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[perl5.git] / handy.h
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a0d0e21e 1/* handy.h
a687059c 2 *
4bb101f2 3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999,
663f364b 4 * 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, by Larry Wall and others
a687059c 5 *
6e21c824
LW
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8d063cd8 8 *
8d063cd8
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9 */
10
85e6fe83 11#if !defined(__STDC__)
378cc40b
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12#ifdef NULL
13#undef NULL
14#endif
a687059c
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15#ifndef I286
16# define NULL 0
17#else
18# define NULL 0L
19#endif
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20#endif
21
24792b8d
NC
22#ifndef PERL_CORE
23# define Null(type) ((type)NULL)
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24
25/*
ccfc67b7 26=head1 Handy Values
954c1994 27
3609ea0d 28=for apidoc AmU||Nullch
24792b8d 29Null character pointer. (No longer available when C<PERL_CORE> is defined.)
2307c6d0 30
954c1994 31=for apidoc AmU||Nullsv
24792b8d 32Null SV pointer. (No longer available when C<PERL_CORE> is defined.)
954c1994
GS
33
34=cut
35*/
36
24792b8d
NC
37# define Nullch Null(char*)
38# define Nullfp Null(PerlIO*)
39# define Nullsv Null(SV*)
40#endif
8d063cd8 41
641d3f0b
PP
42#ifdef TRUE
43#undef TRUE
44#endif
45#ifdef FALSE
46#undef FALSE
47#endif
48#define TRUE (1)
49#define FALSE (0)
50
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PP
51
52/* XXX Configure ought to have a test for a boolean type, if I can
53 just figure out all the headers such a test needs.
54 Andy Dougherty August 1996
55*/
8e84507e 56/* bool is built-in for g++-2.6.3 and later, which might be used
c1d22f6b
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57 for extensions. <_G_config.h> defines _G_HAVE_BOOL, but we can't
58 be sure _G_config.h will be included before this file. _G_config.h
8e84507e 59 also defines _G_HAVE_BOOL for both gcc and g++, but only g++
c1d22f6b
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60 actually has bool. Hence, _G_HAVE_BOOL is pretty useless for us.
61 g++ can be identified by __GNUG__.
62 Andy Dougherty February 2000
5d94fbed 63*/
3609ea0d 64#ifdef __GNUG__ /* GNU g++ has bool built-in */
5d94fbed 65# ifndef HAS_BOOL
c1d22f6b 66# define HAS_BOOL 1
5d94fbed 67# endif
5d94fbed
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68#endif
69
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70/* The NeXT dynamic loader headers will not build with the bool macro
71 So declare them now to clear confusion.
72*/
8f1f23e8 73#if defined(NeXT) || defined(__NeXT__)
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PP
74# undef FALSE
75# undef TRUE
76 typedef enum bool { FALSE = 0, TRUE = 1 } bool;
77# define ENUM_BOOL 1
78# ifndef HAS_BOOL
79# define HAS_BOOL 1
80# endif /* !HAS_BOOL */
8f1f23e8 81#endif /* NeXT || __NeXT__ */
641d3f0b 82
5d94fbed 83#ifndef HAS_BOOL
61bb5906 84# if defined(UTS) || defined(VMS)
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85# define bool int
86# else
87# define bool char
88# endif
c1d22f6b 89# define HAS_BOOL 1
a687059c 90#endif
0d3e774c 91
46c6c7e2 92/* Try to figure out __func__ or __FUNCTION__ equivalent, if any.
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93 * XXX Should really be a Configure probe, with HAS__FUNCTION__
94 * and FUNCTION__ as results.
95 * XXX Similarly, a Configure probe for __FILE__ and __LINE__ is needed. */
46c6c7e2
JH
96#if (defined(__STDC_VERSION__) && __STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L) || (defined(__SUNPRO_C)) /* C99 or close enough. */
97# define FUNCTION__ __func__
98#else
99# if (defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER < 1300) || /* Pre-MSVC 7.0 has neither __func__ nor __FUNCTION and no good workarounds, either. */ \
be73ebb0 100 (defined(__DECC_VER)) /* Tru64 or VMS, and strict C89 being used, but not modern enough cc (in Tur64, -c99 not known, only -std1). */
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101# define FUNCTION__ ""
102# else
103# define FUNCTION__ __FUNCTION__ /* Common extension. */
104# endif
105#endif
106
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107/* XXX A note on the perl source internal type system. The
108 original intent was that I32 be *exactly* 32 bits.
109
110 Currently, we only guarantee that I32 is *at least* 32 bits.
111 Specifically, if int is 64 bits, then so is I32. (This is the case
112 for the Cray.) This has the advantage of meshing nicely with
113 standard library calls (where we pass an I32 and the library is
114 expecting an int), but the disadvantage that an I32 is not 32 bits.
115 Andy Dougherty August 1996
24fef2a7 116
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117 There is no guarantee that there is *any* integral type with
118 exactly 32 bits. It is perfectly legal for a system to have
119 sizeof(short) == sizeof(int) == sizeof(long) == 8.
