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additional tests for change#5934 (from Paul Marquess, who also
[perl5.git] / ext / B / B / Deparse.pm
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6e90668e 1# B::Deparse.pm
3ed82cfc 2# Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Stephen McCamant. All rights reserved.
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3# This module is free software; you can redistribute and/or modify
4# it under the same terms as Perl itself.
5
6# This is based on the module of the same name by Malcolm Beattie,
7# but essentially none of his code remains.
8
a798dbf2 9package B::Deparse;
f4a44678 10use Carp 'cluck', 'croak';
18228111 11use Config;
4c1f658f 12use B qw(class main_root main_start main_cv svref_2object opnumber
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13 OPf_WANT OPf_WANT_VOID OPf_WANT_SCALAR OPf_WANT_LIST
14 OPf_KIDS OPf_REF OPf_STACKED OPf_SPECIAL
15 OPpLVAL_INTRO OPpENTERSUB_AMPER OPpSLICE OPpCONST_BARE
3ed82cfc 16 OPpTRANS_SQUASH OPpTRANS_DELETE OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT OPpTARGET_MY
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17 SVf_IOK SVf_NOK SVf_ROK SVf_POK
18 PMf_KEEP PMf_GLOBAL PMf_CONTINUE PMf_EVAL PMf_ONCE
19 PMf_MULTILINE PMf_SINGLELINE PMf_FOLD PMf_EXTENDED);
3ed82cfc 20$VERSION = 0.59;
a798dbf2 21use strict;
a798dbf2 22
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23# Changes between 0.50 and 0.51:
24# - fixed nulled leave with live enter in sort { }
25# - fixed reference constants (\"str")
26# - handle empty programs gracefully
27# - handle infinte loops (for (;;) {}, while (1) {})
28# - differentiate between `for my $x ...' and `my $x; for $x ...'
29# - various minor cleanups
30# - moved globals into an object
31# - added `-u', like B::C
32# - package declarations using cop_stash
33# - subs, formats and code sorted by cop_seq
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34# Changes between 0.51 and 0.52:
35# - added pp_threadsv (special variables under USE_THREADS)
36# - added documentation
bd0865ec 37# Changes between 0.52 and 0.53:
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38# - many changes adding precedence contexts and associativity
39# - added `-p' and `-s' output style options
40# - various other minor fixes
bd0865ec 41# Changes between 0.53 and 0.54:
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42# - added support for new `for (1..100)' optimization,
43# thanks to Gisle Aas
bd0865ec 44# Changes between 0.54 and 0.55:
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45# - added support for new qr// construct
46# - added support for new pp_regcreset OP
bd0865ec 47# Changes between 0.55 and 0.56:
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48# - tested on base/*.t, cmd/*.t, comp/*.t, io/*.t
49# - fixed $# on non-lexicals broken in last big rewrite
50# - added temporary fix for change in opcode of OP_STRINGIFY
51# - fixed problem in 0.54's for() patch in `for (@ary)'
52# - fixed precedence in conditional of ?:
53# - tweaked list paren elimination in `my($x) = @_'
54# - made continue-block detection trickier wrt. null ops
55# - fixed various prototype problems in pp_entersub
56# - added support for sub prototypes that never get GVs
57# - added unquoting for special filehandle first arg in truncate
58# - print doubled rv2gv (a bug) as `*{*GV}' instead of illegal `**GV'
59# - added semicolons at the ends of blocks
60# - added -l `#line' declaration option -- fixes cmd/subval.t 27,28
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61# Changes between 0.56 and 0.561:
62# - fixed multiply-declared my var in pp_truncate (thanks to Sarathy)
63# - used new B.pm symbolic constants (done by Nick Ing-Simmons)
64# Changes between 0.561 and 0.57:
65# - stylistic changes to symbolic constant stuff
66# - handled scope in s///e replacement code
67# - added unquote option for expanding "" into concats, etc.
68# - split method and proto parts of pp_entersub into separate functions
69# - various minor cleanups
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70# Changes after 0.57:
71# - added parens in \&foo (patch by Albert Dvornik)
72# Changes between 0.57 and 0.58:
73# - fixed `0' statements that weren't being printed
74# - added methods for use from other programs
75# (based on patches from James Duncan and Hugo van der Sanden)
76# - added -si and -sT to control indenting (also based on a patch from Hugo)
77# - added -sv to print something else instead of '???'
