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a0ed51b3
LW
1/* utf8.c
2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
b94e2f88 4 * by Larry Wall and others
a0ed51b3
LW
5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
4ac71550
TC
12 * 'What a fix!' said Sam. 'That's the one place in all the lands we've ever
13 * heard of that we don't want to see any closer; and that's the one place
14 * we're trying to get to! And that's just where we can't get, nohow.'
15 *
cdad3b53 16 * [p.603 of _The Lord of the Rings_, IV/I: "The Taming of Sméagol"]
a0ed51b3
LW
17 *
18 * 'Well do I understand your speech,' he answered in the same language;
19 * 'yet few strangers do so. Why then do you not speak in the Common Tongue,
4ac71550 20 * as is the custom in the West, if you wish to be answered?'
cdad3b53 21 * --Gandalf, addressing Théoden's door wardens
4ac71550
TC
22 *
23 * [p.508 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
LW
24 *
25 * ...the travellers perceived that the floor was paved with stones of many
26 * hues; branching runes and strange devices intertwined beneath their feet.
4ac71550
TC
27 *
28 * [p.512 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
LW
29 */
30
31#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 32#define PERL_IN_UTF8_C
a0ed51b3 33#include "perl.h"
81e983c1 34#include "inline_invlist.c"
a0ed51b3 35
a0c21aa1 36#ifndef EBCDIC
970ea3cb 37/* Separate prototypes needed because in ASCII systems these are
a0c21aa1
JH
38 * usually macros but they still are compiled as code, too. */
39PERL_CALLCONV UV Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags);
6dd9dce9 40PERL_CALLCONV UV Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen);
a0c21aa1
JH
41PERL_CALLCONV U8* Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv);
42#endif
43
27da23d5
JH
44static const char unees[] =
45 "Malformed UTF-8 character (unexpected end of string)";
901b21bf 46
48ef279e 47/*
ccfc67b7 48=head1 Unicode Support
a0ed51b3 49
166f8a29
DM
50This file contains various utility functions for manipulating UTF8-encoded
51strings. For the uninitiated, this is a method of representing arbitrary
61296642 52Unicode characters as a variable number of bytes, in such a way that
56da48f7
DM
53characters in the ASCII range are unmodified, and a zero byte never appears
54within non-zero characters.
166f8a29 55
eaf7a4d2
CS
56=cut
57*/
58
59/*
60=for apidoc is_ascii_string
61
a1433954 62Returns true if the first C<len> bytes of the string C<s> are the same whether
970ea3cb
KW
63or not the string is encoded in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC on EBCDIC machines). That
64is, if they are invariant. On ASCII-ish machines, only ASCII characters
65fit this definition, hence the function's name.
eaf7a4d2 66
9f7e3d64
MH
67If C<len> is 0, it will be calculated using C<strlen(s)>.
68
a1433954 69See also L</is_utf8_string>(), L</is_utf8_string_loclen>(), and L</is_utf8_string_loc>().
eaf7a4d2
CS
70
71=cut
72*/
73
74bool
668b6d8d 75Perl_is_ascii_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)
eaf7a4d2
CS
76{
77 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
78 const U8* x = s;
79
80 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_ASCII_STRING;
eaf7a4d2
CS
81
82 for (; x < send; ++x) {
83 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x))
84 break;
85 }
86
87 return x == send;
88}
89
90/*
87cea99e 91=for apidoc uvuni_to_utf8_flags
eebe1485 92
537124e4 93Adds the UTF-8 representation of the Unicode code point C<uv> to the end
6ee84de2 94of the string C<d>; C<d> should have at least C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1> free
eebe1485 95bytes available. The return value is the pointer to the byte after the
9041c2e3 96end of the new character. In other words,
eebe1485 97
b851fbc1
JH
98 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);
99
100or, in most cases,
101
9041c2e3 102 d = uvuni_to_utf8(d, uv);
eebe1485 103
b851fbc1
JH
104(which is equivalent to)
105
106 d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);
107
949cf498 108This is the recommended Unicode-aware way of saying
eebe1485
SC
109
110 *(d++) = uv;
111
537124e4
KW
112where uv is a code point expressed in Latin-1 or above, not the platform's
113native character set. B<Almost all code should instead use L</uvchr_to_utf8>
114or L</uvchr_to_utf8_flags>>.
115
949cf498
KW
116This function will convert to UTF-8 (and not warn) even code points that aren't
117legal Unicode or are problematic, unless C<flags> contains one or more of the
a1433954
KW
118following flags:
119
949cf498
KW
120If C<uv> is a Unicode surrogate code point and UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE is set,
121the function will raise a warning, provided UTF8 warnings are enabled. If instead
122UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE is set, the function will fail and return NULL.
123If both flags are set, the function will both warn and return NULL.
124
125The UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR and UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR flags correspondingly
537124e4
KW
126affect how the function handles a Unicode non-character. And likewise, the
127UNICODE_WARN_SUPER and UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER flags, affect the handling of
128code points that are
949cf498
KW
129above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF. Code points above 0x7FFF_FFFF (which are
130even less portable) can be warned and/or disallowed even if other above-Unicode
131code points are accepted by the UNICODE_WARN_FE_FF and UNICODE_DISALLOW_FE_FF
132flags.
133
134And finally, the flag UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four of the
135above WARN flags; and UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE selects all four
136DISALLOW flags.
137
138
eebe1485
SC
139=cut
140*/
141
dfe13c55 142U8 *
b851fbc1 143Perl_uvuni_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)
a0ed51b3 144{
7918f24d
NC
145 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UVUNI_TO_UTF8_FLAGS;
146
979f77b6
KW
147 /* The first problematic code point is the first surrogate */
148 if (uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST
149 && ckWARN4_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE, WARN_NON_UNICODE, WARN_NONCHAR))
150 {
949cf498
KW
151 if (UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv)) {
152 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE) {
8457b38f 153 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
949cf498
KW
154 "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf, uv);
155 }
156 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
157 return NULL;
158 }
159 }
160 else if (UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv)) {
161 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SUPER
162 || (UNICODE_IS_FE_FF(uv) && (flags & UNICODE_WARN_FE_FF)))
163 {
8457b38f 164 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
949cf498
KW
165 "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, may not be portable", uv);
166 }
167 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER
168 || (UNICODE_IS_FE_FF(uv) && (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_FE_FF)))
169 {
170 return NULL;
171 }
172 }
173 else if (UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv)) {
174 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR) {
8457b38f 175 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR),
949cf498
KW
176 "Unicode non-character U+%04"UVXf" is illegal for open interchange",
177 uv);
178 }
179 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
180 return NULL;
181 }
182 }
507b9800 183 }
c4d5f83a 184 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
eb160463 185 *d++ = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE(uv);
a0ed51b3
LW
186 return d;
187 }
2d331972 188#if defined(EBCDIC)
1d72bdf6
NIS
189 else {
190 STRLEN len = UNISKIP(uv);
191 U8 *p = d+len-1;
192 while (p > d) {
eb160463 193 *p-- = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE((uv & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK) | UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK);
1d72bdf6
NIS
194 uv >>= UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT;
195 }
eb160463 196 *p = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE((uv & UTF_START_MASK(len)) | UTF_START_MARK(len));
1d72bdf6
NIS
197 return d+len;
198 }
199#else /* Non loop style */
a0ed51b3 200 if (uv < 0x800) {
eb160463
GS
201 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 6) | 0xc0);
202 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
203 return d;
204 }
205 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
206 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
207 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
208 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
209 return d;
210 }
211 if (uv < 0x200000) {
eb160463
GS
212 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
213 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
214 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
215 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
216 return d;
217 }
218 if (uv < 0x4000000) {
eb160463
GS
219 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 24) | 0xf8);
220 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
221 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
222 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
223 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
224 return d;
225 }
226 if (uv < 0x80000000) {
eb160463
GS
227 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 30) | 0xfc);
228 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
229 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
230 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
231 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
232 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
233 return d;
234 }
6b8eaf93 235#ifdef HAS_QUAD
d7578b48 236 if (uv < UTF8_QUAD_MAX)
a0ed51b3
LW
237#endif
238 {
eb160463
GS
239 *d++ = 0xfe; /* Can't match U+FEFF! */
240 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 30) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
241 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
242 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
243 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
244 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
245 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
246 return d;
247 }
6b8eaf93 248#ifdef HAS_QUAD
a0ed51b3 249 {
eb160463
GS
250 *d++ = 0xff; /* Can't match U+FFFE! */
251 *d++ = 0x80; /* 6 Reserved bits */
252 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 60) & 0x0f) | 0x80); /* 2 Reserved bits */
253 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 54) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
254 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 48) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
255 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 42) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
256 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 36) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
257 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 30) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
258 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 24) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
259 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 18) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
260 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
261 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
262 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
263 return d;
264 }
265#endif
537124e4 266#endif /* Non loop style */
a0ed51b3 267}
9041c2e3 268
646ca15d
JH
269/*
270
f7d739d1 271Tests if the first C<len> bytes of string C<s> form a valid UTF-8
646ca15d 272character. Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII) character is a valid
f7d739d1 273UTF-8 character. The number of bytes in the UTF-8 character
646ca15d
JH
274will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.
275
276This is the "slow" version as opposed to the "fast" version which is
277the "unrolled" IS_UTF8_CHAR(). E.g. for t/uni/class.t the speed
278difference is a factor of 2 to 3. For lengths (UTF8SKIP(s)) of four
279or less you should use the IS_UTF8_CHAR(), for lengths of five or more
280you should use the _slow(). In practice this means that the _slow()
281will be used very rarely, since the maximum Unicode code point (as of
282Unicode 4.1) is U+10FFFF, which encodes in UTF-8 to four bytes. Only
537124e4 283the "Perl extended UTF-8" (e.g, the infamous 'v-strings') will encode into
646ca15d
JH
284five bytes or more.
285
286=cut */
7af276bc 287PERL_STATIC_INLINE STRLEN
5f66b61c 288S_is_utf8_char_slow(const U8 *s, const STRLEN len)
646ca15d 289{
cd7e6c88 290 dTHX; /* The function called below requires thread context */
646ca15d 291
cd7e6c88 292 STRLEN actual_len;
646ca15d 293
cd7e6c88 294 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR_SLOW;
646ca15d 295
cd7e6c88 296 utf8n_to_uvuni(s, len, &actual_len, UTF8_CHECK_ONLY);
646ca15d 297
cd7e6c88 298 return (actual_len == (STRLEN) -1) ? 0 : actual_len;
646ca15d 299}
9041c2e3
NIS
300
301/*
492a624f
KW
302=for apidoc is_utf8_char_buf
303
304Returns the number of bytes that comprise the first UTF-8 encoded character in
305buffer C<buf>. C<buf_end> should point to one position beyond the end of the
306buffer. 0 is returned if C<buf> does not point to a complete, valid UTF-8
307encoded character.
308
309Note that an INVARIANT character (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC
310machines) is a valid UTF-8 character.
311
312=cut */
313
314STRLEN
315Perl_is_utf8_char_buf(const U8 *buf, const U8* buf_end)
316{
317
318 STRLEN len;
319
320 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR_BUF;
321
322 if (buf_end <= buf) {
323 return 0;
324 }
325
326 len = buf_end - buf;
327 if (len > UTF8SKIP(buf)) {
328 len = UTF8SKIP(buf);
329 }
330
331#ifdef IS_UTF8_CHAR
332 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(len))
333 return IS_UTF8_CHAR(buf, len) ? len : 0;
334#endif /* #ifdef IS_UTF8_CHAR */
335 return is_utf8_char_slow(buf, len);
336}
337
338/*
87cea99e 339=for apidoc is_utf8_char
eebe1485 340
76848387
KW
341DEPRECATED!
342
5da9da9e 343Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a valid UTF-8
2bbc8d55
SP
344character. Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines)
345character is a valid UTF-8 character. The actual number of bytes in the UTF-8
346character will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.
9041c2e3 347
76848387 348This function is deprecated due to the possibility that malformed input could
a1433954 349cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer. Use L</is_utf8_char_buf>
76848387 350instead.
e0328548 351
82686b01 352=cut */
76848387 353
067a85ef 354STRLEN
668b6d8d 355Perl_is_utf8_char(const U8 *s)
386d01d6 356{
7918f24d 357 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CHAR;
492a624f 358
76848387 359 /* Assumes we have enough space, which is why this is deprecated */
492a624f 360 return is_utf8_char_buf(s, s + UTF8SKIP(s));
386d01d6
GS
361}
362
eaf7a4d2 363
6662521e 364/*
87cea99e 365=for apidoc is_utf8_string
6662521e 366
a1433954 367Returns true if the first C<len> bytes of string C<s> form a valid
9f7e3d64 368UTF-8 string, false otherwise. If C<len> is 0, it will be calculated
e0328548
KW
369using C<strlen(s)> (which means if you use this option, that C<s> has to have a
370terminating NUL byte). Note that all characters being ASCII constitute 'a
371valid UTF-8 string'.
6662521e 372
a1433954 373See also L</is_ascii_string>(), L</is_utf8_string_loclen>(), and L</is_utf8_string_loc>().
768c67ee 374
6662521e
GS
375=cut
376*/
377
8e84507e 378bool
668b6d8d 379Perl_is_utf8_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)
6662521e 380{
35da51f7 381 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
7fc63493 382 const U8* x = s;
067a85ef 383
7918f24d 384 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_STRING;
1aa99e6b 385
6662521e 386 while (x < send) {
1acdb0da 387 /* Inline the easy bits of is_utf8_char() here for speed... */
e0328548
KW
388 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x)) {
389 x++;
390 }
1acdb0da
JH
391 else {
392 /* ... and call is_utf8_char() only if really needed. */
e0328548
KW
393 const STRLEN c = UTF8SKIP(x);
394 const U8* const next_char_ptr = x + c;
395
396 if (next_char_ptr > send) {
397 return FALSE;
398 }
399
768c67ee
JH
400 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(c)) {
401 if (!IS_UTF8_CHAR(x, c))
e0328548 402 return FALSE;
3c614e38 403 }
e0328548
KW
404 else if (! is_utf8_char_slow(x, c)) {
405 return FALSE;
406 }
407 x = next_char_ptr;
1acdb0da 408 }
6662521e 409 }
768c67ee 410
067a85ef 411 return TRUE;
6662521e
GS
412}
413
67e989fb 414/*
814fafa7
NC
415Implemented as a macro in utf8.h
416
87cea99e 417=for apidoc is_utf8_string_loc
814fafa7 418
a1433954
KW
419Like L</is_utf8_string> but stores the location of the failure (in the
420case of "utf8ness failure") or the location C<s>+C<len> (in the case of
814fafa7
NC
421"utf8ness success") in the C<ep>.
422
a1433954 423See also L</is_utf8_string_loclen>() and L</is_utf8_string>().
814fafa7 424
87cea99e 425=for apidoc is_utf8_string_loclen
81cd54e3 426
a1433954
KW
427Like L</is_utf8_string>() but stores the location of the failure (in the
428case of "utf8ness failure") or the location C<s>+C<len> (in the case of
768c67ee
JH
429"utf8ness success") in the C<ep>, and the number of UTF-8
430encoded characters in the C<el>.
431
a1433954 432See also L</is_utf8_string_loc>() and L</is_utf8_string>().
81cd54e3
JH
433
434=cut
435*/
436
437bool
668b6d8d 438Perl_is_utf8_string_loclen(const U8 *s, STRLEN len, const U8 **ep, STRLEN *el)
81cd54e3 439{
35da51f7 440 const U8* const send = s + (len ? len : strlen((const char *)s));
7fc63493 441 const U8* x = s;
81cd54e3 442 STRLEN c;
3ebfea28 443 STRLEN outlen = 0;
7918f24d
NC
444
445 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_STRING_LOCLEN;
81cd54e3 446
81cd54e3 447 while (x < send) {
e0328548
KW
448 const U8* next_char_ptr;
449
81cd54e3
JH
450 /* Inline the easy bits of is_utf8_char() here for speed... */
451 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*x))
e0328548 452 next_char_ptr = x + 1;
81cd54e3 453 else {
768c67ee 454 /* ... and call is_utf8_char() only if really needed. */
768c67ee 455 c = UTF8SKIP(x);
e0328548
KW
456 next_char_ptr = c + x;
457 if (next_char_ptr > send) {
458 goto out;
459 }
768c67ee
JH
460 if (IS_UTF8_CHAR_FAST(c)) {
461 if (!IS_UTF8_CHAR(x, c))
462 c = 0;
463 } else
464 c = is_utf8_char_slow(x, c);
768c67ee
JH
465 if (!c)
466 goto out;
81cd54e3 467 }
e0328548 468 x = next_char_ptr;
3ebfea28 469 outlen++;
81cd54e3 470 }
768c67ee
JH
471
472 out:
3ebfea28
AL
473 if (el)
474 *el = outlen;
475
768c67ee
JH
476 if (ep)
477 *ep = x;
3ebfea28 478 return (x == send);
81cd54e3
JH
479}
480
481/*
768c67ee 482
87cea99e 483=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvuni
67e989fb 484
9041c2e3 485Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.
