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Eliminate (X|F) convention from perldiag.
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
94(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo
116represents the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for
117element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write
118C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to
119the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it
120returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length>
125followed by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what
126you want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/>
127to the unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to
128something that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by
129simply turning off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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132
133(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
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138=item Ambiguous use of 's//le...' resolved as 's// le...'; Rewrite as 's//el' if you meant 'use locale rules and evaluate rhs as an expression'. In Perl 5.16, it will be resolved the other way
139
140(W deprecated, ambiguous) You wrote a pattern match with substitution
141immediately followed by "le". In Perl 5.14 and earlier, this is
142resolved as meaning to take the result of the substitution, and see if
143it is stringwise less-than-or-equal-to what follows in the expression.
144Having the "le" immediately following a pattern is deprecated behavior,
145so in Perl 5.16, this expression will be resolved as meaning to do the
146pattern match using the rules of the current locale, and evaluate the
147rhs as an expression when doing the substitution. In 5.14, if you want
148the latter interpretation, you can simply write "el" instead.
149
6df41af2 150=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 151
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152(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
153redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
154redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 155
6df41af2 156=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 157
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158(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
159redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
160into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
161though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
162which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 163
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164 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
165 while (<STDIN>) {
166 print;
167 print OUT;
168 }
169 close OUT;
c9f97d15 170
6df41af2 171=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 172
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173(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
174transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 175one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 176a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
177hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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178you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
179alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 180
6df41af2 181=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 182
6df41af2 183(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 184
b0fdf69e 185=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 186
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187(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
188subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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189
190 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 191 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 192 &do_something
a0d0e21e 193
8ea97a1e 194=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 195
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196(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
197such as:
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198
199 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 200 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 201
8ea97a1e 202or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 203
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204 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
205 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 206
6df41af2 207=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 208
6df41af2 209(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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210name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
211error.
a0d0e21e 212
f86702cc 213=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 214
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215(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
216that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
217will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 218
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219=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
220
221(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
222forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
223data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
224the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
225If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
226the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
227
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228=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
229
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230(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
231spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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232
233=item assertion botched: %s
234
235(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
236
237=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
238
239(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
240
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241=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
242
243(F) The special variable C<$[>, deprecated in older perls, is now a fixed
244zero value, because the feature that it used to control has been removed.
245
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246=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
247
248(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
249must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
250know which context to supply to the right side.
251
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252=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
253
4447dfc1 254(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
96ebfdd7 255thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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256Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
257created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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258thread. See L<threads>.
259
2393f1b9 260=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 261
49293501 262(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 263the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 264
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265=item Attempt to bless into a reference
266
267(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
268the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
269supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
270
271 bless $self, $proto;
272
273when you intended
274
275 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
276
277If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
278of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
279example by:
280
281 bless $self, "$proto";
282
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283=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
284
285(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
286which is not in its key set.
287
288=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
289
290(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
291declared readonly from a restricted hash.
292
de42a5a9 293=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 294
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295(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
296that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
297outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 298
54310121 299=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 300
111a855e 301(P internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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302strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
303strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
304of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 305
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306=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
307
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308(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
309free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
310SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
311free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
312try to free it.
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313
314=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
315
e476b1b5 316(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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317
318=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
319
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320(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
321see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
322earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
323This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
324that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
325mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
326corrupted.
a0d0e21e 327
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328=item Attempt to join self
329
330(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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331impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
332to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 333
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334=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
335
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336(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
337function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
338means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
339invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
340literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
341avoid this warning.
84902520 342
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343=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
344
345(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
346compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
347unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
348L<perlvar/%INC>.
349
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350=item Attempt to set length of freed array
351
352(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
353can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
354of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
355
356 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
357 $$r = 503
358
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359=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
360
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361(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
362used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
363dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 364
c32124fe
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365=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
366
111a855e 367(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "locked"
c32124fe 368attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
a5547419 369effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in a future
c32124fe
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370release of Perl 5.
371
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372=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
373
111a855e 374(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 375attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
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376had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in a future release
377of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 378
de42a5a9 379=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 380
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381(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
382or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 383S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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384S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
385
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386=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
387
496a33f5 388(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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389substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
390most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
391
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392=item Bad filehandle: %s
393
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394(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
395symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
396open(), or did it in another package.
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397
398=item Bad free() ignored
399
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400(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
401been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 402setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 403
9ea8bc6d 404This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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405dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
406which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 407
aa689395
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408=item Bad hash
409
410(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
411
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412=item Badly placed ()'s
413
414(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
415of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
416Perl yourself.
417
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418=item Bad name after %s::
419
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420(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
421didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
422of quotes, so
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423
424 $var = 'myvar';
425 $sym = mypack::$var;
426
427is not the same as
428
429 $var = 'myvar';
430 $sym = "mypack::$var";
431
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432=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
433
434(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
435plugin API.
436
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437=item Bad realloc() ignored
438
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439(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
440never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
4dcecea4 441by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 442
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443=item Bad symbol for array
444
445(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
446wasn't a symbol table entry.
447
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448=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
449
450(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
451that wasn't a symbol table entry.
452
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453=item Bad symbol for filehandle
454
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455(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
456that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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457
458=item Bad symbol for hash
459
460(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
461wasn't a symbol table entry.
462
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463=item Bareword found in conditional
464
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465(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
466conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
467of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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468
469 open FOO || die;
470
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471It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
472a bareword:
34d09196
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473
474 use constant TYPO => 1;
475 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
476
477The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
478
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479=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
480
481(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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482subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
483symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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484
485=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
486
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487(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
488compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
489you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 490
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491=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
492
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493(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
494subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
495exited.
a0d0e21e 496
68dc0745
PP
497=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
498
499(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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500implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
501occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
502be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
503depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 504
6df41af2
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505=item \1 better written as $1
506
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507(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
508The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
509substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
510because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
511there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 512
252aa082
JH
513=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
514
e476b1b5 515(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
516(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
517L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 518
69282e91 519=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 520
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521(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
522check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 523
c289d2f7
JH
524=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
525
526(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 527Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 528
f866a7cd
FC
529=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
530
531=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
532
533(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
534C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
535itself in a future release.
536
c5a0f51a
JH
537=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
538
e476b1b5 539(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 540
4633a7c4
LW
541=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
542
be771a83 543(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 544copiable.
4633a7c4 545
f675dbe5
CB
546=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
547
be771a83
GS
548(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
549iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
550which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 551
a0d0e21e
LW
552=item Callback called exit
553
4929bf7b 554(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
555exited by calling exit.