78# - preliminary version of utf8 tr/// handling
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79# Changes after 0.58:
80# - uses of $op->ppaddr changed to new $op->name (done by Sarathy)
81# - added support for Hugo's new OP_SETSTATE (like nextstate)
82# Changes between 0.58 and 0.59
83# - added support for Chip's OP_METHOD_NAMED
84# - added support for Ilya's OPpTARGET_MY optimization
85# - elided arrows before `()' subscripts when possible
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86
87# Todo:
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88# - finish tr/// changes
89# - add option for even more parens (generalize \&foo change)
9d2c6865 90# - {} around variables in strings ("${var}letters")
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91# base/lex.t 25-27
92# comp/term.t 11
90be192f 93# - left/right context
bd0865ec 94# - recognize `use utf8', `use integer', etc
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95# - treat top-level block specially for incremental output
96# - interpret in high bit chars in string as utf8 \x{...} (when?)
3ed82cfc 97# - copy comments (look at real text with $^P?)
f5aa8f4e 98# - avoid semis in one-statement blocks
9d2c6865 99# - associativity of &&=, ||=, ?:
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100# - ',' => '=>' (auto-unquote?)
101# - break long lines ("\r" as discretionary break?)
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102# - configurable syntax highlighting: ANSI color, HTML, TeX, etc.
103# - more style options: brace style, hex vs. octal, quotes, ...
104# - print big ints as hex/octal instead of decimal (heuristic?)
3ed82cfc 105# - handle `my $x if 0'?
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106# - include values of variables (e.g. set in BEGIN)
107# - coordinate with Data::Dumper (both directions? see previous)
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108# - version using op_next instead of op_first/sibling?
109# - avoid string copies (pass arrays, one big join?)
110# - auto-apply `-u'?
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111# - while{} with one-statement continue => for(; XXX; XXX) {}?
112# - -uPackage:: descend recursively?
113# - here-docs?
114# - <DATA>?
6e90668e 115
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116# Tests that will always fail:
117# comp/redef.t -- all (redefinition happens at compile time)
118
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119# Object fields (were globals):
120#
121# avoid_local:
122# (local($a), local($b)) and local($a, $b) have the same internal
123# representation but the short form looks better. We notice we can
124# use a large-scale local when checking the list, but need to prevent
125# individual locals too. This hash holds the addresses of OPs that
126# have already had their local-ness accounted for. The same thing
127# is done with my().
128#
129# curcv:
130# CV for current sub (or main program) being deparsed
131#
132# curstash:
133# name of the current package for deparsed code
134#
135# subs_todo:
136# array of [cop_seq, GV, is_format?] for subs and formats we still
137# want to deparse
138#
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139# protos_todo:
140# as above, but [name, prototype] for subs that never got a GV
141#
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142# subs_done, forms_done:
143# keys are addresses of GVs for subs and formats we've already
144# deparsed (or at least put into subs_todo)
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145#
146# parens: -p
f5aa8f4e 147# linenums: -l
bd0865ec 148# unquote: -q
9d2c6865 149# cuddle: ` ' or `\n', depending on -sC
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150# indent_size: -si
151# use_tabs: -sT
152# ex_const: -sv
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153
154# A little explanation of how precedence contexts and associativity
155# work:
156#
157# deparse() calls each per-op subroutine with an argument $cx (short
158# for context, but not the same as the cx* in the perl core), which is
159# a number describing the op's parents in terms of precedence, whether
f5aa8f4e 160# they're inside an expression or at statement level, etc. (see
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161# chart below). When ops with children call deparse on them, they pass
162# along their precedence. Fractional values are used to implement
163# associativity (`($x + $y) + $z' => `$x + $y + $y') and related
164# parentheses hacks. The major disadvantage of this scheme is that
165# it doesn't know about right sides and left sides, so say if you
166# assign a listop to a variable, it can't tell it's allowed to leave
167# the parens off the listop.