693762b4 120
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121 Similarly, there is no guarantee that I16 and U16 have exactly 16
122 bits.
693762b4 123
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124 For dealing with issues that may arise from various 32/64-bit
125 systems, we will ask Configure to check out
8175356b 126
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127 SHORTSIZE == sizeof(short)
128 INTSIZE == sizeof(int)
129 LONGSIZE == sizeof(long)
dc45a647 130 LONGLONGSIZE == sizeof(long long) (if HAS_LONG_LONG)
3609ea0d 131 PTRSIZE == sizeof(void *)
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132 DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(double)
133 LONG_DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(long double) (if HAS_LONG_DOUBLE).
8175356b 134
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135*/
136
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137#ifdef I_INTTYPES /* e.g. Linux has int64_t without <inttypes.h> */
138# include <inttypes.h>
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139# ifdef INT32_MIN_BROKEN
140# undef INT32_MIN
141# define INT32_MIN (-2147483647-1)
142# endif
143# ifdef INT64_MIN_BROKEN
144# undef INT64_MIN
145# define INT64_MIN (-9223372036854775807LL-1)
146# endif
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147#endif
148
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149typedef I8TYPE I8;
150typedef U8TYPE U8;
151typedef I16TYPE I16;
152typedef U16TYPE U16;
153typedef I32TYPE I32;
154typedef U32TYPE U32;
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155#ifdef PERL_CORE
156# ifdef HAS_QUAD
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157typedef I64TYPE I64;
158typedef U64TYPE U64;
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159# endif
160#endif /* PERL_CORE */
8175356b 161
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162#if defined(HAS_QUAD) && defined(USE_64_BIT_INT)
163# ifndef UINT64_C /* usually from <inttypes.h> */
164# if defined(HAS_LONG_LONG) && QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG_LONG
165# define INT64_C(c) CAT2(c,LL)
166# define UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,ULL)
167# else
168# if LONGSIZE == 8 && QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG
169# define INT64_C(c) CAT2(c,L)
170# define UINT64_C(c) CAT2(c,UL)
171# else
172# define INT64_C(c) ((I64TYPE)(c))
173# define UINT64_C(c) ((U64TYPE)(c))
174# endif
175# endif
e8c95190
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176# endif
177#endif
dc750f2e 178
cae3d67c 179/* HMB H.Merijn Brand - a placeholder for preparing Configure patches */
3497a01f 180#if defined(HAS_MALLOC_SIZE) && defined(LOCALTIME_R_NEEDS_TZSET) && defined(HAS_PSEUDOFORK)
cae3d67c 181/* Not (yet) used at top level, but mention them for metaconfig */
dc750f2e 182#endif
e8c95190 183
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184/* Mention I8SIZE, U8SIZE, I16SIZE, U16SIZE, I32SIZE, U32SIZE,
185 I64SIZE, and U64SIZE here so that metaconfig pulls them in. */
186
d8668976 187#if defined(UINT8_MAX) && defined(INT16_MAX) && defined(INT32_MAX)
5ff3f7a4 188
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189/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
190 Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
191#define U8_MAX UINT8_MAX
192#define U8_MIN UINT8_MIN
193
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194#define I16_MAX INT16_MAX
195#define I16_MIN INT16_MIN
196#define U16_MAX UINT16_MAX
197#define U16_MIN UINT16_MIN
198
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199#define I32_MAX INT32_MAX
200#define I32_MIN INT32_MIN
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201#ifndef UINT32_MAX_BROKEN /* e.g. HP-UX with gcc messes this up */
202# define U32_MAX UINT32_MAX
203#else
204# define U32_MAX 4294967295U
205#endif
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206#define U32_MIN UINT32_MIN
207
208#else
209
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210/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
211 Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
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212#define U8_MAX PERL_UCHAR_MAX
213#define U8_MIN PERL_UCHAR_MIN
79072805 214
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215#define I16_MAX PERL_SHORT_MAX
216#define I16_MIN PERL_SHORT_MIN
217#define U16_MAX PERL_USHORT_MAX
218#define U16_MIN PERL_USHORT_MIN
79072805 219
c4f23d77 220#if LONGSIZE > 4
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221# define I32_MAX PERL_INT_MAX
222# define I32_MIN PERL_INT_MIN
223# define U32_MAX PERL_UINT_MAX
224# define U32_MIN PERL_UINT_MIN
79072805 225#else
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226# define I32_MAX PERL_LONG_MAX
227# define I32_MIN PERL_LONG_MIN
228# define U32_MAX PERL_ULONG_MAX
229# define U32_MIN PERL_ULONG_MIN
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230#endif
231
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232#endif
233
58a9a5d5 234/* log(2) is pretty close to 0.30103, just in case anyone is grepping for it */
fc36a67e
PP
235#define BIT_DIGITS(N) (((N)*146)/485 + 1) /* log2(10) =~ 146/485 */
236#define TYPE_DIGITS(T) BIT_DIGITS(sizeof(T) * 8)
237#define TYPE_CHARS(T) (TYPE_DIGITS(T) + 2) /* sign, NUL */
238
ff68c719 239#define Ctl(ch) ((ch) & 037)
8d063cd8 240
3fe05580
MHM
241/*
242=head1 SV-Body Allocation
243
244=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs|const char* s
245Like C<newSVpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
246
247=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs_share|const char* s
248Like C<newSVpvn_share>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length
249pair and omits the hash parameter.