556
6df41af2 557=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 558
be771a83
GS
559(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
560parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
561that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
562early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
563subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
564checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
565function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
566the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 567
49704364 568=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
569
570(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
571compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
572attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
573See L<perlfunc/pack>.
574
49704364 575=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
576
577(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
578format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
579
5c1f4d79
NC
580=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
581
582(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
583then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
584triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
585from that type of reference to a typeglob.
586
ba2fdce6
NC
587=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
588
589(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 590be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 591
b5d97229
RGS
592=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
593
594(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
595either with open() or binmode().
596
96ebfdd7
RK
597=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
598
599(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
600integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
601to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
602
a0d0e21e
LW
603=item Can't bless non-reference value
604
605(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
606encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
607
dc57907a
RGS
608=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
609
0d863452
RH
610(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
611a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
612
613=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 614
0d863452
RH
615(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
616
6df41af2
GS
617=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
618
619(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
620object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
621like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
622
623 $BADREF = undef;
624 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
625 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
626
a0d0e21e
LW
627=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
628
54310121 629(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
630ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
631didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
632object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
633
634=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
635
636(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
637object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
638defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
639Something like this will reproduce the error:
640
641 $BADREF = 42;
642 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
643 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
644
a0d0e21e
LW
645=item Can't chdir to %s
646
647(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
648that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
649
0545a864 650=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 651
be771a83
GS
652(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
653nosuid.
104d25b7 654
22e74366 655=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
656
657(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 658(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
659say things like:
660
661 *foo += 1;
662
663You CAN say
664
665 $foo = *foo;
666 $foo += 1;
667
668but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
669
0d863452 670=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 671
0d863452
RH
672(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
673or C<default> block.
674
a0d0e21e
LW
675=item Can't create pipe mailbox
676
be771a83
GS
677(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
678quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 679
eb64745e
GS
680=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
681
30c282f6
NC
682(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
683"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 684
6df41af2
GS
685=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
686
be771a83
GS
687(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
688a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 689
a0d0e21e
LW
690=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
691
be771a83
GS
692(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
693reason.
a0d0e21e 694
54310121 695=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 696
be771a83
GS
697(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
698reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
699C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 700
10f9c03d 701=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 702
e476b1b5 703(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
704characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
705inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 706
7253e4e3 707=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 708
b45f050a 709(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 710regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 711regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 712
a0d0e21e
LW
713=item Can't do waitpid with flags
714
be771a83
GS
715(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
716waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 717
a0d0e21e
LW
718=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
719
be771a83
GS
720(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
721point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
722line.
a0d0e21e 723
1109a392
MHM
724=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
725
726(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
727or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
728little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
729See L<perlfunc/pack>.
730
a0d0e21e
LW
731=item Can't exec "%s": %s
732
d1be9408 733(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
734named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
735permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
736C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
737architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
738can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
739#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
740
741=item Can't exec %s
742
be771a83
GS
743(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
744that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
745need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
746
747=item Can't execute %s
748
be771a83
GS
749(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
750found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 751
6df41af2 752=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 753
be771a83
GS
754(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
755is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 756
56ca2fc0
JH
757=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
758
759(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
760could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
761See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
762for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 763
6df41af2
GS
764=item Can't find label %s
765
be771a83
GS
766(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
767possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
768
769=item Can't find %s on PATH
770
be771a83
GS
771(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
772found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 773
6df41af2 774=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 775
be771a83
GS
776(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
777found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
778script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
779
780=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
781
be771a83
GS
782(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
783that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
784nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 785
fb73857a
PP
786 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
787
97b3d10f 788If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
789included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
790may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
791a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
792L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 793
660a4616
ST
794=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
795
5f8ad6b6
FC
796(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
797property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
798letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 799L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
5f8ad6b6
FC
800for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
801mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by C<\\p>
802(just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
803until C<\E>).
660a4616 804
b3647a36 805=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 806
be771a83
GS
807(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
808pipeline.
a0d0e21e 809
b3647a36
SR
810=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
811
c973c02e 812(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
813after five seconds.
814
748a9306
LW
815=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
816
be771a83
GS
817(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
818between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
819Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
820the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
821account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
822the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 823the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
824the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
825if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
826because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
827appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
828and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
829routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
830shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
831only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 832
a0d0e21e
LW
833=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
834
be771a83
GS
835(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
836pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
837
838=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
839
748a9306
LW
840(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
841mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 842
6df41af2 843=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 844
be771a83
GS
845(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
846loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
847
848=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
849
be771a83
GS
850(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
851a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
852you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
853See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 854
9850bf21 855=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 856
9850bf21
RH
857(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
858comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
859as the reduce() function in List::Util).
860
c74ace89 861=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 862
be771a83 863(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 864"string" or block.
b150fb22 865
6df41af2
GS
866=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
867
be771a83
GS
868(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
869subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
870cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
871routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 872
0b5b802d
GS
873=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
874
be771a83
GS
875(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
876signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
877signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
878processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
879situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
880may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 881
e2c0f81f
DG
882=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
883
884(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
885attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
886process identifier.
887
6df41af2 888=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 889
6df41af2 890(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
891except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
892block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
893block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
894usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
895inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
896L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 897
2c7d6b9c
RGS
898=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
899
900(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
901package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
902
b8170e59
JB
903=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
904
905(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
906may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
907incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
908between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 909extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
910installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
911extensions.
912
748a9306
LW
913=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
914
2ba9eb46 915(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 916lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
917localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
918package name.
919
6df41af2 920=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 921
6df41af2
GS
922(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
923handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 924pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 925that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 926
ea071790 927=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
928
929(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
930found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
931unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
932need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
933the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
934to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
935L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 936
6df41af2
GS
937=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
938
be771a83
GS
939(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
940autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
941are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
942the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 943
b8170e59
JB
944=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
945
946(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
947for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
948unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
949
a0d0e21e
LW
950=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
951
952(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
953functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 954method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
955
956=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
957
be771a83
GS
958(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
959doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 960
2f7da168
RK
961=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
962
963(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
964e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
965
3e3baf6d
TB
966=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
967
be771a83
GS
968(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
969VMS.
3e3baf6d 970
a0d0e21e
LW
971=item Can't modify %s in %s
972
be771a83
GS
973(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
974to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 975
54310121 976=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
977
978(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
979a NULL.
980
6df41af2
GS
981=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
982
983(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 984such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 985
5f05dabc 986=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 987
5f05dabc 988(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
989buffer.