168
169# Precedences:
170# 26 [TODO] inside interpolation context ("")
171# 25 left terms and list operators (leftward)
172# 24 left ->
173# 23 nonassoc ++ --
174# 22 right **
175# 21 right ! ~ \ and unary + and -
176# 20 left =~ !~
177# 19 left * / % x
178# 18 left + - .
179# 17 left << >>
180# 16 nonassoc named unary operators
181# 15 nonassoc < > <= >= lt gt le ge
182# 14 nonassoc == != <=> eq ne cmp
183# 13 left &
184# 12 left | ^
185# 11 left &&
186# 10 left ||
187# 9 nonassoc .. ...
188# 8 right ?:
189# 7 right = += -= *= etc.
190# 6 left , =>
191# 5 nonassoc list operators (rightward)
192# 4 right not
193# 3 left and
194# 2 left or xor
195# 1 statement modifiers
196# 0 statement level
197
198# Nonprinting characters with special meaning:
199# \cS - steal parens (see maybe_parens_unop)
200# \n - newline and indent
201# \t - increase indent
202# \b - decrease indent (`outdent')
f5aa8f4e 203# \f - flush left (no indent)
9d2c6865 204# \cK - kill following semicolon, if any
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205
206sub null {
207 my $op = shift;
208 return class($op) eq "NULL";
209}
210
211sub todo {
212 my $self = shift;
213 my($gv, $cv, $is_form) = @_;
214 my $seq;
215 if (!null($cv->START) and is_state($cv->START)) {
216 $seq = $cv->START->cop_seq;
217 } else {
218 $seq = 0;
219 }
220 push @{$self->{'subs_todo'}}, [$seq, $gv, $is_form];
221}
222
223sub next_todo {
224 my $self = shift;
225 my $ent = shift @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
226 my $name = $self->gv_name($ent->[1]);
227 if ($ent->[2]) {
228 return "format $name =\n"
229 . $self->deparse_format($ent->[1]->FORM). "\n";
230 } else {
3ed82cfc 231 return "sub $name " . $self->deparse_sub($ent->[1]->CV);
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232 }
233}
234
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235sub walk_tree {
236 my($op, $sub) = @_;
237 $sub->($op);
238 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
239 my $kid;
240 for ($kid = $op->first; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
241 walk_tree($kid, $sub);
242 }
243 }
244}
245
246sub walk_sub {
247 my $self = shift;
248 my $cv = shift;
249 my $op = $cv->ROOT;
250 $op = shift if null $op;
251 return if !$op or null $op;
252 walk_tree($op, sub {
253 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9 254 if ($op->name eq "gv") {
18228111 255 my $gv = $self->maybe_padgv($op);
3f872cb9 256 if ($op->next->name eq "entersub") {
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257 next if $self->{'subs_done'}{$$gv}++;
258 next if class($gv->CV) eq "SPECIAL";
259 $self->todo($gv, $gv->CV, 0);
260 $self->walk_sub($gv->CV);
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261 } elsif ($op->next->name eq "enterwrite"
262 or ($op->next->name eq "rv2gv"
263 and $op->next->next->name eq "enterwrite")) {
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264 next if $self->{'forms_done'}{$$gv}++;
265 next if class($gv->FORM) eq "SPECIAL";
266 $self->todo($gv, $gv->FORM, 1);
267 $self->walk_sub($gv->FORM);
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268 }
269 }
270 });
271}
272
273sub stash_subs {
274 my $self = shift;
275 my $pack = shift;
276 my(%stash, @ret);
277 { no strict 'refs'; %stash = svref_2object(\%{$pack . "::"})->ARRAY }
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278 if ($pack eq "main") {
279 $pack = "";
280 } else {
281 $pack = $pack . "::";
282 }
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283 my($key, $val);
284 while (($key, $val) = each %stash) {
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285 my $class = class($val);
286 if ($class eq "PV") {
287 # Just a prototype
288 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, $val->PV];
289 } elsif ($class eq "IV") {
290 # Just a name
291 push @{$self->{'protos_todo'}}, [$pack . $key, undef];
292 } elsif ($class eq "GV") {
293 if (class($val->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
294 next if $self->{'subs_done'}{$$val}++;
295 $self->todo($val, $val->CV, 0);
296 $self->walk_sub($val->CV);
297 }
298 if (class($val->FORM) ne "SPECIAL") {
299 next if $self->{'forms_done'}{$$val}++;
300 $self->todo($val, $val->FORM, 1);
301 $self->walk_sub($val->FORM);
302 }
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303 }
304 }
305}
a798dbf2 306
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307sub print_protos {
308 my $self = shift;
309 my $ar;
310 my @ret;
311 foreach $ar (@{$self->{'protos_todo'}}) {
312 my $proto = (defined $ar->[1] ? " (". $ar->[1] . ")" : "");
313 push @ret, "sub " . $ar->[0] . "$proto;\n";
