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Fix up \cX for 5.14
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
c69ca1d4 87of the object by explicitly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
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88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
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90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
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99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
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103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
106bitwise and, and multpication), and you said something like C<*foo *
107foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We assumed you
108meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more clear -- in
109the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you really meant
110to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
111
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112=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
113
114(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
115asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
116named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
117the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
118function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
119and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
120
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121=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s
122
123(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}>, which might be
124looking for element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case
125please write C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous
126arrayref to the function named foo, then do a scalar deref on the
127value it returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
128
bdac9d71 129=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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130
131(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
132string C<"-foo"> (outside of C<use strict 'subs'>), or a call to the
133function C<foo>, negated. If you meant the string, just write
134C<"-foo">, and please use strict. If you meant the function call,
135write C<-foo()>.
136
6df41af2 137=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 138
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139(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
140redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
141redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 142
6df41af2 143=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 144
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145(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
146redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
147into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
148though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
149which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 150
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151 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
152 while (<STDIN>) {
153 print;
154 print OUT;
155 }
156 close OUT;
c9f97d15 157
6df41af2 158=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 159
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160(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
161transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 162one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 163a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
164hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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165you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
166alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 167
6df41af2 168=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 169
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170(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
171with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
172impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
173for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 174
6df41af2 175=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 176
6df41af2 177(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 178
b0fdf69e 179=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 180
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181(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
182subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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183
184 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 185 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 186 &do_something
a0d0e21e 187
8ea97a1e 188=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 189
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190(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
191such as:
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192
193 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 194 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 195
8ea97a1e 196or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 197
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198 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
199 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 200
6df41af2 201=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 202
6df41af2 203(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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204name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
205error.
a0d0e21e 206
f86702cc 207=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 208
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209(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
210that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
211will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 212
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213=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
214
215(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
216forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
217data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
218the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
219If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
220the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
221
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222=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
223
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224(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
225spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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226
227=item assertion botched: %s
228
229(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
230
231=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
232
233(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
234
235=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
236
237(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
238must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
239know which context to supply to the right side.
240
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241=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
242
4447dfc1 243(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
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244thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
245Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
246created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
247thread. See L<threads>.
248
2393f1b9 249=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 250
49293501 251(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 252the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 253
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254=item Attempt to bless into a reference
255
256(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
257the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
258supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
259
260 bless $self, $proto;
261
262when you intended
263
264 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
265
266If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
267of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
268example by:
269
270 bless $self, "$proto";
271
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272=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
273
274(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
275which is not in its key set.
276
277=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
278
279(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
280declared readonly from a restricted hash.
281
de42a5a9 282=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 283
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284(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
285that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
286outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 287
54310121 288=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 289
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290(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
291strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
292strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
293of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 294
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295=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
296
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297(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
298free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
299SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
300free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
301try to free it.
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302
303=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
304
e476b1b5 305(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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306
307=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
308
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309(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
310see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
311earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
312This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
313that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
314mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
315corrupted.
a0d0e21e 316
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317=item Attempt to join self
318
319(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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320impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
321to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 322
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323=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
324
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325(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
326function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
327means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
328invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
329literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
330avoid this warning.
84902520 331
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332=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
333
334(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
335compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
336unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
337L<perlvar/%INC>.
338
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339=item Attempt to set length of freed array
340
341(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
342can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
343of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
344
345 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
346 $$r = 503
347
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348=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
349
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350(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
351used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
352dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 353
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354=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
355
356(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "locked"
357attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
358effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in the next major
359release of Perl 5.
360
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361=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
362
363(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 364attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
259976bd 365had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in the next major
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366release of Perl 5.
367
de42a5a9 368=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 369
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370(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
371or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 372S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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373S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
374
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375=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
376
496a33f5 377(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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378substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
379most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
380
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381=item Bad filehandle: %s
382
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383(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
384symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
385open(), or did it in another package.
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386
387=item Bad free() ignored
388
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389(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
390been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 391setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 392
9ea8bc6d 393This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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394dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
395which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 396
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397=item Bad hash
398
399(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
400
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401=item Badly placed ()'s
402
403(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
404of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
405Perl yourself.
406
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407=item Bad name after %s::
408
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409(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
410didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
411of quotes, so
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412
413 $var = 'myvar';
414 $sym = mypack::$var;
415
416is not the same as
417
418 $var = 'myvar';
419 $sym = "mypack::$var";
420
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421=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
422
423(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
424plugin API.
425
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426=item Bad realloc() ignored
427
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428(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
429never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
430by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 431
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432=item Bad symbol for array
433
434(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
435wasn't a symbol table entry.
436
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437=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
438
439(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
440that wasn't a symbol table entry.
441
442
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443=item Bad symbol for filehandle
444
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445(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
446that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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447
448=item Bad symbol for hash
449
450(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
451wasn't a symbol table entry.
452
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453=item Bareword found in conditional
454
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455(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
456conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
457of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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458
459 open FOO || die;
460
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461It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
462a bareword:
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463
464 use constant TYPO => 1;
465 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
466
467The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
468
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469=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
470
471(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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472subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
473symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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474
475=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
476
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477(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
478compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
479you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 480
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481=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
482
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483(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
484subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
485exited.
a0d0e21e 486
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487=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
488
489(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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490implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
491occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
492be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
493depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 494
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495=item \1 better written as $1
496
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497(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
498The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
499substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
500because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
501there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 502
252aa082
JH
503=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
504
e476b1b5 505(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
506(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
507L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 508
69282e91 509=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 510
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511(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
512check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 513
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514=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
515
516(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
517Check you control flow and number of arguments.
518
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519=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
520
e476b1b5 521(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 522
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523=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
524
be771a83 525(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 526copyable.
4633a7c4 527
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528=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
529
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530(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
531iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
532which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 533
a0d0e21e
LW
534=item Callback called exit
535
4929bf7b 536(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
537exited by calling exit.
538
6df41af2 539=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 540
be771a83
GS
541(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
542parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
543that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
544early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
545subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
546checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
547function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
548the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 549
49704364 550=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
551
552(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
553compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
554attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
555See L<perlfunc/pack>.
556
49704364 557=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
558
559(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
560format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
561
5c1f4d79
NC
562=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
563
564(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
565then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
566triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
567from that type of reference to a typeglob.
568
ba2fdce6
NC
569=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
570
571(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
572be directly assigned not.
573
b5d97229
RGS
574=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
575
576(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
577either with open() or binmode().
