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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the equal signs on the left.
2This file is written in the POD format (see [.POD]PERLPOD.POD;1) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
fb73857a 4
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5=head1 NAME
6
7README.vms - Configuring, building, testing, and installing perl on VMS
8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
11To configure, build, test, and install perl on VMS:
12
13 @ Configure
14 mms
15 mms test
16 mms install
17
18mmk may be used in place of mms in the last three steps.
19
20=head1 DESCRIPTION
21
22=head2 Important safety tip
97abc6ad 23
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24For best results, make sure you read the "Configuring the Perl Build",
25"Building Perl", and "Installing Perl" sections of this document before
26you build or install. Also please note other changes in the current
27release by having a look at L<perldelta/VMS>.
97abc6ad 28
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29Also note that, as of Perl version 5.005 and later, an ANSI C compliant
30compiler is required to build Perl. VAX C is *not* ANSI compliant, as it
31died a natural death some time before the standard was set. Therefore
1bc81404 32VAX C will not compile Perl 5.005 or later. We are sorry about that.
3bf5f72b 33
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34There have been no recent reports of builds using Gnu C, but latent
35(and most likely outdated) support for it is still present in various
36parts of the sources. Currently the HP (formerly Compaq, and even
37more formerly DEC) C compiler is the only viable alternative for
38building Perl.
39
40There is minimal support for HP C++ but this support is not complete;
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41if you get it working please write to the vmsperl list (for info see
42L</"Mailing Lists">).
3bf5f72b 43
b4bc034f 44
a83b6f46 45=head2 Introduction to Perl on VMS
fb73857a 46
47The VMS port of Perl is as functionally complete as any other Perl port
48(and as complete as the ports on some Unix systems). The Perl binaries
49provide all the Perl system calls that are either available under VMS or
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50reasonably emulated. There are some incompatibilities in process handling
51(e.g. the fork/exec model for creating subprocesses doesn't do what you
fb73857a 52might expect under Unix), mainly because VMS and Unix handle processes and
53sub-processes very differently.
54
b4bc034f 55There are still some unimplemented system functions, and of course we
fb73857a 56could use modules implementing useful VMS system services, so if you'd like
b4bc034f 57to lend a hand we'd love to have you. Join the Perl Porting Team Now!
fb73857a 58
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59There are issues with various versions of DEC C, so if you're not running a
60relatively modern version, check the "DEC C issues" section later on in this
fb73857a 61document.
62
a83b6f46 63=head2 Other required software for Compiling Perl on VMS
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64
65In addition to VMS and DCL you will need two things:
fb73857a 66
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67=over 4
68
69=item 1 A C compiler.
70
10019e56 71HP (formerly Compaq, more formerly DEC) C for VMS (VAX, Alpha, or Itanium).
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72
73=item 2 A make tool.
74
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75HP's MMS may work, but MadGoat's free MMS analog MMK (available from
76http://www.kednos.com/kednos/Resources/MMK) has consistently worked
77better. Gnu Make might work, but it's been so long since anyone's tested
78it that we're not sure. MMK is free though, so go ahead and use that.
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79
80=back
81
a83b6f46 82=head2 Additional software that is optional for Perl on VMS
fb73857a 83
9f3f8d50 84You may also want to have on hand:
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85
86=over 4
87
88=item 1 GUNZIP/GZIP.EXE for VMS
89
90A de-compressor for *.gz and *.tgz files available from a number
58979ab1 91of web/ftp sites and is distributed on the OpenVMS Freeware CD-ROM
10019e56 92from HP.
b4bc034f 93
10019e56 94 http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/freeware/
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95
96=item 2 VMS TAR
97
98For reading and writing unix tape archives (*.tar files). Vmstar is also
58979ab1 99available from a number of web/ftp sites and is distributed on the OpenVMS
10019e56 100Freeware CD-ROM from HP.
b4bc034f 101
10019e56 102 http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/freeware/
b4bc034f 103
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104Recent versions of VMS tar on ODS-5 volumes may extract tape archive
105files with ^. escaped periods in them. See below for further workarounds.
106
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107A port of GNU tar is also available as part of the GNV package:
108
ec55d5e4 109 http://h71000.www7.hp.com/opensource/gnv.html
10019e56 110
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111=item 3 UNZIP.EXE for VMS
112
113A combination decompressor and archive reader/writer for *.zip files.
114Unzip is available from a number of web/ftp sites.
