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1=head1 NAME
2
3Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
7f678428 7The basic steps to build and install perl5 on a Unix system are:
8e07c86e 8
dc45a647 9 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
491517e0 10 sh Configure -de
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11 make
12 make test
13 make install
36477c24 14
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15 # You may also wish to add these:
16 (cd /usr/include && h2ph *.h sys/*.h)
3e3baf6d 17 (installhtml --help)
aa689395 18 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
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19
20Each of these is explained in further detail below.
21
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22The above commands will install Perl to /usr/local or /opt, depending
23on the platform. If that's not okay with you, use
24
25 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
26 sh Configure
27 make
28 make test
29 make install
30
31Full configuration instructions can be found in the INSTALL file.
32
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33For information on non-Unix systems, see the section on
34L<"Porting information"> below.
7f678428 35
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36If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
37L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
38
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39For information on what's new in this release, see the
40pod/perldelta.pod file. For more detailed information about specific
41changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 42
e02fdbd2 43IMPORTANT NOTE: 5.005_53 and later releases do not export unadorned
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44global symbols anymore. This means you may need to build older
45extensions that have not been updated for the new naming convention
46with:
47
48 perl Makefile.PL POLLUTE=1
49
50Alternatively, you can enable CPP symbol pollution wholesale by
51building perl itself with:
52
53 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_POLLUTE
54
55pod/perldelta.pod contains more details about this.
e02fdbd2 56
1ec51d55 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 58
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59This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
60structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
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61read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
62by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
63
64 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
65 C<code> literal code
66 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
67
68You should probably at least skim through this entire document before
69proceeding.
c3edaffb 70
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71If you're building Perl on a non-Unix system, you should also read
72the README file specific to your operating system, since this may
73provide additional or different instructions for building Perl.
74
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75If there is a hint file for your system (in the hints/ directory) you
76should also read that hint file for specific information for your
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77system. (Unixware users should use the svr4.sh hint file.) If
78there is a README file for your platform, then you should read
79that too. Additional information is in the Porting/ directory.
203c3eec 80
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81=head1 WARNING: This version may not be binary compatible with Perl 5.005.
82
83Using the default Configure options for building perl should get you
84a perl that will be binary compatible with the 5.005 release.
693762b4 85
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86However, if you run Configure with any custom options, such as
87-Dusethreads, -Dusemultiplicity, -Dusemymalloc, -Ubincompat5005 etc.,
88the resulting perl will not be binary compatible. Under these
89circumstances, if you have dynamically loaded extensions that were
90built under perl 5.005, you will need to rebuild and reinstall all
91those extensions to use them with 5.6.
92
93Pure perl modules without XS or C code should continue to work fine
94without reinstallation. See the discussions below on
95L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> and
96L<"Upgrading from 5.005 to 5.6"> for more details.
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97
98The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
99
1b1c1ae2 100On a related issue, old modules may possibly be affected by the
693762b4 101changes in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
e02fdbd2 102pod/perldelta.pod (and pod/perl500Xdelta.pod) for a description of
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103what's changed. See also your installed copy of the perllocal.pod
104file for a (possibly incomplete) list of locally installed modules.
105Also see CPAN::autobundle for one way to make a "bundle" of your
106currently installed modules.
693762b4 107
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108=head1 WARNING: This version requires a compiler that supports ANSI C.
109
110If you find that your C compiler is not ANSI-capable, try obtaining
111GCC, available from GNU mirrors worldwide (e.g. ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu).
d6baa268 112Another alternative may be to use a tool like ansi2knr to convert the
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113sources back to K&R style, but there is no guarantee this route will get
114you anywhere, since the prototypes are not the only ANSI features used
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115in the Perl sources. ansi2knr is usually found as part of the freely
116available Ghostscript distribution. Another similar tool is
117unprotoize, distributed with GCC. Since unprotoize requires GCC to
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118run, you may have to run it on a platform where GCC is available, and move
119the sources back to the platform without GCC.
120
121If you succeed in automatically converting the sources to a K&R compatible
122form, be sure to email perlbug@perl.com to let us know the steps you
123followed. This will enable us to officially support this option.
124
aa689395 125=head1 Space Requirements
eed2e782 126
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127The complete perl5 source tree takes up about 15 MB of disk space.
128After completing make, it takes up roughly 20 MB, though the actual
129total is likely to be quite system-dependent. The installation
8d74ce1c 130directories need something on the order of 15 MB, though again that
1ec51d55 131value is system-dependent.
8e07c86e 132
aa689395 133=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution
8e07c86e 134
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135If you have built perl before, you should clean out the build directory
136with the command
137
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138 make distclean
139
140or
141
edb1cbcb 142 make realclean
c3edaffb 143
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144The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
145your old config.sh and Policy.sh files.
146
147The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
148files. If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
149change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
150you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably
d6baa268 151not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it
8e07c86e 152
d6baa268 153 rm -f config.sh
4633a7c4 154
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155If you wish to use your old config.sh, be especially attentive to the
156version and architecture-specific questions and answers. For example,
157the default directory for architecture-dependent library modules
158includes the version name. By default, Configure will reuse your old
159name (e.g. /opt/perl/lib/i86pc-solaris/5.003) even if you're running
160Configure for a different version, e.g. 5.004. Yes, Configure should
161probably check and correct for this, but it doesn't, presently.
162Similarly, if you used a shared libperl.so (see below) with version
163numbers, you will probably want to adjust them as well.
164
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165Also, be careful to check your architecture name. For example, some
166Linux distributions use i386, while others may use i486. If you build
167it yourself, Configure uses the output of the arch command, which
168might be i586 or i686 instead. If you pick up a precompiled binary, or
169compile extensions on different systems, they might not all agree on
170the architecture name.
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171
172In short, if you wish to use your old config.sh, I recommend running
173Configure interactively rather than blindly accepting the defaults.
8e07c86e 174
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175If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your particular
176installation choices, then you can probably achieve the same effect by
177using the Policy.sh file. See the section on L<"Site-wide Policy
178settings"> below. If you wish to start with a fresh distribution, you
179also need to remove any old Policy.sh files you may have with
180
181 rm -f Policy.sh
dc45a647 182
aa689395 183=head1 Run Configure
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184
185Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
186things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
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187you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default is
188almost always okay. It is normal for some things to be "NOT found",
189since Configure often searches for many different ways of performing
190the same function.
191
192At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d and Configure will use the
193defaults from then on.
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194
195After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 196*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 197
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198=head2 Altering config.sh variables for C compiler switches etc.
199
200For most users, all of the Configure defaults are fine. Configure
201also has several convenient options which are all described below.
202However, if Configure doesn't have an option to do what you want,
203you can change Configure variables after the platform hints have been
204run, by using Configure's -A switch. For example, here's how to add
205a couple of extra flags to C compiler invocations:
206
207 sh Configure -Accflags="-DPERL_Y2KWARN -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC"
208
209For more help on Configure switches, run:
210
211 sh Configure -h
212
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213=head2 Common Configure options
214
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215Configure supports a number of useful options. Run B<Configure -h> to
216get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
217Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
218
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219=over 4
220
221=item gcc
222
223To compile with gcc you should run
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224
225 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
226
227This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
228compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
229
d6baa268 230=item Installation prefix
4633a7c4 231
8e07c86e 232By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
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233/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. (See L<"Installation Directories">
234and L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for
235further details.)