578
96ebfdd7
RK
579=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
580
581(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
582integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
583to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
584
a0d0e21e
LW
585=item Can't bless non-reference value
586
587(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
588encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
589
dc57907a
RGS
590=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
591
0d863452
RH
592(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
593a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
594
595=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 596
0d863452
RH
597(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
598
a0d0e21e
LW
599=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
600
601(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
602functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
603in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
604
6df41af2
GS
605=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
606
607(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
608object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
609like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
610
611 $BADREF = undef;
612 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
613 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
614
a0d0e21e
LW
615=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
616
54310121 617(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
618ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
619didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
620object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
621
622=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
623
624(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
625object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
626defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
627Something like this will reproduce the error:
628
629 $BADREF = 42;
630 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
631 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
632
a0d0e21e
LW
633=item Can't chdir to %s
634
635(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
636that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
637
0545a864 638=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 639
be771a83
GS
640(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
641nosuid.
104d25b7 642
6df41af2
GS
643=item Can't coerce array into hash
644
645(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
646information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
647only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
648
a0d0e21e
LW
649=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
650
651(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 652(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
653say things like:
654
655 *foo += 1;
656
657You CAN say
658
659 $foo = *foo;
660 $foo += 1;
661
662but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
663
664=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
665
666(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 667(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
668
669=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
670
671(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 672(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 673
0d863452 674=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 675
0d863452
RH
676(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
677or C<default> block.
678
a0d0e21e
LW
679=item Can't create pipe mailbox
680
be771a83
GS
681(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
682quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 683
eb64745e 684=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 685
2f7e735d 686(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 687class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 688extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
689
690=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
691
30c282f6
NC
692(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
693"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 694
6df41af2
GS
695=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
696
be771a83
GS
697(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
698a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 699
a0d0e21e
LW
700=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
701
be771a83
GS
702(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
703reason.
a0d0e21e 704
54310121 705=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 706
be771a83
GS
707(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
708reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
709C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 710
10f9c03d 711=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 712
e476b1b5 713(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
714characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
715inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 716
7253e4e3 717=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 718
b45f050a 719(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 720regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 721regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 722
a0d0e21e
LW
723=item Can't do waitpid with flags
724
be771a83
GS
725(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
726waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 727
a0d0e21e
LW
728=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
729
be771a83
GS
730(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
731point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
732line.
a0d0e21e 733
1109a392
MHM
734=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
735
736(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
737or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
738little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
739See L<perlfunc/pack>.
740
a0d0e21e
LW
741=item Can't exec "%s": %s
742
d1be9408 743(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
744named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
745permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
746C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
747architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
748can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
749#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
750
751=item Can't exec %s
752
be771a83
GS
753(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
754that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
755need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
756
757=item Can't execute %s
758
be771a83
GS
759(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
760found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 761
6df41af2 762=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 763
be771a83
GS
764(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
765is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 766
56ca2fc0
JH
767=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
768
769(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
770could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
771See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
772for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 773
6df41af2
GS
774=item Can't find label %s
775
be771a83
GS
776(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
777possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
778
779=item Can't find %s on PATH
780
be771a83
GS
781(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
782found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 783
6df41af2 784=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 785
be771a83
GS
786(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
787found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
788script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
789
790=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
791
be771a83
GS
792(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
793that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
794nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 795
fb73857a
PP
796 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
797
be771a83
GS
798If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
799unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
800editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 801
660a4616
ST
802=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
803
804(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
e1b711da
KW
805example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
806Unicode property, see
807L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
808for a complete list of available properties.
660a4616
ST
809If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
810by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
811possible C<\E>).
812
b3647a36 813=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 814
be771a83
GS
815(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
816pipeline.
a0d0e21e 817
b3647a36
SR
818=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
819
c973c02e 820(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
821after five seconds.
822
748a9306
LW
823=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
824
be771a83
GS
825(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
826between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
827Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
828the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
829account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
830the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
831the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
832the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
833if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
834because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
835appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
836and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
837routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
838shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
839only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 840
a0d0e21e
LW
841=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
842
be771a83
GS
843(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
844pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
845
846=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
847
748a9306
LW
848(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
849mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 850
6df41af2 851=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 852
be771a83
GS
853(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
854loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
855
856=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
857
be771a83
GS
858(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
859a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
860you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
861See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 862
9850bf21 863=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 864
9850bf21
RH
865(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
866comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
867as the reduce() function in List::Util).
868
c74ace89 869=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 870
be771a83 871(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 872"string" or block.
b150fb22 873
6df41af2
GS
874=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
875
be771a83
GS
876(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
877subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
878cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
879routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 880
0b5b802d
GS
881=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
882
be771a83
GS
883(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
884signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
885signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
886processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
887situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
888may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 889
e2c0f81f
DG
890=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
891
892(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
893attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
894process identifier.
895
6df41af2 896=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 897
6df41af2 898(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
899except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
900block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
901block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
902usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
903inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
904L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 905
2c7d6b9c
RGS
906=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
907
908(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
909package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
910
b8170e59
JB
911=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
912
913(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
914may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
915incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
916between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 917extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
918installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
919extensions.
920
748a9306
LW
921=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
922
2ba9eb46 923(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 924lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
925localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
926package name.
927
6df41af2 928=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 929
6df41af2
GS
930(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
931handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 932pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 933that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 934
ea071790 935=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
936
937(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
938found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
939unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
940need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
941the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
942to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
943L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 944
6df41af2
GS
945=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
946
be771a83
GS
947(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
948autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
949are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
950the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 951
b8170e59
JB
952=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
953
954(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
955for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
956unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
957
a0d0e21e
LW
958=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
959
960(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
961functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 962method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
963
964=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
965
be771a83
GS
966(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
967doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 968
2f7da168
RK
969=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
970
971(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
972e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
973
3e3baf6d
TB
974=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
975
be771a83
GS
976(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
977VMS.
3e3baf6d 978
a0d0e21e
LW
979=item Can't modify %s in %s
980
be771a83
GS
981(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
982to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 983
54310121 984=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
985
986(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
987a NULL.
988
6df41af2
GS
989=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
990
991(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
992such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
993
5f05dabc 994=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 995
5f05dabc 996(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
997buffer.