250
7b4e7469 251=for apidoc Am|void|sv_catpvs|SV* sv|const char* s
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MHM
252Like C<sv_catpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
253
7b4e7469 254=for apidoc Am|void|sv_setpvs|SV* sv|const char* s
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MHM
255Like C<sv_setpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
256
257=head1 Memory Management
258
259=for apidoc Ama|char*|savepvs|const char* s
260Like C<savepvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
261
262=head1 GV Functions
263
264=for apidoc Am|HV*|gv_stashpvs|const char* name|I32 create
265Like C<gv_stashpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
266
267=head1 Hash Manipulation Functions
268
269=for apidoc Am|SV**|hv_fetchs|HV* tb|const char* key|I32 lval
270Like C<hv_fetch>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
271
272=for apidoc Am|SV**|hv_stores|HV* tb|const char* key|NULLOK SV* val
273Like C<hv_store>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair
274and omits the hash parameter.
275
276=cut
277*/
278
65177ae0 279/* concatenating with "" ensures that only literal strings are accepted as argument */
2efa8cc7
GA
280#define STR_WITH_LEN(s) (s ""), (sizeof(s)-1)
281
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282/* note that STR_WITH_LEN() can't be used as argument to macros or functions that
283 * under some configurations might be macros, which means that it requires the full
284 * Perl_xxx(aTHX_ ...) form for any API calls where it's used.
285 */
286
287/* STR_WITH_LEN() shortcuts */
288#define newSVpvs(str) Perl_newSVpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
289#define newSVpvs_share(str) Perl_newSVpvn_share(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), 0)
290#define sv_catpvs(sv, str) Perl_sv_catpvn_flags(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str), SV_GMAGIC)
3fe05580 291#define sv_setpvs(sv, str) Perl_sv_setpvn(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str))
ba3a79e7
GA
292#define savepvs(str) Perl_savepvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
293#define gv_stashpvs(str, create) Perl_gv_stashpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), create)
5c1737d1 294#define gv_fetchpvs(namebeg, add, sv_type) Perl_gv_fetchpvn_flags(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(namebeg), add, sv_type)
a038e571
NC
295#define hv_fetchs(hv,key,lval) \
296 ((SV **)Perl_hv_common(aTHX_ (hv), NULL, STR_WITH_LEN(key), 0, \
297 (lval) ? (HV_FETCH_JUST_SV | HV_FETCH_LVALUE) \
298 : HV_FETCH_JUST_SV, NULL, 0))
299
300#define hv_stores(hv,key,val) \
301 ((SV **)Perl_hv_common(aTHX_ (hv), NULL, STR_WITH_LEN(key), 0, \
302 (HV_FETCH_ISSTORE|HV_FETCH_JUST_SV), (val), 0))
ba3a79e7 303
5c1737d1 304
954c1994 305/*
ccfc67b7
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306=head1 Miscellaneous Functions
307
954c1994
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308=for apidoc Am|bool|strNE|char* s1|char* s2
309Test two strings to see if they are different. Returns true or
310false.
311
312=for apidoc Am|bool|strEQ|char* s1|char* s2
313Test two strings to see if they are equal. Returns true or false.
314
315=for apidoc Am|bool|strLT|char* s1|char* s2
316Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than the second,
317C<s2>. Returns true or false.
318
319=for apidoc Am|bool|strLE|char* s1|char* s2
320Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than or equal to the
321second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
322
323=for apidoc Am|bool|strGT|char* s1|char* s2
324Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than the second,
325C<s2>. Returns true or false.
326
327=for apidoc Am|bool|strGE|char* s1|char* s2
328Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than or equal to
329the second, C<s2>. Returns true or false.
330
331=for apidoc Am|bool|strnNE|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
332Test two strings to see if they are different. The C<len> parameter
333indicates the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A
334wrapper for C<strncmp>).
335
336=for apidoc Am|bool|strnEQ|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
337Test two strings to see if they are equal. The C<len> parameter indicates
338the number of bytes to compare. Returns true or false. (A wrapper for
339C<strncmp>).
340
341=cut
342*/
343
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344#define strNE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2))
345#define strEQ(s1,s2) (!strcmp(s1,s2))
346#define strLT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) < 0)
347#define strLE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) <= 0)
348#define strGT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) > 0)
349#define strGE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) >= 0)
350#define strnNE(s1,s2,l) (strncmp(s1,s2,l))
351#define strnEQ(s1,s2,l) (!strncmp(s1,s2,l))
378cc40b 352
36477c24
PP
353#ifdef HAS_MEMCMP
354# define memNE(s1,s2,l) (memcmp(s1,s2,l))
355# define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!memcmp(s1,s2,l))
356#else
357# define memNE(s1,s2,l) (bcmp(s1,s2,l))
358# define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!bcmp(s1,s2,l))
359#endif
360
568a785a
NC
361#define memEQs(s1, l, s2) \
362 (sizeof(s2)-1 == l && memEQ(s1, (s2 ""), (sizeof(s2)-1)))
363#define memNEs(s1, l, s2) !memEQs(s1, l, s2)
364
bbce6d69
PP
365/*
366 * Character classes.