236
237You can specify a different 'prefix' for the default installation
238directory, when Configure prompts you or by using the Configure command
239line option -Dprefix='/some/directory', e.g.
8e07c86e 240
25f94b33 241 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
4633a7c4 242
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243If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the suggested
244directory structure is simplified. For example, if you use
245prefix=/opt/perl, then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
246/opt/perl/lib/perl5/. Again, see L<"Installation Directories"> below
247for more details.
8e07c86e 248
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249NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is the same
250as or below your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will
251attempt infinite recursion.
84902520 252
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253=item /usr/bin/perl
254
255It may seem obvious, but Perl is useful only when users can easily
256find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
dd64f1c3 257/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
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258careful, however, not to overwrite a version of perl supplied by your
259vendor unless you are sure you know what you are doing.
260
261By default, Configure will arrange for /usr/bin/perl to be linked to
262the current version of perl. You can turn off that behavior by running
263
264 Configure -Uinstallusrbinperl
265
266or by answering 'no' to the appropriate Configure prompt.
267
268In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to
dd64f1c3 269put (symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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270into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
271obvious and convenient place.
272
d6baa268 273=item Overriding an old config.sh
04d420f9 274
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275If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
276with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
277
278=back
8e07c86e 279
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280If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
281output, you can run
282
283 sh Configure -des
284
285For my Solaris system, I usually use
286
287 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -Doptimize='-xpentium -xO4' -des
288
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289=head2 GNU-style configure
290
1ec51d55 291If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
dc45a647 292use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
46bb10fb 293
693762b4 294 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
46bb10fb 295
dc45a647 296The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
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297options. Try
298
693762b4 299 ./configure.gnu --help
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300
301for a listing.
302
d6baa268 303Cross compiling and compiling in a different directory are not supported.
46bb10fb 304
dc45a647 305(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
693762b4 306that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
46bb10fb 307
aa689395 308=head2 Installation Directories
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309
310The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
311appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
312installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
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313Further, there are a number of additions to the installation
314directories since 5.005, so reusing your old config.sh may not
315be sufficient to put everything where you want it.
4633a7c4 316
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317I highly recommend running Configure interactively to be sure it puts
318everything where you want it. At any point during the Configure
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319process, you can answer a question with &-d and Configure will use
320the defaults from then on.
321
322The defaults are intended to be reasonable and sensible for most
323people building from sources. Those who build and distribute binary
324distributions or who export perl to a range of systems will probably
325need to alter them. If you are content to just accept the defaults,
326you can safely skip the next section.
327
328The directories set up by Configure fall into three broad categories.
329
330=over 4
331
332=item Directories for the perl distribution
333
265f5c4a 334By default, Configure will use the following directories for 5.6.
d6baa268 335$version is the full perl version number, including subversion, e.g.
265f5c4a 3365.6 or 5.6.1, and $archname is a string like sun4-sunos,
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337determined by Configure. The full definitions of all Configure
338variables are in the file Porting/Glossary.
339
340 Configure variable Default value
341 $prefix /usr/local
342 $bin $prefix/bin
343 $scriptdir $prefix/bin
344 $privlib $prefix/lib/perl5/$version
345 $archlib $prefix/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
346 $man1dir $prefix/man/man1
347 $man3dir $prefix/man/man3
348 $html1dir (none)
349 $html3dir (none)
350
351Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
352/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
353instead. Also, if $prefix contains the string "perl", the library
354directories are simplified as described below. For simplicity, only
355the common style is shown here.
356
357=item Directories for site-specific add-on files
358
359After perl is installed, you may later wish to add modules (e.g. from
360CPAN) or scripts. Configure will set up the following directories to
361be used for installing those add-on modules and scripts. $apiversion
265f5c4a 362is the perl version number (without subversion), e.g. 5.6.
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363
364 Configure variable Default value
365 $siteprefix $prefix
366 $sitebin $siteprefix/bin
367 $sitescriptdir $siteprefix/bin
368 $sitelib $siteprefix/lib/perl5/site_perl/
369 $sitearch $siteprefix/lib/perl5/site_perl/$apiversion/$archname
370 $siteman1dir $siteprefix/man/man1
371 $siteman3dir $siteprefix/man/man3
372 $sitehtml1dir (none)
373 $sitehtml3dir (none)
374
375By default, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will install architecture-independent
376modules into $sitelib/$apiversion and architecture-dependent modules
377into $sitearch.
378
379=item Directories for vendor-supplied add-on files
380
381Lastly, if you are building a binary distribution of perl for
382distribution, Configure can optionally set up the following directories
383for you to use to distribute add-on modules.
384
385 Configure variable Default value
386 $vendorprefix (none)
387 (The next ones are set only if vendorprefix is set.)
388 $vendorbin $vendorprefix/bin
389 $vendorscriptdir $vendorprefix/bin
390 $vendorlib $vendorprefix/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/
391 $vendorarch $vendorprefix/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$apiversion/$archname
392 $vendorman1dir $vendorprefix/man/man1
393 $vendorman3dir $vendorprefix/man/man3
394 $vendorhtml1dir (none)
395 $vendorhtml3dir (none)
396
397These are normally empty, but may be set as needed. For example,
398a vendor might choose the following settings:
399
400 $prefix /usr/bin
401 $siteprefix /usr/local/bin
402 $vendorprefix /usr/bin
403
404This would have the effect of setting the following:
405
406 $bin /usr/bin
407 $scriptdir /usr/bin
408 $privlib /usr/lib/perl5/$version
409 $archlib /usr/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
410 $man1dir /usr/man/man1
411 $man3dir /usr/man/man3
412
413 $sitebin /usr/local/bin
414 $sitescriptdir /usr/local/bin
415 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
416 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$apiversion/$archname
417 $siteman1dir /usr/local/man/man1
418 $siteman3dir /usr/local/man/man3
419
420 $vendorbin /usr/bin
421 $vendorscriptdir /usr/bin
422 $vendorlib /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/
423 $vendorarch /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$apiversion/$archname
424 $vendorman1dir /usr/man/man1
425 $vendorman3dir /usr/man/man3
426
427Note how in this example, the vendor-supplied directories are in the
428/usr hierarchy, while the directories reserved for the end-user are in
429the /usr/local hierarchy. Note too how the vendor-supplied
430directories track $apiversion, rather than $version, to ease upgrading
431between maintenance subversions. See L<"Coexistence with earlier
432versions of perl5"> below for more details.