115
adc5a9a5 116 http://www.info-zip.org/UnZip.html
10019e56 117 http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/freeware/
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118 ftp://ftp.hp.com/pub/openvms/
119 ftp://ftp.process.com/vms-freeware/fileserv/
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120
121=item 4 MOST
122
123Most is an optional pager that is convenient to use with perldoc (unlike
124TYPE/PAGE, MOST can go forward and backwards in a document and supports
125regular expression searching). Most builds with the slang
126library on VMS. Most and slang are available from:
127
128 ftp://space.mit.edu/pub/davis/
adc5a9a5 129 ftp://ftp.process.com/vms-freeware/narnia/
b4bc034f 130
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131=item 5 GNU PATCH and DIFFUTILS for VMS
132
133Patches to Perl are usually distributed as GNU unified or contextual diffs.
134Such patches are created by the GNU diff program (part of the diffutils
135distribution) and applied with GNU patch. VMS ports of these utilities are
136available here:
137
ec55d5e4 138 http://www.antinode.info/dec/sw/diffutils.html
10019e56 139 http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/freeware/
1bc81404 140
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141=back
142
9f3f8d50 143Please note that UNZIP and GUNZIP are not the same thing (they work with
b4bc034f 144different formats). Many of the useful files from CPAN (the Comprehensive
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145Perl Archive Network) are in *.tar.gz or *.tgz format (this includes copies
146of the source code for perl as well as modules and scripts that you may
147wish to add later) hence you probably want to have GUNZIP.EXE and
148VMSTAR.EXE on your VMS machine.
fb73857a 149
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150If you want to include socket support, you'll need a TCP/IP stack and either
151DEC C, or socket libraries. See the "Socket Support (optional)" topic
152for more details.
fb73857a 153
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154=head1 Unpacking the Perl source code
155
156You may need to set up a foreign symbol for the unpacking utility of choice.
157
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158As of version 5.10.0, Perl will still build and run on ODS-2 volumes,
159including on VAX, but there are a number of modules whose temporary
160files and tests are much happier residing on ODS-5 volumes. For
161example, CPANPLUS will fail most of its tests on an ODS-2 volume because
162it includes files with multiple dots that will have been converted to
163underscores and the tests will have difficulty finding them. So your
164best bet is to unpack the Perl source kit on an ODS-5 volume using
165recent versions of vmstar (e.g. V3.4 or later). Contrary to advice
166provided with previous versions of Perl, do I<not> use the ODS-2
167compatability qualifier. Instead, use a command like the following:
168
169 vmstar /extract/verbose perl-V^.VIII^.III.tar
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170
171or:
172
1c1fca66 173 vmstar -xvf perl-5^.11^.0.tar
d83fac45 174
718752a5 175Then rename the top-level source directory like so:
d83fac45 176
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177 set security/protection=(o:rwed) perl-5^.11^.0.dir
178 rename perl-5^.11^.0.dir perl-5_11_0.dir
d83fac45 179
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180The reason for this last step is that while filenames with multiple dots
181are generally supported by Perl on VMS, I<directory> names with multiple
182dots are a special case with special problems because the dot is the
183traditional directory delimiter on VMS. Rudimentary support for
184multi-dot directory names is available, but some of the oldest and most
185essential parts of Perl (such as searching for and loading library
186modules) do not yet fully support the ODS-5 caret-escape syntax.
d83fac45 187
b4bc034f 188=head1 Configuring the Perl build
fb73857a 189
97abc6ad 190To configure perl (a necessary first step), issue the command
fb73857a 191
b4bc034f 192 @ Configure
fb73857a 193
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194from the top of an unpacked perl source directory. You will be asked a
195series of questions, and the answers to them (along with the capabilities
196of your C compiler and network stack) will determine how perl is custom
197built for your machine.
fb73857a 198
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199If you have multiple C compilers installed, you'll have your choice of
200which one to use. Various older versions of DEC C had some caveats, so if
201you're using a version older than 5.2, check the "DEC C Issues" section.