367 *
368 * Unfortunately, the introduction of locales means that we
369 * can't trust isupper(), etc. to tell the truth. And when
370 * it comes to /\w+/ with tainting enabled, we *must* be able
371 * to trust our character classes.
372 *
373 * Therefore, the default tests in the text of Perl will be
374 * independent of locale. Any code that wants to depend on
375 * the current locale will use the tests that begin with "lc".
376 */
377
2304df62
AD
378#ifdef HAS_SETLOCALE /* XXX Is there a better test for this? */
379# ifndef CTYPE256
380# define CTYPE256
381# endif
382#endif
383
954c1994 384/*
ccfc67b7
JH
385
386=head1 Character classes
387
954c1994 388=for apidoc Am|bool|isALNUM|char ch
4375e838 389Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII alphanumeric
f1cbbd6e 390character (including underscore) or digit.
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391
392=for apidoc Am|bool|isALPHA|char ch
4375e838 393Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII alphabetic
954c1994
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394character.
395
396=for apidoc Am|bool|isSPACE|char ch
397Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is whitespace.
398
399=for apidoc Am|bool|isDIGIT|char ch
4375e838 400Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an ASCII
954c1994
GS
401digit.
402
403=for apidoc Am|bool|isUPPER|char ch
404Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is an uppercase
405character.
406
407=for apidoc Am|bool|isLOWER|char ch
408Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a lowercase
409character.
410
411=for apidoc Am|char|toUPPER|char ch
412Converts the specified character to uppercase.
413
414=for apidoc Am|char|toLOWER|char ch
415Converts the specified character to lowercase.
416
417=cut
418*/
419
bbce6d69
PP
420#define isALNUM(c) (isALPHA(c) || isDIGIT(c) || (c) == '_')
421#define isIDFIRST(c) (isALPHA(c) || (c) == '_')
422#define isALPHA(c) (isUPPER(c) || isLOWER(c))
423#define isSPACE(c) \
424 ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\t' || (c) == '\n' || (c) =='\r' || (c) == '\f')
aaa51d5e
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425#define isPSXSPC(c) (isSPACE(c) || (c) == '\v')
426#define isBLANK(c) ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\t')
bbce6d69 427#define isDIGIT(c) ((c) >= '0' && (c) <= '9')
9d116dd7
JH
428#ifdef EBCDIC
429 /* In EBCDIC we do not do locales: therefore() isupper() is fine. */
430# define isUPPER(c) isupper(c)
431# define isLOWER(c) islower(c)
b8c5462f
JH
432# define isALNUMC(c) isalnum(c)
433# define isASCII(c) isascii(c)
434# define isCNTRL(c) iscntrl(c)
435# define isGRAPH(c) isgraph(c)
9d116dd7 436# define isPRINT(c) isprint(c)
b8c5462f
JH
437# define isPUNCT(c) ispunct(c)
438# define isXDIGIT(c) isxdigit(c)
9d116dd7
JH
439# define toUPPER(c) toupper(c)
440# define toLOWER(c) tolower(c)
441#else
442# define isUPPER(c) ((c) >= 'A' && (c) <= 'Z')
443# define isLOWER(c) ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'z')
b8c5462f
JH
444# define isALNUMC(c) (isALPHA(c) || isDIGIT(c))
445# define isASCII(c) ((c) <= 127)
7be5a6cf 446# define isCNTRL(c) ((c) < ' ' || (c) == 127)
b8c5462f 447# define isGRAPH(c) (isALNUM(c) || isPUNCT(c))
dc7a1c02 448# define isPRINT(c) (((c) >= 32 && (c) < 127))
b8c5462f 449# define isPUNCT(c) (((c) >= 33 && (c) <= 47) || ((c) >= 58 && (c) <= 64) || ((c) >= 91 && (c) <= 96) || ((c) >= 123 && (c) <= 126))
c302d089 450# define isXDIGIT(c) (isDIGIT(c) || ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'f') || ((c) >= 'A' && (c) <= 'F'))
9d116dd7
JH
451# define toUPPER(c) (isLOWER(c) ? (c) - ('a' - 'A') : (c))
452# define toLOWER(c) (isUPPER(c) ? (c) + ('a' - 'A') : (c))
453#endif
bbce6d69
PP
454
455#ifdef USE_NEXT_CTYPE
456
457# define isALNUM_LC(c) \
37bd1396 458 (NXIsAlNum((unsigned int)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
ff68c719
PP
459# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) \
460 (NXIsAlpha((unsigned int)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
461# define isALPHA_LC(c) NXIsAlpha((unsigned int)(c))
462# define isSPACE_LC(c) NXIsSpace((unsigned int)(c))
463# define isDIGIT_LC(c) NXIsDigit((unsigned int)(c))
464# define isUPPER_LC(c) NXIsUpper((unsigned int)(c))
465# define isLOWER_LC(c) NXIsLower((unsigned int)(c))
37bd1396 466# define isALNUMC_LC(c) NXIsAlNum((unsigned int)(c))
b8c5462f
JH
467# define isCNTRL_LC(c) NXIsCntrl((unsigned int)(c))
468# define isGRAPH_LC(c) NXIsGraph((unsigned int)(c))
ff68c719 469# define isPRINT_LC(c) NXIsPrint((unsigned int)(c))
b8c5462f 470# define isPUNCT_LC(c) NXIsPunct((unsigned int)(c))
ff68c719
PP
471# define toUPPER_LC(c) NXToUpper((unsigned int)(c))
472# define toLOWER_LC(c) NXToLower((unsigned int)(c))
bbce6d69
PP
473
474#else /* !USE_NEXT_CTYPE */
b8c5462f 475
bbce6d69
PP
476# if defined(CTYPE256) || (!defined(isascii) && !defined(HAS_ISASCII))
477