433
434Of course you may use these directories however you see fit. For
435example, you may wish to use $siteprefix for site-specific files that
436are stored locally on your own disk and use $vendorprefix for
437site-specific files that are stored elsewhere on your organization's
438network. One way to do that would be something like
439
440 sh Configure -Dsiteprefix=/usr/local -Dvendorprefix=/usr/share/perl
441
442=item otherlibdirs
443
444As a final catch-all, Configure also offers an $otherlibdirs
445variable. This variable contains a colon-separated list of additional
446directories to add to @INC. By default, it will be set to
447$prefix/site_perl if Configure detects that you have 5.004-era modules
448installed there. However, you can set it to anything you like.
449
450=item Man Pages
1ec51d55 451
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452In versions 5.005_57 and earlier, the default was to store module man
453pages in a version-specific directory, such as
454/usr/local/lib/perl5/$version/man/man3. The default for 5.005_58 and
455after is /usr/local/man/man3 so that most users can find the man pages
456without resetting MANPATH.
4633a7c4 457
d6baa268 458You can continue to use the old default from the command line with
4633a7c4 459
265f5c4a 460 sh Configure -Dman3dir=/usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6/man/man3
8d74ce1c 461
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462Some users also prefer to use a .3pm suffix. You can do that with
463
464 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
465
466Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
467Configure.
468
469=item HTML pages
470
471As of perl5.005_57, the standard perl installation does not do
472anything with HTML documentation, but that may change in the future.
473Further, some add-on modules may wish to install HTML documents. The
474html Configure variables listed above are provided if you wish to
475specify where such documents should be placed. The default is "none",
476but will likely eventually change to something useful based on user
477feedback.
8d74ce1c 478
d6baa268 479=back
8d74ce1c 480
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481Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
482to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
483architectures.
4633a7c4 484
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485Note that these are just the defaults. You can actually structure the
486directories any way you like. They don't even have to be on the same
487filesystem.
488
489Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
490development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
491discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below.
492
493If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
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494library directory structure is slightly simplified. Instead of
495suggesting $prefix/lib/perl5/, Configure will suggest $prefix/lib.
8d74ce1c 496
d6baa268 497Thus, for example, if you Configure with
265f5c4a 498-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the default library directories for 5.6 are
3a6175e1 499
d6baa268 500 Configure variable Default value
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501 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.6
502 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.6/$archname
503 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.6
504 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.6/$archname
4633a7c4 505
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506=head2 Changing the installation directory
507
508Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
509associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
510will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
511sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
1ec51d55 512However, sites that use software such as depot to manage software
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513packages, or users building binary packages for distribution may also
514wish to install perl into a different directory and use that
515management software to move perl to its final destination. This
516section describes how to do that.
aa689395 517
0dcb58f4 518Suppose you want to install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory. You
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519could edit config.sh and change all the install* variables to point to
520/tmp/perl5 instead of /usr/local, or you could simply use the
521following command line:
522
523 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5
524
525(replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice).
aa689395 526
693762b4 527Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
d6baa268 528modules, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
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529follow this example. The next section shows one way of dealing with
530that problem.
531
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532=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
533
534If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is
535convenient to compile it once and create an archive that can be
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536installed on multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to
537create an archive that can be installed in /opt/perl.
538Here's one way to do that:
aa689395 539
d6baa268 540 # Set up to install perl into a different directory,
aa689395 541 # e.g. /tmp/perl5 (see previous part).
d6baa268 542 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5 -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
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543 make
544 make test
d6c1b5d3 545 make install # This will install everything into /tmp/perl5.
aa689395 546 cd /tmp/perl5
d6c1b5d3 547 # Edit $archlib/Config.pm and $archlib/.packlist to change all the
fb73857a 548 # install* variables back to reflect where everything will
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549 # really be installed. (That is, change /tmp/perl5 to /opt/perl
550 # everywhere in those files.)
551 # Check the scripts in $scriptdir to make sure they have the correct
bfb7748a 552 # #!/wherever/perl line.
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553 tar cvf ../perl5-archive.tar .
554 # Then, on each machine where you want to install perl,
d6c1b5d3 555 cd /opt/perl # Or wherever you specified as $prefix
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556 tar xvf perl5-archive.tar
557
dc45a647 558=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
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559
560After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
561answers (such as installation directories and the local perl contact
562person) in the Policy.sh file. If you want to build perl on another
563system using the same policy defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file
564to the new system and Configure will use it along with the appropriate
565hint file for your system.
566
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567Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
568answers, you should
569
570 rm -f Policy.sh
571
572to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
573
574Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
575
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576If the generated Policy.sh file is unsuitable, you may freely edit it
577to contain any valid shell commands. It will be run just after the
578platform-specific hints files.
579
265f5c4a 580Note: Since the directory hierarchy for 5.6 contains a number of
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581new vendor* and site* entries, your Policy.sh file will probably not
582set them to your desired values. I encourage you to run Configure
583interactively to be sure it puts things where you want them.
584
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585=head2 Configure-time Options
586
587There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
588system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
589Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
590some of the main things you can change.
591
693762b4 592=head2 Threads
aa689395 593
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594On some platforms, perl5.005 and later can be compiled with
595experimental support for threads. To enable this, read the file
596README.threads, and then try:
f7542a9d 597
693762b4 598 sh Configure -Dusethreads
aa689395 599
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600Currently, you need to specify -Dusethreads on the Configure command
601line so that the hint files can make appropriate adjustments.
602
603The default is to compile without thread support.
3fe9a6f1 604
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605=head2 Selecting File IO mechanisms
606
607Previous versions of perl used the standard IO mechanisms as defined in
1ec51d55 608stdio.h. Versions 5.003_02 and later of perl allow alternate IO
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609mechanisms via a "PerlIO" abstraction, but the stdio mechanism is still
610the default and is the only supported mechanism.
611
612This PerlIO abstraction can be enabled either on the Configure command
613line with
614
615 sh Configure -Duseperlio
616
617or interactively at the appropriate Configure prompt.
618
619If you choose to use the PerlIO abstraction layer, there are two
620(experimental) possibilities for the underlying IO calls. These have been
621tested to some extent on some platforms, but are not guaranteed to work
622everywhere.
623
624=over 4
625
626=item 1.
627
1ec51d55 628AT&T's "sfio". This has superior performance to stdio.h in many
aa689395 629cases, and is extensible by the use of "discipline" modules. Sfio
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630currently only builds on a subset of the UNIX platforms perl supports.
631Because the data structures are completely different from stdio, perl
632extension modules or external libraries may not work. This
633configuration exists to allow these issues to be worked on.
634
635This option requires the 'sfio' package to have been built and installed.
bfb7748a 636A (fairly old) version of sfio is in CPAN.
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637
638You select this option by
639
640 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Dusesfio
641
642If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure detects
643that you have sfio, then sfio will be the default suggested by
644Configure.
645
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646Note: On some systems, sfio's iffe configuration script fails to
647detect that you have an atexit function (or equivalent). Apparently,
648this is a problem at least for some versions of Linux and SunOS 4.
649Configure should detect this problem and warn you about problems with
650_exit vs. exit. If you have this problem, the fix is to go back to
651your sfio sources and correct iffe's guess about atexit.