fb73857a 202
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203If you have any symbols or logical names in your environment that may
204interfere with the build or regression testing of perl then configure.com
205will try to warn you about them. If a logical name is causing
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206you trouble but is in an LNM table that you do not have write access to
207then try defining your own to a harmless equivalence string in a table
208such that it is resolved before the other (e.g. if TMP is defined in the
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209SYSTEM table then try DEFINE TMP "NL:" or somesuch in your process table)
210otherwise simply deassign the dangerous logical names. The potentially
211troublesome logicals and symbols are:
7bb57f25 212
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213 COMP "LOGICAL"
214 EXT "LOGICAL"
215 FOO "LOGICAL"
216 LIB "LOGICAL"
217 LIST "LOGICAL"
218 MIME "LOGICAL"
219 POSIX "LOGICAL"
220 SYS "LOGICAL"
221 T "LOGICAL"
222 THREAD "LOGICAL"
223 THREADS "LOGICAL"
224 TIME "LOGICAL"
225 TMP "LOGICAL"
226 UNICODE "LOGICAL"
227 UTIL "LOGICAL"
228 TEST "SYMBOL"
fb73857a 229
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230As a handy shortcut, the command:
231
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232 @ Configure "-des"
233
234(note the quotation marks and case) will choose reasonable defaults
235automatically (it takes DEC C over Gnu C, DEC C sockets over SOCKETSHR
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236sockets, and either over no sockets). Some options can be given
237explicitly on the command line; the following example specifies a
238non-default location for where Perl will be installed:
239
240 @ Configure "-d" "-Dprefix=dka100:[utils.perl5.]"
241
dab31494 242Note that the installation location would be by default where you unpacked
fe05d1a7 243the source with a "_ROOT." appended. For example if you unpacked the perl
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244source into:
245
246 DKA200:[PERL-5_10_2...]
247
adc5a9a5 248Then the PERL_SETUP.COM that gets written out by CONFIGURE.COM will
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249try to DEFINE your installation PERL_ROOT to be:
250
fe05d1a7 251 DKA200:[PERL-5_10_2_ROOT.]
dab31494 252
1bc81404 253More help with configure.com is available from:
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254
255 @ Configure "-h"
256
257See the "Changing compile-time options (optional)" section below to learn
258even more details about how to influence the outcome of the important
259configuration step. If you find yourself reconfiguring and rebuilding
260then be sure to also follow the advice in the "Cleaning up and starting
261fresh (optional)" and the checklist of items in the "CAVEATS" sections
262below.
263
a83b6f46 264=head2 Changing compile-time options (optional) for Perl on VMS
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265
266Most of the user definable features of Perl are enabled or disabled in
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267configure.com, which processes the hints file config_h.SH. There is
268code in there to Do The Right Thing, but that may end up being the
269wrong thing for you. Make sure you understand what you are doing since
270inappropriate changes to configure.com or config_h.SH can render perl
271unbuildable; odds are that there's nothing in there you'll need to
272change.
b4bc034f 273
a83b6f46 274=head2 Socket Support (optional) for Perl on VMS
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275
276Perl includes a number of functions for IP sockets, which are available if
277you choose to compile Perl with socket support. Since IP networking is an
278optional addition to VMS, there are several different IP stacks available.
279How well integrated they are into the system depends on the stack, your
280version of VMS, and the version of your C compiler.
281
17d4810c 282The default solution available is to use the socket routines built into DEC
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283C. Which routines are available depend on the version of VMS you're
284running, and require proper UCX emulation by your TCP/IP vendor.
285Relatively current versions of Multinet, TCPWare, Pathway, and UCX all
286provide the required libraries--check your manuals or release notes to see
287if your version is new enough.
288
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289The other solution uses the SOCKETSHR library. Before VAX/VMS 5.5-2 it was
290the most portable solution. The SOCKETSHR library has not been maintained
291since VAX/VMS 5.5-2, and it is not known if will even compile with the ANSI
292C that Perl currently requires. It remains an option for historical reasons,
293just in case someone might find it useful.
294
295In combination with either UCX or NetLib, this supported all the major TCP
296stacks (Multinet, Pathways, TCPWare, UCX, and CMU) on all versions of VMS
297Perl ran on up to VAX/VMS 6.2 and Alpha VMS 1.5 with all the compilers on
298both VAX and Alpha. The portion of the socket interface was also consistent
299across versions of VMS and C compilers.
300
301It has a problem with UDP sockets when used with Multinet, though, so you
302should be aware of that.
303
304As of VAX/VMS 5.5-2 and later, CMU is the only TCP/IP program that requires
305socketshr, and the sources have been lost to the most recent CMU bug fixes,
306so CMU is limited to OpenVMS/VAX 6.2 or earlier, which is the last release
307that binaries for the last released patches are known to exist.
308
309There is currently no official web site for downloading either CMU or
310SOCKETSHR; however, copies may be found in the DECUS archives.
311
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312=head1 Building Perl
313
314The configuration script will print out, at the very end, the MMS or MMK
315command you need to compile perl. Issue it (exactly as printed) to start
316the build.