314 }
315 delete $self->{'protos_todo'};
316 return @ret;
317}
318
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319sub style_opts {
320 my $self = shift;
321 my $opts = shift;
322 my $opt;
323 while (length($opt = substr($opts, 0, 1))) {
324 if ($opt eq "C") {
325 $self->{'cuddle'} = " ";
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326 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
327 } elsif ($opt eq "i") {
328 $opts =~ s/^i(\d+)//;
329 $self->{'indent_size'} = $1;
330 } elsif ($opt eq "T") {
331 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 1;
332 $opts = substr($opts, 1);
333 } elsif ($opt eq "v") {
334 $opts =~ s/^v([^.]*)(.|$)//;
335 $self->{'ex_const'} = $1;
9d2c6865 336 }
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337 }
338}
339
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340sub new {
341 my $class = shift;
342 my $self = bless {}, $class;
343 $self->{'subs_todo'} = [];
344 $self->{'curstash'} = "main";
345 $self->{'cuddle'} = "\n";
346 $self->{'indent_size'} = 4;
347 $self->{'use_tabs'} = 0;
348 $self->{'ex_const'} = "'???'";
349 while (my $arg = shift @_) {
350 if (substr($arg, 0, 2) eq "-u") {
351 $self->stash_subs(substr($arg, 2));
352 } elsif ($arg eq "-p") {
353 $self->{'parens'} = 1;
354 } elsif ($arg eq "-l") {
355 $self->{'linenums'} = 1;
356 } elsif ($arg eq "-q") {
357 $self->{'unquote'} = 1;
358 } elsif (substr($arg, 0, 2) eq "-s") {
359 $self->style_opts(substr $arg, 2);
360 }
361 }
362 return $self;
363}
364
a798dbf2 365sub compile {
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366 my(@args) = @_;
367 return sub {
f4a44678 368 my $self = B::Deparse->new(@args);
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369 $self->stash_subs("main");
370 $self->{'curcv'} = main_cv;
6e90668e 371 $self->walk_sub(main_cv, main_start);
f5aa8f4e 372 print $self->print_protos;
6e90668e 373 @{$self->{'subs_todo'}} =
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374 sort {$a->[0] <=> $b->[0]} @{$self->{'subs_todo'}};
375 print $self->indent($self->deparse(main_root, 0)), "\n"
376 unless null main_root;
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377 my @text;
378 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})) {
379 push @text, $self->next_todo;
380 }
381 print indent(join("", @text)), "\n" if @text;
a798dbf2 382 }
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383}
384
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385sub coderef2text {
386 my $self = shift;
387 my $sub = shift;
388 croak "Usage: ->coderef2text(CODEREF)" unless ref($sub) eq "CODE";
389 return $self->indent($self->deparse_sub(svref_2object($sub)));
390}
391
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392sub deparse {
393 my $self = shift;
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394 my($op, $cx) = @_;
395# cluck if class($op) eq "NULL";
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396# return $self->$ {\("pp_" . $op->name)}($op, $cx);
397 my $meth = "pp_" . $op->name;
9d2c6865 398 return $self->$meth($op, $cx);
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399}
400
6e90668e 401sub indent {
f4a44678 402 my $self = shift;
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403 my $txt = shift;
404 my @lines = split(/\n/, $txt);
405 my $leader = "";
f4a44678 406 my $level = 0;
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407 my $line;
408 for $line (@lines) {
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409 my $cmd = substr($line, 0, 1);
410 if ($cmd eq "\t" or $cmd eq "\b") {
411 $level += ($cmd eq "\t" ? 1 : -1) * $self->{'indent_size'};
412 if ($self->{'use_tabs'}) {
413 $leader = "\t" x ($level / 8) . " " x ($level % 8);
414 } else {
415 $leader = " " x $level;
416 }
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417 $line = substr($line, 1);
418 }
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419 if (substr($line, 0, 1) eq "\f") {
420 $line = substr($line, 1); # no indent
421 } else {
422 $line = $leader . $line;
423 }
9d2c6865 424 $line =~ s/\cK;?//g;
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425 }
426 return join("\n", @lines);
427}
428
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429sub deparse_sub {
430 my $self = shift;
431 my $cv = shift;
432 my $proto = "";
433 if ($cv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
434 $proto = "(". $cv->PV . ") ";
435 }
436 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $cv;
437 local($self->{'curstash'}) = $self->{'curstash'};
438 if (not null $cv->ROOT) {
439 # skip leavesub
440 return $proto . "{\n\t" .