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652
653There also might be a more recent release of Sfio that fixes your
654problem.
655
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656=item 2.
657
658Normal stdio IO, but with all IO going through calls to the PerlIO
659abstraction layer. This configuration can be used to check that perl and
660extension modules have been correctly converted to use the PerlIO
661abstraction.
662
663This configuration should work on all platforms (but might not).
664
aa689395 665You select this option via:
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666
667 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Uusesfio
668
669If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure does not
670detect sfio, then this will be the default suggested by Configure.
671
672=back
673
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674=head2 Dynamic Loading
675
676By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading if
677your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
678statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
679you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
680
aa689395 681=head2 Building a shared libperl.so Perl library
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682
683Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
684linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
685extensions (usually just DynaLoader.a) and various extra libraries,
686such as -lm.
687
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688On some systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
689replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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690several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
691different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 692you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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693can share the same library.
694
695The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 696penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 697mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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698and upgrades.
699
700In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 701test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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702Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
703results.
704
705The default name for the shared library is typically something like
a6006777 706libperl.so.3.2 (for Perl 5.003_02) or libperl.so.302 or simply
9d67150a 707libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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708based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
709version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
710isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
711
712For some systems (mostly SVR4), building a shared libperl is required
713for dynamic loading to work, and hence is already the default.
714
715You can elect to build a shared libperl by
716
717 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
718
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719To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
720library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
c99d408a 721NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP/Rhapsody, LIBRARY_PATH for BeOS, SHLIB_PATH for
2c2d71f5 722HP-UX, LIBPATH for AIX, PATH for cygwin) must be set up to include
2bf2710f 723the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
d6baa268 724be created. Configure arranges makefile to have the correct shared
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725library search settings.
726
727However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
728shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
729something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
730./perl:
731
732 cd t; ./perl misc/failing_test.t
733or
734 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
735
736then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
737You can do this with
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738
739 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
740
741for Bourne-style shells, or
742
743 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
744
2bf2710f 745for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
d6baa268 746unexpected reason Configure fails to set up makefile correctly.)
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747
748You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
749messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
750for example:
75118126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
c3edaffb 752
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753There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
754want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
755with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
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756install a standard Perl 5.004 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
757try to build Perl 5.004 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
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758the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
759ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
7f678428 760libperl.so.4 rather with the installed libperl.so.4? The answer is
9d67150a 761that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
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762in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
763equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
7beaa944 764with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux you can't. On Digital Unix, you can
0dcb58f4 765override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the _RLD_ROOT environment variable
7beaa944 766to point to the perl build directory.
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767
768The only reliable answer is that you should specify a different
769directory for the architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING
fb73857a 770version of perl. You can do this by changing all the *archlib*
d6baa268 771variables in config.sh to point to your new architecture-dependent library.
9d67150a 772
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773=head2 Malloc Issues
774
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775Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed,
776so perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
777the malloc function on your system. The perl source is shipped with a
778version of malloc that has been optimized for the typical requests from
779perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and use less memory
780than your system malloc.
55479bb6 781
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782However, if your system already has an excellent malloc, or if you are
783experiencing difficulties with extensions that use third-party libraries
784that call malloc, then you should probably use your system's malloc.
785(Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags discussed below.)
c3edaffb 786
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787=over 4
788
d6baa268 789=item Using the system malloc
2ae324a7 790
d6baa268 791To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
aa689395 792
d6baa268 793 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
aa689395 794
d6baa268 795or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
aa689395 796
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797=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
798
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799NOTE: This flag is enabled automatically on some platforms if you
800asked for binary compatibility with version 5.005, or if you just
801run Configure to accept all the defaults on those platforms. You
802can refuse the automatic binary compatibility flags wholesale by
803running:
804
805 sh Configure -Ubincompat5005
806
807or by answering 'n' at the appropriate prompt.
808
d6baa268 809Perl's malloc family of functions are called Perl_malloc(),
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810Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree(). When this flag is
811not enabled, the names do not clash with the system versions of
812these functions.
d6baa268 813
b2a6d19e 814If enabled, Perl's malloc family of functions will have the same
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815names as the system versions. This may be sometimes required when you
816have libraries that like to free() data that may have been allocated
817by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
86058a2d 818
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819Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols
820from the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably
821does not allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom
822versions.
86058a2d 823
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824=back
825
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826=head2 Building a debugging perl
827
828You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 829B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
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830you probably want to do
831
832 sh Configure -Doptimize='-g'
833
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834This will do two independent things: First, it will force compilation
835to use cc -g so that you can use your system's debugger on the
836executable. (Note: Your system may actually require something like
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837cc -g2. Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for
838your system.) Second, it will add -DDEBUGGING to your ccflags
839variable in config.sh so that you can use B<perl -D> to access perl's
840internal state. (Note: Configure will only add -DDEBUGGING by default
841if you are not reusing your old config.sh. If you want to reuse your
842old config.sh, then you can just edit it and change the optimize and
843ccflags variables by hand and then propagate your changes as shown in
844L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below.)
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845
846You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently, but usually
847it's convenient to have both.
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848
849If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
850versions of perl under L<Building a shared libperl.so Perl library>.
851
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852=head2 Extensions
853
854By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
855to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
856only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples below.)
857B, DynaLoader, Fcntl, IO, and attrs are always built by default.
858Configure does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX
859is always built by default as well. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can
860set the Configure variable useposix=false either in a hint file or from
861the Configure command line. Similarly, the Opcode extension is always
862built by default, but you can skip it by setting the Configure variable
863useopcode=false either in a hint file for from the command line.
864
865You can learn more about each of these extensions by consulting the
866documentation in the individual .pm modules, located under the
867ext/ subdirectory.
868
869Even if you do not have dynamic loading, you must still build the
870DynaLoader extension; you should just build the stub dl_none.xs
871version. (Configure will suggest this as the default.)
872
873In summary, here are the Configure command-line variables you can set
874to turn off each extension:
875
876 B (Always included by default)
877 DB_File i_db
878 DynaLoader (Must always be included as a static extension)
879 Fcntl (Always included by default)
880 GDBM_File i_gdbm
881 IO (Always included by default)
882 NDBM_File i_ndbm
883 ODBM_File i_dbm
884 POSIX useposix
885 SDBM_File (Always included by default)
886 Opcode useopcode
887 Socket d_socket
888 Threads usethreads
889 attrs (Always included by default)
890
891Thus to skip the NDBM_File extension, you can use
892
893 sh Configure -Ui_ndbm
894
895Again, this is taken care of automatically if you don't have the ndbm
896library.
897
898Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
899the extensions you want.
900
901Note: The DB_File module will only work with version 1.x of Berkeley
902DB or newer releases of version 2. Configure will automatically detect
903this for you and refuse to try to build DB_File with earlier
904releases of version 2.
905
906If you re-use your old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
907adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
908for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
909you.
910
911Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern Unix systems do)
912remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
913executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
914well build all the ones that will work on your system.
915
916=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
917
918Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
919dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
920Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
921automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
922are not included with perl. See the library documentation for
923how to obtain the libraries.