b8c5462f 478# define isALNUM_LC(c) (isalnum((unsigned char)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
ff68c719 479# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) (isalpha((unsigned char)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
bbce6d69
PP
480# define isALPHA_LC(c) isalpha((unsigned char)(c))
481# define isSPACE_LC(c) isspace((unsigned char)(c))
482# define isDIGIT_LC(c) isdigit((unsigned char)(c))
483# define isUPPER_LC(c) isupper((unsigned char)(c))
484# define isLOWER_LC(c) islower((unsigned char)(c))
b8c5462f
JH
485# define isALNUMC_LC(c) isalnum((unsigned char)(c))
486# define isCNTRL_LC(c) iscntrl((unsigned char)(c))
487# define isGRAPH_LC(c) isgraph((unsigned char)(c))
bbce6d69 488# define isPRINT_LC(c) isprint((unsigned char)(c))
b8c5462f 489# define isPUNCT_LC(c) ispunct((unsigned char)(c))
bbce6d69
PP
490# define toUPPER_LC(c) toupper((unsigned char)(c))
491# define toLOWER_LC(c) tolower((unsigned char)(c))
492
493# else
494
3609ea0d 495# define isALNUM_LC(c) (isascii(c) && (isalnum(c) || (c) == '_'))
bbce6d69
PP
496# define isIDFIRST_LC(c) (isascii(c) && (isalpha(c) || (c) == '_'))
497# define isALPHA_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isalpha(c))
498# define isSPACE_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isspace(c))
499# define isDIGIT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isdigit(c))
500# define isUPPER_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isupper(c))
501# define isLOWER_LC(c) (isascii(c) && islower(c))
b8c5462f
JH
502# define isALNUMC_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isalnum(c))
503# define isCNTRL_LC(c) (isascii(c) && iscntrl(c))
504# define isGRAPH_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isgraph(c))
bbce6d69 505# define isPRINT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && isprint(c))
b8c5462f 506# define isPUNCT_LC(c) (isascii(c) && ispunct(c))
bbce6d69
PP
507# define toUPPER_LC(c) toupper(c)
508# define toLOWER_LC(c) tolower(c)
509
510# endif
a0d0e21e 511#endif /* USE_NEXT_CTYPE */
55204971 512
aaa51d5e
JF
513#define isPSXSPC_LC(c) (isSPACE_LC(c) || (c) == '\v')
514#define isBLANK_LC(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
515
a0ed51b3
LW
516#define isALNUM_uni(c) is_uni_alnum(c)
517#define isIDFIRST_uni(c) is_uni_idfirst(c)
518#define isALPHA_uni(c) is_uni_alpha(c)
519#define isSPACE_uni(c) is_uni_space(c)
520#define isDIGIT_uni(c) is_uni_digit(c)
521#define isUPPER_uni(c) is_uni_upper(c)
522#define isLOWER_uni(c) is_uni_lower(c)
b8c5462f
JH
523#define isALNUMC_uni(c) is_uni_alnumc(c)
524#define isASCII_uni(c) is_uni_ascii(c)
525#define isCNTRL_uni(c) is_uni_cntrl(c)
526#define isGRAPH_uni(c) is_uni_graph(c)
a0ed51b3 527#define isPRINT_uni(c) is_uni_print(c)
b8c5462f
JH
528#define isPUNCT_uni(c) is_uni_punct(c)
529#define isXDIGIT_uni(c) is_uni_xdigit(c)
a2a2844f
JH
530#define toUPPER_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_upper(c,s,l)
531#define toTITLE_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_title(c,s,l)
532#define toLOWER_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_lower(c,s,l)
b8d68ded 533#define toFOLD_uni(c,s,l) to_uni_fold(c,s,l)
a0ed51b3 534
aaa51d5e
JF
535#define isPSXSPC_uni(c) (isSPACE_uni(c) ||(c) == '\f')
536#define isBLANK_uni(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
537
9041c2e3
NIS
538#define isALNUM_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALNUM_LC(c) : is_uni_alnum_lc(c))
539#define isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isIDFIRST_LC(c) : is_uni_idfirst_lc(c))
540#define isALPHA_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALPHA_LC(c) : is_uni_alpha_lc(c))
541#define isSPACE_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isSPACE_LC(c) : is_uni_space_lc(c))
542#define isDIGIT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isDIGIT_LC(c) : is_uni_digit_lc(c))
543#define isUPPER_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isUPPER_LC(c) : is_uni_upper_lc(c))
544#define isLOWER_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isLOWER_LC(c) : is_uni_lower_lc(c))
545#define isALNUMC_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isALNUMC_LC(c) : is_uni_alnumc_lc(c))
546#define isCNTRL_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isCNTRL_LC(c) : is_uni_cntrl_lc(c))
547#define isGRAPH_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isGRAPH_LC(c) : is_uni_graph_lc(c))
548#define isPRINT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isPRINT_LC(c) : is_uni_print_lc(c))
549#define isPUNCT_LC_uvchr(c) (c < 256 ? isPUNCT_LC(c) : is_uni_punct_lc(c))
a0ed51b3 550
aaa51d5e
JF
551#define isPSXSPC_LC_uni(c) (isSPACE_LC_uni(c) ||(c) == '\f')
552#define isBLANK_LC_uni(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
553
a0ed51b3 554#define isALNUM_utf8(p) is_utf8_alnum(p)
82686b01
JH
555/* The ID_Start of Unicode is quite limiting: it assumes a L-class
556 * character (meaning that you cannot have, say, a CJK character).