998
6df41af2
GS
999=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1000
1001(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1002there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1003count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1004grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1005though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1006once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1007
a0d0e21e
LW
1008=item Can't open %s: %s
1009
c47ff5f1 1010(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1011filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1012switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1013is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1014the command line.
a0d0e21e 1015
9a869a14
RGS
1016=item Can't open a reference
1017
1018(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
1019using the 3-arg open() syntax :
1020
1021 open FH, '>', $ref;
1022
1023but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1024open is not supported.
1025
a0d0e21e
LW
1026=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1027
be771a83
GS
1028(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1029You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1030as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1031">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1032
748a9306
LW
1033=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1034
be771a83
GS
1035(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1036redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1037the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1038
1039=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1040
be771a83
GS
1041(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1042redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1043command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1044
1045=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1046
be771a83
GS
1047(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1048redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1049the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1050
1051=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1052
be771a83
GS
1053(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1054redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1055for stdout.
748a9306 1056
2b8ca739 1057=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1058
1059(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1060
fa3aa65a
JC
1061If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1062shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1063you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1064
6df41af2
GS
1065=item Can't read CRTL environ
1066
1067(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1068from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1069missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1070or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1071searched.
6df41af2 1072
6df41af2
GS
1073=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1074
1075(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1076there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1077count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1078or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1079though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1080loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1081
64977eb6 1082=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1083
be771a83
GS
1084(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1085file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1086the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1087
a0d0e21e
LW
1088=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1089
e476b1b5 1090(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1091probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1092
748a9306
LW
1093=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1094
be771a83
GS
1095(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1096to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1097
fe13d51d 1098=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1099
be771a83
GS
1100(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1101to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1102method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1103
cd06dffe
GS
1104=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1105
be771a83
GS
1106(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1107temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1108is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1109
96ebfdd7
RK
1110=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1111
1112(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1113there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1114
78f9721b
SM
1115=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1116
1117(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1118but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1119to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1120the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1121list context.
1122
a0d0e21e
LW
1123=item Can't stat script "%s"
1124
be771a83
GS
1125(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1126open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1127
a0d0e21e
LW
1128=item Can't take log of %g
1129
fb73857a
PP
1130(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1131negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1132standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1133negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1134
1135=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1136
1137(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1138negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1139with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1140
1141=item Can't undef active subroutine
1142
1143(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1144however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1145redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1146
1147=item Can't unshift
1148
1149(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1150as the main Perl stack.
1151
c81225bc 1152=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1153
be771a83
GS
1154(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1155into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1156specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1157indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1158
1db89ea5
BS
1159=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1160
e27ad1f2 1161(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1162table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1163for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1164
96ebfdd7
RK
1165=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1166
1167(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1168be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1169
6df41af2
GS
1170=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1171
be771a83
GS
1172(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1173references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1174
90b75b61 1175=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1176
1177(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1178Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1179provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1180
1109a392
MHM
1181=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1182
1183(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1184byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1185allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1186
6df41af2
GS
1187=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1188
be771a83
GS
1189(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1190foreach.
6df41af2 1191
aab6a793 1192=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1193
be771a83
GS
1194(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1195is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1196(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1197have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1198weren't.
1199
6d3b25aa
RGS
1200=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1201
1202(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1203that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1204For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1205is inside a big-endian group.
1206
c07a80fd
PP
1207=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1208
1209(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1210You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1211and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1212Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1213lexical variable.
1214
a0d0e21e
LW
1215=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1216
1217(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1218reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1219test the type of the reference, if need be.
1220
748a9306 1221=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1222
be771a83
GS
1223(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1224references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1225
748a9306
LW
1226=item Can't use subscript on %s
1227
1228(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1229subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1230didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1231
6df41af2
GS
1232=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1233
75b44862
GS
1234(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1235creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1236backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1237expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1238value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1239instead.
6df41af2 1240
0d863452 1241=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1242
0d863452
RH
1243(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1244loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1245from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1246or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1247
810b8aa5
GS
1248=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1249
1250(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1251references can be weakened.
1252
5f05dabc 1253=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1254
be771a83
GS
1255(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1256with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1257Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1258
4a68bf9d 1259=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1260
17a3df4c
KW
1261(F|W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1262It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1263cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1264derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1265
1266Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1267
f337b084 1268=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1269
1270(W pack) You said
1271
1272 pack("C", $x)
1273
1274where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1275only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1276and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1277
1278 pack("C", $x & 255)
1279
1280If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1281instead.
1282
f337b084
TH
1283=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1284
1285(W pack) You said
1286
1287 pack("U0W", $x)
1288
1289where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1290all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1291meant:
1292
1293 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1294
1295=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1296
1297(W pack) You said
1298
1299 pack("c", $x)
1300
1301where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1302is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1303and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1304
1305 pack("c", $x & 255);
1306
1307If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1308instead.
1309
f337b084
TH
1310=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1311
1312(W unpack) You tried something like
1313
1314 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1315
1a147d38 1316where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1317below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1318modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1319
1320 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1321
1322=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1323
1324(W pack) You tried something like
1325
1326 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1327
1a147d38
YO
1328where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1329value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1330uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1331
1332 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1333
1334=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1335
1336(W unpack) You tried something like
1337
1338 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1339
1a147d38
YO
1340where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1341value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1342uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1343
1344 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1345
96ebfdd7
RK
1346=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1347
1348(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1349
abc7ecad
SP
1350=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1351
1352(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1353a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1354
541ed3a9
FC
1355=item Closure prototype called
1356
1357(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1358handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1359This subroutine cannot be called.
1360
49704364
LW
1361=item Code missing after '/'
1362
1363(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1364template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1365
0876b9a0
KW
1366=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1367
9ae3ac1a
KW
1368=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, no properties match it; all inverse properties do
1369
0876b9a0
KW
1370(W utf8) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
1371
1372Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1373points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1374your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1375At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13760x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1377larger than a 32 bit word.
1378
9ae3ac1a
KW
1379None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1380code point. For example,
1381
1382 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1383
1384will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1385
1386 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1387
1388will match.
1389
6df41af2
GS
1390=item %s: Command not found
1391
be771a83
GS
1392(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1393Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1394
7a2e2cd6
PP
1395=item Compilation failed in require
1396
1397(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1398Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1399encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1400
c3464db5
DD
1401=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1402
be771a83
GS
1403(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1404situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1405to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1406arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1407recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1408under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1409in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1410that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1411on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1412
38875929
DM
1413=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1414
1415(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1416cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1417function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1418cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1419has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1420first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1421after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1422lock.