924
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925If your database header (.h) files are not in a directory normally
926searched by your C compiler, then you will need to include the
927appropriate -I/your/directory option when prompted by Configure. If
928your database library (.a) files are not in a directory normally
929searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to include
930the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted by Configure.
931See the examples below.
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932
933=head2 Examples
934
935=over 4
936
937=item gdbm in /usr/local
938
939Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
d6baa268 940GDBM_File extension. This example assumes you have gdbm.h
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941installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
942/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
943necessary steps out automatically.
944
945Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
946your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include.
947
948When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
949-L/usr/local/lib.
950
951If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
952linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
953-L/usr/local/lib.
954
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955Again, this should all happen automatically. This should also work if
956you have gdbm installed in any of (/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu,
957/opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
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958
959=item gdbm in /usr/you
960
961Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
962but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
963have /usr/you/include/gdbm.h and /usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a. You
964still have to add -I/usr/you/include to cc flags, but you have to take
965an extra step to help Configure find libgdbm.a. Specifically, when
966Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
967/usr/you/lib to the list.
968
969It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
970line):
971
d6baa268 972 sh Configure -de \
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973 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
974 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
975
976locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
977Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
978
979loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
980Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives. If
981you have some libraries under /usr/local/ and others under
982/usr/you, then you have to include both, namely
983
d6baa268 984 sh Configure -de \
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985 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
986 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
987
988=back
989
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990=head2 What if it doesn't work?
991
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992If you run into problems, try some of the following ideas.
993If none of them help, then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
994
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995=over 4
996
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997=item Running Configure Interactively
998
999If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
1000Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
1001guesses.
1002
1003All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 1004have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 1005flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
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1006will use the defaults from then on.
1007
1008If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
1009config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
1010instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
1011
aa689395 1012=item Hint files
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1013
1014The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
1015in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
1016will offer to use that hint file.
1017
1018Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
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1019If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint file
1020for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive example.
1021More information about writing good hints is in the hints/README.hints
1022file.
8e07c86e 1023
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1024=item *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1025
1026Occasionally, Configure makes a wrong guess. For example, on SunOS
10274.1.3, Configure incorrectly concludes that tzname[] is in the
1028standard C library. The hint file is set up to correct for this. You
1029will see a message:
1030
1031 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1032 The recommended value for $d_tzname on this machine was "undef"!
1033 Keep the recommended value? [y]
1034
1035You should always keep the recommended value unless, after reading the
1036relevant section of the hint file, you are sure you want to try
1037overriding it.
1038
1039If you are re-using an old config.sh, the word "previous" will be
1040used instead of "recommended". Again, you will almost always want
1041to keep the previous value, unless you have changed something on your
1042system.
1043
1044For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
1045and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
1046Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
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1047Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
1048issue a message:
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1049
1050 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1051 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
1052 Keep the previous value? [y]
1053
1ec51d55 1054In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 1055should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
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1056the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
1057
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1058=item Changing Compilers
1059
1060If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 1061probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
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1062rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
1063with the options you want to use.
1064
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1065This is a common source of problems. If you change from cc to
1066gcc, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
8e07c86e 1067
c3edaffb 1068=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 1069
1ec51d55
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1070If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
1071them to all the .SH files by running
1072
1073 sh Configure -S
1074
1075You will then have to rebuild by running
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1076
1077 make depend
1078 make
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1079
1080=item config.over
1081
1082You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride Configure's
1083guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just before config.sh
1084is created. You have to be careful with this, however, as Configure
d6baa268 1085does no checking that your changes make sense.
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1086
1087=item config.h
1088
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1089Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
1090Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
1091The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 1092
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1093If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
1094though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
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1095lost.
1096
1097=item cflags
1098
1099If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
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1100line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
1101optimizer on toke.c, find the line in the switch structure for
1102toke.c and put the command optimize='-g' before the ;; . You
1103can also edit cflags directly, but beware that your changes will be
1104lost the next time you run Configure.
8e07c86e 1105
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1106To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
1107see the file hints/README.hints.
1108
1109To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
1110$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
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1111
1112 sh Configure -S
1113 make depend
8e07c86e 1114
aa689395 1115=item No sh
8e07c86e 1116
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1117If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file Porting/config_H
1118to config.h and edit the config.h to reflect your system's peculiarities.
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1119You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
1120mechanism.
1121
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1122=item Environment variable clashes
1123
1124Configure uses a CONFIG variable that is reported to cause trouble on
1125ReliantUnix 5.44. If your system sets this variable, you can try
1126unsetting it before you run Configure. Configure should eventually
1127be fixed to avoid polluting the namespace of the environment.
1128
1129=item Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX and BIN_SH
1130
1131In Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX, Configure might abort with
1132
1133Build a threading Perl? [n]
1134Configure[2437]: Syntax error at line 1 : `config.sh' is not expected.
1135
1136This indicates that Configure is being run with a broken Korn shell
1137(even though you think you are using a Bourne shell by using
1138"sh Configure" or "./Configure"). The Korn shell bug has been reported
1139to Compaq as of February 1999 but in the meanwhile, the reason ksh is
1140being used is that you have the environment variable BIN_SH set to
1141'xpg4'. This causes /bin/sh to delegate its duties to /bin/posix/sh
1142(a ksh). Unset the environment variable and rerun Configure.
1143
1144=item HP-UX 11, pthreads, and libgdbm
1145
1146If you are running Configure with -Dusethreads in HP-UX 11, be warned
1147that POSIX threads and libgdbm (the GNU dbm library) compiled before
1148HP-UX 11 do not mix. This will cause a basic test run by Configure to
1149fail
1150
1151Pthread internal error: message: __libc_reinit() failed, file: ../pthreads/pthread.c, line: 1096
1152Return Pointer is 0xc082bf33
1153sh: 5345 Quit(coredump)
1154
1155and Configure will give up. The cure is to recompile and install
1156libgdbm under HP-UX 11.
1157
c3edaffb
PP
1158=item Porting information
1159
2ae324a7 1160Specific information for the OS/2, Plan9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
1161corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
1162including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
491517e0 1163subdirectory. Especially Porting/Glossary should come in handy.
c3edaffb 1164
7f678428 1165Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
1ec51d55 1166http://www.perl.com/CPAN/ports for current information on ports to
7f678428
PP
1167various other operating systems.
1168
491517e0
JA
1169If you plan to port Perl to a new architecture study carefully the
1170section titled "Philosophical Issues in Patching and Porting Perl"
1171in the file Porting/pumpkin.pod and the file Porting/patching.pod.
1172Study also how other non-UNIX ports have solved problems.
1173
8e07c86e
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1174=back
1175
1176=head1 make depend
1177
bfb7748a
AD
1178This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1179The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1180the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
1181makefile, not Makefile since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
1182(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1183Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
8e07c86e
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1184
1185Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1186explicitly above.