9d2c6865 441 $self->deparse($cv->ROOT->first, 0) . "\n\b}\n";
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442 } else { # XSUB?
443 return $proto . "{}\n";
444 }
445}
446
447sub deparse_format {
448 my $self = shift;
449 my $form = shift;
450 my @text;
451 local($self->{'curcv'}) = $form;
452 local($self->{'curstash'}) = $self->{'curstash'};
453 my $op = $form->ROOT;
454 my $kid;
455 $op = $op->first->first; # skip leavewrite, lineseq
456 while (not null $op) {
457 $op = $op->sibling; # skip nextstate
458 my @exprs;
459 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
18228111 460 push @text, $self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
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461 $kid = $kid->sibling;
462 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 463 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 0);
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464 }
465 push @text, join(", ", @exprs)."\n" if @exprs;
466 $op = $op->sibling;
467 }
468 return join("", @text) . ".";
469}
470
6e90668e 471sub is_scope {
a798dbf2 472 my $op = shift;
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473 return $op->name eq "leave" || $op->name eq "scope"
474 || $op->name eq "lineseq"
475 || ($op->name eq "null" && class($op) eq "UNOP"
476 && (is_scope($op->first) || $op->first->name eq "enter"));
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477}
478
479sub is_state {
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480 my $name = $_[0]->name;
481 return $name eq "nextstate" || $name eq "dbstate" || $name eq "setstate";
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482}
483
484sub is_miniwhile { # check for one-line loop (`foo() while $y--')
485 my $op = shift;
486 return (!null($op) and null($op->sibling)
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487 and $op->name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
488 and (($op->first->name =~ /^(and|or)$/
489 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "lineseq")
490 or ($op->first->name eq "lineseq"
6e90668e 491 and not null $op->first->first->sibling
3f872cb9 492 and $op->first->first->sibling->name eq "unstack")
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493 ));
494}
495
496sub is_scalar {
497 my $op = shift;
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498 return ($op->name eq "rv2sv" or
499 $op->name eq "padsv" or
500 $op->name eq "gv" or # only in array/hash constructs
bd0865ec 501 $op->flags & OPf_KIDS && !null($op->first)
3f872cb9 502 && $op->first->name eq "gvsv");
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503}
504
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505sub maybe_parens {
506 my $self = shift;
507 my($text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
508 if ($prec < $cx # unary ops nest just fine
509 or $prec == $cx and $cx != 4 and $cx != 16 and $cx != 21
510 or $self->{'parens'})
511 {
512 $text = "($text)";
513 # In a unop, let parent reuse our parens; see maybe_parens_unop
514 $text = "\cS" . $text if $cx == 16;
515 return $text;
516 } else {
517 return $text;
518 }
519}
520
521# same as above, but get around the `if it looks like a function' rule
522sub maybe_parens_unop {
523 my $self = shift;
524 my($name, $kid, $cx) = @_;
525 if ($cx > 16 or $self->{'parens'}) {
526 return "$name(" . $self->deparse($kid, 1) . ")";
527 } else {
528 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 16);
529 if (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "\cS") {
530 # use kid's parens
531 return $name . substr($kid, 1);
532 } elsif (substr($kid, 0, 1) eq "(") {
533 # avoid looks-like-a-function trap with extra parens
534 # (`+' can lead to ambiguities)
535 return "$name(" . $kid . ")";
536 } else {
537 return "$name $kid";