990
6df41af2
GS
991=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
992
993(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
994there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
995count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
996grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
997though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
998once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 999
a0d0e21e
LW
1000=item Can't open %s: %s
1001
c47ff5f1 1002(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1003filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1004switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1005is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1006the command line.
a0d0e21e 1007
9a869a14
RGS
1008=item Can't open a reference
1009
1010(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1011using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1012
1013 open FH, '>', $ref;
1014
1015but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1016open is not supported.
1017
a0d0e21e
LW
1018=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1019
be771a83
GS
1020(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1021You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1022as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1023">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1024
748a9306
LW
1025=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1026
be771a83
GS
1027(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1028redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1029the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1030
1031=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1032
be771a83
GS
1033(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1034redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1035command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1036
1037=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1038
be771a83
GS
1039(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1040redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1041the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1042
1043=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1044
be771a83
GS
1045(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1046redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1047for stdout.
748a9306 1048
2b8ca739 1049=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1050
1051(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1052
fa3aa65a
JC
1053If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1054shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1055you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1056
6df41af2
GS
1057=item Can't read CRTL environ
1058
1059(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1060from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1061missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1062or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1063searched.
6df41af2 1064
6df41af2
GS
1065=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1066
1067(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1068there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1069count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1070or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1071though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1072loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1073
64977eb6 1074=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1075
be771a83
GS
1076(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1077file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1078the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1079
a0d0e21e
LW
1080=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1081
e476b1b5 1082(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1083probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1084
748a9306
LW
1085=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1086
be771a83
GS
1087(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1088to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1089
fe13d51d 1090=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1091
1fa582fa
FC
1092(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1093opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1094package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1095
cd06dffe
GS
1096=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1097
be771a83
GS
1098(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1099temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1100is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1101
96ebfdd7
RK
1102=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1103
1104(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1105there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1106
78f9721b
SM
1107=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1108
1109(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1110but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1111to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1112the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1113list context.
1114
a0d0e21e
LW
1115=item Can't stat script "%s"
1116
be771a83
GS
1117(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1118open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1119
a0d0e21e
LW
1120=item Can't take log of %g
1121
fb73857a
PP
1122(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1123negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1124standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1125negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1126
1127=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1128
1129(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1130negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1131with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1132
1133=item Can't undef active subroutine
1134
1135(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1136however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1137redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1138
c81225bc 1139=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1140
be771a83
GS
1141(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1142into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1143specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1144indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1145
1db89ea5
BS
1146=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1147
e27ad1f2 1148(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1149table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1150for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1151
96ebfdd7
RK
1152=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1153
1154(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1155be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1156
6df41af2
GS
1157=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1158
be771a83
GS
1159(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1160references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1161
90b75b61 1162=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1163
1164(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1165Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1166provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1167
1109a392
MHM
1168=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1169
1170(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1171byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1172allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1173
6df41af2
GS
1174=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1175
be771a83
GS
1176(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1177foreach.
6df41af2 1178
aab6a793 1179=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1180
be771a83
GS
1181(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1182is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1183(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1184have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1185weren't.
1186
6d3b25aa
RGS
1187=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1188
1189(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1190that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1191For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1192is inside a big-endian group.
1193
c07a80fd
PP
1194=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1195
1196(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1197You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1198and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1199Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1200lexical variable.
1201
a0d0e21e
LW
1202=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1203
1204(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1205reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1206test the type of the reference, if need be.
1207
748a9306 1208=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1209
be771a83
GS
1210(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1211references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1212
748a9306
LW
1213=item Can't use subscript on %s
1214
1215(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1216subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1217didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1218
6df41af2
GS
1219=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1220
75b44862
GS
1221(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1222creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1223backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1224expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1225value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1226instead.
6df41af2 1227
0d863452 1228=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1229
0d863452
RH
1230(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1231loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1232from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1233or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1234
810b8aa5
GS
1235=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1236
1237(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1238references can be weakened.
1239
5f05dabc 1240=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1241
be771a83
GS
1242(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1243with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1244Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1245
4a68bf9d 1246=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1247
1fa582fa 1248(F)(W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
17a3df4c
KW
1249It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1250cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1251derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1252
1253Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1254
f337b084 1255=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1256
1257(W pack) You said
1258
1259 pack("C", $x)
1260
1261where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1262only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1263and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1264
1265 pack("C", $x & 255)
1266
1267If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1268instead.
1269
f337b084
TH
1270=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1271
1272(W pack) You said
1273
1274 pack("U0W", $x)
1275
1276where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1277all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1278meant:
1279
1280 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1281
1282=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1283
1284(W pack) You said
1285
1286 pack("c", $x)
1287
1288where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1289is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1290and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1291
1292 pack("c", $x & 255);
1293
1294If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1295instead.
1296
f337b084
TH
1297=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1298
1299(W unpack) You tried something like
1300
1301 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1302
1a147d38 1303where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1304below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1305modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1306
1307 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1308
1309=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1310
1311(W pack) You tried something like
1312
1313 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1314
1a147d38
YO
1315where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1316value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1317uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1318
1319 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1320
1321=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1322
1323(W unpack) You tried something like
1324
1325 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1326
1a147d38
YO
1327where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1328value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1329uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1330
1331 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1332
f866a7cd
FC
1333=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1334
1335(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1336to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1337evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1338ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1339semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1340
1341=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1342
1343(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1344non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1345written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1346characters.
1347
96ebfdd7
RK
1348=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1349
1350(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1351
abc7ecad
SP
1352=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1353
1354(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1355a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1356
541ed3a9
FC
1357=item Closure prototype called
1358
1359(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1360handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1361This subroutine cannot be called.
1362
49704364
LW
1363=item Code missing after '/'
1364
1365(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1366template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1367
0876b9a0
KW
1368=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1369
c634fdd3 1370=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches succeed
9ae3ac1a 1371
8457b38f 1372(W utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
0876b9a0
KW
1373
1374Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1375points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1376your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1377At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13780x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1379larger than a 32 bit word.
1380
9ae3ac1a
KW
1381None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1382code point. For example,
1383
1384 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1385
1386will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1387
1388 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1389
1390will match.
1391
94b42e47
KW
1392This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1393
1394 chr(0x110000) =~ \p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True} # Fails.
1395 chr(0x110000) =~ \p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False} # Also fails!
1396
1397and both these succeed:
1398
1399 chr(0x110000) =~ \P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True} # Succeeds.
1400 chr(0x110000) =~ \P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False} # Also succeeds!