1187
1188=head1 make
1189
1190This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1191
8d74ce1c
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1192=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1193
8e07c86e 1194If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
7f678428 1195If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
8d74ce1c
AD
1196the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help,
1197then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8e07c86e
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1198
1199=over 4
1200
1ec51d55 1201=item hints
8e07c86e
AD
1202
1203If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1204for further tips and information.
1205
1ec51d55 1206=item extensions
8e07c86e 1207
1ec51d55 1208If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
c3edaffb
PP
1209during the building of extensions, you should run
1210
3a6175e1 1211 make minitest
c3edaffb
PP
1212
1213to test your version of miniperl.
1214
e57fd563
PP
1215=item locale
1216
bfb7748a
AD
1217If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1218them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1219running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1220See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
1221whole L<"Locale problems"> section in the file pod/perllocale.pod.
3e6e419a
JH
1222The latter is especially useful if you see something like this
1223
1224 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1225 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1226 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1227 LANG = (unset)
1228 are supported and installed on your system.
1229 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1230
1231at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1232
7f678428 1233=item varargs
c3edaffb
PP
1234
1235If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
bfb7748a
AD
1236correctly and that you are not passing -I/usr/include to gcc. When using
1237gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define' and i_varargs='undef'
1238in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by running fixincludes
1239correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't forget to propagate
1240your changes (see L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
7f678428 1241See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1242
bfb7748a 1243=item util.c
c3edaffb
PP
1244
1245If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
bfb7748a 1246numbers and function name may vary in different versions of perl):
c3edaffb 1247
bfb7748a
AD
1248 util.c: In function `Perl_form':
1249 util.c:1107: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1250 proto.h:125: prototype declaration
c3edaffb
PP
1251
1252it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1253previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1254
9d67150a 1255=item Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading
c3edaffb
PP
1256
1257If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or
1258Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld, you may need to add
1ec51d55 1259-B/bin/ (for SunOS) or -B/usr/ccs/bin/ (for Solaris) to your
c3edaffb 1260$ccflags, $ldflags, and $lddlflags so that the system's versions of as
6877a1cf
AD
1261and ld are used. Note that the trailing '/' is required.
1262Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX
c3edaffb 1263environment variable to ensure that Sun's as and ld are used. Consult
1ec51d55 1264your gcc documentation for further information on the -B option and
c3edaffb
PP
1265the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.
1266
7beaa944
AD
1267One convenient way to ensure you are not using GNU as and ld is to
1268invoke Configure with
1269
1270 sh Configure -Dcc='gcc -B/usr/ccs/bin/'
1271
1272for Solaris systems. For a SunOS system, you must use -B/bin/
1273instead.
1274
84902520
TB
1275Alternatively, recent versions of GNU ld reportedly work if you
1276include C<-Wl,-export-dynamic> in the ccdlflags variable in
1277config.sh.
1278
9d67150a
PP
1279=item ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
1280
1281If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and you're using gcc,
7f678428
PP
1282it's probably the GNU as or GNU ld problem in the previous item
1283L<"Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading">.
9d67150a 1284
1ec51d55 1285=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
PP
1286
1287If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395
PP
1288the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1289Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
c3edaffb
PP
1290fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
1291of your local set-up.
1292
1293=item dlopen: stub interception failed
1294
1295The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is
1296that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
1297which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).
1298
aa689395 1299The reason this causes a problem is quite subtle. The file libdl.so.1.0
c3edaffb
PP
1300actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub interception
1301failed' errors! The runtime linker intercepts links to
1302"/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementation of those
1303functions instead. [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]
1304
aa689395 1305=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
PP
1306
1307If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1308try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1309with
1310
1311 sh Configure -Uusenm
1312
1313or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1314If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
PP
1315config.sh.
1316
bfb7748a
AD
1317=item umask not found
1318
1319If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1320is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1321Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1322this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1323try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1324
7f678428 1325=item vsprintf
c3edaffb
PP
1326
1327If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1328problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1329version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1330(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1331d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1332
1333 d_vprintf='define'
1334
1335If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
bfb7748a
AD
1336on a number of other common functions too. This is probably
1337the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
c3edaffb 1338
3fe9a6f1
PP
1339=item do_aspawn
1340
1341If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1342problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
bfb7748a
AD
1343fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1344on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1345
84902520
TB
1346=item __inet_* errors
1347
1348If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1349referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1350installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1351these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1352in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
1353newer version of BIND. If you can't, you can either link with the
1354updated resolver library provided with BIND 8.1 or rename
1355/usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the Perl build and test process to
1356avoid the problem.
1357
d6baa268
JH
1358=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
1359
1360This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
1361gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
1362changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
1363rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
1364update your gcc installation.
1365
aa689395 1366=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1367
9d67150a 1368If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1369optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1370
1371 optimize='-O'
1372
bfb7748a 1373to
9d67150a
PP
1374
1375 optimize=' '
1376
1377then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1378with B<make depend; make>.
1379
1ec51d55 1380=item CRIPPLED_CC
9d67150a 1381
1b1c1ae2
GS
1382If you still can't compile successfully, try:
1383
1384 sh Configure -Accflags=-DCRIPPLED_CC
1385
1386This flag simplifies some complicated expressions for compilers that get
1387indigestion easily. (Just because you get no errors doesn't mean it
1388compiled right!)
9d67150a
PP
1389
1390=item Missing functions
1391
1392If you have missing routines, you probably need to add some library or
1393other, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1394there but is defective or incomplete. Look through config.h for
bfb7748a
AD
1395likely suspects. If Configure guessed wrong on a number of functions,
1396you might have the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
8e07c86e 1397
1ec51d55 1398=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1399
1ec51d55
CS
1400Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1401toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1402allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
1403each file in cflags. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
1404makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
AD
1405specific rule.
1406
7f678428 1407=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1408
c3edaffb
PP
1409SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1410that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1411
f3d9a6ba 1412=item Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1413
1414If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1415the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1416then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1417Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1418systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
7f678428
PP
1419For example, a system may have -lcposix or -lposix, but it's
1420unlikely to have both, so most users will see warnings for the one
f3d9a6ba
CS
1421they don't have. The phrase 'probably harmless' is intended to
1422reassure you that nothing unusual is happening, and the build
1423process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1424
1425On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1426message
1427
f3d9a6ba 1428 Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1429
1430then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1431the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1432extension without the -lgdbm library.
1433
1434It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1435this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1436quite that tightly coordinated.
1437
aa689395
PP
1438=item sh: ar: not found
1439
1440This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1441was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1442make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1443is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1444directory.
1445
1446=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1447
1448Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1449with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1450bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1451
6087ac44
JH
1452=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1453
1454If you get this error message from the lib/ipc_sysv test, your System
1455V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
1456also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1457to include the System V semaphores.
1458
220f3621
GS
1459=item lib/ipc_sysv........semget: No space left on device
1460
1461Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1462both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1463ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1464with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1465system.