557 * Instead, let's allow ID_Continue but not digits. */
558#define isIDFIRST_utf8(p) (is_utf8_idcont(p) && !is_utf8_digit(p))
a0ed51b3
LW
559#define isALPHA_utf8(p) is_utf8_alpha(p)
560#define isSPACE_utf8(p) is_utf8_space(p)
561#define isDIGIT_utf8(p) is_utf8_digit(p)
562#define isUPPER_utf8(p) is_utf8_upper(p)
563#define isLOWER_utf8(p) is_utf8_lower(p)
b8c5462f
JH
564#define isALNUMC_utf8(p) is_utf8_alnumc(p)
565#define isASCII_utf8(p) is_utf8_ascii(p)
566#define isCNTRL_utf8(p) is_utf8_cntrl(p)
567#define isGRAPH_utf8(p) is_utf8_graph(p)
a0ed51b3 568#define isPRINT_utf8(p) is_utf8_print(p)
b8c5462f
JH
569#define isPUNCT_utf8(p) is_utf8_punct(p)
570#define isXDIGIT_utf8(p) is_utf8_xdigit(p)
a2a2844f
JH
571#define toUPPER_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_upper(p,s,l)
572#define toTITLE_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_title(p,s,l)
573#define toLOWER_utf8(p,s,l) to_utf8_lower(p,s,l)
a0ed51b3 574
aaa51d5e
JF
575#define isPSXSPC_utf8(c) (isSPACE_utf8(c) ||(c) == '\f')
576#define isBLANK_utf8(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
577
9041c2e3
NIS
578#define isALNUM_LC_utf8(p) isALNUM_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
579#define isIDFIRST_LC_utf8(p) isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
580#define isALPHA_LC_utf8(p) isALPHA_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
581#define isSPACE_LC_utf8(p) isSPACE_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
582#define isDIGIT_LC_utf8(p) isDIGIT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
583#define isUPPER_LC_utf8(p) isUPPER_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
584#define isLOWER_LC_utf8(p) isLOWER_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
585#define isALNUMC_LC_utf8(p) isALNUMC_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
586#define isCNTRL_LC_utf8(p) isCNTRL_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
587#define isGRAPH_LC_utf8(p) isGRAPH_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
588#define isPRINT_LC_utf8(p) isPRINT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
589#define isPUNCT_LC_utf8(p) isPUNCT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p, 0))
a0ed51b3 590
aaa51d5e
JF
591#define isPSXSPC_LC_utf8(c) (isSPACE_LC_utf8(c) ||(c) == '\f')
592#define isBLANK_LC_utf8(c) isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
593
9d116dd7 594#ifdef EBCDIC
20b634c2
JH
595# ifdef PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT
596# define toCTRL(c) Perl_ebcdic_control(aTHX_ c)
597# else
598# define toCTRL Perl_ebcdic_control
599# endif
9d116dd7
JH
600#else
601 /* This conversion works both ways, strangely enough. */
602# define toCTRL(c) (toUPPER(c) ^ 64)
603#endif
bbce6d69 604
dea28490
JJ
605/* Line numbers are unsigned, 32 bits. */
606typedef U32 line_t;
dea28490 607#define NOLINE ((line_t) 4294967295UL)
378cc40b 608
8c52afec 609
8e84507e 610/*
ccfc67b7
JH
611=head1 Memory Management
612
a02a5408 613=for apidoc Am|void|Newx|void* ptr|int nitems|type
954c1994
GS
614The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function.
