE)(n) : \
2038 MEM_SIZE_MAX/sizeof(t)) > MEM_SIZE_MAX/sizeof(t))
e6bdf523
DM
2039
2040# define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t) \
2041 (void)(UNLIKELY(_MEM_WRAP_WILL_WRAP(n,t)) \
2042 && (croak_memory_wrap(),0))
2043
2044# define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a) \
2045 (void)(UNLIKELY(_MEM_WRAP_WILL_WRAP(n,t)) \
2046 && (Perl_croak_nocontext("%s",(a)),0))
2047
8b44ba4c 2048#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t),
27d5b266 2049
d1decf2b 2050#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) ((void)(((n) > MEM_SIZE_MAX - 2 * PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM) ? (croak_memory_wrap(),0):0),((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
27d5b266
JH
2051#else
2052
410319be
NC
2053#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t)
2054#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a)
2055#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_2(n,t,a,b)
8b44ba4c
NC
2056#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t)
2057
6fff79ce 2058#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) (((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
27d5b266 2059
1936d2a7 2060#endif
8b44ba4c 2061
fe4f188c 2062#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
46c6c7e2 2063/*
9f653bb5 2064 * If PERL_MEM_LOG is defined, all Newx()s, Renew()s, and Safefree()s
46c6c7e2
JH
2065 * go through functions, which are handy for debugging breakpoints, but
2066 * which more importantly get the immediate calling environment (file and
e352bcff
JH
2067 * line number, and C function name if available) passed in. This info can
2068 * then be used for logging the calls, for which one gets a sample
73d1d973 2069 * implementation unless -DPERL_MEM_LOG_NOIMPL is also defined.
3609ea0d 2070 *
46c6c7e2 2071 * Known problems:
94e892a6 2072 * - not all memory allocs get logged, only those
46c6c7e2 2073 * that go through Newx() and derivatives (while all
94e892a6 2074 * Safefrees do get logged)
46c6c7e2
JH
2075 * - __FILE__ and __LINE__ do not work everywhere
2076 * - __func__ or __FUNCTION__ even less so
2077 * - I think more goes on after the perlio frees but
2078 * the thing is that STDERR gets closed (as do all
2079 * the file descriptors)
2080 * - no deeper calling stack than the caller of the Newx()
2081 * or the kind, but do I look like a C reflection/introspection
2082 * utility to you?
2083 * - the function prototypes for the logging functions
2084 * probably should maybe be somewhere else than handy.h
2085 * - one could consider inlining (macrofying) the logging
2086 * for speed, but I am too lazy
2087 * - one could imagine recording the allocations in a hash,
2088 * (keyed by the allocation address?), and maintain that
2089 * through reallocs and frees, but how to do that without
2090 * any News() happening...?
73d1d973 2091 * - lots of -Ddefines to get useful/controllable output
b953482e 2092 * - lots of ENV reads
46c6c7e2
JH
2093 */
2094
0b0ab801 2095# ifdef PERL_CORE
73d1d973 2096# ifndef PERL_MEM_LOG_NOIMPL
0b0ab801
MHM
2097enum mem_log_type {
2098 MLT_ALLOC,
2099 MLT_REALLOC,
d7a2c63c
MHM
2100 MLT_FREE,
2101 MLT_NEW_SV,
2102 MLT_DEL_SV
0b0ab801
MHM
2103};
2104# endif
12754f92 2105# if defined(PERL_IN_SV_C) /* those are only used in sv.c */
d7a2c63c
MHM
2106void Perl_mem_log_new_sv(const SV *sv, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
2107void Perl_mem_log_del_sv(const SV *sv, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
12754f92 2108# endif
0b0ab801
MHM
2109# endif
2110
fe4f188c
JH
2111#endif
2112
2113#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
d1401ee9
MHM
2114#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a) Perl_mem_log_alloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
2115#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) Perl_mem_log_realloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),v,a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
46c6c7e2 2116#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a) Perl_mem_log_free(a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
fe4f188c
JH
2117#endif
2118
2119#ifndef MEM_LOG_ALLOC
2120#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a) (a)
2121#endif
2122#ifndef MEM_LOG_REALLOC
2123#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) (a)
2124#endif
2125#ifndef MEM_LOG_FREE
2126#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a) (a)
2127#endif
2128
d1401ee9
MHM
2129#define Newx(v,n,t) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (t*)MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
2130#define Newxc(v,n,t,c) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (c*)MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
2131#define Newxz(v,n,t) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (t*)MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,safecalloc((n),sizeof(t)))))
a6f6820f
NC
2132
2133#ifndef PERL_CORE
a02a5408
JC
2134/* pre 5.9.x compatibility */
2135#define New(x,v,n,t) Newx(v,n,t)