1466
d6baa268
JH
1467=item GNU binutils
1468
1469If you mix GNU binutils (nm, ld, ar) with equivalent vendor-supplied
1470tools you may be in for some trouble. For example creating archives
1471with an old GNU 'ar' and then using a new current vendor-supplied 'ld'
1472may lead into linking problems. Either recompile your GNU binutils
1473under your current operating system release, or modify your PATH not
1474to include the GNU utils before running Configure, or specify the
1475vendor-supplied utilities explicitly to Configure, for example by
1476Configure -Dar=/bin/ar.
1477
1ec51d55 1478=item Miscellaneous
8e07c86e
AD
1479
1480Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
1481
1482Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1483
1484NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1485
1ec51d55 1486UTS may need one or more of -DCRIPPLED_CC, -K or -g, and undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1487
220f3621
GS
1488FreeBSD can fail the lib/ipc_sysv.t test if SysV IPC has not been
1489configured to the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
1490you will get a message telling what to do.
6087ac44 1491
8e07c86e
AD
1492If you get syntax errors on '(', try -DCRIPPLED_CC.
1493
1494Machines with half-implemented dbm routines will need to #undef I_ODBM
1495
d6baa268
JH
1496HP-UX 11 Y2K patch "Y2K-1100 B.11.00.B0125 HP-UX Core OS Year 2000
1497Patch Bundle" has been reported to break the io/fs test #18 which
1498tests whether utime() can change timestamps. The Y2K patch seems to
1499break utime() so that over NFS the timestamps do not get changed
1500(on local filesystems utime() still works).
1501
8e07c86e
AD
1502=back
1503
1504=head1 make test
1505
d6baa268
JH
1506This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If
1507'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went
1508wrong. See the file t/README in the t subdirectory.
84902520 1509
84902520 1510Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
PP
1511opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
1512a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 1513
c4f23d77
AD
1514=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
1515
1ec51d55
CS
1516If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
1517by hand to see if it makes any difference. If individual tests
c3edaffb 1518bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
8e07c86e
AD
1519
1520 ./perl op/groups.t
1521
aa689395 1522Another way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
1ec51d55 1523individual subtests is to cd to the t directory and run
aa689395
PP
1524
1525 ./perl harness
1526
fb73857a 1527(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
aa689395
PP
1528complicated constructs).
1529
fb73857a 1530You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
c3edaffb
PP
1531comments that apply to your system.
1532
c4f23d77
AD
1533=over 4
1534
1535=item locale
1536
1ec51d55 1537Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 1538may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
3fe9a6f1 1539B<make test> exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
1540one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
1541LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
1542are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
1543
1544If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
PP
1545
1546 setenv LC_ALL C
1547
1548(for C shell) or
1549
1550 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
1551
1ec51d55
CS
1552for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
1553make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 1554is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 1555shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
1556things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
1557open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 1558external program.
eed2e782 1559
c4f23d77
AD
1560=item Out of memory
1561
1562On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
1563of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
1564Specifically, in perl5.004_64, tests 74 and 78 have been reported to
1565fail on some systems. On my SparcStation IPC with 8 MB of RAM, test 78
1566will fail if the system is running any other significant tasks at the
1567same time.
1568
1569Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
1570
1571 cd t; ./perl op/pat.t
1572
1573to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
1574test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
1575tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
1576and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
1577
c4f23d77
AD
1578=back
1579
8e07c86e
AD
1580=head1 make install
1581
1582This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
1ec51d55 1583Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try
8e07c86e 1584to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
aa689395 1585pages, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
8e07c86e
AD
1586are not root, you must own the directories in question and you should
1587ignore any messages about chown not working.
1588
dd64f1c3
AD
1589=head2 Installing perl under different names
1590
1591If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
1592when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
1593indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
1594
1595 make install PERLNAME=myperl
1596
beb13193
RS
1597You can separately change the base used for versioned names (like
1598"perl5.005") by setting PERLNAME_VERBASE, like
1599
1600 make install PERLNAME=perl5 PERLNAME_VERBASE=perl
1601
1602This can be useful if you have to install perl as "perl5" (due to an
1603ancient version in /usr/bin supplied by your vendor, eg). Without this
1604the versioned binary would be called "perl55.005".
1605
dd64f1c3
AD
1606=head2 Installed files
1607
8e07c86e
AD
1608If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
1609anything, you can run
4633a7c4 1610
8e07c86e
AD
1611 ./perl installperl -n
1612 ./perl installman -n
1613
1ec51d55 1614make install will install the following:
8e07c86e
AD
1615
1616 perl,
1617 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
1618 will be a link to perl.
1619 suidperl,
1620 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
1621 a2p awk-to-perl translator
1622 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
1623 read from stdin.
1624 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
1625 s2p sed-to-perl translator
1626 find2perl find-to-perl translator
aa689395 1627 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C headers
8e07c86e 1628 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 1629 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 1630 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
aa689395 1631 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules
8e07c86e 1632 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
aa689395
PP
1633 pod2latex, to other useful formats.
1634 pod2man, and
1635 pod2text
1636 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors
95667ae4 1637 dprofpp Perl code profile post-processor
8e07c86e
AD
1638
1639 library files in $privlib and $archlib specified to
1640 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
d6baa268
JH
1641 man pages in $man1dir, usually /usr/local/man/man1.
1642 module man
1643 pages in $man3dir, usually /usr/local/man/man3.
8e07c86e
AD
1644 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
1645
d6baa268
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1646Installperl will also create the directories listed above
1647in L<"Installation Directories">.
4633a7c4 1648
56c6f531 1649Perl's *.h header files and the libperl.a library are also installed
d6baa268 1650under $archlib so that any user may later build new modules, run the
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1651optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
1652program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 1653
aa689395 1654=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5
4633a7c4 1655
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1656In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl (e.g.
16575.004_04) to another similar version (e.g. 5.004_05) without re-compiling
1658all of your add-on extensions. You can also safely leave the old version
1659around in case the new version causes you problems for some reason.
1660For example, if you want to be sure that your script continues to run
dc45a647 1661with 5.004_04, simply replace the '#!/usr/local/bin/perl' line at the
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1662top of the script with the particular version you want to run, e.g.
1663#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.00404.
1664
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1665Most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to use
1666with a newer version of perl. Here is how it is supposed to work.
1667(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
1668
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1669Suppose you already have version 5.005_03 installed. The directories
1670searched by 5.005_03 are
1671
1672 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503/$archname
1673 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503
1674 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
1675 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
1676
265f5c4a
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1677Now, suppose you install version 5.6. The directories searched by
1678version 5.6 will be
d6baa268 1679
265f5c4a
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1680 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6/$archname
1681 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6
1682 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6/$archname
1683 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6
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1684
1685 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
1686 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
bfb7748a 1687
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1688Notice the last two entries -- Perl understands the default structure
1689of the $sitelib directories and will look back in older, compatible
1690directories. This way, modules installed under 5.005_03 will continue
265f5c4a 1691to be usable by 5.005_03 but will also accessible to 5.6. Further,
d6baa268 1692suppose that you upgrade a module to one which requires features
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1693present only in 5.6. That new module will get installed into
1694/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6 and will be available to 5.6,
d6baa268 1695but will not interfere with the 5.005_03 version.
bfb7748a 1696
265f5c4a 1697Also, by default, 5.6 will look in
bfb7748a 1698
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1699 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
1700
1701for 5.004-era pure perl modules.