746afd53
KW
486Returns the code point value of the first character in the string C<s>,
487which is assumed to be in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) encoding, and no longer than
488C<curlen> bytes; C<*retlen> (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) will be set to
489the length, in bytes, of that character.
949cf498
KW
490
491The value of C<flags> determines the behavior when C<s> does not point to a
492well-formed UTF-8 character. If C<flags> is 0, when a malformation is found,
524080c4
KW
493zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
494next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
495Also, if UTF-8 warnings haven't been lexically disabled, a warning is raised.
949cf498
KW
496
497Various ALLOW flags can be set in C<flags> to allow (and not warn on)
498individual types of malformations, such as the sequence being overlong (that
499is, when there is a shorter sequence that can express the same code point;
500overlong sequences are expressly forbidden in the UTF-8 standard due to
501potential security issues). Another malformation example is the first byte of
502a character not being a legal first byte. See F<utf8.h> for the list of such
524080c4
KW
503flags. For allowed 0 length strings, this function returns 0; for allowed
504overlong sequences, the computed code point is returned; for all other allowed
505malformations, the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned, as these have no
506determinable reasonable value.
949cf498
KW
507
508The UTF8_CHECK_ONLY flag overrides the behavior when a non-allowed (by other
509flags) malformation is found. If this flag is set, the routine assumes that
510the caller will raise a warning, and this function will silently just set
d088425d
KW
511C<retlen> to C<-1> (cast to C<STRLEN>) and return zero.
512
513Note that this API requires disambiguation between successful decoding a NUL
514character, and an error return (unless the UTF8_CHECK_ONLY flag is set), as
515in both cases, 0 is returned. To disambiguate, upon a zero return, see if the
516first byte of C<s> is 0 as well. If so, the input was a NUL; if not, the input
517had an error.
949cf498
KW
518
519Certain code points are considered problematic. These are Unicode surrogates,
746afd53 520Unicode non-characters, and code points above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF.
949cf498 521By default these are considered regular code points, but certain situations
5eafe189 522warrant special handling for them. If C<flags> contains
949cf498
KW
523UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, all three classes are treated as
524malformations and handled as such. The flags UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE,
525UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR, and UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER (meaning above the legal Unicode
526maximum) can be set to disallow these categories individually.
527
528The flags UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE, UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE,
529UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR, and UTF8_WARN_SUPER will cause warning messages to be raised
530for their respective categories, but otherwise the code points are considered
531valid (not malformations). To get a category to both be treated as a
532malformation and raise a warning, specify both the WARN and DISALLOW flags.
533(But note that warnings are not raised if lexically disabled nor if
534UTF8_CHECK_ONLY is also specified.)
535
536Very large code points (above 0x7FFF_FFFF) are considered more problematic than
537the others that are above the Unicode legal maximum. There are several
eb83ed87
KW
538reasons: they requre at least 32 bits to represent them on ASCII platforms, are
539not representable at all on EBCDIC platforms, and the original UTF-8
540specification never went above this number (the current 0x10FFFF limit was
541imposed later). (The smaller ones, those that fit into 32 bits, are
542representable by a UV on ASCII platforms, but not by an IV, which means that
543the number of operations that can be performed on them is quite restricted.)
544The UTF-8 encoding on ASCII platforms for these large code points begins with a
545byte containing 0xFE or 0xFF. The UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF flag will cause them to
546be treated as malformations, while allowing smaller above-Unicode code points.
547(Of course UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER will treat all above-Unicode code points,
548including these, as malformations.) Similarly, UTF8_WARN_FE_FF acts just like
549the other WARN flags, but applies just to these code points.
949cf498
KW
550
551All other code points corresponding to Unicode characters, including private
552use and those yet to be assigned, are never considered malformed and never
553warn.
67e989fb 554
ec5f19d0 555Most code should use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>() rather than call this directly.
9041c2e3 556
37607a96
PK
557=cut
558*/
67e989fb 559
a0ed51b3 560UV
7fc63493 561Perl_utf8n_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)
a0ed51b3 562{
97aff369 563 dVAR;
d4c19fe8 564 const U8 * const s0 = s;
eb83ed87 565 U8 overflow_byte = '\0'; /* Save byte in case of overflow */
0b8d30e8 566 U8 * send;
eb83ed87
KW
567 UV uv = *s;
568 STRLEN expectlen;
949cf498 569 SV* sv = NULL;
eb83ed87
KW
570 UV outlier_ret = 0; /* return value when input is in error or problematic
571 */
572 UV pack_warn = 0; /* Save result of packWARN() for later */
573 bool unexpected_non_continuation = FALSE;
574 bool overflowed = FALSE;
2f8f112e 575 bool do_overlong_test = TRUE; /* May have to skip this test */
a0dbb045 576
eb83ed87 577 const char* const malformed_text = "Malformed UTF-8 character";
7918f24d 578
eb83ed87 579 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVUNI;
a0dbb045 580
eb83ed87
KW
581 /* The order of malformation tests here is important. We should consume as
582 * few bytes as possible in order to not skip any valid character. This is
583 * required by the Unicode Standard (section 3.9 of Unicode 6.0); see also
584 * http://unicode.org/reports/tr36 for more discussion as to why. For
585 * example, once we've done a UTF8SKIP, we can tell the expected number of
586 * bytes, and could fail right off the bat if the input parameters indicate
587 * that there are too few available. But it could be that just that first
588 * byte is garbled, and the intended character occupies fewer bytes. If we
589 * blindly assumed that the first byte is correct, and skipped based on
590 * that number, we could skip over a valid input character. So instead, we
591 * always examine the sequence byte-by-byte.
592 *
593 * We also should not consume too few bytes, otherwise someone could inject
594 * things. For example, an input could be deliberately designed to
595 * overflow, and if this code bailed out immediately upon discovering that,
596 * returning to the caller *retlen pointing to the very next byte (one
597 * which is actually part of of the overflowing sequence), that could look
598 * legitimate to the caller, which could discard the initial partial
599 * sequence and process the rest, inappropriately */
600
601 /* Zero length strings, if allowed, of necessity are zero */
b5b9af04 602 if (UNLIKELY(curlen == 0)) {
eb83ed87
KW
603 if (retlen) {
604 *retlen = 0;
605 }
a0dbb045 606
eb83ed87
KW
607 if (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY) {
608 return 0;
609 }
610 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
611 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (empty string)", malformed_text));
612 }
0c443dc2
JH
613 goto malformed;
614 }
615
eb83ed87
KW
616 expectlen = UTF8SKIP(s);
617
618 /* A well-formed UTF-8 character, as the vast majority of calls to this
619 * function will be for, has this expected length. For efficiency, set
620 * things up here to return it. It will be overriden only in those rare
621 * cases where a malformation is found */
622 if (retlen) {
623 *retlen = expectlen;
624 }
625
626 /* An invariant is trivially well-formed */
1d72bdf6 627 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
c4d5f83a 628 return (UV) (NATIVE_TO_UTF(*s));
a0ed51b3 629 }
67e989fb 630
eb83ed87 631 /* A continuation character can't start a valid sequence */
b5b9af04 632 if (UNLIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(uv))) {
eb83ed87
KW
633 if (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_CONTINUATION) {
634 if (retlen) {
635 *retlen = 1;
636 }
637 return UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
638 }
ba210ebe 639
eb83ed87
KW
640 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
641 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected continuation byte 0x%02x, with no preceding start byte)", malformed_text, *s0));
642 }
643 curlen = 1;
ba210ebe
JH
644 goto malformed;
645 }
9041c2e3 646
1d72bdf6 647#ifdef EBCDIC
75383841 648 uv = NATIVE_TO_UTF(uv);
1d72bdf6
NIS
649#endif
650
eb83ed87
KW
651 /* Here is not a continuation byte, nor an invariant. The only thing left
652 * is a start byte (possibly for an overlong) */
ba210ebe 653
eb83ed87
KW
654 /* Remove the leading bits that indicate the number of bytes in the
655 * character's whole UTF-8 sequence, leaving just the bits that are part of
656 * the value */
657 uv &= UTF_START_MASK(expectlen);
ba210ebe 658
eb83ed87
KW
659 /* Now, loop through the remaining bytes in the character's sequence,
660 * accumulating each into the working value as we go. Be sure to not look
661 * past the end of the input string */
0b8d30e8
KW
662 send = (U8*) s0 + ((expectlen <= curlen) ? expectlen : curlen);
663
eb83ed87 664 for (s = s0 + 1; s < send; s++) {
b5b9af04 665 if (LIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))) {
eb83ed87
KW
666#ifndef EBCDIC /* Can't overflow in EBCDIC */
667 if (uv & UTF_ACCUMULATION_OVERFLOW_MASK) {
668
669 /* The original implementors viewed this malformation as more
670 * serious than the others (though I, khw, don't understand
671 * why, since other malformations also give very very wrong
672 * results), so there is no way to turn off checking for it.
673 * Set a flag, but keep going in the loop, so that we absorb
674 * the rest of the bytes that comprise the character. */
675 overflowed = TRUE;
676 overflow_byte = *s; /* Save for warning message's use */
677 }
678#endif
8850bf83 679 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
eb83ed87
KW
680 }
681 else {
682 /* Here, found a non-continuation before processing all expected
683 * bytes. This byte begins a new character, so quit, even if
684 * allowing this malformation. */
685 unexpected_non_continuation = TRUE;
686 break;
687 }
688 } /* End of loop through the character's bytes */
689
690 /* Save how many bytes were actually in the character */
691 curlen = s - s0;
692
693 /* The loop above finds two types of malformations: non-continuation and/or
694 * overflow. The non-continuation malformation is really a too-short
695 * malformation, as it means that the current character ended before it was
696 * expected to (being terminated prematurely by the beginning of the next
697 * character, whereas in the too-short malformation there just are too few
698 * bytes available to hold the character. In both cases, the check below
699 * that we have found the expected number of bytes would fail if executed.)
700 * Thus the non-continuation malformation is really unnecessary, being a
701 * subset of the too-short malformation. But there may be existing
702 * applications that are expecting the non-continuation type, so we retain
703 * it, and return it in preference to the too-short malformation. (If this
704 * code were being written from scratch, the two types might be collapsed
705 * into one.) I, khw, am also giving priority to returning the
706 * non-continuation and too-short malformations over overflow when multiple
707 * ones are present. I don't know of any real reason to prefer one over
708 * the other, except that it seems to me that multiple-byte errors trumps
709 * errors from a single byte */
b5b9af04 710 if (UNLIKELY(unexpected_non_continuation)) {
eb83ed87
KW
711 if (!(flags & UTF8_ALLOW_NON_CONTINUATION)) {
712 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
713 if (curlen == 1) {
714 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x, immediately after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, *s, *s0));
715 }
716 else {
717 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x, %d bytes after start byte 0x%02x, expected %d bytes)", malformed_text, *s, (int) curlen, *s0, (int)expectlen));
a0dbb045
JH
718 }
719 }
eb83ed87
KW
720 goto malformed;
721 }
722 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
2f8f112e
KW
723
724 /* Skip testing for overlongs, as the REPLACEMENT may not be the same
725 * as what the original expectations were. */
726 do_overlong_test = FALSE;
eb83ed87
KW
727 if (retlen) {
728 *retlen = curlen;
729 }
730 }
b5b9af04 731 else if (UNLIKELY(curlen < expectlen)) {
eb83ed87
KW
732 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_SHORT)) {
733 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
734 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (%d byte%s, need %d, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, (int)curlen, curlen == 1 ? "" : "s", (int)expectlen, *s0));
a0dbb045 735 }
eb83ed87
KW
736 goto malformed;
737 }
738 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
2f8f112e 739 do_overlong_test = FALSE;
eb83ed87
KW
740 if (retlen) {
741 *retlen = curlen;
742 }
743 }
744
745#ifndef EBCDIC /* EBCDIC allows FE, FF, can't overflow */
2f8f112e 746 if ((*s0 & 0xFE) == 0xFE /* matches both FE, FF */
eb83ed87
KW
747 && (flags & (UTF8_WARN_FE_FF|UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF)))
748 {
749 /* By adding UTF8_CHECK_ONLY to the test, we avoid unnecessary
750 * generation of the sv, since no warnings are raised under CHECK */
751 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_FE_FF|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_FE_FF
752 && ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8))
753 {
42303544
KW
754 /* This message is deliberately not of the same syntax as the other
755 * messages for malformations, for backwards compatibility in the
756 * unlikely event that code is relying on its precise earlier text
757 */
eb83ed87
KW
758 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s Code point beginning with byte 0x%02X is not Unicode, and not portable", malformed_text, *s0));
759 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
760 }
761 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_FE_FF) {
762 goto malformed;
ba210ebe 763 }
ba210ebe 764 }
b5b9af04 765 if (UNLIKELY(overflowed)) {
ba210ebe 766
eb83ed87
KW
767 /* If the first byte is FF, it will overflow a 32-bit word. If the
768 * first byte is FE, it will overflow a signed 32-bit word. The
769 * above preserves backward compatibility, since its message was used
770 * in earlier versions of this code in preference to overflow */
771 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (overflow at byte 0x%02x, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, overflow_byte, *s0));
ba210ebe 772 goto malformed;
eb83ed87
KW
773 }
774#endif
775
2f8f112e
KW
776 if (do_overlong_test
777 && expectlen > (STRLEN)UNISKIP(uv)
778 && ! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_LONG))
779 {
eb83ed87
KW
780 /* The overlong malformation has lower precedence than the others.
781 * Note that if this malformation is allowed, we return the actual
782 * value, instead of the replacement character. This is because this
783 * value is actually well-defined. */
784 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
785 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "%s (%d byte%s, need %d, after start byte 0x%02x)", malformed_text, (int)expectlen, expectlen == 1 ? "": "s", UNISKIP(uv), *s0));
786 }
787 goto malformed;
788 }
789
790 /* Here, the input is considered to be well-formed , but could be a
791 * problematic code point that is not allowed by the input parameters. */
792 if (uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST /* isn't problematic if < this */
793 && (flags & (UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE
794 |UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE)))
795 {
949cf498 796 if (UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv)) {
eb83ed87
KW
797 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE
798 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE))
799 {
111d382d 800 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf"", uv));
eb83ed87 801 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_SURROGATE);
949cf498
KW
802 }
803 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
804 goto disallowed;
805 }
806 }
949cf498 807 else if ((uv > PERL_UNICODE_MAX)) {
eb83ed87
KW
808 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_SUPER
809 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NON_UNICODE))
810 {
111d382d 811 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "Code point 0x%04"UVXf" is not Unicode, may not be portable", uv));
eb83ed87 812 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NON_UNICODE);
949cf498
KW
813 }
814 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER) {
815 goto disallowed;
816 }
817 }
4190d317
KW
818 else if (UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv)) {
819 if ((flags & (UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR|UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) == UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR
820 && ckWARN2_d(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NONCHAR))
821 {
822 sv = sv_2mortal(Perl_newSVpvf(aTHX_ "Unicode non-character U+%04"UVXf" is illegal for open interchange", uv));
823 pack_warn = packWARN2(WARN_UTF8, WARN_NONCHAR);
824 }
825 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
826 goto disallowed;
827 }
828 }
949cf498 829
eb83ed87
KW
830 if (sv) {
831 outlier_ret = uv;
832 goto do_warn;
833 }
834
949cf498
KW
835 /* Here, this is not considered a malformed character, so drop through
836 * to return it */
a0ed51b3 837 }
ba210ebe 838
a0ed51b3 839 return uv;
ba210ebe 840
eb83ed87
KW
841 /* There are three cases which get to beyond this point. In all 3 cases:
842 * <sv> if not null points to a string to print as a warning.
843 * <curlen> is what <*retlen> should be set to if UTF8_CHECK_ONLY isn't
844 * set.
845 * <outlier_ret> is what return value to use if UTF8_CHECK_ONLY isn't set.
846 * This is done by initializing it to 0, and changing it only
847 * for case 1).
848 * The 3 cases are:
849 * 1) The input is valid but problematic, and to be warned about. The
850 * return value is the resultant code point; <*retlen> is set to
851 * <curlen>, the number of bytes that comprise the code point.