1401
6df41af2
GS
1402=item %s: Command not found
1403
be771a83
GS
1404(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1405Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1406
7a2e2cd6
PP
1407=item Compilation failed in require
1408
1409(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1410Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1411encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1412
c3464db5
DD
1413=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1414
be771a83
GS
1415(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1416situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1417to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1418arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1419recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1420under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1421in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1422that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1423on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1424
38875929
DM
1425=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1426
1427(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1428cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
a568ca76 1429function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1430cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1431has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1432first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1433after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1434lock.
1435
38875929
DM
1436=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1437
1438(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1439cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
a568ca76 1440function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1441cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1442has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1443first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1444after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1445lock.
1446
69282e91 1447=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1448
be771a83
GS
1449(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1450to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1451L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1452
41ab332f 1453=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1454
be771a83
GS
1455(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1456an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1457specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1458corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1459L<overload>.
6df41af2 1460
fc8cd66c
YO
1461=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1462
1a147d38
YO
1463(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1464the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1465forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1466See L<charnames>.
1467
779c5bc9
GS
1468=item Constant is not %s reference
1469
1470(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1471is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1472The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1473usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1474See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1475
4cee8e80
CS
1476=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1477
bb028877 1478(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1479eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1480commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1481
9607fc9c
PP
1482=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1483
be771a83
GS
1484(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1485for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1486workarounds.
9607fc9c 1487
e7ea3e70
IZ
1488=item Copy method did not return a reference
1489
64977eb6 1490(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1491L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1492
4aaa4757
FC
1493=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1494
1495(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
7530120a 1496with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Most subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1497in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1498called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1499
1500 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1501 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1502
6798c92b
GS
1503=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1504
1505(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1506
a0d0e21e
LW
1507=item corrupted regexp pointers
1508
1509(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1510expression compiler gave it.
1511
1512=item corrupted regexp program
1513
be771a83
GS
1514(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1515valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1516
de42a5a9 1517=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1518
1519(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1520
49704364
LW
1521=item Count after length/code in unpack
1522
1523(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1524you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1525L<perlfunc/pack>.
1526
a0d0e21e
LW
1527=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1528
be771a83
GS
1529(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1530100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1531infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1532which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1533
aad1d01f
NC
1534This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1535setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1536
f10b0346 1537=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1538
be771a83
GS
1539(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1540checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1541array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1542
f10b0346 1543=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1544
f0ec9725
KR
1545(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1546discouraged since 5.004.
1547
1548Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1549becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1550weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1551These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1552
1553If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1554context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1555
1556 if (%hash) {
1557 # not empty
1558 }
1559
f0ec9725
KR
1560If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1561variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1562a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1563it's loaded, etc.
1564
69794302 1565
bcb95744
FC
1566=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1567
1568(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
1569most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1570of the C<....> part.
1571
1572The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1573discovered.
1574
62658f4d
PM
1575=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1576
1577(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1578there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1579
fc36a67e
PP
1580=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1581
be771a83
GS
1582(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1583long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1584that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1585
4a68bf9d 1586=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1587
1588(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
5fca8acb
FC
1589But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names
1590are deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character
1591and continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces,
1592parentheses or colons.
cb233ae3 1593
6d3b25aa
RGS
1594=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1595
1596(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1597There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1598not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1599conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1600static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1601relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1602declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1603
6d3b25aa
RGS
1604 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1605
1606becomes
1607
1608 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1609
36fb85f3
RGS
1610Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1611have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1612
1613 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1614
500ab966
RGS
1615=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1616
1617(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1618just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1619to create a dangling reference.
1620
3cdd684c
TP
1621=item Did not produce a valid header
1622
1623See Server error.
1624
6df41af2
GS
1625=item %s did not return a true value
1626
1627(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1628it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1629traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1630do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1631
cc507455 1632=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1633
413ff9f6
FC
1634(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1635some such.
4633a7c4 1636
cc507455 1637=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1638
be771a83
GS
1639(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1640variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1641seems superfluous.
33633739 1642
cc507455 1643=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1644
be771a83
GS
1645(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1646@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1647carried away.
748a9306 1648
7e1af8bc 1649=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1650
1651(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1652you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1653
3cdd684c
TP
1654=item Document contains no data
1655
1656See Server error.
1657
62658f4d
PM
1658=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1659
1660(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1661define a C<$VERSION.>
1662
49704364
LW
1663=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1664
1665(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1666See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1667
a0d0e21e
LW
1668=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1669
1670(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1671
1672=item do_study: out of memory
1673
1674(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1675
6df41af2
GS
1676=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1677
56da5a46
RGS
1678(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1679"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1680name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1681because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1682"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1683something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1684subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1685"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1686
ac206dc8
RGS
1687=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1688
1689(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1690qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1691
84d78eb7
YO
1692=item dump is not supported
1693
1694(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1695
a0d0e21e
LW
1696=item Duplicate free() ignored
1697
be771a83
GS
1698(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1699already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1700
1109a392
MHM
1701=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1702
1703(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1704in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1705
4633a7c4
LW
1706=item elseif should be elsif
1707
56da5a46
RGS
1708(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1709ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1710"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1711unlikely to be what you want.
1712
ab13f0c7
JH
1713=item Empty %s
1714
af6f566e
HS
1715(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1716described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1717a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1718
85ab1d1d 1719=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1720
85ab1d1d 1721(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1722effective uids or gids failed.
1723
c038024b
RGS
1724=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1725
1726(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1727aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1728program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1729
748a9306
LW
1730=item Error converting file specification %s
1731
5f05dabc 1732(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1733specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1734single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1735an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1736conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1737
e4d48cc9
GS
1738=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1739
be771a83
GS
1740(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1741expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1742is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1743
fc8f615e 1744=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1745
be771a83
GS
1746(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1747C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1748pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1749it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1750C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1751interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1752L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1753
6df41af2
GS
1754=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1755
be771a83
GS
1756(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1757assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1758pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1759
1a147d38
YO
1760=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1761
1762(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1763any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1764
1765The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1766discovered.
1767
fc36a67e
PP
1768=item Excessively long <> operator
1769
1770(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1771Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1772filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1773variable and glob that.