1423
38875929
DM
1424=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1425
1426(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1427cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1428function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1429cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1430has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1431first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1432after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1433lock.
1434
69282e91 1435=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1436
be771a83
GS
1437(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1438to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1439L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1440
41ab332f 1441=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1442
be771a83
GS
1443(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1444an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1445specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1446corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1447L<overload>.
6df41af2 1448
fc8cd66c
YO
1449=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1450
1a147d38
YO
1451(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1452the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1453forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1454See L<charnames>.
1455
1456
779c5bc9
GS
1457=item Constant is not %s reference
1458
1459(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1460is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1461The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1462usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1463See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1464
4cee8e80
CS
1465=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1466
bb028877 1467(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1468eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1469commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1470
9607fc9c
PP
1471=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1472
be771a83
GS
1473(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1474for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1475workarounds.
9607fc9c 1476
e7ea3e70
IZ
1477=item Copy method did not return a reference
1478
64977eb6 1479(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1480L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1481
6798c92b
GS
1482=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1483
1484(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1485
a0d0e21e
LW
1486=item corrupted regexp pointers
1487
1488(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1489expression compiler gave it.
1490
1491=item corrupted regexp program
1492
be771a83
GS
1493(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1494valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1495
de42a5a9 1496=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1497
1498(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1499
49704364
LW
1500=item Count after length/code in unpack
1501
1502(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1503you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1504L<perlfunc/pack>.
1505
17a3df4c
KW
1506=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1507
1508(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1509to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1510evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1511ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1512semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1513
1514=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
f9d13529 1515
17a3df4c 1516(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
f9d13529 1517non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408fb84 1518written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
17a3df4c 1519characters.
f9d13529 1520
a0d0e21e
LW
1521=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1522
be771a83
GS
1523(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1524100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1525infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1526which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1527
aad1d01f
NC
1528This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1529setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1530
f10b0346 1531=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1532
be771a83
GS
1533(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1534checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1535array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1536
f10b0346 1537=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1538
be771a83
GS
1539(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1540checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1541is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1542
62658f4d
PM
1543=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1544
1545(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1546there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1547
fc36a67e
PP
1548=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1549
be771a83
GS
1550(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1551long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1552that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1553
4a68bf9d 1554=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1555
1556(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1557But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1558deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1559continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1560colons.
1561
6d3b25aa
RGS
1562=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1563
1564(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1565There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1566not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1567conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1568static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1569relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1570declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1571
6d3b25aa
RGS
1572 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1573
1574becomes
1575
1576 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1577
36fb85f3
RGS
1578Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1579have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1580
1581 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1582
500ab966
RGS
1583=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1584
1585(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1586just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1587to create a dangling reference.
1588
3cdd684c
TP
1589=item Did not produce a valid header
1590
1591See Server error.
1592
6df41af2
GS
1593=item %s did not return a true value
1594
1595(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1596it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1597traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1598do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1599
cc507455 1600=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1601
413ff9f6
FC
1602(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1603some such.
4633a7c4 1604
cc507455 1605=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1606
be771a83
GS
1607(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1608variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1609seems superfluous.
33633739 1610
cc507455 1611=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1612
be771a83
GS
1613(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1614@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1615carried away.
748a9306 1616
7e1af8bc 1617=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1618
1619(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1620you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1621
3cdd684c
TP
1622=item Document contains no data
1623
1624See Server error.
1625
62658f4d
PM
1626=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1627
1628(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1629define a C<$VERSION.>
1630
49704364
LW
1631=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1632
1633(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1634See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1635
a0d0e21e
LW
1636=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1637
1638(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1639
1640=item do_study: out of memory
1641
1642(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1643
6df41af2
GS
1644=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1645
56da5a46
RGS
1646(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1647"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1648name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1649because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1650"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1651something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1652subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1653"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1654
ac206dc8
RGS
1655=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1656
1657(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1658qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1659
84d78eb7
YO
1660=item dump is not supported
1661
1662(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1663
a0d0e21e
LW
1664=item Duplicate free() ignored
1665
be771a83
GS
1666(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1667already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1668
1109a392
MHM
1669=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1670
1671(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1672in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1673
4633a7c4
LW
1674=item elseif should be elsif
1675
56da5a46
RGS
1676(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1677ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1678"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1679unlikely to be what you want.
1680
ab13f0c7
JH
1681=item Empty %s
1682
af6f566e
HS
1683(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1684described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1685a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1686
85ab1d1d 1687=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1688
85ab1d1d 1689(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1690effective uids or gids failed.
1691
c038024b
RGS
1692=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1693
1694(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1695aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1696program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1697
748a9306
LW
1698=item Error converting file specification %s
1699
5f05dabc 1700(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1701specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1702single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1703an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1704conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1705
e4d48cc9
GS
1706=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1707
be771a83
GS
1708(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1709expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1710is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1711
fc8f615e 1712=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1713
be771a83
GS
1714(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1715C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1716pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1717is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1718building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1719that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1720
6df41af2
GS
1721=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1722
be771a83
GS
1723(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1724assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1725pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1726
1a147d38
YO
1727=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1728
1729(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1730any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1731
1732The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1733discovered.
1734
fc36a67e
PP
1735=item Excessively long <> operator
1736
1737(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1738Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1739filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1740variable and glob that.
1741
ed9aa3b7
SG
1742=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1743
1744(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1745
fe13d51d 1746=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1747
1748(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1749
1750=item Exiting eval via %s
1751
be771a83
GS
1752(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1753goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1754
1755=item Exiting format via %s
1756
9a2ff54b 1757(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1758goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1759
0a753a76
PP
1760=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1761
be771a83
GS
1762(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1763sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1764loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1765
a0d0e21e
LW
1766=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1767
be771a83
GS
1768(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1769as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1770
1771=item Exiting substitution via %s
1772
be771a83
GS
1773(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1774as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1775
7b8d334a
GS
1776=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1777
be771a83
GS
1778(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1779the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1780usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1781e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1782
6df41af2
GS
1783=item %s: Expression syntax
1784
be771a83
GS
1785(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1786Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1787
1788=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1789
3c10abe3
AG
1790(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1791CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1792queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1793
7253e4e3 1794=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1795
be771a83 1796(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1797character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1798in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1799"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1800problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1801
1b1ee2ef 1802=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1803
be771a83
GS
1804(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1805system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1806details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1807you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1808
1809=item fcntl is not implemented
1810
1811(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1812PDP-11 or something?