852 * <pack_warn> contains the result of packWARN() for the warning
853 * types. The entry point for this case is the label <do_warn>;
854 * 2) The input is a valid code point but disallowed by the parameters to
855 * this function. The return value is 0. If UTF8_CHECK_ONLY is set,
856 * <*relen> is -1; otherwise it is <curlen>, the number of bytes that
857 * comprise the code point. <pack_warn> contains the result of
858 * packWARN() for the warning types. The entry point for this case is
859 * the label <disallowed>.
860 * 3) The input is malformed. The return value is 0. If UTF8_CHECK_ONLY
861 * is set, <*relen> is -1; otherwise it is <curlen>, the number of
862 * bytes that comprise the malformation. All such malformations are
863 * assumed to be warning type <utf8>. The entry point for this case
864 * is the label <malformed>.
865 */
949cf498 866
ba210ebe
JH
867malformed:
868
eb83ed87
KW
869 if (sv && ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8)) {
870 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
871 }
872
873disallowed:
874
fcc8fcf6 875 if (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY) {
ba210ebe 876 if (retlen)
10edeb5d 877 *retlen = ((STRLEN) -1);
ba210ebe
JH
878 return 0;
879 }
880
eb83ed87 881do_warn:
5b311467 882
eb83ed87
KW
883 if (pack_warn) { /* <pack_warn> was initialized to 0, and changed only
884 if warnings are to be raised. */
f555bc63 885 const char * const string = SvPVX_const(sv);
a0dbb045 886
f555bc63
KW
887 if (PL_op)
888 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s in %s", string, OP_DESC(PL_op));
889 else
890 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s", string);
a0dbb045
JH
891 }
892
eb83ed87
KW
893 if (retlen) {
894 *retlen = curlen;
895 }
ba210ebe 896
eb83ed87 897 return outlier_ret;
a0ed51b3
LW
898}
899
8e84507e 900/*
ec5f19d0
KW
901=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr_buf
902
903Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s> which
904is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
524080c4 905C<*retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
ec5f19d0 906
524080c4
KW
907If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
908enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
173db420
KW
909NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value, if well-defined
910(or the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER if not), is silently returned, and
911C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is
912the next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
913See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is
914returned.
ec5f19d0
KW
915
916=cut
917*/
918
919
920UV
921Perl_utf8_to_uvchr_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
922{
923 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVCHR_BUF;
924
925 assert(s < send);
926
927 return utf8n_to_uvchr(s, send - s, retlen,
928 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
929}
930
27d6c58a 931/* Like L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>(), but should only be called when it is known that
3986bb7c 932 * there are no malformations in the input UTF-8 string C<s>. surrogates,
6dd9dce9
KW
933 * non-character code points, and non-Unicode code points are allowed. A macro
934 * in utf8.h is used to normally avoid this function wrapper */
27d6c58a
KW
935
936UV
937Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
938{
3986bb7c
KW
939 const UV uv = valid_utf8_to_uvuni(s, retlen);
940
27d6c58a
KW
941 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VALID_UTF8_TO_UVCHR;
942
3986bb7c 943 return UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
27d6c58a
KW
944}
945
ec5f19d0 946/*
87cea99e 947=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr
9041c2e3 948
977c1d31
KW
949DEPRECATED!
950
6ee84de2 951Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s>
1e54db1a 952which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<retlen> will be set to the
9041c2e3
NIS
953length, in bytes, of that character.
954
4b88fb76 955Some, but not all, UTF-8 malformations are detected, and in fact, some
977c1d31
KW
956malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer, which
957is why this function is deprecated. Use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf> instead.
4b88fb76 958
524080c4
KW
959If C<s> points to one of the detected malformations, and UTF8 warnings are
960enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
961NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
962the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
963is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
964next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
965See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
9041c2e3
NIS
966
967=cut
968*/
969
970UV
7fc63493 971Perl_utf8_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
9041c2e3 972{
7918f24d
NC
973 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVCHR;
974
2ff6c191 975 return utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, s + UTF8_MAXBYTES, retlen);
9041c2e3
NIS
976}
977
978/*
ec5f19d0
KW
979=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni_buf
980
981Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string C<s> which
982is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
983C<retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
984
985This function should only be used when the returned UV is considered
986an index into the Unicode semantic tables (e.g. swashes).
987
524080c4
KW
988If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
989enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
990NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
991the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
992is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
993next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
994See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
ec5f19d0
KW
995
996=cut
997*/
998
999UV
1000Perl_utf8_to_uvuni_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
1001{
1002 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI_BUF;
1003
1004 assert(send > s);
1005
1006 /* Call the low level routine asking for checks */
1007 return Perl_utf8n_to_uvuni(aTHX_ s, send -s, retlen,
1008 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
1009}
1010
27d6c58a 1011/* Like L</utf8_to_uvuni_buf>(), but should only be called when it is known that
2114036c 1012 * there are no malformations in the input UTF-8 string C<s>. Surrogates,
3986bb7c 1013 * non-character code points, and non-Unicode code points are allowed */
27d6c58a
KW
1014
1015UV
1016Perl_valid_utf8_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
1017{
3986bb7c
KW
1018 UV expectlen = UTF8SKIP(s);
1019 const U8* send = s + expectlen;
1020 UV uv = NATIVE_TO_UTF(*s);
1021
27d6c58a
KW
1022 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VALID_UTF8_TO_UVUNI;
1023
3986bb7c
KW
1024 if (retlen) {
1025 *retlen = expectlen;
1026 }
1027
1028 /* An invariant is trivially returned */
1029 if (expectlen == 1) {
1030 return uv;
1031 }
1032
1033 /* Remove the leading bits that indicate the number of bytes, leaving just
1034 * the bits that are part of the value */
1035 uv &= UTF_START_MASK(expectlen);
1036
1037 /* Now, loop through the remaining bytes, accumulating each into the
08bc774e
KW
1038 * working total as we go. (I khw tried unrolling the loop for up to 4
1039 * bytes, but there was no performance improvement) */
3986bb7c
KW
1040 for (++s; s < send; s++) {
1041 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
1042 }
1043
1044 return uv;
27d6c58a
KW
1045}
1046
ec5f19d0 1047/*
87cea99e 1048=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni
9041c2e3 1049
977c1d31
KW
1050DEPRECATED!
1051
9041c2e3 1052Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string C<s>
1e54db1a 1053which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<retlen> will be set to the
9041c2e3
NIS
1054length, in bytes, of that character.
1055
39e518fd
KW
1056This function should only be used when the returned UV is considered
1057an index into the Unicode semantic tables (e.g. swashes).
1058
4b88fb76 1059Some, but not all, UTF-8 malformations are detected, and in fact, some
977c1d31
KW
1060malformed input could cause reading beyond the end of the input buffer, which
1061is why this function is deprecated. Use L</utf8_to_uvuni_buf> instead.
9041c2e3 1062
524080c4
KW
1063If C<s> points to one of the detected malformations, and UTF8 warnings are
1064enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> doesn't point to
1065NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
1066the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
1067is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
1068next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
1069See L</utf8n_to_uvuni> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
8e84507e
NIS
1070
1071=cut
1072*/
1073
1074UV
7fc63493 1075Perl_utf8_to_uvuni(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)
8e84507e 1076{
7918f24d
NC
1077 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI;
1078
4b88fb76 1079 return valid_utf8_to_uvuni(s, retlen);
8e84507e
NIS
1080}
1081
b76347f2 1082/*
87cea99e 1083=for apidoc utf8_length
b76347f2
JH
1084
1085Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string C<s> in characters.
02eb7b47
JH
1086Stops at C<e> (inclusive). If C<e E<lt> s> or if the scan would end
1087up past C<e>, croaks.
b76347f2
JH
1088
1089=cut
1090*/
1091
1092STRLEN
35a4481c 1093Perl_utf8_length(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *e)
b76347f2 1094{
97aff369 1095 dVAR;
b76347f2
JH
1096 STRLEN len = 0;
1097
7918f24d
NC
1098 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_LENGTH;
1099
8850bf83
JH
1100 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g.
1101 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
1102 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
1103
a3b680e6
AL
1104 if (e < s)
1105 goto warn_and_return;
b76347f2 1106 while (s < e) {
4cbf4130 1107 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
8e91ec7f
AV
1108 len++;
1109 }
1110
1111 if (e != s) {
1112 len--;
1113 warn_and_return:
9b387841
NC
1114 if (PL_op)
1115 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1116 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1117 else
61a12c31 1118 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
b76347f2
JH
1119 }
1120
1121 return len;
1122}
1123
b06226ff 1124/*
87cea99e 1125=for apidoc utf8_distance
b06226ff 1126
1e54db1a 1127Returns the number of UTF-8 characters between the UTF-8 pointers C<a>
b06226ff
JH
1128and C<b>.
1129
1130WARNING: use only if you *know* that the pointers point inside the
1131same UTF-8 buffer.
1132
37607a96
PK
1133=cut
1134*/
a0ed51b3 1135
02eb7b47 1136IV
35a4481c 1137Perl_utf8_distance(pTHX_ const U8 *a, const U8 *b)
a0ed51b3 1138{
7918f24d
NC
1139 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_DISTANCE;
1140
bf1665bc 1141 return (a < b) ? -1 * (IV) utf8_length(a, b) : (IV) utf8_length(b, a);
a0ed51b3
LW
1142}
1143
b06226ff 1144/*
87cea99e 1145=for apidoc utf8_hop
b06226ff 1146
8850bf83
JH
1147Return the UTF-8 pointer C<s> displaced by C<off> characters, either
1148forward or backward.
b06226ff
JH
1149
1150WARNING: do not use the following unless you *know* C<off> is within
8850bf83
JH
1151the UTF-8 data pointed to by C<s> *and* that on entry C<s> is aligned
1152on the first byte of character or just after the last byte of a character.
b06226ff 1153
37607a96
PK
1154=cut
1155*/
a0ed51b3
LW
1156
1157U8 *
4373e329 1158Perl_utf8_hop(pTHX_ const U8 *s, I32 off)
a0ed51b3 1159{
7918f24d
NC
1160 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_HOP;
1161
96a5add6 1162 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
8850bf83
JH
1163 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g
1164 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
1165 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
1166
a0ed51b3
LW
1167 if (off >= 0) {
1168 while (off--)
1169 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
1170 }
1171 else {
1172 while (off++) {
1173 s--;
8850bf83
JH
1174 while (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))
1175 s--;
a0ed51b3
LW
1176 }
1177 }
4373e329 1178 return (U8 *)s;
a0ed51b3
LW
1179}
1180
6940069f 1181/*
fed3ba5d
NC
1182=for apidoc bytes_cmp_utf8
1183
a1433954
KW
1184Compares the sequence of characters (stored as octets) in C<b>, C<blen> with the
1185sequence of characters (stored as UTF-8) in C<u>, C<ulen>. Returns 0 if they are
fed3ba5d
NC
1186equal, -1 or -2 if the first string is less than the second string, +1 or +2
1187if the first string is greater than the second string.
1188
1189-1 or +1 is returned if the shorter string was identical to the start of the
1190longer string. -2 or +2 is returned if the was a difference between characters
1191within the strings.
1192
1193=cut
1194*/
1195
1196int
1197Perl_bytes_cmp_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *b, STRLEN blen, const U8 *u, STRLEN ulen)
1198{
1199 const U8 *const bend = b + blen;
1200 const U8 *const uend = u + ulen;
1201
1202 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_CMP_UTF8;
1203
1204 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
1205
1206 while (b < bend && u < uend) {
1207 U8 c = *u++;
1208 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1209 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c)) {
1210 if (u < uend) {
1211 U8 c1 = *u++;
1212 if (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c1)) {
356979f4 1213 c = UNI_TO_NATIVE(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(c, c1));
fed3ba5d
NC
1214 } else {
1215 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1216 "Malformed UTF-8 character "
1217 "(unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x"
1218 ", immediately after start byte 0x%02x)"
1219 /* Dear diag.t, it's in the pod. */
1220 "%s%s", c1, c,
1221 PL_op ? " in " : "",
1222 PL_op ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : "");
1223 return -2;
1224 }
1225 } else {
1226 if (PL_op)
1227 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
1228 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
1229 else
61a12c31 1230 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
fed3ba5d
NC
1231 return -2; /* Really want to return undef :-) */
1232 }
1233 } else {
1234 return -2;
1235 }
1236 }
1237 if (*b != c) {
1238 return *b < c ? -2 : +2;
1239 }
1240 ++b;
1241 }
1242
1243 if (b == bend && u == uend)
1244 return 0;
1245
1246 return b < bend ? +1 : -1;
1247}
1248
1249/*
87cea99e 1250=for apidoc utf8_to_bytes
6940069f 1251
2bbc8d55 1252Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954
KW
1253Unlike L</bytes_to_utf8>, this over-writes the original string, and
1254updates C<len> to contain the new length.
67e989fb 1255Returns zero on failure, setting C<len> to -1.
6940069f 1256
a1433954 1257If you need a copy of the string, see L</bytes_from_utf8>.
95be277c 1258
6940069f
GS
1259=cut
1260*/
1261
1262U8 *
37607a96 1263Perl_utf8_to_bytes(pTHX_ U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1264{
d4c19fe8
AL
1265 U8 * const save = s;
1266 U8 * const send = s + *len;
6940069f 1267 U8 *d;
246fae53 1268
7918f24d
NC
1269 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_BYTES;
1270
1e54db1a 1271 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before updating string */
d4c19fe8 1272 while (s < send) {
dcad2880
JH
1273 U8 c = *s++;
1274
1d72bdf6
NIS
1275 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c) &&
1276 (!UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) || (s >= send)
1277 || !(c = *s++) || !UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c))) {
10edeb5d 1278 *len = ((STRLEN) -1);
dcad2880
JH
1279 return 0;
1280 }
246fae53 1281 }
dcad2880
JH
1282
1283 d = s = save;
6940069f 1284 while (s < send) {
ed646e6e 1285 STRLEN ulen;
4b88fb76 1286 *d++ = (U8)utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, send, &ulen);
ed646e6e 1287 s += ulen;
6940069f
GS
1288 }
1289 *d = '\0';
246fae53 1290 *len = d - save;
6940069f
GS
1291 return save;
1292}
1293
1294/*
87cea99e 1295=for apidoc bytes_from_utf8
f9a63242 1296
2bbc8d55 1297Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954 1298Unlike L</utf8_to_bytes> but like L</bytes_to_utf8>, returns a pointer to
ef9edfd0
JH
1299the newly-created string, and updates C<len> to contain the new
1300length. Returns the original string if no conversion occurs, C<len>
1301is unchanged. Do nothing if C<is_utf8> points to 0. Sets C<is_utf8> to
2bbc8d55
SP
13020 if C<s> is converted or consisted entirely of characters that are invariant
1303in utf8 (i.e., US-ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines).
f9a63242 1304
37607a96
PK
1305=cut
1306*/
f9a63242
JH
1307
1308U8 *
e1ec3a88 1309Perl_bytes_from_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)
f9a63242 1310{
f9a63242 1311 U8 *d;
e1ec3a88
AL
1312 const U8 *start = s;
1313 const U8 *send;
f9a63242
JH
1314 I32 count = 0;
1315
7918f24d
NC
1316 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_FROM_UTF8;
1317
96a5add6 1318 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
f9a63242 1319 if (!*is_utf8)
73d840c0 1320 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242 1321
1e54db1a 1322 /* ensure valid UTF-8 and chars < 256 before converting string */
f9a63242 1323 for (send = s + *len; s < send;) {
e1ec3a88 1324 U8 c = *s++;
1d72bdf6 1325 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
db42d148
NIS
1326 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c) && s < send &&
1327 (c = *s++) && UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c))
1328 count++;
1329 else
73d840c0 1330 return (U8 *)start;
db42d148 1331 }
f9a63242
JH
1332 }
1333
35da51f7 1334 *is_utf8 = FALSE;
f9a63242 1335
212542aa 1336 Newx(d, (*len) - count + 1, U8);
ef9edfd0 1337 s = start; start = d;
f9a63242
JH
1338 while (s < send) {
1339 U8 c = *s++;
c4d5f83a
NIS
1340 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
1341 /* Then it is two-byte encoded */
356979f4 1342 c = UNI_TO_NATIVE(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(c, *s++));
c4d5f83a
NIS
1343 }
1344 *d++ = c;
f9a63242
JH
1345 }
1346 *d = '\0';
1347 *len = d - start;
73d840c0 1348 return (U8 *)start;
f9a63242
JH
1349}
1350
1351/*
87cea99e 1352=for apidoc bytes_to_utf8
6940069f 1353
ff97e5cf
KW
1354Converts a string C<s> of length C<len> bytes from the native encoding into
1355UTF-8.
6662521e 1356Returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and sets C<len> to
ff97e5cf 1357reflect the new length in bytes.