538 }
539 }
540}
541
542sub maybe_parens_func {
543 my $self = shift;
544 my($func, $text, $cx, $prec) = @_;
545 if ($prec <= $cx or substr($text, 0, 1) eq "(" or $self->{'parens'}) {
546 return "$func($text)";
547 } else {
548 return "$func $text";
549 }
550}
551
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552sub maybe_local {
553 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 554 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
4c1f658f 555 if ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
9d2c6865 556 return $self->maybe_parens_func("local", $text, $cx, 16);
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557 } else {
558 return $text;
a798dbf2 559 }
a798dbf2
MB
560}
561
3ed82cfc
GS
562sub maybe_targmy {
563 my $self = shift;
564 my($op, $cx, $func, @args) = @_;
565 if ($op->private & OPpTARGET_MY) {
566 my $var = $self->padname($op->targ);
567 my $val = $func->($self, $op, 7, @args);
568 return $self->maybe_parens("$var = $val", $cx, 7);
569 } else {
570 return $func->($self, $op, $cx, @args);
571 }
572}
573
6e90668e
SM
574sub padname_sv {
575 my $self = shift;
576 my $targ = shift;
577 return (($self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAY)[0]->ARRAY)[$targ];
578}
579
580sub maybe_my {
581 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 582 my($op, $cx, $text) = @_;
4c1f658f 583 if ($op->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO and not $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$op}) {
9d2c6865 584 return $self->maybe_parens_func("my", $text, $cx, 16);
6e90668e
SM
585 } else {
586 return $text;
587 }
588}
589
9d2c6865
SM
590# The following OPs don't have functions:
591
592# pp_padany -- does not exist after parsing
593# pp_rcatline -- does not exist
594
595sub pp_enter { # see also leave
596 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTER";
597 return "XXX";
598}
599
600sub pp_pushmark { # see also list
601 cluck "unexpected OP_PUSHMARK";
602 return "XXX";
603}
604
605sub pp_leavesub { # see also deparse_sub
606 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVESUB";
607 return "XXX";
608}
609
610sub pp_leavewrite { # see also deparse_format
611 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVEWRITE";
612 return "XXX";
613}
614
615sub pp_method { # see also entersub
616 cluck "unexpected OP_METHOD";
617 return "XXX";
618}
619
620sub pp_regcmaybe { # see also regcomp
621 cluck "unexpected OP_REGCMAYBE";
622 return "XXX";
623}
624
90be192f
SM
625sub pp_regcreset { # see also regcomp
626 cluck "unexpected OP_REGCRESET";
627 return "XXX";
628}
629
9d2c6865
SM
630sub pp_substcont { # see also subst
631 cluck "unexpected OP_SUBSTCONT";
632 return "XXX";
633}
634
635sub pp_grepstart { # see also grepwhile
636 cluck "unexpected OP_GREPSTART";
637 return "XXX";
638}
639
640sub pp_mapstart { # see also mapwhile
641 cluck "unexpected OP_MAPSTART";
642 return "XXX";
643}
644
645sub pp_flip { # see also flop
646 cluck "unexpected OP_FLIP";
647 return "XXX";
648}
649
650sub pp_iter { # see also leaveloop
651 cluck "unexpected OP_ITER";
652 return "XXX";
653}
654
655sub pp_enteriter { # see also leaveloop
656 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERITER";
657 return "XXX";
658}
659
660sub pp_enterloop { # see also leaveloop
661 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERLOOP";
662 return "XXX";
663}
664
665sub pp_leaveeval { # see also entereval
666 cluck "unexpected OP_LEAVEEVAL";
667 return "XXX";
668}
669
670sub pp_entertry { # see also leavetry
671 cluck "unexpected OP_ENTERTRY";
672 return "XXX";
673}
6e90668e 674
9d2c6865 675# leave and scope/lineseq should probably share code
a798dbf2 676sub pp_leave {
6e90668e 677 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 678 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