97abc6ad 317
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318Once you issue your MMS or MMK command, sit back and wait. Perl should
319compile and link without a problem. If a problem does occur check the
320"CAVEATS" section of this document. If that does not help send some
321mail to the VMSPERL mailing list. Instructions are in the "Mailing Lists"
322section of this document.
97abc6ad 323
b4bc034f 324=head1 Testing Perl
fb73857a 325
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326Once Perl has built cleanly you need to test it to make sure things work.
327This step is very important since there are always things that can go wrong
328somehow and yield a dysfunctional Perl for you.
fb73857a 329
330Testing is very easy, though, as there's a full test suite in the perl
b4bc034f 331distribution. To run the tests, enter the *exact* MMS line you used to
fb73857a 332compile Perl and add the word "test" to the end, like this:
333
b4bc034f 334If the compile command was:
fb73857a 335
b4bc034f 336 MMS
fb73857a 337
b4bc034f 338then the test command ought to be:
fb73857a 339
b4bc034f 340 MMS test
fb73857a 341
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342MMS (or MMK) will run all the tests. This may take some time, as there are
343a lot of tests. If any tests fail, there will be a note made on-screen.
344At the end of all the tests, a summary of the tests, the number passed and
345failed, and the time taken will be displayed.
fb73857a 346
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347The test driver invoked via MMS TEST has a DCL wrapper ([.VMS]TEST.COM) that
348downgrades privileges to NETMBX, TMPMBX for the duration of the test run,
349and then restores them to their prior state upon completion of testing.
350This is done to ensure that the tests run in a private sandbox and can do no
351harm to your system even in the unlikely event something goes badly wrong in
352one of the test scripts while running the tests from a privileged account.
353A side effect of this safety precaution is that the account used to run the
354test suite must be the owner of the directory tree in which Perl has been
355built; otherwise the manipulations of temporary files and directories
356attempted by some of the tests will fail.
357
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358If any tests fail, it means something is wrong with Perl, or at least
359with the particular module or feature that reported failure. If the test suite
fb73857a 360hangs (some tests can take upwards of two or three minutes, or more if
9f3f8d50 361you're on an especially slow machine, depending on your machine speed, so
fb73857a 362don't be hasty), then the test *after* the last one displayed failed. Don't
363install Perl unless you're confident that you're OK. Regardless of how
364confident you are, make a bug report to the VMSPerl mailing list.
365
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366If one or more tests fail, you can get more information on the failure by
367issuing this command sequence:
fb73857a 368
b4bc034f 369 @ [.VMS]TEST .typ "" "-v" [.subdir]test.T
fb73857a 370
371where ".typ" is the file type of the Perl images you just built (if you
372didn't do anything special, use .EXE), and "[.subdir]test.T" is the test
373that failed. For example, with a normal Perl build, if the test indicated
96d6186e 374that t/op/time failed, then you'd do this:
fb73857a 375
b4bc034f 376 @ [.VMS]TEST .EXE "" "-v" [.OP]TIME.T
fb73857a 377
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378Note that test names are reported in UNIX syntax and relative to the
379top-level build directory. When supplying them individually to the test
380driver, you can use either UNIX or VMS syntax, but you must give the path
381relative to the [.T] directory and you must also add the .T extension to the
382filename. So, for example if the test lib/Math/Trig fails, you would run:
383
384 @ [.VMS]TEST .EXE "" -"v" [-.lib.math]trig.t
385
fb73857a 386When you send in a bug report for failed tests, please include the output
387from this command, which is run from the main source directory:
388
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389 MCR []MINIPERL "-V"
390
391Note that -"V" really is a capital V in double quotes. This will dump out a
392couple of screens worth of configuration information, and can help us
393diagnose the problem. If (and only if) that did not work then try enclosing
394the output of:
395
396 MMS printconfig
fb73857a 397
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398If (and only if) that did not work then try enclosing the output of:
399
b4bc034f 400 @ [.vms]myconfig
fb73857a 401
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402You may also be asked to provide your C compiler version ("CC/VERSION NL:"
403with DEC C, "gcc --version" with GNU CC). To obtain the version of MMS or
404MMK you are running try "MMS/ident" or "MMK /ident". The GNU make version
405can be identified with "make --version".