1774
ed9aa3b7
SG
1775=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1776
af8bb25a
FC
1777(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
1778OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1779
fe13d51d 1780=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1781
1782(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1783
1784=item Exiting eval via %s
1785
be771a83
GS
1786(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1787goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1788
1789=item Exiting format via %s
1790
9a2ff54b 1791(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1792goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1793
0a753a76
PP
1794=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1795
be771a83
GS
1796(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1797sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1798loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1799
a0d0e21e
LW
1800=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1801
be771a83
GS
1802(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1803as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1804
1805=item Exiting substitution via %s
1806
be771a83
GS
1807(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1808as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1809
7b8d334a
GS
1810=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1811
be771a83
GS
1812(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1813the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1814usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1815e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1816
6df41af2
GS
1817=item %s: Expression syntax
1818
be771a83
GS
1819(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1820Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1821
1822=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1823
3c10abe3
AG
1824(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1825CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1826queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1827
7253e4e3 1828=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1829
be771a83 1830(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1831character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1832in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1833"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1834problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1835
1b1ee2ef 1836=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1837
be771a83
GS
1838(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1839system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1840details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1841you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1842
1843=item fcntl is not implemented
1844
1845(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1846PDP-11 or something?
1847
22846ab4
AB
1848=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1849
1850(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1851is not possible.
1852
f337b084
TH
1853=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1854
1855(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1856which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1857a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1858C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1859
af8c498a 1860=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1861
6c8d78fb
HS
1862(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1863it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1864"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1865write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1866
af8c498a 1867=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1868
6c8d78fb
HS
1869(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1870you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1871with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1872read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1873is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1874output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1875
1876=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1877
1878(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1879as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1880previously.
1881
1882=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1883
1884(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1885as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1886
1887=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1888
1889(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1890a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1891happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1892name.
a0d0e21e 1893
56e90b21
GS
1894=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1895
be771a83 1896(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1897some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1898filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1899same name?
56e90b21 1900
6df41af2
GS
1901=item Format not terminated
1902
1903(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1904to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1905
a0d0e21e
LW
1906=item Format %s redefined
1907
e476b1b5 1908(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1909
1910 {
271595cc 1911 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1912 eval "format NAME =...";
1913 }
1914
a0d0e21e
LW
1915=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1916
e476b1b5 1917(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1918
1919 if ($foo = 123)
1920
1921when you meant
1922
1923 if ($foo == 123)
1924
1925(or something like that).
1926
6df41af2
GS
1927=item %s found where operator expected
1928
56da5a46
RGS
1929(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1930If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1931operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1932operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1933
a0d0e21e
LW
1934=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1935
1936(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1937
1938=item gethostent not implemented
1939
1940(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1941because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1942on the Internet.
1943
69282e91 1944=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1945
be771a83
GS
1946(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1947socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1948
748a9306
LW
1949=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1950
1951(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1952C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1953
6df41af2
GS
1954=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1955
be771a83
GS
1956(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1957forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1958L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1959
1960=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1961
a4edf47d 1962(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1963that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1964declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1965which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1966
e476b1b5
GS
1967=item glob failed (%s)
1968
be771a83
GS
1969(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1970C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1971C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1972nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1973resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1974broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1975config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1976were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1977empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1978think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1979C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1980
a0d0e21e
LW
1981=item Glob not terminated
1982
1983(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1984a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1985not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1986earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1987
bcd05b94 1988=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1989
e9200be3 1990(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 1991it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
b539c2c9 1992date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
1993not-a-number value).
1994
bcd05b94 1995=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 1996
e9200be3 1997(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
fc003d4b 1998it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
b539c2c9 1999date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b 2000not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2001
6df41af2 2002=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2003
6df41af2
GS
2004(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2005version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2006
2007=item goto must have label
2008
2009(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2010unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2011
49704364 2012=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 2013
bca4a986
FC
2014(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2015something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 2016
fe13d51d 2017=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2018
2019(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2020
a0d0e21e
LW
2021=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2022
be771a83
GS
2023(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2024to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2025created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2026
2027=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2028
be771a83
GS
2029(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2030spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2031
6df41af2
GS
2032=item %s has too many errors
2033
2034(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2035Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2036
e6897b1a
KW
2037=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
2038
2039(D syntax)
2040
bd0e971a 2041You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a
b6fa137b
FC
2042pattern without an intervening space. If you are trying to use the C</le>
2043flags on a substitution, use C</el> instead. Otherwise, add white space
2044between the pattern and following word to eliminate the warning. As an
2045example of the latter, the two constructs:
e6897b1a
KW
2046
2047 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2048 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2049
21356872
FC
2050both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first
2051form in Perl 5.16. And,
e6897b1a
KW
2052
2053 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2054
2055will be disallowed too.
2056
252aa082
JH
2057=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2058
e476b1b5 2059(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2060(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2061L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2062
8903cb82
PP
2063=item Identifier too long
2064
2065(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2066about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2067names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2068of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2069
c3c41406 2070=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2071
ff3f963a
KW
2072(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2073zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2074its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2075been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2076
6df41af2 2077=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2078
6df41af2 2079(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2080
6df41af2 2081=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2082
be771a83
GS
2083(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2084binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2085offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2086
6597eb22
FC
2087=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2088
2089(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2090Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
2091
78d0fecf 2092=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2093
d5898338 2094(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2095would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2096when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2097version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2098to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2099
d37a9538
ST
2100=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2101
197afce1 2102(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2103Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2104
904d85c5
RGS
2105=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2106
2107(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2108you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2109
8e742a20
MHM
2110=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2111
2112(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2113
a0d0e21e
LW
2114=item Illegal division by zero
2115
be771a83
GS
2116(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2117your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2118meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2119
6df41af2
GS
2120=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2121
be771a83
GS
2122(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2123A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2124number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2125
a0d0e21e
LW
2126=item Illegal modulus zero
2127
be771a83
GS
2128(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2129numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2130
6df41af2 2131=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2132
6df41af2
GS
2133(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2134two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2135
2136=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2137
d1be9408 2138(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2139
399388f4 2140=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2141
d1be9408 2142(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2143Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2144
fe13d51d 2145=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2146
6df41af2 2147(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2148following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2149
6df41af2 2150=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2151
75b44862 2152(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2153internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2154delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2155
6df41af2 2156=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2157
be771a83
GS
2158(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2159name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2160didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2161ignored.
54310121 2162
6df41af2 2163=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2164
be771a83
GS
2165(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2166the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2167system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2168times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2169would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2170
be771a83
GS
2171Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2172also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2173
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2174=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2175
2176(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2177C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2178documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2179
979699d9
JH
2180=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2181
2182(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2183Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2184encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2185
1a147d38
YO
2186=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2187
2188(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2189text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2190either consume text or fail.
2191
2192The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2193discovered.