615
c5008215
JC
616In 5.9.3, Newx() and friends replace the older New() API, and drops
617the first parameter, I<x>, a debug aid which allowed callers to identify
37b8b4c9 618themselves. This aid has been superseded by a new build option,
c5008215
JC
619PERL_MEM_LOG (see L<perlhack/PERL_MEM_LOG>). The older API is still
620there for use in XS modules supporting older perls.
621
a02a5408 622=for apidoc Am|void|Newxc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
954c1994 623The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function, with
c5008215 624cast. See also C<Newx>.
954c1994 625
a02a5408 626=for apidoc Am|void|Newxz|void* ptr|int nitems|type
954c1994 627The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function. The allocated
c5008215 628memory is zeroed with C<memzero>. See also C<Newx>.
a02a5408 629
954c1994
GS
630=for apidoc Am|void|Renew|void* ptr|int nitems|type
631The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function.
632
633=for apidoc Am|void|Renewc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
634The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function, with
635cast.
636
49b8b560 637=for apidoc Am|void|Safefree|void* ptr
954c1994
GS
638The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<free> function.
639
640=for apidoc Am|void|Move|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
641The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memmove> function. The C<src> is the
642source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
643the type. Can do overlapping moves. See also C<Copy>.
644
e90e2364
NC
645=for apidoc Am|void *|MoveD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
646Like C<Move> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
647optimise.
648
954c1994
GS
649=for apidoc Am|void|Copy|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
650The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memcpy> function. The C<src> is the
651source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
652the type. May fail on overlapping copies. See also C<Move>.
653
e90e2364
NC
654=for apidoc Am|void *|CopyD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
655
656Like C<Copy> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
657optimise.
658
954c1994
GS
659=for apidoc Am|void|Zero|void* dest|int nitems|type
660
661The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memzero> function. The C<dest> is the
662destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is the type.
663
e90e2364
NC
664=for apidoc Am|void *|ZeroD|void* dest|int nitems|type
665
666Like C<Zero> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
667optimise.
668
954c1994 669=for apidoc Am|void|StructCopy|type src|type dest|type
4375e838 670This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure to another.
954c1994 671
7e337ee0
JH
672=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonWith|void* dest|int nitems|type|U8 byte
673
674Fill up memory with a byte pattern (a byte repeated over and over
675again) that hopefully catches attempts to access uninitialized memory.
676
677=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonNew|void* dest|int nitems|type
678
679PoisonWith(0xAB) for catching access to allocated but uninitialized memory.
680
1c12ffb4 681=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonFree|void* dest|int nitems|type
7e337ee0
JH
682
683PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
684
9965345d
JH
685=for apidoc Am|void|Poison|void* dest|int nitems|type
686
7e337ee0 687PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
9965345d
JH
688
689=cut */
954c1994 690
561b68a9
SH
691/* Maintained for backwards-compatibility only. Use newSV() instead. */
692#ifndef PERL_CORE
ff06c60c 693#define NEWSV(x,len) newSV(len)
561b68a9 694#endif
ff06c60c 695
19a94d75
JH
696#define MEM_SIZE_MAX ((MEM_SIZE)~0)
697
2720f793
JH
698/* The +0.0 in MEM_WRAP_CHECK_ is an attempt to foil
699 * overly eager compilers that will bleat about e.g.
700 * (U16)n > (size_t)~0/sizeof(U16) always being false. */
27d5b266 701#ifdef PERL_MALLOC_WRAP
fabdb6c0 702#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t) MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,PL_memory_wrap)
27d5b266 703#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a) \
19a94d75 704 (void)(sizeof(t) > 1 && ((MEM_SIZE)(n)+0.0) > MEM_SIZE_MAX/sizeof(t) && (Perl_croak_nocontext(a),0))
8b44ba4c 705#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t),
27d5b266 706
19a94d75 707#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) ((void)(((n) > MEM_SIZE_MAX - 2 * PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM) ? (Perl_croak_nocontext(PL_memory_wrap),0):0),((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
1936d2a7 708
27d5b266
JH
709#else
710
410319be
NC
711#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t)
712#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a)
713#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_2(n,t,a,b)
8b44ba4c
NC
714#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t)
715
6fff79ce 716#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) (((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
27d5b266 717
1936d2a7 718#endif
8b44ba4c 719
fe4f188c 720#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
46c6c7e2 721/*
9f653bb5 722 * If PERL_MEM_LOG is defined, all Newx()s, Renew()s, and Safefree()s
46c6c7e2
JH
723 * go through functions, which are handy for debugging breakpoints, but
724 * which more importantly get the immediate calling environment (file and
e352bcff
JH
725 * line number, and C function name if available) passed in. This info can
726 * then be used for logging the calls, for which one gets a sample
727 * implementation if PERL_MEM_LOG_STDERR is defined.
3609ea0d 728 *
46c6c7e2
JH
729 * Known problems:
730 * - all memory allocs do not get logged, only those
731 * that go through Newx() and derivatives (while all
732 * Safefrees do get logged)
733 * - __FILE__ and __LINE__ do not work everywhere
734 * - __func__ or __FUNCTION__ even less so
735 * - I think more goes on after the perlio frees but
736 * the thing is that STDERR gets closed (as do all
737 * the file descriptors)
738 * - no deeper calling stack than the caller of the Newx()
739 * or the kind, but do I look like a C reflection/introspection
740 * utility to you?