1813
22846ab4
AB
1814=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1815
1816(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1817is not possible.
1818
f337b084
TH
1819=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1820
1821(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1822which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1823a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1824C<u63> as format.
1825
af8c498a 1826=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1827
6c8d78fb
HS
1828(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1829it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1830"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1831write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1832
af8c498a 1833=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1834
6c8d78fb
HS
1835(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1836you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1837with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1838intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1839Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1840(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1841
1842=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1843
1844(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1845as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1846previously.
1847
1848=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1849
1850(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1851as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1852
1853=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1854
1855(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1856a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1857happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1858name.
a0d0e21e 1859
56e90b21
GS
1860=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1861
be771a83 1862(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1863some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1864filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1865same name?
56e90b21 1866
6df41af2
GS
1867=item Format not terminated
1868
1869(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1870to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1871
a0d0e21e
LW
1872=item Format %s redefined
1873
e476b1b5 1874(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1875
1876 {
271595cc 1877 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1878 eval "format NAME =...";
1879 }
1880
a0d0e21e
LW
1881=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1882
e476b1b5 1883(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1884
1885 if ($foo = 123)
1886
1887when you meant
1888
1889 if ($foo == 123)
1890
1891(or something like that).
1892
6df41af2
GS
1893=item %s found where operator expected
1894
56da5a46
RGS
1895(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1896If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1897operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1898operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1899
a0d0e21e
LW
1900=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1901
1902(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1903
1904=item gethostent not implemented
1905
1906(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1907because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1908on the Internet.
1909
69282e91 1910=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1911
be771a83
GS
1912(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1913socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1914
748a9306
LW
1915=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1916
1917(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1918C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1919
6df41af2
GS
1920=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1921
be771a83
GS
1922(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1923forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1924L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1925
1926=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1927
a4edf47d 1928(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1929that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1930declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1931which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1932
e476b1b5
GS
1933=item glob failed (%s)
1934
be771a83
GS
1935(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1936C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1937C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1938nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1939resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1940broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1941config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1942were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1943empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1944think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1945C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1946
a0d0e21e
LW
1947=item Glob not terminated
1948
1949(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1950a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1951not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1952earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1953
bcd05b94 1954=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1955
fc003d4b
MS
1956(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1957it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1958date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1959not-a-number value).
1960
bcd05b94 1961=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
1962
1963(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1964it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1965date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1966not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1967
6df41af2 1968=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1969
6df41af2
GS
1970(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1971version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1972
1973=item goto must have label
1974
1975(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1976unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1977
49704364 1978=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1979
49704364 1980(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1981supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1982 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1983
fe13d51d 1984=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1985
1986(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1987
a0d0e21e
LW
1988=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1989
be771a83
GS
1990(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1991to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1992created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1993
1994=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1995
be771a83
GS
1996(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1997spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1998
6df41af2
GS
1999=item %s has too many errors
2000
2001(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2002Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2003
e6897b1a
KW
2004=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
2005
2006(D syntax)
2007
2008You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
2009without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
2010
2011 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2012 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2013
2014both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first form
2015in Perl 5.16. And,
2016
2017 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2018
2019will be disallowed too.
2020
252aa082
JH
2021=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2022
e476b1b5 2023(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2024(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2025L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2026
8903cb82
PP
2027=item Identifier too long
2028
2029(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2030about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2031names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2032of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2033
c3c41406 2034=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2035
ff3f963a
KW
2036(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2037zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2038its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2039been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2040
6df41af2 2041=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2042
6df41af2 2043(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2044
6df41af2 2045=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2046
be771a83
GS
2047(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2048binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2049offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2050
78d0fecf 2051=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2052
d5898338 2053(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2054would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2055when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2056version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2057to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2058
d37a9538
ST
2059=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2060
197afce1
MT
2061(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2062Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 2063
904d85c5
RGS
2064=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2065
2066(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2067you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2068
8e742a20
MHM
2069=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2070
2071(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2072
a0d0e21e
LW
2073=item Illegal division by zero
2074
be771a83
GS
2075(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2076your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2077meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2078
6df41af2
GS
2079=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2080
be771a83
GS
2081(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2082A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2083number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2084
a0d0e21e
LW
2085=item Illegal modulus zero
2086
be771a83
GS
2087(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2088numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2089
6df41af2 2090=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2091
6df41af2
GS
2092(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2093two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2094
2095=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2096
d1be9408 2097(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2098
399388f4 2099=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2100
d1be9408 2101(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2102Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2103
fe13d51d 2104=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2105
6df41af2 2106(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2107following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2108
6df41af2 2109=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2110
75b44862 2111(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2112internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2113delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2114
6df41af2 2115=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2116
be771a83
GS
2117(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2118name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2119didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2120ignored.
54310121 2121
6df41af2 2122=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2123
be771a83
GS
2124(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2125the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2126system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2127times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2128would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2129
be771a83
GS
2130Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2131also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2132
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2133=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2134
2135(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2136C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2137documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2138
979699d9
JH
2139=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2140
2141(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2142Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2143encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2144
1a147d38
YO
2145=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2146
2147(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2148text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2149either consume text or fail.
2150
2151The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2152discovered.
2153
6dbe9451
NC
2154=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2155
2156(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2157of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2158C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2159as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2160
a0d0e21e
LW
2161=item Insecure dependency in %s
2162
8b1a09fc 2163(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2164The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2165setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2166tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2167from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2168such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2169L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2170
2171=item Insecure directory in %s
2172
be771a83
GS
2173(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2174setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2175the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2176See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2177
62f468fc 2178=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2179
2180(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2181setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2182C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2183supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2184the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2185
a7ae9550
GS
2186=item Integer overflow in %s number
2187
75b44862 2188(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2189either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2190your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2191On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2192representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21930b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2194transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2195internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2196operations.
bbce6d69 2197
2fba7546
GA
2198=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2199
0be96356
AL
2200(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2201or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2202integers for your architecture.
2203
46314c13
JP
2204=item Integer overflow in version
2205
2206(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2207size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2208because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2209element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2210trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2211100/9.
2212
7253e4e3 2213=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2214
2215(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2216The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2217discovered.