2194
6dbe9451
NC
2195=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2196
2197(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2198of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2199C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2200as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2201
a0d0e21e
LW
2202=item Insecure dependency in %s
2203
8b1a09fc 2204(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2205The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2206setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2207tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2208from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2209such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2210L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2211
2212=item Insecure directory in %s
2213
be771a83
GS
2214(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2215setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2216the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2217See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2218
62f468fc 2219=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2220
2221(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2222setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2223C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2224supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2225the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2226
0e9be77f
DM
2227=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2228
2229(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2230expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2231function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2232See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2233
b9ef414d
FC
2234=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2235
2236(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2237or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2238integers for your architecture.
2239
a7ae9550
GS
2240=item Integer overflow in %s number
2241
75b44862 2242(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2243either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2244your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2245On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2246representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
22470b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2248transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2249internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2250operations.
bbce6d69 2251
46314c13
JP
2252=item Integer overflow in version
2253
2254(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2255size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2256because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2257element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2258trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2259100/9.
2260
7253e4e3 2261=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2262
2263(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2264The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2265discovered.
2266
748a9306
LW
2267=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2268
be771a83
GS
2269(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2270you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2271to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2272L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2273Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2274terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2275
7253e4e3 2276=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2277
7253e4e3
RK
2278(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2279<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2280discovered.
a0d0e21e 2281
6df41af2
GS
2282=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2283
75b44862 2284(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2285followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2286operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2287L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2288
09bef843
SB
2289=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2290
a4a4c9e2 2291(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2292by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2293
2294=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2295
a4a4c9e2 2296(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2297recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2298
c635e13b
PP
2299=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2300
be771a83
GS
2301(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2302L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2303
9e08bc66
ST
2304=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2305
2306(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2307didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2308from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2309The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2310The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2311escape was discovered.
2312
8149aa9f
FC
2313=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2314
2315(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2316number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
23170 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2318
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2319=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2320
162a3e34
FC
2321(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2322where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2323the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2324a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2325
7253e4e3 2326=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2327
2328(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2329greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2330C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2331up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2332problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2333
d1573ac7 2334=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2335
2336(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2337character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2338
09bef843
SB
2339=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2340
0120eecf 2341(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2342elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2343parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2344See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2345
b4581f09
JH
2346=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2347
2bfc5f71
FC
2348(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2349than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2350If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2351list was terminated too soon.
2352
2c86d456
DG
2353=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2354
2355(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2356A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2357decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2358v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2359The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2360See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2361
49704364 2362=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2363
49704364
LW
2364(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2365See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2366(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2367silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2368
2c86d456
DG
2369=item Invalid version format (%s)
2370
2371(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2372A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2373decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
9da2b86b
FC
2374v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it must
2375have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional.
2376Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2c86d456
DG
2377component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2378dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2379criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2380allowed version formats.
46314c13 2381
798ae1b7
DG
2382=item Invalid version object
2383
2384(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2385the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2386was blessed into the "version" class.
2387
a0d0e21e
LW
2388=item ioctl is not implemented
2389
2390(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2391strange for a machine that supports C.
2392
c289d2f7
JH
2393=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2394
2395(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2396Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2397
fe13d51d 2398=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2399
2400(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2401you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2402with 'useperlio'.
2403
80cbd5ad
JH
2404=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2405
2406(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2407neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2408
b4581f09
JH
2409=item $* is no longer supported
2410
a58ac25e
FC
2411(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
2412perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
2413previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2414matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2415
2416Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
570dedd4
FC
2417modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2418with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
2419then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2420
8ae1fe26
RGS
2421=item $# is no longer supported
2422
a58ac25e
FC
2423(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
2424perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
2425should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2426
6ad11d81
JH
2427=item `%s' is not a code reference
2428
04a80ee0
RGS
2429(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2430needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2431to a subroutine.
2432
2433=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2434
04a80ee0
RGS
2435(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2436unaware of.
6ad11d81 2437
a0d0e21e
LW
2438=item junk on end of regexp
2439
2440(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2441
2442=item Label not found for "last %s"
2443
be771a83
GS
2444(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2445of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2446L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2447
2448=item Label not found for "next %s"
2449
2450(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2451that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2452L<perlfunc/last>.
2453
2454=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2455
2456(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2457that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2458L<perlfunc/last>.
2459
85ab1d1d 2460=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2461
85ab1d1d 2462(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2463effective uids or gids failed.
2464
49704364
LW
2465=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2466
d7f8936a 2467(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2468length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2469an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2470
f0e67a1d
Z
2471=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2472
2473(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
96090e4f 2474(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character
d35a2c71
FC
2475that couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2476of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where it
2477is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2478
2479=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2480
2481(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2482detectable way.
2483
69282e91 2484=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2485
be771a83
GS
2486(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2487to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2488L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2489
bcd05b94 2490=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2491
e9200be3 2492(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2493than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
b539c2c9 2494wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2495not-a-number value).
2496
bcd05b94 2497=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2498
e9200be3 2499(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2500than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
b539c2c9 2501wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b 2502not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2503
58e23c8d 2504=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2505
2506(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2507handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2508
b88df990
NC
2509=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2510
2511(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2512for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2513hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2514because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2515are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2516You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2517
2f7da168
RK
2518=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2519
2520(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2521by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2522instead on the filehandle.)
2523
bb3abb05
FC
2524=item lvalue attribute cannot be removed after the subroutine has been defined
2525
2526(W misc) The lvalue attribute on a Perl subroutine cannot be turned off
2527once the subroutine is defined.
2528
885ef6f5
GG
2529=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2530
bb3abb05
FC
2531(W misc) Making a Perl subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been
2532defined, whether by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute
2533or by using L<attributes.pm|attributes>, is not possible. To make the subroutine an
2534lvalue subroutine, add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put
2535the declaration before the definition.
885ef6f5 2536
2db62bbc 2537=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2538
2db62bbc 2539(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2540are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2541
2542=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2543
2db62bbc 2544(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2545are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2546
6df41af2
GS
2547=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2548
2549(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2550
2551 prefix1;prefix2
2552
2553or
6df41af2
GS
2554 prefix1 prefix2
2555
be771a83
GS
2556with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2557a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2558appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2559"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2560
2f758a16
ST
2561=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2562
d37a9538
ST
2563(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2564syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2565obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2566when the function is called.
2f758a16 2567
ba210ebe
JH
2568=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2569
2575c402
JW
2570(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2571encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2572
2575c402
JW
2573One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2574you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25758-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2576
2577If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2578sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2579set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2580message.