6940069f 1358
2bbc8d55
SP
1359A NUL character will be written after the end of the string.
1360
1361If you want to convert to UTF-8 from encodings other than
1362the native (Latin1 or EBCDIC),
a1433954 1363see L</sv_recode_to_utf8>().
c9ada85f 1364
497711e7 1365=cut
6940069f
GS
1366*/
1367
c682ebef
FC
1368/* This logic is duplicated in sv_catpvn_flags, so any bug fixes will
1369 likewise need duplication. */
1370
6940069f 1371U8*
35a4481c 1372Perl_bytes_to_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *len)
6940069f 1373{
35a4481c 1374 const U8 * const send = s + (*len);
6940069f
GS
1375 U8 *d;
1376 U8 *dst;
7918f24d
NC
1377
1378 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_TO_UTF8;
96a5add6 1379 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
6940069f 1380
212542aa 1381 Newx(d, (*len) * 2 + 1, U8);
6940069f
GS
1382 dst = d;
1383
1384 while (s < send) {
35a4481c 1385 const UV uv = NATIVE_TO_ASCII(*s++);
c4d5f83a 1386 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv))
eb160463 1387 *d++ = (U8)UTF_TO_NATIVE(uv);
6940069f 1388 else {
eb160463
GS
1389 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(uv);
1390 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(uv);
6940069f
GS
1391 }
1392 }
1393 *d = '\0';
6662521e 1394 *len = d-dst;
6940069f
GS
1395 return dst;
1396}
1397
a0ed51b3 1398/*
dea0fc0b 1399 * Convert native (big-endian) or reversed (little-endian) UTF-16 to UTF-8.
a0ed51b3
LW
1400 *
1401 * Destination must be pre-extended to 3/2 source. Do not use in-place.
1402 * We optimize for native, for obvious reasons. */
1403
1404U8*
dea0fc0b 1405Perl_utf16_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3 1406{
dea0fc0b
JH
1407 U8* pend;
1408 U8* dstart = d;
1409
7918f24d
NC
1410 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8;
1411
dea0fc0b 1412 if (bytelen & 1)
f5992bc4 1413 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen %"UVuf, (UV)bytelen);
dea0fc0b
JH
1414
1415 pend = p + bytelen;
1416
a0ed51b3 1417 while (p < pend) {
dea0fc0b
JH
1418 UV uv = (p[0] << 8) + p[1]; /* UTF-16BE */
1419 p += 2;
a0ed51b3 1420 if (uv < 0x80) {
e294cc5d
JH
1421#ifdef EBCDIC
1422 *d++ = UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
1423#else
eb160463 1424 *d++ = (U8)uv;
e294cc5d 1425#endif
a0ed51b3
LW
1426 continue;
1427 }
1428 if (uv < 0x800) {
eb160463
GS
1429 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 6) | 0xc0);
1430 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1431 continue;
1432 }
46956fad
KW
1433#define FIRST_HIGH_SURROGATE UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST
1434#define LAST_HIGH_SURROGATE 0xDBFF
1435#define FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE 0xDC00
1436#define LAST_LOW_SURROGATE UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST
1437 if (uv >= FIRST_HIGH_SURROGATE && uv <= LAST_HIGH_SURROGATE) {
01ea242b 1438 if (p >= pend) {
dea0fc0b 1439 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
01ea242b
NC
1440 } else {
1441 UV low = (p[0] << 8) + p[1];
1442 p += 2;
46956fad 1443 if (low < FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE || low > LAST_LOW_SURROGATE)
01ea242b 1444 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
46956fad
KW
1445 uv = ((uv - FIRST_HIGH_SURROGATE) << 10)
1446 + (low - FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE) + 0x10000;
01ea242b 1447 }
46956fad 1448 } else if (uv >= FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE && uv <= LAST_LOW_SURROGATE) {
dbde1951 1449 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
a0ed51b3
LW
1450 }
1451 if (uv < 0x10000) {
eb160463
GS
1452 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
1453 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1454 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1455 continue;
1456 }
1457 else {
eb160463
GS
1458 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
1459 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1460 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
1461 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
1462 continue;
1463 }
1464 }
dea0fc0b 1465 *newlen = d - dstart;
a0ed51b3
LW
1466 return d;
1467}
1468
1469/* Note: this one is slightly destructive of the source. */
1470
1471U8*
dea0fc0b 1472Perl_utf16_to_utf8_reversed(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3
LW
1473{
1474 U8* s = (U8*)p;
d4c19fe8 1475 U8* const send = s + bytelen;
7918f24d
NC
1476
1477 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8_REVERSED;
1478
e0ea5e2d
NC
1479 if (bytelen & 1)
1480 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8_reversed: odd bytelen %"UVuf,
1481 (UV)bytelen);
1482
a0ed51b3 1483 while (s < send) {
d4c19fe8 1484 const U8 tmp = s[0];
a0ed51b3
LW
1485 s[0] = s[1];
1486 s[1] = tmp;
1487 s += 2;
1488 }
dea0fc0b 1489 return utf16_to_utf8(p, d, bytelen, newlen);
a0ed51b3
LW
1490}
1491
922e8cb4
KW
1492bool
1493Perl__is_uni_FOO(pTHX_ const U8 classnum, const UV c)
1494{
1495 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
1496 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
1497 return _is_utf8_FOO(classnum, tmpbuf);
1498}
1499
c3fd2246
KW
1500/* for now these are all defined (inefficiently) in terms of the utf8 versions.
1501 * Note that the macros in handy.h that call these short-circuit calling them
1502 * for Latin-1 range inputs */
a0ed51b3
LW
1503
1504bool
84afefe6 1505Perl_is_uni_alnum(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1506{
89ebb4a3 1507 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1508 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1509 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_WORDCHAR, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1510}
1511
1512bool
5092f92a
KW
1513Perl_is_uni_alnumc(pTHX_ UV c)
1514{
1515 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
1516 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1517 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_ALPHANUMERIC, tmpbuf);
5092f92a
KW
1518}
1519
f9ae8fb6
JD
1520/* Internal function so we can deprecate the external one, and call
1521 this one from other deprecated functions in this file */
1522
1523PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
61b19385
KW
1524S_is_utf8_idfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
1525{
1526 dVAR;
1527
1528 if (*p == '_')
1529 return TRUE;
1530 /* is_utf8_idstart would be more logical. */
1531 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idstart, "IdStart");
1532}
1533
5092f92a 1534bool
84afefe6 1535Perl_is_uni_idfirst(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1536{
89ebb4a3 1537 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1538 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
61b19385 1539 return S_is_utf8_idfirst(aTHX_ tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1540}
1541
1542bool
eba68aa0
KW
1543Perl__is_uni_perl_idcont(pTHX_ UV c)
1544{
1545 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
1546 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
1547 return _is_utf8_perl_idcont(tmpbuf);
1548}
1549
1550bool
f91dcd13
KW
1551Perl__is_uni_perl_idstart(pTHX_ UV c)
1552{
1553 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
1554 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
1555 return _is_utf8_perl_idstart(tmpbuf);
1556}
1557
1558bool
84afefe6 1559Perl_is_uni_alpha(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1560{
89ebb4a3 1561 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1562 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1563 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_ALPHA, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1564}
1565
1566bool
84afefe6 1567Perl_is_uni_ascii(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1568{
bc39fe24 1569 return isASCII(c);
4d61ec05
GS
1570}
1571
1572bool
bdd8600f
KW
1573Perl_is_uni_blank(pTHX_ UV c)
1574{
2cafb56b 1575 return isBLANK_uni(c);
bdd8600f
KW
1576}
1577
1578bool
84afefe6 1579Perl_is_uni_space(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1580{
add4123a 1581 return isSPACE_uni(c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1582}
1583
1584bool
84afefe6 1585Perl_is_uni_digit(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1586{
89ebb4a3 1587 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1588 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1589 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_DIGIT, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1590}
1591
1592bool
84afefe6 1593Perl_is_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1594{
89ebb4a3 1595 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1596 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1597 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_UPPER, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1598}
1599
1600bool
84afefe6 1601Perl_is_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1602{
89ebb4a3 1603 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1604 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1605 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_LOWER, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1606}
1607
1608bool
84afefe6 1609Perl_is_uni_cntrl(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1610{
7b952154 1611 return isCNTRL_L1(c);
b8c5462f
JH
1612}
1613
1614bool
84afefe6 1615Perl_is_uni_graph(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1616{
89ebb4a3 1617 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1618 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1619 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_GRAPH, tmpbuf);
b8c5462f
JH
1620}
1621
1622bool
84afefe6 1623Perl_is_uni_print(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1624{
89ebb4a3 1625 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1626 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1627 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_PRINT, tmpbuf);
a0ed51b3
LW
1628}
1629
b8c5462f 1630bool
84afefe6 1631Perl_is_uni_punct(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1632{
89ebb4a3 1633 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
230880c1 1634 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
922e8cb4 1635 return _is_utf8_FOO(_CC_PUNCT, tmpbuf);
b8c5462f
JH
1636}
1637
4d61ec05 1638bool
84afefe6 1639Perl_is_uni_xdigit(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1640{
4ac6419d 1641 return isXDIGIT_uni(c);
4d61ec05
GS
1642}
1643
3a4c58c9
KW
1644UV
1645Perl__to_upper_title_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const char S_or_s)
1646{
1647 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
1648 * those, converting the result to utf8. The only difference between upper
1649 * and title case in this range is that LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S is
1650 * either "SS" or "Ss". Which one to use is passed into the routine in
1651 * 'S_or_s' to avoid a test */
1652
1653 UV converted = toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD(c);
1654
1655 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UPPER_TITLE_LATIN1;
1656
1657 assert(S_or_s == 'S' || S_or_s == 's');
1658
1659 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) { /* No difference between the two for
1660 characters in this range */
1661 *p = (U8) converted;
1662 *lenp = 1;
1663 return converted;
1664 }
1665
1666 /* toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD gives the correct results except for three outliers,
1667 * which it maps to one of them, so as to only have to have one check for
1668 * it in the main case */
1669 if (UNLIKELY(converted == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS)) {
1670 switch (c) {
1671 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS:
1672 converted = LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS;
1673 break;
1674 case MICRO_SIGN:
1675 converted = GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_MU;
1676 break;
1677 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S:
1678 *(p)++ = 'S';
1679 *p = S_or_s;
1680 *lenp = 2;
1681 return 'S';
1682 default:
1683 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: to_upper_title_latin1 did not expect '%c' to map to '%c'", c, LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS);
118e2215 1684 assert(0); /* NOTREACHED */
3a4c58c9
KW
1685 }
1686 }
1687
1688 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1689 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1690 *lenp = 2;
1691
1692 return converted;
1693}
1694
50bda2c3
KW
1695/* Call the function to convert a UTF-8 encoded character to the specified case.
1696 * Note that there may be more than one character in the result.
1697 * INP is a pointer to the first byte of the input character
1698 * OUTP will be set to the first byte of the string of changed characters. It
1699 * needs to have space for UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes
1700 * LENP will be set to the length in bytes of the string of changed characters
1701 *
1702 * The functions return the ordinal of the first character in the string of OUTP */
f90a9a02
KW
1703#define CALL_UPPER_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_toupper, "ToUc", "utf8::ToSpecUc")
1704#define CALL_TITLE_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_totitle, "ToTc", "utf8::ToSpecTc")
1705#define CALL_LOWER_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_tolower, "ToLc", "utf8::ToSpecLc")
50bda2c3
KW
1706
1707/* This additionally has the input parameter SPECIALS, which if non-zero will
1708 * cause this to use the SPECIALS hash for folding (meaning get full case
1709 * folding); otherwise, when zero, this implies a simple case fold */
f90a9a02 1710#define CALL_FOLD_CASE(INP, OUTP, LENP, SPECIALS) Perl_to_utf8_case(aTHX_ INP, OUTP, LENP, &PL_utf8_tofold, "ToCf", (SPECIALS) ? "utf8::ToSpecCf" : NULL)
c3fd2246 1711
84afefe6
JH
1712UV
1713Perl_to_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1714{
3a4c58c9
KW
1715 dVAR;
1716
a1433954
KW
1717 /* Convert the Unicode character whose ordinal is <c> to its uppercase
1718 * version and store that in UTF-8 in <p> and its length in bytes in <lenp>.
1719 * Note that the <p> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
c3fd2246
KW
1720 * the changed version may be longer than the original character.