2218
748a9306
LW
2219=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2220
be771a83
GS
2221(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2222you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2223to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2224L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2225Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2226terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2227
7253e4e3 2228=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2229
7253e4e3
RK
2230(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2231<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2232discovered.
a0d0e21e 2233
6df41af2
GS
2234=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2235
75b44862 2236(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2237followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2238operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2239L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2240
09bef843
SB
2241=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2242
a4a4c9e2 2243(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2244by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2245
2246=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2247
a4a4c9e2 2248(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2249recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2250
c635e13b
PP
2251=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2252
be771a83
GS
2253(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2254L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2255
9e08bc66
ST
2256=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2257
2258(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2259didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2260from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2261The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2262The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2263escape was discovered.
2264
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2265=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2266
2267(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2268or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2269(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2270
7253e4e3 2271=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2272
2273(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2274greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2275C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2276up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2277problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2278
d1573ac7 2279=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2280
2281(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2282character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2283
09bef843
SB
2284=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2285
0120eecf 2286(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2287elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2288parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2289See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2290
b4581f09
JH
2291=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2292
2293(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2294colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2295If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2296list was terminated too soon.
2297
2c86d456
DG
2298=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2299
2300(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2301A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2302decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2303v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2304The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2305See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2306
49704364 2307=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2308
49704364
LW
2309(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2310See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2311(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2312silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2313
2c86d456
DG
2314=item Invalid version format (%s)
2315
2316(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2317A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2318decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2319v-string. If the v-string has less than three components, it must have a
2320leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional. Both
2321decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2322component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2323dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2324criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2325allowed version formats.
46314c13 2326
798ae1b7
DG
2327=item Invalid version object
2328
2329(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2330the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2331was blessed into the "version" class.
2332
a0d0e21e
LW
2333=item ioctl is not implemented
2334
2335(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2336strange for a machine that supports C.
2337
c289d2f7
JH
2338=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2339
2340(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2341Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2342
fe13d51d 2343=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2344
2345(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2346you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2347with 'useperlio'.
2348
80cbd5ad
JH
2349=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2350
2351(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2352neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2353
b4581f09
JH
2354=item $* is no longer supported
2355
d1d15184 2356(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2357been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2358C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2359
2360Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2361modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2362expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2363
8ae1fe26
RGS
2364=item $# is no longer supported
2365
d1d15184 2366(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2367been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2368printf/sprintf functions instead.
2369
6ad11d81
JH
2370=item `%s' is not a code reference
2371
04a80ee0
RGS
2372(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2373needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2374to a subroutine.
2375
2376=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2377
04a80ee0
RGS
2378(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2379unaware of.
6ad11d81 2380
a0d0e21e
LW
2381=item junk on end of regexp
2382
2383(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2384
2385=item Label not found for "last %s"
2386
be771a83
GS
2387(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2388of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2389L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2390
2391=item Label not found for "next %s"
2392
2393(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2394that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2395L<perlfunc/last>.
2396
2397=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2398
2399(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2400that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2401L<perlfunc/last>.
2402
85ab1d1d 2403=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2404
85ab1d1d 2405(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2406effective uids or gids failed.
2407
49704364
LW
2408=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2409
d7f8936a 2410(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2411length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2412an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2413
f0e67a1d
Z
2414=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2415
2416(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2417(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2418tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2419This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2420reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2421plain ASCII is recommended.
2422
2423=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2424
2425(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2426detectable way.
2427
69282e91 2428=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2429
be771a83
GS
2430(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2431to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2432L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2433
bcd05b94 2434=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2435
fc003d4b
MS
2436(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2437than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2438wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2439not-a-number value).
2440
bcd05b94 2441=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
2442
2443(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2444than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2445wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2446not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2447
58e23c8d 2448=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2449
2450(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2451handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2452
b88df990
NC
2453=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2454
2455(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2456for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2457hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2458because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2459are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2460You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2461
2f7da168
RK
2462=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2463
2464(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2465by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2466instead on the filehandle.)
2467
885ef6f5
GG
2468=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2469
963d9ce9 2470(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2471by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2472possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2473lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2474the definition.
2475
96ebfdd7
RK
2476=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2477
2478(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2479values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2480L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2481
49704364
LW
2482=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2483
2484(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2485are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2486
2487=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2488
2489(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2490are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2491
6df41af2
GS
2492=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2493
2494(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2495
2496 prefix1;prefix2
2497
2498or
6df41af2
GS
2499 prefix1 prefix2
2500
be771a83
GS
2501with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2502a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2503appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2504"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2505
2f758a16
ST
2506=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2507
d37a9538
ST
2508(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2509syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2510obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2511when the function is called.
2f758a16 2512
ba210ebe
JH
2513=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2514
2575c402
JW
2515(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2516encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2517
2575c402
JW
2518One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2519you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25208-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2521
2522If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2523sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2524set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2525message.
2526
2527See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2528
dea0fc0b
JH
2529=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2530
183097aa 2531(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2532doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2533
ff3f963a
KW
2534=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2535
2536(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2537
f337b084
TH
2538=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2539
2540(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2541rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2542
2543=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2544
2545(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2546rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2547
2548=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2549
2550(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2551rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2552
de42a5a9 2553=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2554
fe13d51d 2555(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2556usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2557too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2558resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2559safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2560
49704364 2561=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2562
2563(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2564regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2565shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2566See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2567
25f58aea
PN
2568=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2569
2570(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2571interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2572"use" or "my".
2573
49704364 2574=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2575
2576(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2577checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2578See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2579
a0d0e21e
LW
2580=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2581
2582(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2583doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2584
3cdd684c
TP
2585=item Method %s not permitted
2586
2587See Server error.
2588
a0d0e21e
LW
2589=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2590
2591(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2592by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2593ended earlier on the current line.
2594
2595=item Misplaced _ in number
2596
d4ced10d
JH
2597(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2598separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2599
7baa4690
HS
2600=item Missing argument in %s
2601
2602(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2603supplied.
2604
9e81e6a1
RGS
2605=item Missing argument to -%c
2606
2607(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2608immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2609
ff3f963a 2610=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2611
4a2d328f 2612(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2613double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2614comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2615This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2616the C<\N>.
423cee85 2617
f0a2b745
KW
2618=item Missing braces on \o{}
2619
2620(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2621
a0d0e21e
LW
2622=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2623
2624(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2625"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2626
06eaf0bc
GS
2627=item Missing command in piped open
2628
be771a83
GS
2629(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2630C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2631blank.
06eaf0bc 2632
961ce445
RGS
2633=item Missing control char name in \c
2634
2635(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2636character name.