2581
2582See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2583
ff3f963a
KW
2584=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2585
2586(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2587
4a5d3a93
FC
2588=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2589
2590(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2591rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2592
f337b084
TH
2593=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2594
2595(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2596rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2597
2598=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2599
2600(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2601rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2602
4a5d3a93 2603=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2604
4a5d3a93
FC
2605(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2606doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2607
2608=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2609
2610(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2611regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2612shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2613See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2614
de42a5a9 2615=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2616
2db62bbc 2617(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2618usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2619too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2620resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2621safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2622
25f58aea
PN
2623=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2624
2625(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2626interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2627"use" or "my".
2628
49704364 2629=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2630
2631(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2632checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2633See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2634
a0d0e21e
LW
2635=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2636
2637(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2638doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2639
3cdd684c
TP
2640=item Method %s not permitted
2641
2642See Server error.
2643
a0d0e21e
LW
2644=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2645
2646(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2647by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2648ended earlier on the current line.
2649
2650=item Misplaced _ in number
2651
d4ced10d
JH
2652(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2653separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2654
7baa4690
HS
2655=item Missing argument in %s
2656
2657(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2658supplied.
2659
9e81e6a1
RGS
2660=item Missing argument to -%c
2661
2662(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2663immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2664
ff3f963a 2665=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2666
4a2d328f 2667(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2668double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2669(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2670This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2671follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2672
f0a2b745
KW
2673=item Missing braces on \o{}
2674
2675(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2676
a0d0e21e
LW
2677=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2678
2679(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2680"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2681
06eaf0bc
GS
2682=item Missing command in piped open
2683
be771a83
GS
2684(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2685C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2686blank.
06eaf0bc 2687
961ce445
RGS
2688=item Missing control char name in \c
2689
2690(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2691character name.
2692
6df41af2
GS
2693=item Missing name in "my sub"
2694
be771a83
GS
2695(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2696they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2697
2698=item Missing $ on loop variable
2699
be771a83
GS
2700(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2701are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2702can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2703
cc507455 2704=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2705
56da5a46
RGS
2706(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2707"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2708
ab13f0c7
JH
2709=item Missing right brace on %s
2710
ff3f963a
KW
2711(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2712
4a68bf9d 2713=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2714
d32207c9
FC
2715(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2716
2717The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2718meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
2719name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
2720double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2721it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2722
2723Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2724in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2725for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2726
2727This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2728by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2729form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2730means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
27313; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2732C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2733
2734However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2735mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2736If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2737escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2738
d98d5fff 2739=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2740
be771a83
GS
2741(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2742ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2743were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2744
6df41af2
GS
2745=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2746
56da5a46
RGS
2747(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2748"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2749the previous line just because you saw this message.
2750
a0d0e21e
LW
2751=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2752
2753(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2754constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2755catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2756
2757 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2758 mod(2);
2759
2760Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2761
c5674021
PDF
2762Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2763is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2764
2765 $x = 1;
2766 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2767 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2768 }
c5674021 2769
7a4340ed 2770=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2771
2772(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2773subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2774backwards.
2775
7a4340ed 2776=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2777
be771a83
GS
2778(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2779couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2780
2781=item Module name must be constant
2782
2783(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2784
be98fb35 2785=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2786
be98fb35
GS
2787(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2788you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2789about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2790
fe13d51d 2791=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2792
2793(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2794can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2795list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2796See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2797
a0d0e21e
LW
2798=item msg%s not implemented
2799
2800(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2801
2802=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2803
75b44862
GS
2804(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2805They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2806
49704364 2807=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2808
49704364
LW
2809(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2810follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2811See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2812
2813=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2814
be771a83
GS
2815(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2816that yet.
6df41af2 2817
fd1b7234 2818=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2819
be771a83
GS
2820(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2821sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2822local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2823
8149aa9f
FC
2824=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2825
2826(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
2827If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2828again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
2829provided for this purpose.
2830
2831NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2832%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2833the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2834will not trigger this warning.
2835
4a68bf9d 2836=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2837
c3c41406 2838(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
2839character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
2840its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
2841what you want.
c3c41406 2842
4a68bf9d 2843=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406 2844
f4e361c7
FC
2845(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
2846sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
2847bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 2848backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2849
2850 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2851 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2852 /$re/;
2853
b09c05e6 2854Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2855
2856 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2857 /$re/;
2858
2859The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2860components:
2861
2862 $re = '\N';
2863 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2864
2865It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2866doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2867
2868Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2869C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2870
2871 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2872 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2873
49704364
LW
2874=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2875
2876(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2877negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2878
a0d0e21e
LW
2879=item Negative length
2880
be771a83
GS
2881(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2882length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2883
ed9aa3b7
SG
2884=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2885
2886(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2887greater than or equal to zero.
2888
7253e4e3 2889=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2890
b45f050a 2891(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2892things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2893expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2894
7253e4e3 2895Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2896C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2897
6df41af2 2898=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2899
be771a83
GS
2900(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2901scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2902
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2903=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2904
2905(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2906real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2907See L<mro>.
2908
a0d0e21e
LW
2909=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2910
be771a83
GS
2911(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2912setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2913will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2914securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2915
a0d0e21e
LW
2916=item No comma allowed after %s
2917
2918(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2919allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2920Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2921
0a753a76
PP
2922One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2923constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2924importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2925does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
f7af5ce1 2926explicit import list for the constants you expect to see; please see
0a753a76
PP
2927L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2928would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2929remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2930constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2931list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2932this error was triggered?
2933
748a9306
LW
2934=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2935
be771a83
GS
2936(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2937redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2938doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2939
a0d0e21e
LW
2940=item No DB::DB routine defined
2941
be771a83 2942(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 2943for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
2944module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2945statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2946
2947=item No dbm on this machine
2948
2949(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2950supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2951
ccafdc96 2952=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2953
ccafdc96
RGS
2954(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2955for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2956module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2957of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2958
c47ff5f1 2959=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2960
be771a83
GS
2961(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2962redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2963find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2964
49704364
LW
2965=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2966
2967(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2968matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2969
c47ff5f1 2970=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2971
be771a83
GS
2972(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2973redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2974name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2975
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2976=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2977
2978(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2979in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2980it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2981or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2982
6df41af2
GS
2983=item "no" not allowed in expression
2984
be771a83
GS
2985(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2986returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2987
c47ff5f1 2988=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2989
be771a83
GS
2990(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2991redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2992doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2993
c47ff5f1 2994=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2995
be771a83
GS
2996(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2997redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2998find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2999
1ec3e8de
GS
3000=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
3001
be771a83
GS
3002(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
3003declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
3004semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 3005
a0d0e21e
LW
3006=item No Perl script found in input
3007
3008(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
3009with #! and containing the word "perl".