741 * - the function prototypes for the logging functions
742 * probably should maybe be somewhere else than handy.h
743 * - one could consider inlining (macrofying) the logging
744 * for speed, but I am too lazy
745 * - one could imagine recording the allocations in a hash,
746 * (keyed by the allocation address?), and maintain that
747 * through reallocs and frees, but how to do that without
748 * any News() happening...?
749 */
750
751Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_alloc(const UV n, const UV typesize, const char *typename, Malloc_t newalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
752
753Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_realloc(const UV n, const UV typesize, const char *typename, Malloc_t oldalloc, Malloc_t newalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
754
755Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_free(Malloc_t oldalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
756
fe4f188c
JH
757#endif
758
759#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
46c6c7e2
JH
760#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a) Perl_mem_log_alloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
761#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) Perl_mem_log_realloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),v,a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
762#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a) Perl_mem_log_free(a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
fe4f188c
JH
763#endif
764
765#ifndef MEM_LOG_ALLOC
766#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a) (a)
767#endif
768#ifndef MEM_LOG_REALLOC
769#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) (a)
770#endif
771#ifndef MEM_LOG_FREE
772#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a) (a)
773#endif
774
775#define Newx(v,n,t) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,(t*)safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
776#define Newxc(v,n,t,c) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,(c*)safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
3341f577 777#define Newxz(v,n,t) (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,(t*)safecalloc((n),sizeof(t)))))
a6f6820f
NC
778
779#ifndef PERL_CORE
a02a5408
JC
780/* pre 5.9.x compatibility */
781#define New(x,v,n,t) Newx(v,n,t)
782#define Newc(x,v,n,t,c) Newxc(v,n,t,c)
4541904d 783#define Newz(x,v,n,t) Newxz(v,n,t)
a6f6820f 784#endif
a02a5408 785
ff68c719 786#define Renew(v,n,t) \
fe4f188c 787 (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,(t*)saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
ff68c719 788#define Renewc(v,n,t,c) \
fe4f188c 789 (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,(c*)saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
94010e71
NC
790
791#ifdef PERL_POISON
792#define Safefree(d) \
06c0cc96 793 ((d) ? (void)(safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d))), Poison(&(d), 1, Malloc_t)) : (void) 0)
94010e71 794#else
fe4f188c 795#define Safefree(d) safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d)))
94010e71 796#endif
55497cff 797
8b44ba4c
NC
798#define Move(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
799#define Copy(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
800#define Zero(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
55497cff 801
8b44ba4c
NC
802#define MoveD(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
803#define CopyD(s,d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
e90e2364 804#ifdef HAS_MEMSET
8b44ba4c 805#define ZeroD(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
e90e2364 806#else
8b44ba4c
NC
807/* Using bzero(), which returns void. */
808#define ZeroD(d,n,t) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)),d)
e90e2364
NC
809#endif
810
7e337ee0
JH
811#define PoisonWith(d,n,t,b) (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memset((char*)(d), (U8)(b), (n) * sizeof(t)))
812#define PoisonNew(d,n,t) PoisonWith(d,n,t,0xAB)
813#define PoisonFree(d,n,t) PoisonWith(d,n,t,0xEF)
814#define Poison(d,n,t) PoisonFree(d,n,t)
27d5b266 815
2304df62 816#ifdef USE_STRUCT_COPY
ff68c719 817#define StructCopy(s,d,t) (*((t*)(d)) = *((t*)(s)))
bee1dbe2
LW
818#else
819#define StructCopy(s,d,t) Copy(s,d,1,t)
820#endif
2cc61e15 821
622913ab
IZ
822#define C_ARRAY_LENGTH(a) (sizeof(a)/sizeof((a)[0]))
823
2cc61e15
DD
824#ifdef NEED_VA_COPY
825# ifdef va_copy
826# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) va_copy(d, s)
2cc61e15 827# else
a1866d1b
JH
828# if defined(__va_copy)
829# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) __va_copy(d, s)
830# else
831# define Perl_va_copy(s, d) Copy(s, d, 1, va_list)
832# endif
2cc61e15
DD
833# endif
834#endif
835
472d47bc
SB
836/* convenience debug macros */
837#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
838#define pTHX_FORMAT "Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
839#define pTHX__FORMAT ", Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
f54cb97a
AL
840#define pTHX_VALUE_ (void *)my_perl,
841#define pTHX_VALUE (void *)my_perl
842#define pTHX__VALUE_ ,(void *)my_perl,
843#define pTHX__VALUE ,(void *)my_perl
472d47bc 844#else
3609ea0d 845#define pTHX_FORMAT
472d47bc 846#define pTHX__FORMAT
3609ea0d 847#define pTHX_VALUE_
472d47bc 848#define pTHX_VALUE
3609ea0d 849#define pTHX__VALUE_
472d47bc
SB
850#define pTHX__VALUE
851#endif /* USE_ITHREADS */
3609ea0d 852