1721 *
1722 * The ordinal of the first character of the changed version is returned
1723 * (but note, as explained above, that there may be more.) */
1724
7918f24d
NC
1725 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_UPPER;
1726
3a4c58c9
KW
1727 if (c < 256) {
1728 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 'S');
1729 }
1730
0ebc6274 1731 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
3a4c58c9 1732 return CALL_UPPER_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1733}
1734
84afefe6
JH
1735UV
1736Perl_to_uni_title(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1737{
3a4c58c9
KW
1738 dVAR;
1739
7918f24d
NC
1740 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_TITLE;
1741
3a4c58c9
KW
1742 if (c < 256) {
1743 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 's');
1744 }
1745
0ebc6274 1746 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
3a4c58c9 1747 return CALL_TITLE_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1748}
1749
afc16117
KW
1750STATIC U8
1751S_to_lower_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
1752{
1753 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
1754 * those, converting the result to utf8. Since the result is always just
a1433954 1755 * one character, we allow <p> to be NULL */
afc16117
KW
1756
1757 U8 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
1758
1759 if (p != NULL) {
1760 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
1761 *p = converted;
1762 *lenp = 1;
1763 }
1764 else {
1765 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1766 *(p+1) = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1767 *lenp = 2;
1768 }
1769 }
1770 return converted;
1771}
1772
84afefe6
JH
1773UV
1774Perl_to_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 1775{
968c5e6a
KW
1776 dVAR;
1777
7918f24d
NC
1778 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_LOWER;
1779
afc16117
KW
1780 if (c < 256) {
1781 return to_lower_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp);
bca00c02
KW
1782 }
1783
afc16117 1784 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
968c5e6a 1785 return CALL_LOWER_CASE(p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
1786}
1787
84afefe6 1788UV
f673fad4 1789Perl__to_fold_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags)
a1dde8de 1790{
a1433954 1791 /* Corresponds to to_lower_latin1(), <flags> is TRUE if to use full case
f673fad4
KW
1792 * folding */
1793
a1dde8de
KW
1794 UV converted;
1795
1796 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_FOLD_LATIN1;
1797
1798 if (c == MICRO_SIGN) {
1799 converted = GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_MU;
1800 }
1801 else if (flags && c == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S) {
1802 *(p)++ = 's';
1803 *p = 's';
1804 *lenp = 2;
1805 return 's';
1806 }
1807 else { /* In this range the fold of all other characters is their lower
1808 case */
1809 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
1810 }
1811
1812 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
1813 *p = (U8) converted;
1814 *lenp = 1;
1815 }
1816 else {
1817 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
1818 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
1819 *lenp = 2;
1820 }
1821
1822 return converted;
1823}
1824
1825UV
a0270393 1826Perl__to_uni_fold_flags(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const U8 flags)
84afefe6 1827{
4b593389 1828
a0270393
KW
1829 /* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change
1830 * <flags> bits meanings:
1831 * FOLD_FLAGS_FULL iff full folding is to be used;
1832 * FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE iff in locale
1833 * FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII iff non-ASCII to ASCII folds are prohibited
1834 */
4b593389 1835
36bb2ab6 1836 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UNI_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 1837
a1dde8de 1838 if (c < 256) {
a0270393
KW
1839 UV result = _to_fold_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp,
1840 cBOOL(((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL)
1841 /* If ASCII-safe, don't allow full folding,
1842 * as that could include SHARP S => ss;
1843 * otherwise there is no crossing of
1844 * ascii/non-ascii in the latin1 range */
1845 && ! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))));
1846 /* It is illegal for the fold to cross the 255/256 boundary under
1847 * locale; in this case return the original */
1848 return (result > 256 && flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE)
1849 ? c
1850 : result;
a1dde8de
KW
1851 }
1852
a0270393
KW
1853 /* If no special needs, just use the macro */
1854 if ( ! (flags & (FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE|FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))) {
1855 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
1856 return CALL_FOLD_CASE(p, p, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
1857 }
1858 else { /* Otherwise, _to_utf8_fold_flags has the intelligence to deal with
1859 the special flags. */
1860 U8 utf8_c[UTF8_MAXBYTES + 1];
1861 uvchr_to_utf8(utf8_c, c);
1862 return _to_utf8_fold_flags(utf8_c, p, lenp, flags, NULL);
1863 }
84afefe6
JH
1864}
1865
a0ed51b3 1866bool
84afefe6 1867Perl_is_uni_alnum_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1868{
edfb3318
KW
1869 if (c < 256) {
1870 return isALNUM_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1871 }
922e8cb4 1872 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_WORDCHAR, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1873}
1874
1875bool
5092f92a
KW
1876Perl_is_uni_alnumc_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
1877{
1878 if (c < 256) {
15861f94 1879 return isALPHANUMERIC_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
5092f92a 1880 }
922e8cb4 1881 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_ALPHANUMERIC, c);
5092f92a
KW
1882}
1883
1884bool
84afefe6 1885Perl_is_uni_idfirst_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1886{
edfb3318
KW
1887 if (c < 256) {
1888 return isIDFIRST_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1889 }
1890 return _is_uni_perl_idstart(c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1891}
1892
1893bool
84afefe6 1894Perl_is_uni_alpha_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1895{
edfb3318
KW
1896 if (c < 256) {
1897 return isALPHA_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1898 }
922e8cb4 1899 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_ALPHA, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1900}
1901
1902bool
84afefe6 1903Perl_is_uni_ascii_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1904{
edfb3318
KW
1905 if (c < 256) {
1906 return isASCII_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1907 }
1908 return 0;
4d61ec05
GS
1909}
1910
1911bool
bdd8600f
KW
1912Perl_is_uni_blank_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
1913{
edfb3318
KW
1914 if (c < 256) {
1915 return isBLANK_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1916 }
61b19385 1917 return isBLANK_uni(c);
bdd8600f
KW
1918}
1919
1920bool
84afefe6 1921Perl_is_uni_space_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1922{
edfb3318
KW
1923 if (c < 256) {
1924 return isSPACE_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1925 }
61b19385 1926 return isSPACE_uni(c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1927}
1928
1929bool
84afefe6 1930Perl_is_uni_digit_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1931{
edfb3318
KW
1932 if (c < 256) {
1933 return isDIGIT_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1934 }
922e8cb4 1935 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_DIGIT, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1936}
1937
1938bool
84afefe6 1939Perl_is_uni_upper_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1940{
edfb3318
KW
1941 if (c < 256) {
1942 return isUPPER_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1943 }
922e8cb4 1944 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_UPPER, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1945}
1946
1947bool
84afefe6 1948Perl_is_uni_lower_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1949{
edfb3318
KW
1950 if (c < 256) {
1951 return isLOWER_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1952 }
922e8cb4 1953 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_LOWER, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1954}
1955
1956bool
84afefe6 1957Perl_is_uni_cntrl_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1958{
edfb3318
KW
1959 if (c < 256) {
1960 return isCNTRL_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1961 }
61b19385 1962 return 0;
b8c5462f
JH
1963}
1964
1965bool
84afefe6 1966Perl_is_uni_graph_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1967{
edfb3318
KW
1968 if (c < 256) {
1969 return isGRAPH_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1970 }
922e8cb4 1971 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_GRAPH, c);
b8c5462f
JH
1972}
1973
1974bool
84afefe6 1975Perl_is_uni_print_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
a0ed51b3 1976{
edfb3318
KW
1977 if (c < 256) {
1978 return isPRINT_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1979 }
922e8cb4 1980 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_PRINT, c);
a0ed51b3
LW
1981}
1982
b8c5462f 1983bool
84afefe6 1984Perl_is_uni_punct_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
b8c5462f 1985{
edfb3318
KW
1986 if (c < 256) {
1987 return isPUNCT_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1988 }
922e8cb4 1989 return _is_uni_FOO(_CC_PUNCT, c);
b8c5462f
JH
1990}
1991
4d61ec05 1992bool
84afefe6 1993Perl_is_uni_xdigit_lc(pTHX_ UV c)
4d61ec05 1994{
edfb3318
KW
1995 if (c < 256) {
1996 return isXDIGIT_LC(UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
1997 }
61b19385 1998 return isXDIGIT_uni(c);
4d61ec05
GS
1999}
2000
b7ac61fa
JH
2001U32
2002Perl_to_uni_upper_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
2003{
ee099d14
JH
2004 /* XXX returns only the first character -- do not use XXX */
2005 /* XXX no locale support yet */
2006 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 2007 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 2008 return (U32)to_uni_upper(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
2009}
2010
2011U32
2012Perl_to_uni_title_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
2013{
ee099d14
JH
2014 /* XXX returns only the first character XXX -- do not use XXX */
2015 /* XXX no locale support yet */
2016 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 2017 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 2018 return (U32)to_uni_title(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
2019}
2020
2021U32
2022Perl_to_uni_lower_lc(pTHX_ U32 c)
2023{
ee099d14
JH
2024 /* XXX returns only the first character -- do not use XXX */
2025 /* XXX no locale support yet */
2026 STRLEN len;
89ebb4a3 2027 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
ee099d14 2028 return (U32)to_uni_lower(c, tmpbuf, &len);
b7ac61fa
JH
2029}
2030
26483009 2031PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
5141f98e 2032S_is_utf8_common(pTHX_ const U8 *const p, SV **swash,
bde6a22d
NC
2033 const char *const swashname)
2034{
ea317ccb
KW
2035 /* returns a boolean giving whether or not the UTF8-encoded character that
2036 * starts at <p> is in the swash indicated by <swashname>. <swash>
2037 * contains a pointer to where the swash indicated by <swashname>
2038 * is to be stored; which this routine will do, so that future calls will
2039 * look at <*swash> and only generate a swash if it is not null
2040 *
2041 * Note that it is assumed that the buffer length of <p> is enough to
2042 * contain all the bytes that comprise the character. Thus, <*p> should
2043 * have been checked before this call for mal-formedness enough to assure
2044 * that. */
2045
97aff369 2046 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2047
2048 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_COMMON;
2049
492a624f 2050 /* The API should have included a length for the UTF-8 character in <p>,
28123549 2051 * but it doesn't. We therefore assume that p has been validated at least
492a624f
KW
2052 * as far as there being enough bytes available in it to accommodate the
2053 * character without reading beyond the end, and pass that number on to the
2054 * validating routine */
28123549
KW
2055 if (! is_utf8_char_buf(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p))) {
2056 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8)) {
2057 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN2(WARN_DEPRECATED,WARN_UTF8),
9816f121 2058 "Passing malformed UTF-8 to \"%s\" is deprecated", swashname);
28123549
KW
2059 if (ckWARN(WARN_UTF8)) { /* This will output details as to the
2060 what the malformation is */
2061 utf8_to_uvchr_buf(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p), NULL);
2062 }
2063 }
2064 return FALSE;
2065 }
87367d5f
KW
2066 if (!*swash) {
2067 U8 flags = _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST;
2068 *swash = _core_swash_init("utf8", swashname, &PL_sv_undef, 1, 0, NULL, &flags);
2069 }
28123549 2070
bde6a22d
NC
2071 return swash_fetch(*swash, p, TRUE) != 0;
2072}
2073
2074bool
922e8cb4
KW
2075Perl__is_utf8_FOO(pTHX_ const U8 classnum, const U8 *p)
2076{
2077 dVAR;
2078
2079 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_FOO;
2080
2081 assert(classnum < _FIRST_NON_SWASH_CC);
2082
2083 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[classnum], swash_property_names[classnum]);
2084}
2085
2086bool
7fc63493 2087Perl_is_utf8_alnum(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2088{
97aff369 2089 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2090
2091 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALNUM;
2092
671c33bf
NC
2093 /* NOTE: "IsWord", not "IsAlnum", since Alnum is a true
2094 * descendant of isalnum(3), in other words, it doesn't
2095 * contain the '_'. --jhi */
03940dc2 2096 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_WORDCHAR], "IsWord");
a0ed51b3
LW
2097}
2098
2099bool
5092f92a
KW
2100Perl_is_utf8_alnumc(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2101{
2102 dVAR;
2103
2104 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALNUMC;
2105
03940dc2 2106 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_ALPHANUMERIC], "IsAlnum");
5092f92a
KW
2107}
2108
2109bool
7fc63493 2110Perl_is_utf8_idfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p) /* The naming is historical. */
a0ed51b3 2111{
97aff369 2112 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2113
2114 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_IDFIRST;
2115
61b19385 2116 return S_is_utf8_idfirst(aTHX_ p);
82686b01
JH
2117}
2118
2119bool
c11ff943
KW
2120Perl_is_utf8_xidfirst(pTHX_ const U8 *p) /* The naming is historical. */
2121{
2122 dVAR;
2123
2124 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XIDFIRST;
2125
2126 if (*p == '_')
2127 return TRUE;
2128 /* is_utf8_idstart would be more logical. */
2129 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_xidstart, "XIdStart");
2130}
2131
2132bool
d65654cb 2133Perl__is_utf8_perl_idstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b6912c02
KW
2134{
2135 dVAR;
2136
d65654cb 2137 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_PERL_IDSTART;
b6912c02
KW
2138
2139 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idstart, "_Perl_IDStart");
2140}
2141
2142bool
eba68aa0
KW
2143Perl__is_utf8_perl_idcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2144{
2145 dVAR;
2146
2147 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_PERL_IDCONT;
2148
2149 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idcont, "_Perl_IDCont");
2150}
2151
2152
2153bool
7fc63493 2154Perl_is_utf8_idcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
82686b01 2155{
97aff369 2156 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2157
2158 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_IDCONT;
2159
d4c19fe8 2160 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "IdContinue");
a0ed51b3
LW
2161}
2162
2163bool
c11ff943
KW
2164Perl_is_utf8_xidcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2165{
2166 dVAR;
2167
2168 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XIDCONT;
2169
c11ff943
KW
2170 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "XIdContinue");
2171}
2172
2173bool
7fc63493 2174Perl_is_utf8_alpha(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2175{
97aff369 2176 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2177
2178 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ALPHA;
2179
03940dc2 2180 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_ALPHA], "IsAlpha");
a0ed51b3
LW
2181}
2182
2183bool
7fc63493 2184Perl_is_utf8_ascii(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2185{
97aff369 2186 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2187
2188 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_ASCII;
2189
bc39fe24
KW
2190 /* ASCII characters are the same whether in utf8 or not. So the macro
2191 * works on both utf8 and non-utf8 representations. */
2192 return isASCII(*p);
b8c5462f
JH
2193}
2194
2195bool
bdd8600f
KW
2196Perl_is_utf8_blank(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2197{
2198 dVAR;
2199
2200 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_BLANK;
2201
2cafb56b 2202 return isBLANK_utf8(p);
bdd8600f
KW
2203}
2204
2205bool
7fc63493 2206Perl_is_utf8_space(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2207{
97aff369 2208 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2209
2210 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_SPACE;
2211
add4123a 2212 return isSPACE_utf8(p);
a0ed51b3
LW
2213}
2214
2215bool
d1eb3177
YO
2216Perl_is_utf8_perl_space(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2217{
2218 dVAR;
2219
2220 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PERL_SPACE;
2221
c4428693
KW
2222 /* Only true if is an ASCII space-like character, and ASCII is invariant
2223 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2224 return isSPACE_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2225}
2226
2227bool
2228Perl_is_utf8_perl_word(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2229{
2230 dVAR;
2231
2232 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PERL_WORD;
2233
c4428693
KW
2234 /* Only true if is an ASCII word character, and ASCII is invariant
2235 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2236 return isWORDCHAR_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2237}
2238
2239bool
7fc63493 2240Perl_is_utf8_digit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2241{
97aff369 2242 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2243
2244 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_DIGIT;
2245
03940dc2 2246 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_DIGIT], "IsDigit");
a0ed51b3
LW
2247}
2248
2249bool
d1eb3177
YO
2250Perl_is_utf8_posix_digit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2251{
2252 dVAR;
2253
2254 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_POSIX_DIGIT;
2255
c4428693
KW
2256 /* Only true if is an ASCII digit character, and ASCII is invariant
2257 * under utf8, so can just use the macro */
2258 return isDIGIT_A(*p);
d1eb3177
YO
2259}
2260
2261bool
7fc63493 2262Perl_is_utf8_upper(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2263{
97aff369 2264 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2265
2266 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_UPPER;
2267
03940dc2 2268 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_UPPER], "IsUppercase");
a0ed51b3
LW
2269}
2270
2271bool
7fc63493 2272Perl_is_utf8_lower(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2273{
97aff369 2274 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2275
2276 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_LOWER;
2277
03940dc2 2278 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_LOWER], "IsLowercase");
a0ed51b3
LW
2279}
2280
2281bool
7fc63493 2282Perl_is_utf8_cntrl(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2283{
97aff369 2284 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2285
2286 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CNTRL;
2287
a35d759a 2288 return isCNTRL_utf8(p);
b8c5462f
JH
2289}
2290
2291bool
7fc63493 2292Perl_is_utf8_graph(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2293{
97aff369 2294 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2295
2296 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_GRAPH;
2297
03940dc2 2298 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_GRAPH], "IsGraph");
b8c5462f
JH
2299}
2300
2301bool
7fc63493 2302Perl_is_utf8_print(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2303{
97aff369 2304 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2305
2306 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PRINT;
2307
03940dc2 2308 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_PRINT], "IsPrint");
a0ed51b3
LW
2309}
2310
2311bool
7fc63493 2312Perl_is_utf8_punct(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2313{
97aff369 2314 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2315
2316 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_PUNCT;
2317
03940dc2 2318 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[_CC_PUNCT], "IsPunct");
b8c5462f
JH
2319}
2320
2321bool
7fc63493 2322Perl_is_utf8_xdigit(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
b8c5462f 2323{
97aff369 2324 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2325
2326 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_XDIGIT;
2327
4ac6419d 2328 return is_XDIGIT_utf8(p);
b8c5462f
JH
2329}
2330
2331bool
7dbf68d2
KW
2332Perl__is_utf8_mark(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
2333{
2334 dVAR;
2335
2336 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_MARK;
2337
2338 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_mark, "IsM");
2339}
2340
2341
2342bool
7fc63493 2343Perl_is_utf8_mark(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
a0ed51b3 2344{
97aff369 2345 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2346
2347 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_MARK;
2348
7dbf68d2 2349 return _is_utf8_mark(p);
a0ed51b3
LW
2350}
2351
6b5c0936 2352/*
87cea99e 2353=for apidoc to_utf8_case
6b5c0936 2354
a1433954
KW
2355The C<p> contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding
2356the character that is being converted. This routine assumes that the character
2357at C<p> is well-formed.
6b5c0936 2358
a1433954
KW
2359The C<ustrp> is a pointer to the character buffer to put the
2360conversion result to. The C<lenp> is a pointer to the length
6b5c0936
JH
2361of the result.
2362
a1433954 2363The C<swashp> is a pointer to the swash to use.
6b5c0936 2364
a1433954
KW
2365Both the special and normal mappings are stored in F<lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl>,
2366and loaded by SWASHNEW, using F<lib/utf8_heavy.pl>. The C<special> (usually,
0134edef 2367but not always, a multicharacter mapping), is tried first.
6b5c0936 2368
a1433954 2369The C<special> is a string like "utf8::ToSpecLower", which means the
0134edef
JH
2370hash %utf8::ToSpecLower. The access to the hash is through
2371Perl_to_utf8_case().
6b5c0936 2372
a1433954 2373The C<normal> is a string like "ToLower" which means the swash
0134edef
JH
2374%utf8::ToLower.