3010
3011=item No setregid available
3012
3013(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
3014your system.
3015
3016=item No setreuid available
3017
3018(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
3019your system.
3020
6df41af2
GS
3021=item No %s specified for -%c
3022
3023(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
3024you haven't specified one.
f7af5ce1 3025
e75d1f10
RD
3026=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
3027
3028(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
3029but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
3030package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
3031
2c692339
RGS
3032=item No such class %s
3033
dc7e5945
FC
3034(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
3035declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 3036
3c20a832
SP
3037=item No such hook: %s
3038
dc7e5945
FC
3039(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
3040Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 3041
6df41af2
GS
3042=item No such pipe open
3043
3044(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3045close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3046earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3047
a0d0e21e
LW
3048=item No such signal: SIG%s
3049
be771a83
GS
3050(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3051not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3052names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3053
3054=item Not a CODE reference
3055
3056(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3057subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3058use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3059also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3060
3061=item Not a format reference
3062
3063(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3064format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3065
3066=item Not a GLOB reference
3067
be771a83
GS
3068(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3069symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3070something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3071kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3072
3073=item Not a HASH reference
3074
be771a83
GS
3075(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3076reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3077find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3078
6df41af2
GS
3079=item Not an ARRAY reference
3080
be771a83
GS
3081(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3082a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3083to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3084
d4fc4415
FC
3085=item Not an unblessed ARRAY reference
3086
3087(F) You passed a reference to a blessed array to C<push>, C<shift> or
3088another array function. These only accept unblessed array references
3089or arrays beginning explicitly with C<@>.
3090
a0d0e21e
LW
3091=item Not a SCALAR reference
3092
be771a83
GS
3093(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3094a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3095to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3096
3097=item Not a subroutine reference
3098
3099(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3100subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3101use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3102also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3103
e7ea3e70 3104=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3105
3106(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3107doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3108
a0d0e21e
LW
3109=item Not enough arguments for %s
3110
3111(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3112
6df41af2
GS
3113=item Not enough format arguments
3114
be771a83
GS
3115(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3116supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3117
3118=item %s: not found
3119
be771a83
GS
3120(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3121of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3122yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3123
3124=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3125
6df41af2
GS
3126(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3127timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3128to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3129F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3130need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3131
f0a2b745
KW
3132=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3133
5493e060
FC
3134(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was
3135unexpectedly encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as
3136indicated.
f0a2b745 3137
4ef2275c
GA
3138=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3139
3140(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3141Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
bc4b151d 3142select. See L<perlfunc/select>.
4ef2275c 3143
a0d0e21e
LW
3144=item Null filename used
3145
be771a83
GS
3146(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3147machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3148
6df41af2
GS
3149=item NULL OP IN RUN
3150
be771a83
GS
3151(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3152pointer.
6df41af2 3153
55497cff
PP
3154=item Null picture in formline
3155
3156(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3157specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3158supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3159
a0d0e21e
LW
3160=item Null realloc
3161
3162(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3163
3164=item NULL regexp argument
3165
5f05dabc 3166(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3167
3168=item NULL regexp parameter
3169
3170(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3171
fc36a67e
PP
3172=item Number too long
3173
be771a83 3174(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3175about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3176versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3177the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3178"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3179
f0a2b745
KW
3180=item Number with no digits
3181
1043934d
FC
3182(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like
3183a number. This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between
3184the braces.
f0a2b745 3185
6df41af2
GS
3186=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3187
be771a83
GS
3188(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3189The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3190future version.
6df41af2 3191
252aa082
JH
3192=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3193
75b44862 3194(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3195(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3196L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 3197
6ad11d81
JH
3198=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3199
04a80ee0
RGS
3200(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3201arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3202
b21befc1
MG
3203=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3204
3205(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3206which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3207
1930e939 3208=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3209
be771a83
GS
3210(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3211which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3212
bbce6d69
PP
3213=item Offset outside string
3214
1fa582fa 3215(F)(W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3216with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3217imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3218take place when going past the end of the string when either
3219C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3220for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3221with real files).
bbce6d69 3222
c289d2f7 3223=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3224
3225(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3226never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3227call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3228
96ebfdd7
RK
3229=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3230
3231(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3232that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3233
a0d0e21e
LW
3234=item oops: oopsAV
3235
e476b1b5 3236(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3237
3238=item oops: oopsHV
3239
e476b1b5 3240(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3241
abc718f2
RGS
3242=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3243
a4a4c9e2 3244(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3245a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3246Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3247and is deprecated.
3248
3249=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3250
a4a4c9e2 3251(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3252a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3253Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3254and is deprecated.
3255
a0288114 3256=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3257
be771a83
GS
3258(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3259handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3260of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
e4aad80d 3261the C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3262
5ff1373f 3263=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
9ae3ac1a 3264
8457b38f
KW
3265(W utf8, non_unicode) You performed an operation requiring Unicode
3266semantics on a code
5ff1373f
FC
3267point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3268has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
9ae3ac1a
KW
3269
3270If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3271matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3272
3273If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
8457b38f 3274C<no warnings 'non_unicode';>.
9ae3ac1a 3275
5ff1373f 3276=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
9ae3ac1a 3277
8457b38f
KW
3278(W utf8, surrogate) You performed an operation requiring Unicode
3279semantics on a Unicode
5ff1373f
FC
3280surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3281storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3282the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3283the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
9ae3ac1a
KW
3284
3285If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3286matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3287
3288If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
8457b38f 3289C<no warnings 'surrogate';>.
9ae3ac1a 3290
748a9306
LW
3291=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3292
be771a83
GS
3293(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3294was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3295use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3296example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3297"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3298
6df41af2
GS
3299=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3300
be771a83
GS
3301(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3302in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3303
a80b8354
GS
3304=item Out of memory!
3305
3306(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3307remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3308no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3309
19a52907
JH
3310At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3311process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3312C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3313the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3314and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3315
6d3b25aa
RGS
3316=item Out of memory during %s extend
3317
3318(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3319the largest possible memory allocation.
3320
6df41af2 3321=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3322
6df41af2
GS
3323(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3324remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3325the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3326possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3327
1b979e0a 3328=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3329
1fa582fa 3330(X)(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
be771a83
GS
3331insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3332request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3333
3334The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3335depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3336However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3337emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3338is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3339where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3340
1b979e0a
IZ
3341=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3342
3343(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS