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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
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4
5=head1 NAME
6
d66be8f9 7README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
12(HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
13compiled and/or runs.
f2a260d6 14
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15=head2 Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
16
17As of application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is shipped with
210b36aa 18perl-5.6.1 in /opt/perl. The first occurrence is on CD 5012-7954 and
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19can be installed using
20
21 swinstall -s /cdrom perl
22
23assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom. In this version the
24following modules are installed:
25
26 ActivePerl::DocTools-0.04 HTML::Parser-3.19 XML::DOM-1.25
27 Archive::Tar-0.072 HTML::Tagset-3.03 XML::Parser-2.27
28 Compress::Zlib-1.08 MIME::Base64-2.11 XML::Simple-1.05
29 Convert::ASN1-0.10 Net-1.07 XML::XPath-1.09
30 Digest::MD5-2.11 PPM-2.1.5 XML::XSLT-0.32
31 File::CounterFile-0.12 SOAP::Lite-0.46 libwww-perl-5.51
32 Font::AFM-1.18 Storable-1.011 libxml-perl-0.07
33 HTML-Tree-3.11 URI-1.11 perl-ldap-0.23
34
35The build is a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large
36files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112
37
38If you perform a new installation, then Perl will be installed
39automatically.
40
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41=head2 Using perl from HP's porting centre
42
43HP porting centre tries very hard to keep up with customer demand and
44release updates from the Open Source community. Having precompiled
45Perl binaries available is obvious.
46
47The HP porting centres are limited in what systems they are allowed
48to port to and they usually choose the two most recent OS versions
49available. This means that at the moment of writing, there are only
50HPUX-11.00 and 11-20/22 (IA64) ports available on the porting centres.
51
52HP has asked the porting centre to move Open Source binaries
53from /opt to /usr/local, so binaries produced since the start
54of July 2002 are located in /usr/local.
55
56One of HP porting centres URL's is http://hpux.connect.org.uk/
57The port currently available is built with GNU gcc.
58
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59=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
60
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61When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. The C compiler
62that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
63used to build new kernels.
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64
65Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The
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66former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
67difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
68require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
f2a260d6 69
60ed1d8c 70If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
b48c3bfb 71complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
60ed1d8c 72details.
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73
74=head2 PA-RISC
75
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76HP's current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
77(PA-RISC) chip. HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
78chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
79document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
80Motorola chipset.
f2a260d6 81
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82The most recent version of PA-RISC at the time of this document's last
83update is 2.0.
f2a260d6 84
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85A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
86/usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the last
87part of the output of the "model" command. The second column is the
88PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact chip type used.
89(Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)
90
91 # model
92 9000/800/L1000-44
93 # grep L1000-44 /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models
94 L1000-44 2.0 PA8500
95
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96=head2 PA-RISC 1.0
97
98The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with this chip.
99
13e84f2c 100The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
f2a260d6 101
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102 600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850,
103 852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
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104
105=head2 PA-RISC 1.1
106
107An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many different
108system.
109
110The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
111
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112 705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745,
113 747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811,
114 813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849,
115 851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C,
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116 B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120,
117 C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350,
118 D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30,
119 G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60,
120 I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410,
121 K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520
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122
123=head2 PA-RISC 2.0
124
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125The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
12664-bit integer data.
f2a260d6 127
60ed1d8c 128As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
d464cda8 129contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips:
f2a260d6 130
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131 700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889,
132 893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160,
133 C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270,
134 D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410,
135 J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
136 K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000,
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137 L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, RP2400, RP2405, RP2430, RP2450,
138 RP2470, RP5400, RP5405, RP5430, RP5450, RP5470, RP7400, RP7405,
139 RP7410, RP8400, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000, T540, T600, V2000, V2200,
140 V2250, V2500, V2600
1a4e8251 141
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142Just before HP took over Compaq, some systems were renamed. Visit
143http://www.hp.com/products1/servers/server_names.html to see what
144the changes are, or will be.
145
146 HP 9000 A-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp2400 series.
08c5bf6e 147 HP 9000 L-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp5400 series.
fb752ac9 148 HP 9000 N-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp7400.
08c5bf6e 149
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150=head2 Itanium
151
152HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). As of the
153date of this document's last update, the following systems contain
154Itanium chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
155
969db73b 156 RX2600, RX4610, RX5670, RX9610
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157
158=head2 Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
159
160An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
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161PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
162HP-UX. If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want that
d1be9408 163Perl to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable and
60ed1d8c 164+DS32 should be used.
f2a260d6 165
60ed1d8c 166It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
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167the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms. The command-line flags are accepted,
168but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
1691.0 system.
170
a83b6f46 171=head2 Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX
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172
173HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor. This requires the use
174of a different version of HP-UX (currently 11.20), and with the exception
175of a few differences detailed below and in later sections, Perl should
176compile with no problems.
177
178Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
179attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system. This is
180because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
181while running a PA-RISC executable.
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182
183=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
184
185HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
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186Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl. On Itanium systems,
187they end with the suffix .so.
f2a260d6 188
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189Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC
190version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
191default. However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using the
192same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
193mentioned above).
f2a260d6 194
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195Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on
196a PA-RISC platform. Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform
197can only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
198that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library. A PA-RISC shared
199library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.
200
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201To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
202
203 1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
204 which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC). The linker will
205 tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
b48c3bfb 206 (For gcc, the appropriate flag is -fpic or -fPIC.)
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207
208 2. Link the shared library using the -b flag. If the code calls
209 any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
210 be included on this line.
211
212(Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the extension's
213Makefile).
214
215If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
216time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when the
217library is loaded.
218
a75f7dba 219You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
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220may be either an archive library or a shared library. If this second
221library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library". The
222dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
223is not linked into the shared library. Instead, it is loaded when the
224main shared library is loaded. This can cause problems if you build an
225extension on one system and move it to another system where the
226libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
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227
228If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
229simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC). These
230modules are then linked into the shared library.
231
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232Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
233library that is already linked into perl.
f2a260d6 234
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235Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
236libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
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237are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you
238run into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase.
239HP is aware of this problem. Search the HP-UX cxx-dev forums for
240discussions about the subject. The short answer is that B<everything>
241(all libraries, everything) must be compiled with C<+z> or C<+Z> to be
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242PIC (position independent code). (For gcc, that would be
243C<-fpic> or C<-fPIC>). In HP-UX 11.00 or newer the linker
3853ea39 244error message should tell the name of the offending object file.
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245
246A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example for
247the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's libdb.sl:
248
249 # cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
250 # vi Makefile
251 ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
252 CFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
253 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
254 CXXFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
255 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
256
257 # make clean
258 # make
259 # mkdir tmp
260 # cd tmp
261 # ar x ../libdb.a
262 # ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o
263 # mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib
264 # rm *.o
265 # cd /usr/local/lib
266 # rm -f libdb.sl
267 # ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl
268
269 # cd .../DB_File-1.76
270 # make distclean
271 # perl Makefile.PL
272 # make
273 # make test
274 # make install
275
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276It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
277though the command-line flags are still present).
278
279PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable. Although
280you may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC
281object files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using
282an Itanium link editor.
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283
284=head2 The HP ANSI C Compiler
285
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286When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
287flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
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288file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
289recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set automatically.
f2a260d6 290
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291=head2 The GNU C Compiler
292
293When you are going to use the GNU C compiler (gcc), and you don't have
294gcc yet, you can either build it yourself from the sources (available
295from e.g. http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/software/gcc/releases.html) or fetch
296a prebuilt binary from the HP porting center. There are two places where
3a1825b5 297gcc prebuilds can be fetched; the first and best (for HP-UX 11 only) is
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298http://h21007.www2.hp.com/dspp/tech/tech_TechSoftwareDetailPage_IDX/1,1703,547,00.html
299the second is http://hpux.cs.utah.edu/hppd/hpux/Gnu/ where you can also
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300find the GNU binutils package. (Browse through the list, because there
301are often multiple versions of the same package available).
2be3a552 302
8df8c42b 303Above mentioned distributions are depots. H.Merijn Brand has made prebuilt
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304gcc binaries available on https://www.beepz.com/personal/merijn/ and/or
305http://www.cmve.net/~merijn/ for HP-UX 10.20 and HP-UX 11.00 in both 32-
306and 64-bit versions. Most likely 11i will be available soon. These are
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307bzipped tar archives that also include recent GNU binutils and GNU gdb.
308Read the instructions on that page to rebuild gcc using itself.
309
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310Building a 64bit capable gcc from source is possible only when you have
311the HP C-ANSI C compiler available, which you should use anyway when
312building perl.
313
a83b6f46 314=head2 Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 315
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316Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
317may be created and manipulated. Three separate methods of doing this
318are available. Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to compile
319using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure. This causes Perl to be
320compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits wide,
321rather than 32 bits wide. (Note that this will only work with HP's ANSI
322C compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get
aca48073 323a version of the compiler that supports 64-bit operations. See above for
f3e4a94e 324where to find it.)
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325
326There are some drawbacks to this approach. One is that any extension
327which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
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328(just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install"
329procedure).
60ed1d8c 330
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331The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
332creat, fgetpos, fopen,
333freopen, fsetpos, fstat,
334fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev, ftruncate,
335ftw, lockf, lseek,
336lstat, mmap, nftw,
337open, prealloc, stat,
338statvfs, statvfsdev, tmpfile,
339truncate, getrlimit, setrlimit
f2a260d6 340
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341Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0. This
342drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
343and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
344
345It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run
346Configure. If you do not do this, but later answer the question about
347large files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that
348cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
349
a83b6f46 350=head2 Threaded Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 351
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352It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
353HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
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354HP-UX 11.00 at least.
355
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356To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of
357Configure. Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
358automatically added to the list of flags. Also make sure that -lpthread
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359is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl with. The
360hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard to get
361this right for you.
f2a260d6 362
210b36aa 363HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX
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364threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
365on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
366April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, available
367though worldwide HP-UX mirrors of precompiled packages
37a78d01 368(e.g. http://hpux.tn.tudelft.nl/hppd/hpux/)
c7d9b096 369
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370If you are going to use the HP DCE package, the library used for threading
371is /usr/lib/libcma.sl, but there have been multiple updates of that
372library over time. Perl will build with the first version, but it
373will not pass the test suite. Older Oracle versions might be a compelling
8e4bcd96 374reason not to update that library, otherwise please find a newer version
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375in one of the following patches: PHSS_19739, PHSS_20608, or PHSS_23672
376
377reformatted output:
378
379 d3:/usr/lib 106 > what libcma-*.1
380 libcma-00000.1:
381 HP DCE/9000 1.5 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
382 Date: Apr 29 1996 22:11:24
383 libcma-19739.1:
384 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_19739-40 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
385 Date: Sep 4 1999 01:59:07
386 libcma-20608.1:
387 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_20608 Module: libcma.1 (Export)
388 Date: Dec 8 1999 18:41:23
389 libcma-23672.1:
390 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_23672 Module: libcma.1 (Export)
391 Date: Apr 9 2001 10:01:06
392 d3:/usr/lib 107 >
393
394
a83b6f46 395=head2 64-bit Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 396
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397Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
398advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
399Pointers are 64 bits wide).
f2a260d6 400
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401Work is being performed on Perl to make it 64-bit compliant on all
402versions of Unix. Once this is complete, scalar variables will be able
403to hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.
f2a260d6 404
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405As of the date of this document, Perl is fully 64-bit compliant on
406HP-UX 11.00 and up for both ccc- and gcc builds.
f2a260d6 407
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408Should a user wish to experiment with compiling Perl in the LP64
409environment, use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure. This will force
410Perl to be compiled in a pure LP64 environment (via the +DD64 flag).
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411(Note that these flags will only work with HP's ANSI C compiler. If
412you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get a version of
aca48073 413the compiler that supports 64-bit operations.)
f74a9bd3 414
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415You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure. Although there
416are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
417the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl user's
418perspective.
f74a9bd3 419
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420In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
421you run Configure. If you do not use do this, but later answer the
422questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
423configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as
424expected.
f74a9bd3 425
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426=head2 Oracle on HP-UX
427
428Using perl to connect to Oracle databases through DBI and DBD::Oracle
429has caused a lot of people many headaches. Read README.hpux in the
430DBD::Oracle for much more information. The reason to mention it here
431is that Oracle requires a perl built with libcl and libpthread, the
432latter even when perl is build without threads. Building perl using
433all defaults, but still enabling to build DBD::Oracle later on can be
434achieved using
435
436 Configure -A prepend:libswanted='cl pthread ' ...
437
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438Do not forget the space before the trailing quote.
439
440Also note that this does not (yet) work with all configurations,
441it is known to fail with 64bit versions of GCC.
5df8692c 442
a83b6f46 443=head2 GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
d66be8f9 444
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445If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
446link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
447starts up. The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
448library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.
d66be8f9 449
a83b6f46 450=head2 NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
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451
452If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the test
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453io/fs.t may fail on test #18. This appears to be a bug in HP-UX and no
454fix is currently available.
d66be8f9 455
a83b6f46 456=head2 perl -P and // and HP-UX
183968aa 457
efdf3af0 458In HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if the
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459-P flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before
460perl sees it) is used. The problem is that C<//>, being a C++-style
461until-end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder
462of the line. This means that common Perl constructs like
463
efdf3af0 464 s/foo//;
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465
466will turn into illegal code
467
efdf3af0 468 s/foo
183968aa 469
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470The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than C<"/">,
471like for example C<"!">:
183968aa 472
efdf3af0 473 s!foo!!;
183968aa 474
a83b6f46 475=head2 HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
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476
477By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
47864MB. This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
479optimization levels. You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
480parameter through the use of SAM.
481
482When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
483icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon. Scroll down and select
484the maxdsiz line. From the Actions menu, select the Modify Configurable
485Parameter item. Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value box.
486Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot your
487system.
488
489In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
490Perl to compile at maximum optimization.
491
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492=head1 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
493
494You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent
495tests. If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like
496the following:
497
498 #0 0xc004216c in () from /usr/lib/libc.2
499 #1 0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
500 #2 0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
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501 #3 0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
502 #4 0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
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503 #5 0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
504 #6 0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
505 #7 0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
506 #8 0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
507 #9 0x2005c in main () from ./perl
508
509The key here is the C<nss_delete> call. One workaround for this
510bug seems to be to create add to the file F</etc/nsswitch.conf>
511(at least) the following lines
512
48529397 513 group: files
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514 passwd: files
515
516Whether you are using NIS does not matter. Amazingly enough,
3a1825b5 517the same bug also affects Solaris.
1081c3b9 518
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519=head1 AUTHOR
520
521Jeff Okamoto <okamoto@corp.hp.com>
fa01be49 522H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@hccnet.nl>
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523
524With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.
525
526=head1 DATE
527
8df8c42b 528Version 0.6.7: 2002-09-05
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529
530=cut