2375
2376=cut */
6b5c0936 2377
2104c8d9 2378UV
9a957fbc
AL
2379Perl_to_utf8_case(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp,
2380 SV **swashp, const char *normal, const char *special)
a0ed51b3 2381{
97aff369 2382 dVAR;
89ebb4a3 2383 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1];
0134edef 2384 STRLEN len = 0;
4b88fb76 2385 const UV uv0 = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, NULL);
1feea2c7
JH
2386 /* The NATIVE_TO_UNI() and UNI_TO_NATIVE() mappings
2387 * are necessary in EBCDIC, they are redundant no-ops
2388 * in ASCII-ish platforms, and hopefully optimized away. */
f54cb97a 2389 const UV uv1 = NATIVE_TO_UNI(uv0);
7918f24d
NC
2390
2391 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UTF8_CASE;
2392
9ae3ac1a
KW
2393 /* Note that swash_fetch() doesn't output warnings for these because it
2394 * assumes we will */
8457b38f 2395 if (uv1 >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST) {
9ae3ac1a 2396 if (uv1 <= UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST) {
8457b38f
KW
2397 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE)) {
2398 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2399 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
2400 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%04"UVXf"", desc, uv1);
2401 }
9ae3ac1a
KW
2402 }
2403 else if (UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv1)) {
8457b38f
KW
2404 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
2405 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
2406 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
2407 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%04"UVXf"", desc, uv1);
2408 }
9ae3ac1a
KW
2409 }
2410
2411 /* Note that non-characters are perfectly legal, so no warning should
2412 * be given */
2413 }
2414
1feea2c7 2415 uvuni_to_utf8(tmpbuf, uv1);
0134edef
JH
2416
2417 if (!*swashp) /* load on-demand */
5ab9d2ef 2418 *swashp = _core_swash_init("utf8", normal, &PL_sv_undef, 4, 0, NULL, NULL);
0134edef 2419
a6f87d8c 2420 if (special) {
0134edef 2421 /* It might be "special" (sometimes, but not always,
2a37f04d 2422 * a multicharacter mapping) */
6673a63c 2423 HV * const hv = get_hv(special, 0);
b08cf34e
JH
2424 SV **svp;
2425
35da51f7 2426 if (hv &&
b08cf34e
JH
2427 (svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)tmpbuf, UNISKIP(uv1), FALSE)) &&
2428 (*svp)) {
cfd0369c 2429 const char *s;
47654450 2430
cfd0369c 2431 s = SvPV_const(*svp, len);
47654450
JH
2432 if (len == 1)
2433 len = uvuni_to_utf8(ustrp, NATIVE_TO_UNI(*(U8*)s)) - ustrp;
2a37f04d 2434 else {
2f9475ad
JH
2435#ifdef EBCDIC
2436 /* If we have EBCDIC we need to remap the characters
2437 * since any characters in the low 256 are Unicode
2438 * code points, not EBCDIC. */
7cda7a3d 2439 U8 *t = (U8*)s, *tend = t + len, *d;
2f9475ad
JH
2440
2441 d = tmpbuf;
b08cf34e 2442 if (SvUTF8(*svp)) {
2f9475ad
JH
2443 STRLEN tlen = 0;
2444
2445 while (t < tend) {
6bd1c396 2446 const UV c = utf8_to_uvchr_buf(t, tend, &tlen);
2f9475ad
JH
2447 if (tlen > 0) {
2448 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, UNI_TO_NATIVE(c));
2449 t += tlen;
2450 }
2451 else
2452 break;
2453 }
2454 }
2455 else {
36fec512
JH
2456 while (t < tend) {
2457 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, UNI_TO_NATIVE(*t));
2458 t++;
2459 }
2f9475ad
JH
2460 }
2461 len = d - tmpbuf;
2462 Copy(tmpbuf, ustrp, len, U8);
2463#else
d2dcd0fb 2464 Copy(s, ustrp, len, U8);
2f9475ad 2465#endif
29e98929 2466 }
983ffd37 2467 }
0134edef
JH
2468 }
2469
2470 if (!len && *swashp) {
2114036c 2471 const UV uv2 = swash_fetch(*swashp, tmpbuf, TRUE /* => is utf8 */);
d4c19fe8 2472
0134edef
JH
2473 if (uv2) {
2474 /* It was "normal" (a single character mapping). */
d4c19fe8 2475 const UV uv3 = UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv2);
e9101d72 2476 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, uv3) - ustrp;
2a37f04d
JH
2477 }
2478 }
1feea2c7 2479
cbe07460
KW
2480 if (len) {
2481 if (lenp) {
2482 *lenp = len;
2483 }
2484 return valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ustrp, 0);
2485 }
2486
2487 /* Here, there was no mapping defined, which means that the code point maps
2488 * to itself. Return the inputs */
bfdf22ec 2489 len = UTF8SKIP(p);
ca9fab46
KW
2490 if (p != ustrp) { /* Don't copy onto itself */
2491 Copy(p, ustrp, len, U8);
2492 }
0134edef 2493
2a37f04d
JH
2494 if (lenp)
2495 *lenp = len;
2496
cbe07460
KW
2497 return uv0;
2498
a0ed51b3
LW
2499}
2500
051a06d4
KW
2501STATIC UV
2502S_check_locale_boundary_crossing(pTHX_ const U8* const p, const UV result, U8* const ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)
2503{
2504 /* This is called when changing the case of a utf8-encoded character above
2505 * the Latin1 range, and the operation is in locale. If the result
2506 * contains a character that crosses the 255/256 boundary, disallow the
2507 * change, and return the original code point. See L<perlfunc/lc> for why;
2508 *
a1433954
KW
2509 * p points to the original string whose case was changed; assumed
2510 * by this routine to be well-formed
051a06d4
KW
2511 * result the code point of the first character in the changed-case string
2512 * ustrp points to the changed-case string (<result> represents its first char)
2513 * lenp points to the length of <ustrp> */
2514
2515 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
2516
2517 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CHECK_LOCALE_BOUNDARY_CROSSING;
2518
2519 assert(! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p) && ! UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p));
2520
2521 /* We know immediately if the first character in the string crosses the
2522 * boundary, so can skip */
2523 if (result > 255) {
2524
2525 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
2526 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
2527 U8* s = ustrp + UTF8SKIP(ustrp);
2528 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
2529 while (s < e) {
2530 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s) || UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*s))
2531 {
2532 goto bad_crossing;
2533 }
2534 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
2535 }
2536
2537 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is */
2538 return result;
2539 }
2540
2541bad_crossing:
2542
2543 /* Failed, have to return the original */
4b88fb76 2544 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
051a06d4
KW
2545 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
2546 return original;
2547}
2548
d3e79532 2549/*
87cea99e 2550=for apidoc to_utf8_upper
d3e79532 2551
1f607577 2552Instead use L</toUPPER_utf8>.
a1433954 2553
d3e79532
JH
2554=cut */
2555
051a06d4
KW
2556/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2557 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2558 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2559 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2560
2104c8d9 2561UV
051a06d4 2562Perl__to_utf8_upper_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
a0ed51b3 2563{
97aff369 2564 dVAR;
7918f24d 2565
051a06d4
KW
2566 UV result;
2567
2568 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_UPPER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2569
3a4c58c9 2570 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2571 if (flags) {
2572 result = toUPPER_LC(*p);
2573 }
2574 else {
81c6c7ce 2575 return _to_upper_title_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp, 'S');
051a06d4 2576 }
3a4c58c9
KW
2577 }
2578 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2579 if (flags) {
2580 result = toUPPER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2581 }
2582 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2583 return _to_upper_title_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2584 ustrp, lenp, 'S');
051a06d4
KW
2585 }
2586 }
2587 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2588 result = CALL_UPPER_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2589
2590 if (flags) {
2591 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2592 }
2593 return result;
2594 }
2595
2596 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2597 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2598 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2599 *lenp = 1;
2600 }
2601 else {
2602 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2603 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2604 *lenp = 2;
3a4c58c9
KW
2605 }
2606
051a06d4
KW
2607 if (tainted_ptr) {
2608 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2609 }
2610 return result;
983ffd37 2611}
a0ed51b3 2612
d3e79532 2613/*
87cea99e 2614=for apidoc to_utf8_title
d3e79532 2615
1f607577 2616Instead use L</toTITLE_utf8>.
a1433954 2617
d3e79532
JH
2618=cut */
2619
051a06d4
KW
2620/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2621 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2622 * Since titlecase is not defined in POSIX, uppercase is used instead
2623 * for these/
2624 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2625 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2626
983ffd37 2627UV
051a06d4 2628Perl__to_utf8_title_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
983ffd37 2629{
97aff369 2630 dVAR;
7918f24d 2631
051a06d4
KW
2632 UV result;
2633
2634 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_TITLE_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2635
3a4c58c9 2636 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2637 if (flags) {
2638 result = toUPPER_LC(*p);
2639 }
2640 else {
81c6c7ce 2641 return _to_upper_title_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp, 's');
051a06d4 2642 }
3a4c58c9
KW
2643 }
2644 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2645 if (flags) {
2646 result = toUPPER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2647 }
2648 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2649 return _to_upper_title_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2650 ustrp, lenp, 's');
051a06d4
KW
2651 }
2652 }
2653 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2654 result = CALL_TITLE_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2655
2656 if (flags) {
2657 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2658 }
2659 return result;
2660 }
2661
2662 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2663 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2664 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2665 *lenp = 1;
2666 }
2667 else {
2668 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2669 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2670 *lenp = 2;
3a4c58c9
KW
2671 }
2672
051a06d4
KW
2673 if (tainted_ptr) {
2674 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2675 }
2676 return result;
a0ed51b3
LW
2677}
2678
d3e79532 2679/*
87cea99e 2680=for apidoc to_utf8_lower
d3e79532 2681
1f607577 2682Instead use L</toLOWER_utf8>.
a1433954 2683
d3e79532
JH
2684=cut */
2685
051a06d4
KW
2686/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
2687 * <flags> is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code points < 256
2688 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2689 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
2690
2104c8d9 2691UV
051a06d4 2692Perl__to_utf8_lower_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, const bool flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
a0ed51b3 2693{
051a06d4
KW
2694 UV result;
2695
97aff369 2696 dVAR;
7918f24d 2697
051a06d4 2698 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_LOWER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2699
968c5e6a 2700 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2701 if (flags) {
2702 result = toLOWER_LC(*p);
2703 }
2704 else {
81c6c7ce 2705 return to_lower_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2706 }
968c5e6a
KW
2707 }
2708 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2709 if (flags) {
2710 result = toLOWER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2711 }
2712 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2713 return to_lower_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
2714 ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2715 }
968c5e6a 2716 }
051a06d4
KW
2717 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
2718 result = CALL_LOWER_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp);
2719
2720 if (flags) {
2721 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
2722 }
968c5e6a 2723
051a06d4
KW
2724 return result;
2725 }
2726
2727 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2728 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2729 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2730 *lenp = 1;
2731 }
2732 else {
2733 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2734 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2735 *lenp = 2;
2736 }
2737
2738 if (tainted_ptr) {
2739 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2740 }
2741 return result;
b4e400f9
JH
2742}
2743
d3e79532 2744/*
87cea99e 2745=for apidoc to_utf8_fold
d3e79532 2746
1f607577 2747Instead use L</toFOLD_utf8>.
a1433954 2748
d3e79532
JH
2749=cut */
2750
051a06d4
KW
2751/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change,
2752 * in <flags>
2753 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE is set iff locale semantics are to be used for code
2754 * points < 256. Since foldcase is not defined in
2755 * POSIX, lowercase is used instead
2756 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_FULL is set iff full case folds are to be used;
2757 * otherwise simple folds
a0270393
KW
2758 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII is set iff folds of non-ASCII to ASCII are
2759 * prohibited
051a06d4
KW
2760 * <tainted_ptr> if non-null, *tainted_ptr will be set TRUE iff locale rules
2761 * were used in the calculation; otherwise unchanged. */
36bb2ab6 2762
b4e400f9 2763UV
051a06d4 2764Perl__to_utf8_fold_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, U8 flags, bool* tainted_ptr)
b4e400f9 2765{
97aff369 2766 dVAR;
7918f24d 2767
051a06d4
KW
2768 UV result;
2769
36bb2ab6 2770 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2771
a0270393
KW
2772 /* These are mutually exclusive */
2773 assert (! ((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) && (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)));
2774
50ba90ff
KW
2775 assert(p != ustrp); /* Otherwise overwrites */
2776
a1dde8de 2777 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
051a06d4
KW
2778 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2779 result = toLOWER_LC(*p);
2780 }
2781 else {
81c6c7ce
KW
2782 return _to_fold_latin1(*p, ustrp, lenp,
2783 cBOOL(flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL));
051a06d4 2784 }
a1dde8de
KW
2785 }
2786 else if UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(*p) {
051a06d4
KW
2787 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2788 result = toLOWER_LC(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)));
2789 }
2790 else {
81c6c7ce 2791 return _to_fold_latin1(TWO_BYTE_UTF8_TO_UNI(*p, *(p+1)),
a0270393
KW
2792 ustrp, lenp,
2793 cBOOL((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL
2794 /* If ASCII safe, don't allow full
2795 * folding, as that could include SHARP
2796 * S => ss; otherwise there is no
2797 * crossing of ascii/non-ascii in the
2798 * latin1 range */
2799 && ! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))));
051a06d4 2800 }
a1dde8de 2801 }
051a06d4 2802 else { /* utf8, ord above 255 */
a0270393 2803 result = CALL_FOLD_CASE(p, ustrp, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
a1dde8de 2804
051a06d4 2805 if ((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE)) {
a0270393 2806 return check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 2807 }
a0270393
KW
2808 else if (! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)) {
2809 return result;
2810 }
2811 else {
2812 /* This is called when changing the case of a utf8-encoded
2813 * character above the Latin1 range, and the result should not
2814 * contain an ASCII character. */
2815
2816 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
2817
2818 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
2819 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
2820 U8* s = ustrp;
2821 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
2822 while (s < e) {
2823 if (isASCII(*s)) {
2824 /* Crossed, have to return the original */
2825 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
2826 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
2827 return original;
2828 }
2829 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
2830 }
051a06d4 2831
a0270393
KW
2832 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is */
2833 return result;
2834 }
051a06d4
KW
2835 }
2836
2837 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to utf8 */
2838 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
2839 *ustrp = (U8) result;
2840 *lenp = 1;
2841 }
2842 else {
2843 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(result);
2844 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(result);
2845 *lenp = 2;
2846 }
2847
2848 if (tainted_ptr) {
2849 *tainted_ptr = TRUE;
2850 }
2851 return result;
a0ed51b3
LW
2852}
2853
711a919c 2854/* Note:
f90a9a02 2855 * Returns a "swash" which is a hash described in utf8.c:Perl_swash_fetch().
711a919c
ST
2856 * C<pkg> is a pointer to a package name for SWASHNEW, should be "utf8".
2857 * For other parameters, see utf8::SWASHNEW in lib/utf8_heavy.pl.
2858 */
c4a5db0c 2859
a0ed51b3 2860SV*
7fc63493 2861Perl_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none)
a0ed51b3 2862{
c4a5db0c
KW
2863 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_INIT;
2864
2865 /* Returns a copy of a swash initiated by the called function. This is the
2866 * public interface, and returning a copy prevents others from doing
2867 * mischief on the original */
2868
5d3d13d1 2869 return newSVsv(_core_swash_init(pkg, name, listsv, minbits, none, NULL, NULL));
c4a5db0c
KW
2870}
2871
2872SV*
5d3d13d1 2873Perl__core_swash_init(pTHX_ const char* pkg, const char* name, SV *listsv, I32 minbits, I32 none, SV* invlist, U8* const flags_p)
c4a5db0c
KW
2874{
2875 /* Initialize and return a swash, creating it if necessary. It does this
87367d5f
KW
2876 * by calling utf8_heavy.pl in the general case. The returned value may be
2877 * the swash's inversion list instead if the input parameters allow it.
2878 * Which is returned should be immaterial to callers, as the only
923b6d4e
KW
2879 * operations permitted on a swash, swash_fetch(), _get_swash_invlist(),
2880 * and swash_to_invlist() handle both these transparently.
c4a5db0c
KW
2881 *
2882 * This interface should only be used by functions that won't destroy or
2883 * adversely change the swash, as doing so affects all other uses of the
2884 * swash in the program; the general public should use 'Perl_swash_init'
2885 * instead.
2886 *
2887 * pkg is the name of the package that <name> should be in.
2888 * name is the name of the swash to find. Typically it is a Unicode
2889 * property name, including user-defined ones
2890 * listsv is a string to initialize the swash with. It must be of the form
2891 * documented as the subroutine return value in
2892 * L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
2893 * minbits is the number of bits required to represent each data element.
2894 * It is '1' for binary properties.
2895 * none I (khw) do not understand this one, but it is used only in tr///.
9a53f6cf 2896 * invlist is an inversion list to initialize the swash with (or NULL)
83199d38
KW
2897 * flags_p if non-NULL is the address of various input and output flag bits
2898 * to the routine, as follows: ('I' means is input to the routine;
2899 * 'O' means output from the routine. Only flags marked O are
2900 * meaningful on return.)
2901 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY indicates if the swash
2902 * came from a user-defined property. (I O)
5d3d13d1
KW
2903 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF indicates that instead of croaking
2904 * when the swash cannot be located, to simply return NULL. (I)
87367d5f
KW
2905 * _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST indicates that the caller will accept a
2906 * return of an inversion list instead of a swash hash if this routine
2907 * thinks that would result in faster execution of swash_fetch() later
2908 * on. (I)
9a53f6cf
KW
2909 *
2910 * Thus there are three possible inputs to find the swash: <name>,
2911 * <listsv>, and <invlist>. At least one must be specified. The result
2912 * will be the union of the specified ones, although <listsv>'s various
2913 * actions can intersect, etc. what <name> gives.