2136#define Newc(x,v,n,t,c) Newxc(v,n,t,c)
4541904d 2137#define Newz(x,v,n,t) Newxz(v,n,t)
a6f6820f 2138#endif
a02a5408 2139
ff68c719 2140#define Renew(v,n,t) \
d1401ee9 2141 (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (t*)MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
ff68c719 2142#define Renewc(v,n,t,c) \
d1401ee9 2143 (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (c*)MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
94010e71
NC
2144
2145#ifdef PERL_POISON
2146#define Safefree(d) \
06c0cc96 2147 ((d) ? (void)(safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d))), Poison(&(d), 1, Malloc_t)) : (void) 0)
94010e71 2148#else
fe4f188c 2149#define Safefree(d) safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d)))
94010e71 2150#endif
55497cff 2151
8b44ba4c
NC
2152#define Move(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
2153#define Copy(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
2154#define Zero(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
55497cff 2155
8b44ba4c
NC
2156#define MoveD(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
2157#define CopyD(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
e90e2364 2158#ifdef HAS_MEMSET
8b44ba4c 2159#define ZeroD(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
e90e2364 2160#else
8b44ba4c
NC
2161/* Using bzero(), which returns void. */
2162#define ZeroD(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)),d)
e90e2364
NC
2163#endif
2164
7e337ee0
JH
2165#define PoisonWith(d,n,t,b) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memset((char*)(d), (U8)(b), (n) * sizeof(t)))
2166#define PoisonNew(d,n,t) PoisonWith(d,n,t,0xAB)
2167#define PoisonFree(d,n,t) PoisonWith(d,n,t,0xEF)
2168#define Poison(d,n,t) PoisonFree(d,n,t)
27d5b266 2169
caa674f3
DD
2170#ifdef PERL_POISON
2171# define PERL_POISON_EXPR(x) x
2172#else
2173# define PERL_POISON_EXPR(x)
2174#endif
2175
2304df62 2176#ifdef USE_STRUCT_COPY
ff68c719 2177#define StructCopy(s,d,t) (*((t*)(d)) = *((t*)(s)))
bee1dbe2
LW
2178#else
2179#define StructCopy(s,d,t) Copy(s,d,1,t)
2180#endif
2cc61e15 2181
c3caa5c3
JH
2182/* C_ARRAY_LENGTH is the number of elements in the C array (so you
2183 * want your zero-based indices to be less than but not equal to).
2184 *
2185 * C_ARRAY_END is one past the last: half-open/half-closed range,
2186 * not last-inclusive range. */
622913ab 2187#define C_ARRAY_LENGTH(a) (sizeof(a)/sizeof((a)[0]))
c3caa5c3 2188#define C_ARRAY_END(a) ((a) + C_ARRAY_LENGTH(a))
622913ab 2189
2cc61e15
DD
2190#ifdef NEED_VA_COPY
2191# ifdef va_copy
2192# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) va_copy(d, s)
2cc61e15 2193# else
a1866d1b
JH
2194# if defined(__va_copy)
2195# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) __va_copy(d, s)
2196# else
2197# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) Copy(s, d, 1, va_list)
2198# endif
2cc61e15
DD
2199# endif
2200#endif
2201
472d47bc
SB
2202/* convenience debug macros */
2203#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
2204#define pTHX_FORMAT "Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
2205#define pTHX__FORMAT ", Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
f54cb97a
AL
2206#define pTHX_VALUE_ (void *)my_perl,
2207#define pTHX_VALUE (void *)my_perl
2208#define pTHX__VALUE_ ,(void *)my_perl,
2209#define pTHX__VALUE ,(void *)my_perl
472d47bc 2210#else
3609ea0d 2211#define pTHX_FORMAT
472d47bc 2212#define pTHX__FORMAT
3609ea0d 2213#define pTHX_VALUE_
472d47bc 2214#define pTHX_VALUE
3609ea0d 2215#define pTHX__VALUE_
472d47bc
SB
2216#define pTHX__VALUE
2217#endif /* USE_ITHREADS */
3609ea0d 2218
2acdbac1
NC
2219/* Perl_deprecate was not part of the public API, and did not have a deprecate()
2220 shortcut macro defined without -DPERL_CORE. Neither codesearch.google.com nor
2221 CPAN::Unpack show any users outside the core. */
2222#ifdef PERL_CORE
b7d90381
KW
2223# define deprecate(s) Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_DEPRECATED), \
2224 "Use of " s " is deprecated")
2acdbac1
NC
2225#endif
2226
dfff4baf
BF
2227/* Internal macros to deal with gids and uids */
2228#ifdef PERL_CORE
2229
2230# if Uid_t_size > IVSIZE
2231# define sv_setuid(sv, uid) sv_setnv((sv), (NV)(uid))
2232# define SvUID(sv) SvNV(sv)
2233# else
2234# if Uid_t_sign <= 0
2235# define sv_setuid(sv, uid) sv_setiv((sv), (IV)(uid))
2236# define SvUID(sv) SvIV(sv)
2237# else
2238# define sv_setuid(sv, uid) sv_setuv((sv), (UV)(uid))
2239# define SvUID(sv) SvUV(sv)
2240# endif
2241# endif /* Uid_t_size */
2242
2243# if Gid_t_size > IVSIZE
2244# define sv_setgid(sv, gid) sv_setnv((sv), (NV)(gid))
2245# define SvGID(sv) SvNV(sv)
2246# else
2247# if Gid_t_sign <= 0
2248# define sv_setgid(sv, gid) sv_setiv((sv), (IV)(gid))
2249# define SvGID(sv) SvIV(sv)
2250# else
2251# define sv_setgid(sv, gid) sv_setuv((sv), (UV)(gid))
2252# define SvGID(sv) SvUV(sv)
2253# endif
2254# endif /* Gid_t_size */
2255
2256#endif
2257
9d745869
KW
2258#endif /* HANDY_H */
2259
e9a8c099 2260/*
14d04a33 2261 * ex: set ts=8 sts=4 sw=4 et:
e9a8c099 2262 */