2637
6df41af2
GS
2638=item Missing name in "my sub"
2639
be771a83
GS
2640(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2641they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2642
2643=item Missing $ on loop variable
2644
be771a83
GS
2645(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2646are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2647can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2648
cc507455 2649=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2650
56da5a46
RGS
2651(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2652"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2653
ab13f0c7
JH
2654=item Missing right brace on %s
2655
ff3f963a
KW
2656(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2657
4a68bf9d 2658=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2659
0a96133f
KW
2660(F)
2661C<\N> has two meanings.
2662
2663The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2664in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2665Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2666double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2667have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2668
0a96133f 2669Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2670patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2671C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2672
2673This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2674left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2675the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2676that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 26773; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2678and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2679
2680However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2681omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2682raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2683the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2684
d98d5fff 2685=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2686
be771a83
GS
2687(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2688ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2689were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2690
6df41af2
GS
2691=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2692
56da5a46
RGS
2693(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2694"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2695the previous line just because you saw this message.
2696
a0d0e21e
LW
2697=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2698
2699(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2700constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2701catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2702
2703 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2704 mod(2);
2705
2706Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2707
c5674021
PDF
2708Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2709is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2710
2711 $x = 1;
2712 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2713 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2714 }
c5674021 2715
7a4340ed 2716=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2717
2718(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2719subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2720backwards.
2721
7a4340ed 2722=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2723
be771a83
GS
2724(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2725couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2726
2727=item Module name must be constant
2728
2729(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2730
be98fb35 2731=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2732
be98fb35
GS
2733(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2734you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2735about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2736
fe13d51d 2737=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2738
2739(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2740can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2741list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2742See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2743
a0d0e21e
LW
2744=item msg%s not implemented
2745
2746(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2747
2748=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2749
75b44862
GS
2750(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2751They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2752
49704364 2753=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2754
49704364
LW
2755(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2756follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2757See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2758
2759=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2760
be771a83
GS
2761(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2762that yet.
6df41af2 2763
30c282f6 2764=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2765
be771a83
GS
2766(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2767sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2768local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2769
4a68bf9d 2770=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2771
c3c41406
KW
2772(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2773character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2774specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2775
4a68bf9d 2776=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406
KW
2777
2778(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2779was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2780such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2781
2782 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2783 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2784 /$re/;
2785
b09c05e6 2786Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2787
2788 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2789 /$re/;
2790
2791The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2792components:
2793
2794 $re = '\N';
2795 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2796
2797It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2798doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2799
2800Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2801C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2802
2803 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2804 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2805
8b1a09fc
PP
2806=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2807
e476b1b5 2808(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2809If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2810again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2811provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2812
64b374f4
FD
2813NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2814%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2815the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2816will not trigger this warning.
2817
4a68bf9d 2818=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
ff3f963a
KW
2819
2820(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2821number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2822or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2823
49704364
LW
2824=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2825
2826(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2827negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2828
a0d0e21e
LW
2829=item Negative length
2830
be771a83
GS
2831(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2832length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2833
ed9aa3b7
SG
2834=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2835
2836(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2837greater than or equal to zero.
2838
7253e4e3 2839=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2840
b45f050a 2841(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2842things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2843expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2844
7253e4e3 2845Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2846C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2847
6df41af2 2848=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2849
be771a83
GS
2850(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2851scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2852
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2853=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2854
2855(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2856real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2857See L<mro>.
2858
a0d0e21e
LW
2859=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2860
be771a83
GS
2861(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2862setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2863will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2864securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2865
a0d0e21e
LW
2866=item No comma allowed after %s
2867
2868(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2869allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2870Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2871
0a753a76
PP
2872One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2873constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2874importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2875does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2876explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2877L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2878would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2879remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2880constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2881list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2882this error was triggered?
2883
748a9306
LW
2884=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2885
be771a83
GS
2886(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2887redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2888doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2889
a0d0e21e
LW
2890=item No DB::DB routine defined
2891
be771a83 2892(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2893for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2894module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2895statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2896
2897=item No dbm on this machine
2898
2899(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2900supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2901
ccafdc96 2902=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2903
ccafdc96
RGS
2904(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2905for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2906module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2907of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2908
96ebfdd7
RK
2909=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2910
2911(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2912
c47ff5f1 2913=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2914
be771a83
GS
2915(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2916redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2917find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2918
49704364
LW
2919=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2920
2921(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2922matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2923
c47ff5f1 2924=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2925
be771a83
GS
2926(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2927redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2928name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2929
6df41af2
GS
2930=item No #! line
2931
2932(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2933even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2934
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2935=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2936
2937(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2938in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2939it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2940or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2941
6df41af2
GS
2942=item "no" not allowed in expression
2943
be771a83
GS
2944(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2945returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2946
c47ff5f1 2947=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2948
be771a83
GS
2949(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2950redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2951doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2952
c47ff5f1 2953=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2954
be771a83
GS
2955(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2956redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2957find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2958
1ec3e8de
GS
2959=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2960
be771a83
GS
2961(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2962declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2963semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2964
a0d0e21e
LW
2965=item No Perl script found in input
2966
2967(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2968with #! and containing the word "perl".
2969
2970=item No setregid available
2971
2972(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2973your system.
2974
2975=item No setreuid available
2976
2977(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2978your system.
2979
6df41af2
GS
2980=item No %s specified for -%c
2981
2982(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2983you haven't specified one.
e75d1f10
RD
2984=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2985
2986(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2987but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2988package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2989
2c692339
RGS
2990=item No such class %s
2991
30c282f6 2992(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2993this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2994
3c20a832
SP
2995=item No such hook: %s
2996
2997(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2998accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2999
6df41af2
GS
3000=item No such pipe open
3001
3002(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3003close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3004earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3005
a0d0e21e
LW
3006=item No such signal: SIG%s
3007
be771a83
GS
3008(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3009not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3010names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3011
3012=item Not a CODE reference
3013
3014(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3015subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3016use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3017also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3018
3019=item Not a format reference
3020
3021(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3022format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3023
3024=item Not a GLOB reference
3025
be771a83
GS
3026(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3027symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3028something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3029kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3030
3031=item Not a HASH reference
3032
be771a83
GS
3033(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3034reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3035find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3036
6df41af2
GS
3037=item Not an ARRAY reference
3038
be771a83
GS
3039(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3040a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3041to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3042
a0d0e21e
LW
3043=item Not a perl script
3044
3045(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3046even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3047mention perl.