2914 *
2915 * <invlist> is only valid for binary properties */
c4a5db0c 2916
27da23d5 2917 dVAR;
c4a5db0c 2918 SV* retval = &PL_sv_undef;
83199d38 2919 HV* swash_hv = NULL;
87367d5f
KW
2920 const int invlist_swash_boundary =
2921 (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST)
2922 ? 512 /* Based on some benchmarking, but not extensive, see commit
2923 message */
2924 : -1; /* Never return just an inversion list */
9a53f6cf
KW
2925
2926 assert(listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "") || invlist);
2927 assert(! invlist || minbits == 1);
2928
2929 /* If data was passed in to go out to utf8_heavy to find the swash of, do
2930 * so */
2931 if (listsv != &PL_sv_undef || strNE(name, "")) {
69794297
KW
2932 dSP;
2933 const size_t pkg_len = strlen(pkg);
2934 const size_t name_len = strlen(name);
2935 HV * const stash = gv_stashpvn(pkg, pkg_len, 0);
2936 SV* errsv_save;
2937 GV *method;
2938
2939 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__CORE_SWASH_INIT;
2940
2941 PUSHSTACKi(PERLSI_MAGIC);
ce3b816e 2942 ENTER;
69794297
KW
2943 SAVEHINTS();
2944 save_re_context();
650f067c
JL
2945 /* We might get here via a subroutine signature which uses a utf8
2946 * parameter name, at which point PL_subname will have been set
2947 * but not yet used. */
2948 save_item(PL_subname);
69794297
KW
2949 if (PL_parser && PL_parser->error_count)
2950 SAVEI8(PL_parser->error_count), PL_parser->error_count = 0;
2951 method = gv_fetchmeth(stash, "SWASHNEW", 8, -1);
2952 if (!method) { /* demand load utf8 */
2953 ENTER;
db2c6cb3
FC
2954 if ((errsv_save = GvSV(PL_errgv))) SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
2955 GvSV(PL_errgv) = NULL;
69794297
KW
2956 /* It is assumed that callers of this routine are not passing in
2957 * any user derived data. */
2958 /* Need to do this after save_re_context() as it will set
2959 * PL_tainted to 1 while saving $1 etc (see the code after getrx:
2960 * in Perl_magic_get). Even line to create errsv_save can turn on
2961 * PL_tainted. */
284167a5
SM
2962#ifndef NO_TAINT_SUPPORT
2963 SAVEBOOL(TAINT_get);
2964 TAINT_NOT;
2965#endif
69794297
KW
2966 Perl_load_module(aTHX_ PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, newSVpvn(pkg,pkg_len),
2967 NULL);
eed484f9 2968 {
db2c6cb3
FC
2969 /* Not ERRSV, as there is no need to vivify a scalar we are
2970 about to discard. */
2971 SV * const errsv = GvSV(PL_errgv);
2972 if (!SvTRUE(errsv)) {
2973 GvSV(PL_errgv) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple(errsv_save);
2974 SvREFCNT_dec(errsv);
2975 }
eed484f9 2976 }
69794297
KW
2977 LEAVE;
2978 }
2979 SPAGAIN;
2980 PUSHMARK(SP);
2981 EXTEND(SP,5);
2982 mPUSHp(pkg, pkg_len);
2983 mPUSHp(name, name_len);
2984 PUSHs(listsv);
2985 mPUSHi(minbits);
2986 mPUSHi(none);
2987 PUTBACK;
db2c6cb3
FC
2988 if ((errsv_save = GvSV(PL_errgv))) SAVEFREESV(errsv_save);
2989 GvSV(PL_errgv) = NULL;
69794297
KW
2990 /* If we already have a pointer to the method, no need to use
2991 * call_method() to repeat the lookup. */
c41800a8
KW
2992 if (method
2993 ? call_sv(MUTABLE_SV(method), G_SCALAR)
69794297
KW
2994 : call_sv(newSVpvs_flags("SWASHNEW", SVs_TEMP), G_SCALAR | G_METHOD))
2995 {
2996 retval = *PL_stack_sp--;
2997 SvREFCNT_inc(retval);
2998 }
eed484f9 2999 {
db2c6cb3
FC
3000 /* Not ERRSV. See above. */
3001 SV * const errsv = GvSV(PL_errgv);
3002 if (!SvTRUE(errsv)) {
3003 GvSV(PL_errgv) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple(errsv_save);
3004 SvREFCNT_dec(errsv);
3005 }
eed484f9 3006 }
ce3b816e 3007 LEAVE;
69794297
KW
3008 POPSTACK;
3009 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME) {
3010 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
3011 }
3012 if (!SvROK(retval) || SvTYPE(SvRV(retval)) != SVt_PVHV) {
3013 if (SvPOK(retval))
3014
3015 /* If caller wants to handle missing properties, let them */
5d3d13d1 3016 if (flags_p && *flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_RETURN_IF_UNDEF) {
69794297
KW
3017 return NULL;
3018 }
3019 Perl_croak(aTHX_
3020 "Can't find Unicode property definition \"%"SVf"\"",
3021 SVfARG(retval));
3022 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "SWASHNEW didn't return an HV ref");
3023 }
9a53f6cf 3024 } /* End of calling the module to find the swash */
36eb48b4 3025
83199d38
KW
3026 /* If this operation fetched a swash, and we will need it later, get it */
3027 if (retval != &PL_sv_undef
3028 && (minbits == 1 || (flags_p
3029 && ! (*flags_p
3030 & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY))))
3031 {
3032 swash_hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval));
3033
3034 /* If we don't already know that there is a user-defined component to
3035 * this swash, and the user has indicated they wish to know if there is
3036 * one (by passing <flags_p>), find out */
3037 if (flags_p && ! (*flags_p & _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY)) {
3038 SV** user_defined = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "USER_DEFINED", FALSE);
3039 if (user_defined && SvUV(*user_defined)) {
3040 *flags_p |= _CORE_SWASH_INIT_USER_DEFINED_PROPERTY;
3041 }
3042 }
3043 }
3044
36eb48b4
KW
3045 /* Make sure there is an inversion list for binary properties */
3046 if (minbits == 1) {
3047 SV** swash_invlistsvp = NULL;
3048 SV* swash_invlist = NULL;
9a53f6cf 3049 bool invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
02c85471
FC
3050 bool swash_invlist_unclaimed = FALSE; /* whether swash_invlist has
3051 an unclaimed reference count */
36eb48b4 3052
9a53f6cf 3053 /* If this operation fetched a swash, get its already existing
83199d38 3054 * inversion list, or create one for it */
36eb48b4 3055
83199d38 3056 if (swash_hv) {
5c9f4bd2 3057 swash_invlistsvp = hv_fetchs(swash_hv, "V", FALSE);
9a53f6cf
KW
3058 if (swash_invlistsvp) {
3059 swash_invlist = *swash_invlistsvp;
3060 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = TRUE;
3061 }
3062 else {
36eb48b4 3063 swash_invlist = _swash_to_invlist(retval);
02c85471 3064 swash_invlist_unclaimed = TRUE;
9a53f6cf
KW
3065 }
3066 }
3067
3068 /* If an inversion list was passed in, have to include it */
3069 if (invlist) {
3070
3071 /* Any fetched swash will by now have an inversion list in it;
3072 * otherwise <swash_invlist> will be NULL, indicating that we
3073 * didn't fetch a swash */
3074 if (swash_invlist) {
3075
3076 /* Add the passed-in inversion list, which invalidates the one
3077 * already stored in the swash */
3078 invlist_in_swash_is_valid = FALSE;
3079 _invlist_union(invlist, swash_invlist, &swash_invlist);
3080 }
3081 else {
3082
87367d5f
KW
3083 /* Here, there is no swash already. Set up a minimal one, if
3084 * we are going to return a swash */
3085 if ((int) _invlist_len(invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary) {
971d486f 3086 swash_hv = newHV();
4aca0fe6 3087 retval = newRV_noinc(MUTABLE_SV(swash_hv));
87367d5f 3088 }
9a53f6cf
KW
3089 swash_invlist = invlist;
3090 }
9a53f6cf
KW
3091 }
3092
3093 /* Here, we have computed the union of all the passed-in data. It may
3094 * be that there was an inversion list in the swash which didn't get
3095 * touched; otherwise save the one computed one */
87367d5f
KW
3096 if (! invlist_in_swash_is_valid
3097 && (int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) > invlist_swash_boundary)
3098 {
5c9f4bd2 3099 if (! hv_stores(MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(retval)), "V", swash_invlist))
69794297
KW
3100 {
3101 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
3102 }
cc34d8c5
FC
3103 /* We just stole a reference count. */
3104 if (swash_invlist_unclaimed) swash_invlist_unclaimed = FALSE;
3105 else SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(swash_invlist);
9a53f6cf 3106 }
87367d5f 3107
c41800a8 3108 /* Use the inversion list stand-alone if small enough */
87367d5f
KW
3109 if ((int) _invlist_len(swash_invlist) <= invlist_swash_boundary) {
3110 SvREFCNT_dec(retval);
02c85471
FC
3111 if (!swash_invlist_unclaimed)
3112 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(swash_invlist);
3113 retval = newRV_noinc(swash_invlist);
87367d5f 3114 }
36eb48b4
KW
3115 }
3116
a0ed51b3
LW
3117 return retval;
3118}
3119
035d37be
JH
3120
3121/* This API is wrong for special case conversions since we may need to
3122 * return several Unicode characters for a single Unicode character
3123 * (see lib/unicore/SpecCase.txt) The SWASHGET in lib/utf8_heavy.pl is
3124 * the lower-level routine, and it is similarly broken for returning
38684baa
KW
3125 * multiple values. --jhi
3126 * For those, you should use to_utf8_case() instead */
b0e3252e 3127/* Now SWASHGET is recasted into S_swatch_get in this file. */
680c470c
ST
3128
3129/* Note:
3130 * Returns the value of property/mapping C<swash> for the first character
3131 * of the string C<ptr>. If C<do_utf8> is true, the string C<ptr> is
3132 * assumed to be in utf8. If C<do_utf8> is false, the string C<ptr> is
3133 * assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding. Caches the swatch in C<swash>.
af2af982
KW
3134 *
3135 * A "swash" is a hash which contains initially the keys/values set up by
3136 * SWASHNEW. The purpose is to be able to completely represent a Unicode
3137 * property for all possible code points. Things are stored in a compact form
3138 * (see utf8_heavy.pl) so that calculation is required to find the actual
3139 * property value for a given code point. As code points are looked up, new
3140 * key/value pairs are added to the hash, so that the calculation doesn't have
3141 * to ever be re-done. Further, each calculation is done, not just for the
3142 * desired one, but for a whole block of code points adjacent to that one.
3143 * For binary properties on ASCII machines, the block is usually for 64 code
3144 * points, starting with a code point evenly divisible by 64. Thus if the
3145 * property value for code point 257 is requested, the code goes out and
3146 * calculates the property values for all 64 code points between 256 and 319,
3147 * and stores these as a single 64-bit long bit vector, called a "swatch",
3148 * under the key for code point 256. The key is the UTF-8 encoding for code
3149 * point 256, minus the final byte. Thus, if the length of the UTF-8 encoding
3150 * for a code point is 13 bytes, the key will be 12 bytes long. If the value
3151 * for code point 258 is then requested, this code realizes that it would be
3152 * stored under the key for 256, and would find that value and extract the
3153 * relevant bit, offset from 256.
3154 *
3155 * Non-binary properties are stored in as many bits as necessary to represent
3156 * their values (32 currently, though the code is more general than that), not
3157 * as single bits, but the principal is the same: the value for each key is a
3158 * vector that encompasses the property values for all code points whose UTF-8
3159 * representations are represented by the key. That is, for all code points
3160 * whose UTF-8 representations are length N bytes, and the key is the first N-1
3161 * bytes of that.
680c470c 3162 */
a0ed51b3 3163UV
680c470c 3164Perl_swash_fetch(pTHX_ SV *swash, const U8 *ptr, bool do_utf8)
a0ed51b3 3165{
27da23d5 3166 dVAR;
ef8f7699 3167 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
3568d838
JH
3168 U32 klen;
3169 U32 off;
a0ed51b3 3170 STRLEN slen;
7d85a32c 3171 STRLEN needents;
cfd0369c 3172 const U8 *tmps = NULL;
a0ed51b3 3173 U32 bit;
979f2922 3174 SV *swatch;
3568d838 3175 U8 tmputf8[2];
35da51f7 3176 const UV c = NATIVE_TO_ASCII(*ptr);
3568d838 3177
7918f24d
NC
3178 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWASH_FETCH;
3179
87367d5f
KW
3180 /* If it really isn't a hash, it isn't really swash; must be an inversion
3181 * list */
3182 if (SvTYPE(hv) != SVt_PVHV) {
3183 return _invlist_contains_cp((SV*)hv,
3184 (do_utf8)
3185 ? valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ptr, NULL)
3186 : c);
3187 }
3188
dbe7a391 3189 /* Convert to utf8 if not already */
3568d838 3190 if (!do_utf8 && !UNI_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
979f2922
ST
3191 tmputf8[0] = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(c);
3192 tmputf8[1] = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(c);
3193 ptr = tmputf8;
3568d838
JH
3194 }
3195 /* Given a UTF-X encoded char 0xAA..0xYY,0xZZ
37e2e78e 3196 * then the "swatch" is a vec() for all the chars which start
3568d838
JH
3197 * with 0xAA..0xYY
3198 * So the key in the hash (klen) is length of encoded char -1
3199 */
3200 klen = UTF8SKIP(ptr) - 1;
a0ed51b3 3201
979f2922 3202 if (klen == 0) {
37e2e78e 3203 /* If char is invariant then swatch is for all the invariant chars
1e54db1a 3204 * In both UTF-8 and UTF-8-MOD that happens to be UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK
7d85a32c 3205 */
979f2922
ST
3206 needents = UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK;
3207 off = NATIVE_TO_UTF(ptr[klen]);
3208 }
3209 else {
7d85a32c 3210 /* If char is encoded then swatch is for the prefix */
979f2922
ST
3211 needents = (1 << UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT);
3212 off = NATIVE_TO_UTF(ptr[klen]) & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK;
3213 }
7d85a32c 3214
a0ed51b3
LW
3215 /*
3216 * This single-entry cache saves about 1/3 of the utf8 overhead in test
3217 * suite. (That is, only 7-8% overall over just a hash cache. Still,
3218 * it's nothing to sniff at.) Pity we usually come through at least
3219 * two function calls to get here...
3220 *
3221 * NB: this code assumes that swatches are never modified, once generated!
3222 */
3223
3568d838 3224 if (hv == PL_last_swash_hv &&
a0ed51b3 3225 klen == PL_last_swash_klen &&
27da23d5 3226 (!klen || memEQ((char *)ptr, (char *)PL_last_swash_key, klen)) )
a0ed51b3
LW
3227 {
3228 tmps = PL_last_swash_tmps;
3229 slen = PL_last_swash_slen;
3230 }
3231 else {
3232 /* Try our second-level swatch cache, kept in a hash. */
e1ec3a88 3233 SV** svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)ptr, klen, FALSE);
a0ed51b3 3234
b0e3252e 3235 /* If not cached, generate it via swatch_get */
979f2922
ST
3236 if (!svp || !SvPOK(*svp)
3237 || !(tmps = (const U8*)SvPV_const(*svp, slen))) {
2b9d42f0
NIS
3238 /* We use utf8n_to_uvuni() as we want an index into
3239 Unicode tables, not a native character number.
3240 */
aec46f14 3241 const UV code_point = utf8n_to_uvuni(ptr, UTF8_MAXBYTES, 0,
872c91ae
JH
3242 ckWARN(WARN_UTF8) ?