406
a83b6f46 407=head2 Cleaning up and starting fresh (optional) installing Perl on VMS
fb73857a 408
409If you need to recompile from scratch, you have to make sure you clean up
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410first. There is a procedure to do it--enter the *exact* MMS line you used
411to compile and add "realclean" at the end, like this:
fb73857a 412
b4bc034f 413if the compile command was:
fb73857a 414
b4bc034f 415 MMS
fb73857a 416
b4bc034f 417then the cleanup command ought to be:
fb73857a 418
b4bc034f 419 MMS realclean
fb73857a 420
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421If you do not do this things may behave erratically during the subsequent
422rebuild attempt. They might not, too, so it is best to be sure and do it.
fb73857a 423
b4bc034f 424=head1 Installing Perl
fb73857a 425
426There are several steps you need to take to get Perl installed and
3a385817 427running.
fb73857a 428
a3ef2c6f 429=over 4
b4bc034f 430
a3ef2c6f 431=item 1
fb73857a 432
a3ef2c6f 433Check your default file protections with
fb73857a 434
a3ef2c6f 435 SHOW PROTECTION /DEFAULT
fb73857a 436
a3ef2c6f 437and adjust if necessary with SET PROTECTION=(code)/DEFAULT.
fb73857a 438
a3ef2c6f 439=item 2
3a385817 440
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441Decide where you want Perl to be installed (unless you have already done so
442by using the "prefix" configuration parameter -- see the example in the
443"Configuring the Perl build" section).
b4bc034f 444
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445The DCL script PERL_SETUP.COM that is written by CONFIGURE.COM will help you
446with the definition of the PERL_ROOT and PERLSHR logical names and the PERL
447foreign command symbol. Take a look at PERL_SETUP.COM and modify it if you
448want to. The installation process will execute PERL_SETUP.COM and copy
449files to the directory tree pointed to by the PERL_ROOT logical name defined
450there, so make sure that you have write access to the parent directory of
451what will become the root of your Perl installation.
fb73857a 452
a3ef2c6f 453=item 3
b4bc034f 454
a3ef2c6f 455Run the install script via:
b4bc034f 456
a3ef2c6f 457 MMS install
b4bc034f 458
a3ef2c6f 459or
9f3f8d50 460
a3ef2c6f 461 MMK install
b4bc034f 462
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463If for some reason it complains about target INSTALL being up to date,
464throw a /FORCE switch on the MMS or MMK command.
b4bc034f 465
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466=back
467
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468Copy PERL_SETUP.COM to a place accessible to your perl users.
469
a3ef2c6f 470For example:
fb73857a 471
a3ef2c6f 472 COPY PERL_SETUP.COM SYS$LIBRARY:
b4bc034f 473
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474If you want to have everyone on the system have access to perl
475then add a line that reads
fb73857a 476
a3ef2c6f 477 $ @sys$library:perl_setup
491527d0 478
a3ef2c6f 479to SYS$MANAGER:SYLOGIN.COM.
85988417 480
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481Two alternatives to the foreign symbol would be to install PERL into
482DCLTABLES.EXE (Check out the section "Installing Perl into DCLTABLES
483(optional)" for more information), or put the image in a
484directory that's in your DCL$PATH (if you're using VMS V6.2 or higher).
85988417 485
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486An alternative to having PERL_SETUP.COM define the PERLSHR logical name
487is to simply copy it into the system shareable library directory with:
488
489 copy perl_root:[000000]perlshr.exe sys$share:
85988417 490
a3ef2c6f 491See also the "INSTALLing images (optional)" section.
491527d0 492
a83b6f46 493=head2 Installing Perl into DCLTABLES (optional) on VMS
fb73857a 494
9ef4b0a6 495Execute the following command file to define PERL as a DCL command.
b4bc034f 496You'll need CMKRNL privilege to install the new dcltables.exe.
fb73857a 497
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498 $ create perl.cld
499 !
500 ! modify to reflect location of your perl.exe
501 !
502 define verb perl
503 image perl_root:[000000]perl.exe
504 cliflags (foreign)
505 $!
506 $ set command perl /table=sys$common:[syslib]dcltables.exe -
507 /output=sys$common:[syslib]dcltables.exe
508 $ install replace sys$common:[syslib]dcltables.exe
509 $ exit
fb73857a 510
a83b6f46 511=head2 INSTALLing Perl images (optional) on VMS
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512
513On systems that are using perl quite a bit, and particularly those with
514minimal RAM, you can boost the performance of perl by INSTALLing it as
adc5a9a5 515a known image. PERLSHR.EXE is typically larger than 3000 blocks
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516and that is a reasonably large amount of IO to load each time perl is
517invoked.