1702
265f5c4a
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1703Lastly, suppose you now install version 5.6.1. The directories
1704searched by 5.6.1 will be
d6baa268 1705
265f5c4a
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1706 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.1/$archname
1707 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.1
1708 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6/$archname
1709 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6
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1710
1711 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
1712 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
1713 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
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1714
1715When you install an add-on extension, it gets installed into $sitelib (or
1716$sitearch if it is architecture-specific). This directory deliberately
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1717does NOT include the sub-version number (01) so that both 5.6 and
17185.6.1 can use the extension.
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1719
1720However, if you do run into problems, and you want to continue to use the
1721old version of perl along with your extension, move those extension files
1722to the appropriate version directory, such as $privlib (or $archlib).
1723(The extension's .packlist file lists the files installed with that
1724extension. For the Tk extension, for example, the list of files installed
1725is in $sitearch/auto/Tk/.packlist.) Then use your newer version of perl
1726to rebuild and re-install the extension into $sitelib. This way, Perl
265f5c4a 17275.6 will find your files in the 5.6 directory, and newer versions
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1728of perl will find your newer extension in the $sitelib directory.
1729(This is also why perl searches the site-specific libraries last.)
1730
d6baa268 1731Alternatively, if you are willing to reinstall all your modules
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1732every time you upgrade perl, then you can include the subversion
1733number in $sitearch and $sitelib when you run Configure.
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1734
1735=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 1736
1ec51d55 1737Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
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1738separate directories. This guarantees that an update to one version
1739won't interfere with another version. One convenient way to do this
1740is by using a separate prefix for each version, such as
d52d4e46 1741
46bb10fb 1742 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.004
d52d4e46 1743
46bb10fb 1744and adding /opt/perl5.004/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
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1745may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
1746scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
1747
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1748Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
1749(e.g. 5.004 for all 5.004_0x versions), but change directory with
1750each major version.
1751
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1752If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
1753seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
1754subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
1755yet.
1756
265f5c4a 1757=head2 Upgrading from 5.005 to 5.6
693762b4 1758
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1759Extensions built and installed with versions of perl prior to 5.005_50
1760will need to be recompiled to be used with 5.005_50 and later. You will,
265f5c4a 1761however, be able to continue using 5.005 even after you install 5.6.
d6baa268 1762The 5.005 binary will still be able to find the modules built under
265f5c4a 17635.005; the 5.6 binary will look in the new $sitearch and $sitelib
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1764directories, and will not find them. See also your installed copy
1765of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly incomplete) list of locally
1766installed modules. Note that you want perllocal.pod not perllocale.pod
1767for installed module information.
693762b4 1768
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1769=head1 Coexistence with perl4
1770
1771You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
1772
1ec51d55
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1773By default, the perl5 libraries go into /usr/local/lib/perl5/, so
1774they don't override the perl4 libraries in /usr/local/lib/perl/.
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1775
1776In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
1ec51d55 1777perl4.036. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
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1778process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
1779However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
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1780the #! line at the top of them by #!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036 (or
1781whatever the appropriate pathname is). See pod/perltrap.pod for
1782possible problems running perl4 scripts under perl5.
8e07c86e 1783
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1784=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
1785
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1786Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from the
1787system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
1ec51d55 1788header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
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1789by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent
1790library ($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
aa689395 1791
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1792Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the conversion
1793of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have to
1794hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse correctly.
1795For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and certain
1796structures.
aa689395 1797
fb73857a 1798=head1 installhtml --help
aa689395 1799
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1800Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
1801format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
fb73857a 1802documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
aa689395 1803
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1804Currently, the supplied ./installhtml script does not make use of the
1805html Configure variables. This should be fixed in a future release.
1806
fb73857a 1807The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
3e3baf6d 1808perl documentation:
aa689395 1809
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1810 ./installhtml \
1811 --podroot=. \
1812 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
1813 --recurse \
1814 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
1815 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
1816 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
1817 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
1818 --libpods=perlfunc:perlguts:perlvar:perlrun:perlop \
1819 --verbose
1820
1821See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
1822many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
1823see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
1824resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
1825(and would welcome patches for them).
aa689395 1826
fb73857a
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1827You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
1828the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
1829
aa689395
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1830=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
1831
1832Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
1833available in TeX format. Type
1834
1835 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
1836
1837=head1 Reporting Problems
1838
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1839If you have difficulty building perl, and none of the advice in this file
1840helps, and careful reading of the error message and the relevant manual
1841pages on your system doesn't help either, then you should send a message
1842to either the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup or to perlbug@perl.com with
1843an accurate description of your problem.
aa689395 1844
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1845Please include the output of the ./myconfig shell script that comes with
1846the distribution. Alternatively, you can use the perlbug program that
1847comes with the perl distribution, but you need to have perl compiled
1848before you can use it. (If you have not installed it yet, you need to
f5b3b617 1849run C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug> instead of a plain C<perlbug>.)
aa689395 1850
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1851Please try to make your message brief but clear. Trim out unnecessary
1852information. Do not include large files (such as config.sh or a complete
1853Configure or make log) unless absolutely necessary. Do not include a
1854complete transcript of your build session. Just include the failing
d6baa268 1855commands, the relevant error messages, and whatever preceding commands
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1856are necessary to give the appropriate context. Plain text should
1857usually be sufficient--fancy attachments or encodings may actually
1858reduce the number of people who read your message. Your message
1859will get relayed to over 400 subscribers around the world so please
1860try to keep it brief but clear.
aa689395 1861
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1862=head1 DOCUMENTATION
1863
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1864Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
1865is in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 1866build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
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1867can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
1868sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
8e07c86e 1869
1ec51d55 1870Under UNIX, you can produce a documentation book in postscript form,
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1871along with its table of contents, by going to the pod/ subdirectory and
1872running (either):
34a2a22e
RM
1873
1874 ./roffitall -groff # If you have GNU groff installed
aa689395 1875 ./roffitall -psroff # If you have psroff
34a2a22e
RM
1876
1877This will leave you with two postscript files ready to be printed.
aa689395
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1878(You may need to fix the roffitall command to use your local troff
1879set-up.)
34a2a22e 1880
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1881Note that you must have performed the installation already before running
1882the above, since the script collects the installed files to generate
1883the documentation.
34a2a22e 1884
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1885=head1 AUTHOR
1886
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1887Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
1888heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
1889feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
fb73857a 1890
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1891If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
1892L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
1893
1894=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
1895
1896This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
d6baa268 1897the same terms as perl itself, with the following additional request:
f5b3b617 1898If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
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1899a larger package) please B<do> modify these installation instructions
1900and the contact information to match your distribution.
8e07c86e 1901
a5f75d66 1902=head1 LAST MODIFIED
24b3df7f 1903
d6baa268 1904$Id: INSTALL,v 1.58 1999/07/23 14:43:00 doughera Exp $