3243 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
b0e3252e 3244 swatch = swatch_get(swash,
979f2922 3245 /* On EBCDIC & ~(0xA0-1) isn't a useful thing to do */
361ee0fe 3246 (klen) ? (code_point & ~((UV)needents - 1)) : 0,
979f2922
ST
3247 needents);
3248
923e4eb5 3249 if (IN_PERL_COMPILETIME)
623e6609 3250 CopHINTS_set(PL_curcop, PL_hints);
a0ed51b3 3251
979f2922 3252 svp = hv_store(hv, (const char *)ptr, klen, swatch, 0);
a0ed51b3 3253
979f2922
ST
3254 if (!svp || !(tmps = (U8*)SvPV(*svp, slen))
3255 || (slen << 3) < needents)
5637ef5b
NC
3256 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got improper swatch, "
3257 "svp=%p, tmps=%p, slen=%"UVuf", needents=%"UVuf,
3258 svp, tmps, (UV)slen, (UV)needents);
a0ed51b3
LW
3259 }
3260
3261 PL_last_swash_hv = hv;
16d8f38a 3262 assert(klen <= sizeof(PL_last_swash_key));
eac04b2e 3263 PL_last_swash_klen = (U8)klen;
cfd0369c
NC
3264 /* FIXME change interpvar.h? */
3265 PL_last_swash_tmps = (U8 *) tmps;
a0ed51b3
LW
3266 PL_last_swash_slen = slen;
3267 if (klen)
3268 Copy(ptr, PL_last_swash_key, klen, U8);
3269 }
3270
9faf8d75 3271 switch ((int)((slen << 3) / needents)) {
a0ed51b3
LW
3272 case 1:
3273 bit = 1 << (off & 7);
3274 off >>= 3;
3275 return (tmps[off] & bit) != 0;
3276 case 8:
3277 return tmps[off];
3278 case 16:
3279 off <<= 1;
3280 return (tmps[off] << 8) + tmps[off + 1] ;
3281 case 32:
3282 off <<= 2;
3283 return (tmps[off] << 24) + (tmps[off+1] << 16) + (tmps[off+2] << 8) + tmps[off + 3] ;
3284 }
5637ef5b
NC
3285 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swash_fetch got swatch of unexpected bit width, "
3286 "slen=%"UVuf", needents=%"UVuf, (UV)slen, (UV)needents);
670f1322 3287 NORETURN_FUNCTION_END;
a0ed51b3 3288}
2b9d42f0 3289
319009ee
KW
3290/* Read a single line of the main body of the swash input text. These are of
3291 * the form:
3292 * 0053 0056 0073
3293 * where each number is hex. The first two numbers form the minimum and
3294 * maximum of a range, and the third is the value associated with the range.
3295 * Not all swashes should have a third number
3296 *
3297 * On input: l points to the beginning of the line to be examined; it points
3298 * to somewhere in the string of the whole input text, and is
3299 * terminated by a \n or the null string terminator.
3300 * lend points to the null terminator of that string
3301 * wants_value is non-zero if the swash expects a third number
3302 * typestr is the name of the swash's mapping, like 'ToLower'
3303 * On output: *min, *max, and *val are set to the values read from the line.
3304 * returns a pointer just beyond the line examined. If there was no
3305 * valid min number on the line, returns lend+1
3306 */
3307
3308STATIC U8*
3309S_swash_scan_list_line(pTHX_ U8* l, U8* const lend, UV* min, UV* max, UV* val,
3310 const bool wants_value, const U8* const typestr)
3311{
3312 const int typeto = typestr[0] == 'T' && typestr[1] == 'o';
3313 STRLEN numlen; /* Length of the number */
02470786
KW
3314 I32 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3315 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3316 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
3317
3318 /* nl points to the next \n in the scan */
3319 U8* const nl = (U8*)memchr(l, '\n', lend - l);
3320
3321 /* Get the first number on the line: the range minimum */
3322 numlen = lend - l;
3323 *min = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3324 if (numlen) /* If found a hex number, position past it */
3325 l += numlen;
3326 else if (nl) { /* Else, go handle next line, if any */
3327 return nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
3328 }
3329 else { /* Else, no next line */
3330 return lend + 1; /* to LIST's end at which \n is not found */
3331 }
3332
3333 /* The max range value follows, separated by a BLANK */
3334 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
3335 ++l;
02470786
KW
3336 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3337 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3338 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
319009ee
KW
3339 numlen = lend - l;
3340 *max = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3341 if (numlen)
3342 l += numlen;
3343 else /* If no value here, it is a single element range */
3344 *max = *min;
3345
3346 /* Non-binary tables have a third entry: what the first element of the
3347 * range maps to */
3348 if (wants_value) {
3349 if (isBLANK(*l)) {
3350 ++l;
f90a9a02
KW
3351
3352 /* The ToLc, etc table mappings are not in hex, and must be
3353 * corrected by adding the code point to them */
3354 if (typeto) {
3355 char *after_strtol = (char *) lend;
3356 *val = Strtol((char *)l, &after_strtol, 10);
3357 l = (U8 *) after_strtol;
f90a9a02
KW
3358 }
3359 else { /* Other tables are in hex, and are the correct result
3360 without tweaking */
a9d188b3
KW
3361 flags = PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT
3362 | PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX
3363 | PERL_SCAN_SILENT_NON_PORTABLE;
3364 numlen = lend - l;
3365 *val = grok_hex((char *)l, &numlen, &flags, NULL);
3366 if (numlen)
3367 l += numlen;
3368 else
3369 *val = 0;
f90a9a02 3370 }
319009ee
KW
3371 }
3372 else {
3373 *val = 0;
3374 if (typeto) {
dcbac5bb 3375 /* diag_listed_as: To%s: illegal mapping '%s' */
319009ee
KW
3376 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'",
3377 typestr, l);
3378 }
3379 }
3380 }
3381 else
3382 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then any val should be ignored */
3383 }
3384 else { /* Nothing following range min, should be single element with no
3385 mapping expected */
3386 *max = *min;
3387 if (wants_value) {
3388 *val = 0;
3389 if (typeto) {
dcbac5bb 3390 /* diag_listed_as: To%s: illegal mapping '%s' */
319009ee
KW
3391 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s: illegal mapping '%s'", typestr, l);
3392 }
3393 }
3394 else
3395 *val = 0; /* bits == 1, then val should be ignored */
3396 }
3397
3398 /* Position to next line if any, or EOF */
3399 if (nl)
3400 l = nl + 1;
3401 else
3402 l = lend;
3403
3404 return l;
3405}
3406
979f2922
ST
3407/* Note:
3408 * Returns a swatch (a bit vector string) for a code point sequence
3409 * that starts from the value C<start> and comprises the number C<span>.
3410 * A C<swash> must be an object created by SWASHNEW (see lib/utf8_heavy.pl).
3411 * Should be used via swash_fetch, which will cache the swatch in C<swash>.
3412 */
3413STATIC SV*
b0e3252e 3414S_swatch_get(pTHX_ SV* swash, UV start, UV span)
979f2922
ST
3415{
3416 SV *swatch;
77f9f126 3417 U8 *l, *lend, *x, *xend, *s, *send;
979f2922 3418 STRLEN lcur, xcur, scur;
ef8f7699 3419 HV *const hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(swash));
5c9f4bd2 3420 SV** const invlistsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "V", FALSE);
36eb48b4 3421
88d45d28
KW
3422 SV** listsvp = NULL; /* The string containing the main body of the table */
3423 SV** extssvp = NULL;
3424 SV** invert_it_svp = NULL;
3425 U8* typestr = NULL;
786861f5
KW
3426 STRLEN bits;
3427 STRLEN octets; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
3428 UV none;
3429 UV end = start + span;
972dd592 3430
36eb48b4 3431 if (invlistsvp == NULL) {
786861f5
KW
3432 SV** const bitssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "BITS", FALSE);
3433 SV** const nonesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "NONE", FALSE);
3434 SV** const typesvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "TYPE", FALSE);
3435 extssvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "EXTRAS", FALSE);
3436 listsvp = hv_fetchs(hv, "LIST", FALSE);
3437 invert_it_svp = hv_fetchs(hv, "INVERT_IT", FALSE);
3438
3439 bits = SvUV(*bitssvp);
3440 none = SvUV(*nonesvp);
3441 typestr = (U8*)SvPV_nolen(*typesvp);
3442 }
36eb48b4
KW
3443 else {
3444 bits = 1;
3445 none = 0;
3446 }
786861f5 3447 octets = bits >> 3; /* if bits == 1, then octets == 0 */
979f2922 3448
b0e3252e 3449 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SWATCH_GET;
7918f24d 3450
979f2922 3451 if (bits != 1 && bits != 8 && bits != 16 && bits != 32) {
b0e3252e 3452 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get doesn't expect bits %"UVuf,
660a4616 3453 (UV)bits);
979f2922
ST
3454 }
3455
84ea5ef6
KW
3456 /* If overflowed, use the max possible */
3457 if (end < start) {
3458 end = UV_MAX;
3459 span = end - start;
3460 }
3461
979f2922 3462 /* create and initialize $swatch */
979f2922 3463 scur = octets ? (span * octets) : (span + 7) / 8;
e524fe40
NC
3464 swatch = newSV(scur);
3465 SvPOK_on(swatch);
979f2922
ST
3466 s = (U8*)SvPVX(swatch);
3467 if (octets && none) {
0bd48802 3468 const U8* const e = s + scur;
979f2922
ST
3469 while (s < e) {
3470 if (bits == 8)
3471 *s++ = (U8)(none & 0xff);
3472 else if (bits == 16) {
3473 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 8) & 0xff);
3474 *s++ = (U8)( none & 0xff);
3475 }
3476 else if (bits == 32) {
3477 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 24) & 0xff);
3478 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 16) & 0xff);
3479 *s++ = (U8)((none >> 8) & 0xff);
3480 *s++ = (U8)( none & 0xff);
3481 }
3482 }
3483 *s = '\0';
3484 }
3485 else {
3486 (void)memzero((U8*)s, scur + 1);
3487 }
3488 SvCUR_set(swatch, scur);
3489 s = (U8*)SvPVX(swatch);
3490
36eb48b4
KW
3491 if (invlistsvp) { /* If has an inversion list set up use that */
3492 _invlist_populate_swatch(*invlistsvp, start, end, s);
3493 return swatch;
3494 }
3495
3496 /* read $swash->{LIST} */
979f2922
ST
3497 l = (U8*)SvPV(*listsvp, lcur);
3498 lend = l + lcur;
3499 while (l < lend) {
8ed25d53 3500 UV min, max, val, upper;
319009ee
KW
3501 l = S_swash_scan_list_line(aTHX_ l, lend, &min, &max, &val,
3502 cBOOL(octets), typestr);
3503 if (l > lend) {
979f2922
ST
3504 break;
3505 }
3506
972dd592 3507 /* If looking for something beyond this range, go try the next one */
979f2922
ST
3508 if (max < start)
3509 continue;
3510
8ed25d53
KW
3511 /* <end> is generally 1 beyond where we want to set things, but at the
3512 * platform's infinity, where we can't go any higher, we want to
3513 * include the code point at <end> */
3514 upper = (max < end)
3515 ? max
3516 : (max != UV_MAX || end != UV_MAX)
3517 ? end - 1
3518 : end;
3519
979f2922 3520 if (octets) {
35da51f7 3521 UV key;
979f2922
ST
3522 if (min < start) {
3523 if (!none || val < none) {
3524 val += start - min;
3525 }
3526 min = start;
3527 }
8ed25d53 3528 for (key = min; key <= upper; key++) {
979f2922 3529 STRLEN offset;
979f2922
ST
3530 /* offset must be non-negative (start <= min <= key < end) */
3531 offset = octets * (key - start);
3532 if (bits == 8)
3533 s[offset] = (U8)(val & 0xff);
3534 else if (bits == 16) {
3535 s[offset ] = (U8)((val >> 8) & 0xff);
3536 s[offset + 1] = (U8)( val & 0xff);
3537 }
3538 else if (bits == 32) {
3539 s[offset ] = (U8)((val >> 24) & 0xff);
3540 s[offset + 1] = (U8)((val >> 16) & 0xff);
3541 s[offset + 2] = (U8)((val >> 8) & 0xff);
3542 s[offset + 3] = (U8)( val & 0xff);
3543 }
3544
3545 if (!none || val < none)
3546 ++val;
3547 }
3548 }
711a919c 3549 else { /* bits == 1, then val should be ignored */
35da51f7 3550 UV key;
979f2922
ST
3551 if (min < start)
3552 min = start;
6cb05c12 3553
8ed25d53 3554 for (key = min; key <= upper; key++) {
0bd48802 3555 const STRLEN offset = (STRLEN)(key - start);
979f2922
ST
3556 s[offset >> 3] |= 1 << (offset & 7);
3557 }
3558 }
3559 } /* while */
979f2922 3560
9479a769 3561 /* Invert if the data says it should be. Assumes that bits == 1 */
77f9f126 3562 if (invert_it_svp && SvUV(*invert_it_svp)) {
0bda3001
KW
3563
3564 /* Unicode properties should come with all bits above PERL_UNICODE_MAX
3565 * be 0, and their inversion should also be 0, as we don't succeed any
3566 * Unicode property matches for non-Unicode code points */
3567 if (start <= PERL_UNICODE_MAX) {
3568
3569 /* The code below assumes that we never cross the
3570 * Unicode/above-Unicode boundary in a range, as otherwise we would
3571 * have to figure out where to stop flipping the bits. Since this
3572 * boundary is divisible by a large power of 2, and swatches comes
3573 * in small powers of 2, this should be a valid assumption */
3574 assert(start + span - 1 <= PERL_UNICODE_MAX);
3575
507a8485
KW
3576 send = s + scur;
3577 while (s < send) {
3578 *s = ~(*s);
3579 s++;
3580 }
0bda3001 3581 }
77f9f126
KW
3582 }
3583
d73c39c5
KW
3584 /* read $swash->{EXTRAS}
3585 * This code also copied to swash_to_invlist() below */
979f2922
ST
3586 x = (U8*)SvPV(*extssvp, xcur);
3587 xend = x + xcur;
3588 while (x < xend) {
3589 STRLEN namelen;
3590 U8 *namestr;
3591 SV** othersvp;
3592 HV* otherhv;
3593 STRLEN otherbits;
3594 SV **otherbitssvp, *other;
711a919c 3595 U8 *s, *o, *nl;
979f2922
ST
3596 STRLEN slen, olen;
3597
35da51f7 3598 const U8 opc = *x++;
979f2922
ST
3599 if (opc == '\n')
3600 continue;
3601
3602 nl = (U8*)memchr(x, '\n', xend - x);
3603
3604 if (opc != '-' && opc != '+' && opc != '!' && opc != '&') {
3605 if (nl) {
3606 x = nl + 1; /* 1 is length of "\n" */
3607 continue;
3608 }
3609 else {
3610 x = xend; /* to EXTRAS' end at which \n is not found */
3611 break;
3612 }
3613 }
3614
3615 namestr = x;
3616 if (nl) {
3617 namelen = nl - namestr;
3618 x = nl + 1;
3619 }
3620 else {
3621 namelen = xend - namestr;
3622 x = xend;
3623 }
3624
3625 othersvp = hv_fetch(hv, (char *)namestr, namelen, FALSE);
ef8f7699 3626 otherhv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*othersvp));
017a3ce5 3627 otherbitssvp = hv_fetchs(otherhv, "BITS", FALSE);
979f2922
ST
3628 otherbits = (STRLEN)SvUV(*otherbitssvp);
3629 if (bits < otherbits)
5637ef5b
NC
3630 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get found swatch size mismatch, "
3631 "bits=%"UVuf", otherbits=%"UVuf, (UV)bits, (UV)otherbits);
979f2922
ST
3632
3633 /* The "other" swatch must be destroyed after. */
b0e3252e 3634 other = swatch_get(*othersvp, start, span);
979f2922
ST
3635 o = (U8*)SvPV(other, olen);
3636
3637 if (!olen)
b0e3252e 3638 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get got improper swatch");
979f2922
ST
3639
3640 s = (U8*)SvPV(swatch, slen);
3641 if (bits == 1 && otherbits == 1) {
3642 if (slen != olen)
5637ef5b
NC
3643 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: swatch_get found swatch length "
3644 "mismatch, slen=%"UVuf", olen=%"UVuf,
3645 (UV)slen, (UV)olen);
979f2922
ST
3646
3647 switch (opc) {
3648 case '+':
3649 while (slen--)
3650 *s++ |= *o++;
3651 break;
3652 case '!':
3653 while (slen--)
3654 *s++ |= ~*o++;
3655 break;
3656 case '-':
3657 while (slen--)
3658 *s++ &= ~*o++;
3659 break;
3660 case '&':
3661 while (slen--)
3662 *s++ &= *o++;
3663 break;
3664 default:
3665 break;
3666 }
3667 }
711a919c 3668 else {
979f2922
ST
3669 STRLEN otheroctets = otherbits >> 3;
3670 STRLEN offset = 0;
35da51f7 3671 U8* const send = s + slen;
979f2922
ST
3672
3673 while (s < send) {
3674 UV otherval = 0;
3675
3676 if (otherbits == 1) {
3677 otherval = (o[offset >> 3] >> (offset & 7)) & 1;
3678 ++offset;
3679 }
3680 else {
3681 STRLEN vlen = otheroctets;
3682 otherval = *o++;
3683 while (--vlen) {
3684 otherval <<= 8;
3685 otherval |= *o++;
3686 }
3687 }
3688
711a919c 3689 if (opc == '+' && otherval)
6f207bd3 3690 NOOP; /* replace with otherval */
979f2922
ST
3691 else if (opc == '!' && !otherval)
3692 otherval = 1;
3693 else if (opc == '-' && otherval)
3694