518
519 INSTALL ADD PERLSHR/SHARE
b4bc034f 520 INSTALL ADD PERL/HEADER
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521
522should be enough for PERLSHR.EXE (/share implies /header and /open),
523while /HEADER should do for PERL.EXE (perl.exe is not a shared image).
524
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525If your code 'use's modules, check to see if there is a shareable image for
526them, too. In the base perl build, POSIX, IO, Fcntl, Opcode, SDBM_File,
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527DCLsym, and Stdio, and other extensions all have shared images that can be
528installed /SHARE.
9f3f8d50 529
b4bc034f 530How much of a win depends on your memory situation, but if you are firing
9f3f8d50 531off perl with any regularity (like more than once every 20 seconds or so)
b4bc034f 532it is probably beneficial to INSTALL at least portions of perl.
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533
534While there is code in perl to remove privileges as it runs you are advised
535to NOT INSTALL PERL.EXE with PRIVs!
fb73857a 536
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537=head2 Running h2ph to create perl header files (optional) on VMS
538
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539If using HP C, ensure that you have extracted loose versions of your
540compiler's header or *.H files. Be sure to check the contents of:
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541
542 SYS$LIBRARY:DECC$RTLDEF.TLB
543 SYS$LIBRARY:SYS$LIB_C.TLB
544 SYS$LIBRARY:SYS$STARLET_C.TLB
545
546etcetera.
547
548If using GNU cc then also check your GNU_CC:[000000...] tree for the locations
549of the GNU cc headers.
550
b4bc034f 551=head1 Reporting Bugs
fb73857a 552
553If you come across what you think might be a bug in Perl, please report
554it. There's a script in PERL_ROOT:[UTILS], perlbug, that walks you through
555the process of creating a bug report. This script includes details of your
556installation, and is very handy. Completed bug reports should go to
9f3f8d50 557perlbug@perl.com.
fb73857a 558
b4bc034f 559=head1 CAVEATS
fb73857a 560
561Probably the single biggest gotcha in compiling Perl is giving the wrong
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562switches to MMS/MMK when you build. Use *exactly* what the configure.com
563script prints!
564
565The next big gotcha is directory depth. Perl can create directories four,
566five, or even six levels deep during the build, so you don't have to be
dab31494 567too deep to start to hit the RMS 8 level limit (for ODS 2 volumes which were
ec55d5e4 568common on versions of VMS prior to V7.2 and even with V7.3 on the VAX).
dab31494 569It is best to do:
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570
571 DEFINE/TRANS=(CONC,TERM) PERLSRC "disk:[dir.dir.dir.perldir.]"
572 SET DEFAULT PERLSRC:[000000]
573
574before building in cases where you have to unpack the distribution so deep
575(note the trailing period in the definition of PERLSRC). Perl modules
576from CPAN can be just as bad (or worse), so watch out for them, too. Perl's
577configuration script will warn if it thinks you are too deep (at least on
578a VAX or on Alpha versions of VMS prior to 7.2). But MakeMaker will not
579warn you if you start out building a module too deep in a directory.
580
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581As noted above ODS-5 escape sequences such as ^. can break the perl
582build. Solutions include renaming files and directories as needed or
583being careful to use the -o switch or /ODS2 qualifier with latter
584versions of the vmstar utility when unpacking perl or CPAN modules
585on ODS-5 volumes.
586
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587Be sure that the process that you use to build perl has a PGFLQ greater
588than 100000. Be sure to have a correct local time zone to UTC offset
589defined (in seconds) in the logical name SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL before
590running the regression test suite. The SYS$MANAGER:UTC$CONFIGURE_TDF.COM
591procedure will help you set that logical for your system but may require
592system privileges. For example, a location 5 hours west of UTC (such as
593the US East coast while not on daylight savings time) would have:
594
595 DEFINE SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL "-18000"
596
597A final thing that causes trouble is leftover pieces from a failed
598build. If things go wrong make sure you do a "(MMK|MMS|make) realclean"
fb73857a 599before you rebuild.
600
a83b6f46 601=head2 DEC C issues with Perl on VMS
fb73857a 602
b4bc034f 603Note to DEC C users: Some early versions (pre-5.2, some pre-4. If you're DEC
c54e8273 604C 5.x or higher, with current patches if any, you're fine) of the DECCRTL
fb73857a 605contained a few bugs which affect Perl performance:
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606
607=over 4
608
609=item - pipes
610
611Newlines are lost on I/O through pipes, causing lines to run together.
612This shows up as RMS RTB errors when reading from a pipe. You can
613work around this by having one process write data to a file, and
614then having the other read the file, instead of the pipe. This is
615fixed in version 4 of DEC C.