3048
3049=item Not a SCALAR reference
3050
be771a83
GS
3051(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3052a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3053to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3054
3055=item Not a subroutine reference
3056
3057(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3058subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3059use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3060also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3061
e7ea3e70 3062=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3063
3064(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3065doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3066
a0d0e21e
LW
3067=item Not enough arguments for %s
3068
3069(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3070
6df41af2
GS
3071=item Not enough format arguments
3072
be771a83
GS
3073(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3074supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3075
3076=item %s: not found
3077
be771a83
GS
3078(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3079of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3080yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3081
3082=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3083
6df41af2
GS
3084(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3085timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3086to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3087F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3088need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3089
f0a2b745
KW
3090=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3091
3092(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
3093encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as indicated.
3094
4ef2275c
GA
3095=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3096
3097(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3098Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3099select. See L<perlfunc/select>
3100
a0d0e21e
LW
3101=item Null filename used
3102
be771a83
GS
3103(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3104machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3105
6df41af2
GS
3106=item NULL OP IN RUN
3107
be771a83
GS
3108(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3109pointer.
6df41af2 3110
55497cff
PP
3111=item Null picture in formline
3112
3113(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3114specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3115supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3116
a0d0e21e
LW
3117=item Null realloc
3118
3119(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3120
3121=item NULL regexp argument
3122
5f05dabc 3123(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3124
3125=item NULL regexp parameter
3126
3127(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3128
fc36a67e
PP
3129=item Number too long
3130
be771a83 3131(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3132about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3133versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3134the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3135"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3136
f0a2b745
KW
3137=item Number with no digits
3138
3139(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.
3140This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between the braces.
3141
6df41af2
GS
3142=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3143
be771a83
GS
3144(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3145The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3146future version.
6df41af2 3147
252aa082
JH
3148=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3149
75b44862 3150(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3151(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3152L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3153
3154See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3155
6ad11d81
JH
3156=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3157
04a80ee0
RGS
3158(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3159arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3160
b21befc1
MG
3161=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3162
3163(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3164which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3165
1930e939 3166=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3167
be771a83
GS
3168(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3169which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3170
bbce6d69
PP
3171=item Offset outside string
3172
a4a4c9e2 3173(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3174with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3175imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3176take place when going past the end of the string when either
3177C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3178for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3179with real files).
bbce6d69 3180
c289d2f7 3181=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3182
3183(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3184never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3185call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3186
96ebfdd7
RK
3187=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3188
3189(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3190that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3191
a0d0e21e
LW
3192=item oops: oopsAV
3193
e476b1b5 3194(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3195
3196=item oops: oopsHV
3197
e476b1b5 3198(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3199
abc718f2
RGS
3200=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3201
a4a4c9e2 3202(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3203a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3204Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3205and is deprecated.
3206
3207=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3208
a4a4c9e2 3209(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3210a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3211Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3212and is deprecated.
3213
a0288114 3214=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3215
be771a83
GS
3216(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3217handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3218of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3219C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3220
9ae3ac1a
KW
3221=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
3222
3223(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a Unicode
3224surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3225storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3226the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3227the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
3228
3229If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3230matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3231
3232If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3233C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3234
3235=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
3236
3237(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a code
3238point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3239has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
3240
3241If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3242matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3243
3244If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3245C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3246
748a9306
LW
3247=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3248
be771a83
GS
3249(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3250was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3251use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3252example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3253"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3254
6df41af2
GS
3255=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3256
be771a83
GS
3257(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3258in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3259
a80b8354
GS
3260=item Out of memory!
3261
3262(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3263remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3264no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3265
19a52907
JH
3266At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3267process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3268C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3269the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3270and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3271
6d3b25aa
RGS
3272=item Out of memory during %s extend
3273
3274(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3275the largest possible memory allocation.
3276
6df41af2 3277=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3278
6df41af2
GS
3279(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3280remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3281the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3282possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3283
1b979e0a 3284=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3285
be771a83
GS
3286(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3287insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3288request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3289
3290The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3291depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3292However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3293emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3294is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3295where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3296
1b979e0a
IZ
3297=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3298
3299(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3300is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3301C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3302
6df41af2
GS
3303=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3304
be771a83
GS
3305(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3306parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3307otherwise.
6df41af2 3308
28be1210
TH
3309=item '.' outside of string in pack
3310
3311(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3312position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3313
49704364 3314=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3315
49704364 3316(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3317the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3318
f337b084
TH
3319=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3320
3321(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3322the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3323UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3324
7cb0cfe6
BM
3325=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3326
3327(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3328but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3329L<overload>.
3330
3331=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3332
3333(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3334overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3335
6df41af2
GS
3336=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3337
be771a83
GS
3338(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3339package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3340some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3341mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3342
fb2e24cd
KW
3343=item \p{} uses Unicode rules, not locale rules
3344
3345(W) You compiled a regular expression that contained a Unicode property
3346match (C<\p> or C<\P>), but the regular expression is also being told to
f7f5e97b
KW
3347use the run-time locale, not Unicode. Instead, use a POSIX character
3348class, which should know about the locale's rules.
3349(See L<perlrecharclass/POSIX Character Classes>.)
3350
3351Even if the run-time locale is ISO 8859-1 (Latin1), which is a subset of
3352Unicode, some properties will give results that are not valid for that
3353subset.
3354
3355Here are a couple of examples to help you see what's going on. If the
3356locale is ISO 8859-7, the character at code point 0xD7 is the "GREEK
3357CAPITAL LETTER CHI". But in Unicode that code point means the
3358"MULTIPLICATION SIGN" instead, and C<\p> always uses the Unicode
3359meaning. That means that C<\p{Alpha}> won't match, but C<[[:alpha:]]>
3360should. Only in the Latin1 locale are all the characters in the same
3361positions as they are in Unicode. But, even here, some properties give
3362incorrect results. An example is C<\p{Changes_When_Uppercased}> which
3363is true for "LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS", but since the upper
3364case of that character is not in Latin1, in that locale it doesn't
3365change when upper cased.
fb2e24cd 3366
96ebfdd7
RK
3367=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3368
3369(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3370signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3371
a0d0e21e
LW
3372=item page overflow
3373
be771a83
GS
3374(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3375page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3376
6df41af2
GS
3377=item panic: %s
3378
3379(P) An internal error.
3380
c99a1475
NC
3381=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3382
3383(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3384an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3385platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3386enter this branch on this platform.
3387
a0d0e21e
LW
3388=item panic: ck_grep
3389
3390(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3391
3392=item panic: ck_split
3393