616
617=item - modf()
618
619The modf() routine returns a non-integral value for some values above
620INT_MAX; the Perl "int" operator will return a non-integral value in
621these cases. This is fixed in version 4 of DEC C.
622
623=item - ALPACRT ECO
624
625On the AXP, if SYSNAM privilege is enabled, the CRTL chdir() routine
626changes the process default device and directory permanently, even
627though the call specified that the change should not persist after
628Perl exited. This is fixed by DEC CSC patch ALPACRT04_061 or later.
629See also:
630
eb863851 631 http://www.itrc.hp.com/
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632
633=back
634
635Please note that in later versions "DEC C" may also be known as
636"Compaq C".
637
a83b6f46 638=head2 GNU issues with Perl on VMS
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639
640It has been a while since the GNU utilities such as GCC or GNU make
641were used to build perl on VMS. Hence they may require a great deal
642of source code modification to work again.
643
b4bc034f 644 http://www.progis.de/
b4bc034f 645
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646=head2 Floating Point Considerations
647
648Prior to 5.8.0, Perl simply accepted the default floating point options of the
649C compiler, namely representing doubles with D_FLOAT on VAX and G_FLOAT on
650Alpha. Single precision floating point values are represented in F_FLOAT
651format when either D_FLOAT or G_FLOAT is in use for doubles. Beginning with
6525.8.0, Alpha builds now use IEEE floating point formats by default, which in
653VMS parlance are S_FLOAT for singles and T_FLOAT for doubles. IEEE is not
654available on VAX, so F_FLOAT and D_FLOAT remain the defaults for singles and
655doubles respectively. The available non-default options are G_FLOAT on VAX
656and D_FLOAT or G_FLOAT on Alpha.
657
658The use of IEEE on Alpha introduces NaN, infinity, and denormalization
659capabilities not available with D_FLOAT and G_FLOAT. When using one of those
660non-IEEE formats, silent underflow and overflow are emulated in the conversion
661of strings to numbers, but it is preferable to get the real thing by using
662IEEE where possible.
663
664Regardless of what floating point format you consider preferable, be aware
665that the choice may have an impact on compatibility with external libraries,
666such as database interfaces, and with existing data, such as data created with
667the C<pack> function and written to disk, or data stored via the Storable
668extension. For example, a C<pack("d", $foo)")> will create a D_FLOAT,
669G_FLOAT, or T_FLOAT depending on what your Perl was configured with. When
670written to disk, the value can only be retrieved later by a Perl configured
671with the same floating point option that was in effect when it was created.
672
673To obtain a non-IEEE build on Alpha, simply answer no to the "Use IEEE math?"
674question during the configuration. To obtain an option different from the C
675compiler default on either VAX or Alpha, put in the option that you want in
676answer to the "Any additional cc flags?" question. For example, to obtain a
677G_FLOAT build on VAX, put in C</FLOAT=G_FLOAT>.
678
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679=head2 Multinet issues with Perl on VMS
680
681Prior to the release of Perl 5.8.0 it was noted that the regression
682test for lib/Net/hostent (in file [.lib.Net]hostent.t) will fail owing
683to problems with the hostent structure returned by C calls to either
684gethostbyname() or gethostbyaddr() using DEC or Compaq C with a
685Multinet TCP/IP stack. The problem was noted in Multinet 4.3A
686using either Compaq C 6.5 or DEC C 6.0, and with Multinet 4.2A
687using DEC C 5.2, but could easily affect other versions of Multinet.
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688Process Software Inc. has acknowledged a bug in the Multinet version
689of UCX$IPC_SHR and has provided an ECO for it. The ECO is called
690UCX_LIBRARY_EMULATION-010_A044 and is available from:
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691
692 http://www.multinet.process.com/eco.html
693
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694As of this writing, the ECO is only available for Multinet versions
6954.3A and later. You may determine the version of Multinet that you
696are running using the command:
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697
698 multinet show /version
699
700from the DCL command prompt.
701
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702If the ECO is unavailable for your version of Multinet and you are
703unable to upgrade, you might try using Perl programming constructs
704such as:
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705
706 $address = substr($gethostbyname_addr,0,4);
707
708to temporarily work around the problem, or if you are brave
709and do not mind the possibility of breaking IPv6 addresses,
710you might modify the pp_sys.c file to add an ad-hoc correction
711like so:
712
713
714 --- pp_sys.c;1 Thu May 30 14:42:17 2002
715 +++ pp_sys.c Thu May 30 12:54:02 2002
716 @@ -4684,6 +4684,10 @@
717 }
718 #endif
719
720 + if (hent) {
721 + hent->h_length = 4;
722 + }
723 +
724 if (GIMME != G_ARRAY) {
725 PUSHs(sv = sv_newmortal());
726 if (hent) {
727
728then re-compile and re-test your perl. After the installation
729of the Multinet ECO you ought to back out any such changes though.
730
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731=head1 Mailing Lists
732
733There are several mailing lists available to the Perl porter. For VMS
fb73857a 734specific issues (including both Perl questions and installation problems)
b4bc034f 735there is the VMSPERL mailing list. It is usually a low-volume (10-12
fb73857a 736messages a week) mailing list.
737
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738To subscribe, send a mail message to VMSPERL-SUBSCRIBE@PERL.ORG. The VMSPERL
739mailing list address is VMSPERL@PERL.ORG. Any mail sent there gets echoed
740to all subscribers of the list. There is a searchable archive of the list
741on the web at:
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742
743 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/vmsperl/
a83b6f46 744
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745To unsubscribe from VMSPERL send a message to VMSPERL-UNSUBSCRIBE@PERL.ORG.
746Be sure to do so from the subscribed account that you are canceling.
b4bc034f 747
a83b6f46 748=head2 Web sites for Perl on VMS
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749
750Vmsperl pages on the web include:
751
752 http://www.sidhe.org/vmsperl/index.html
468f45d5 753 http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/VMS/
60d9c7be 754 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/vmsperl/
adc5a9a5 755 http://www-ang.kfunigraz.ac.at/~binder/perl.html
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756 http://lists.perl.org/showlist.cgi?name=vmsperl
757 http://archive.develooper.com/vmsperl@perl.org/
10019e56 758 http://h71000.www7.hp.com/openvms/products/ips/apache/csws_modperl.html
fb73857a 759
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760=head1 SEE ALSO
761
762Perl information for users and programmers about the port of perl to VMS is
3bc8f799 763available from the [.POD]PERLVMS.POD file that gets installed as L<perlvms>.
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764For administrators the perlvms document also includes a detailed discussion
765of extending vmsperl with CPAN modules after Perl has been installed.
766
767=head1 AUTHORS
768
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769Originally by Charles Bailey bailey@newman.upenn.edu. See the git repository
770for history.
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771
772=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
fb73857a 773
774A real big thanks needs to go to Charles Bailey
b4bc034f 775bailey@newman.upenn.edu, who is ultimately responsible for Perl 5.004
fb73857a 776running on VMS. Without him, nothing the rest of us have done would be at
777all important.
778
779There are, of course, far too many people involved in the porting and testing
780of Perl to mention everyone who deserves it, so please forgive us if we've
781missed someone. That said, special thanks are due to the following:
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782
783 Tim Adye T.J.Adye@rl.ac.uk
fb73857a 784 for the VMS emulations of getpw*()
b4bc034f 785 David Denholm denholm@conmat.phys.soton.ac.uk
fb73857a 786 for extensive testing and provision of pipe and SocketShr code,
b4bc034f 787 Mark Pizzolato mark@infocomm.com
fb73857a 788 for the getredirection() code
b4bc034f 789 Rich Salz rsalz@bbn.com
fb73857a 790 for readdir() and related routines
b4bc034f 791 Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com
fb73857a 792 for extensive testing, as well as development work on
793 configuration and documentation for VMS Perl,
b4bc034f 794 Dan Sugalski dan@sidhe.org
fb73857a 795 for extensive contributions to recent version support,
796 development of VMS-specific extensions, and dissemination
797 of information about VMS Perl,
798 the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and the
799 Laboratory of Nuclear Studies at Cornell University for
9f3f8d50 800 the opportunity to test and develop for the AXP,
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801 John Hasstedt John.Hasstedt@sunysb.edu
802 for VAX VMS V7.2 support
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803 John Malmberg wb8tyw@qsl.net
804 for ODS-5 filename handling and other modernizations
b4bc034f 805
fb73857a 806and to the entire VMSperl group for useful advice and suggestions. In
807addition the perl5-porters deserve credit for their creativity and
808willingness to work with the VMS newcomers. Finally, the greatest debt of
b4bc034f 809gratitude is due to Larry Wall larry@wall.org, for having the ideas which
fb73857a 810have made our sleepless nights possible.
811
812Thanks,
813The VMSperl group
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814
815=cut
816