679 my ($kid, $expr);
680 my @exprs;
681 local($self->{'curstash'}) = $self->{'curstash'};
682 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip enter
683 if (is_miniwhile($kid)) {
684 my $top = $kid->first;
3f872cb9
GS
685 my $name = $top->name;
686 if ($name eq "and") {
6e90668e 687 $name = "while";
3f872cb9 688 } elsif ($name eq "or") {
6e90668e
SM
689 $name = "until";
690 } else { # no conditional -> while 1 or until 0
9d2c6865 691 return $self->deparse($top->first, 1) . " while 1";
6e90668e
SM
692 }
693 my $cond = $top->first;
9d2c6865
SM
694 my $body = $cond->sibling->first; # skip lineseq
695 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
696 $body = $self->deparse($body, 1);
6e90668e
SM
697 return "$body $name $cond";
698 }
699 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
700 $expr = "";
701 if (is_state $kid) {
9d2c6865 702 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 0);
6e90668e
SM
703 $kid = $kid->sibling;
704 last if null $kid;
705 }
9d2c6865 706 $expr .= $self->deparse($kid, 0);
f4a44678 707 push @exprs, $expr if length $expr;
6e90668e 708 }
9d2c6865
SM
709 if ($cx > 0) { # inside an expression
710 return "do { " . join(";\n", @exprs) . " }";
711 } else {
f5aa8f4e 712 return join(";\n", @exprs) . ";";
9d2c6865 713 }
6e90668e
SM
714}
715
716sub pp_scope {
717 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 718 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
719 my ($kid, $expr);
720 my @exprs;
721 for ($kid = $op->first; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
722 $expr = "";
723 if (is_state $kid) {
9d2c6865 724 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 0);
6e90668e
SM
725 $kid = $kid->sibling;
726 last if null $kid;
727 }
9d2c6865 728 $expr .= $self->deparse($kid, 0);
f4a44678 729 push @exprs, $expr if length $expr;
6e90668e 730 }
9d2c6865
SM
731 if ($cx > 0) { # inside an expression, (a do {} while for lineseq)
732 return "do { " . join(";\n", @exprs) . " }";
733 } else {
f5aa8f4e 734 return join(";\n", @exprs) . ";";
6e90668e 735 }
6e90668e
SM
736}
737
9d2c6865
SM
738sub pp_lineseq { pp_scope(@_) }
739
6e90668e
SM
740# The BEGIN {} is used here because otherwise this code isn't executed
741# when you run B::Deparse on itself.
742my %globalnames;
743BEGIN { map($globalnames{$_}++, "SIG", "STDIN", "STDOUT", "STDERR", "INC",
744 "ENV", "ARGV", "ARGVOUT", "_"); }
745
746sub gv_name {
747 my $self = shift;
748 my $gv = shift;
749 my $stash = $gv->STASH->NAME;
750 my $name = $gv->NAME;
9d2c6865
SM
751 if ($stash eq $self->{'curstash'} or $globalnames{$name}
752 or $name =~ /^[^A-Za-z_]/)
753 {
6e90668e
SM
754 $stash = "";
755 } else {
756 $stash = $stash . "::";
a798dbf2 757 }
6e90668e
SM
758 if ($name =~ /^([\cA-\cZ])$/) {
759 $name = "^" . chr(64 + ord($1));
760 }
761 return $stash . $name;
a798dbf2
MB
762}
763
6e90668e
SM
764# Notice how subs and formats are inserted between statements here
765sub pp_nextstate {
766 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 767 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
768 my @text;
769 @text = $op->label . ": " if $op->label;
770 my $seq = $op->cop_seq;
771 while (scalar(@{$self->{'subs_todo'}})
772 and $seq > $self->{'subs_todo'}[0][0]) {
773 push @text, $self->next_todo;
774 }
11faa288 775 my $stash = $op->stashpv;
6e90668e
SM
776 if ($stash ne $self->{'curstash'}) {
777 push @text, "package $stash;\n";
778 $self->{'curstash'} = $stash;
779 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
780 if ($self->{'linenums'}) {
781 push @text, "\f#line " . $op->line .
57843af0 782 ' "' . $op->file, qq'"\n';
f5aa8f4e 783 }
6e90668e
SM
784 return join("", @text);
785}
786
787sub pp_dbstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
3f872cb9 788sub pp_setstate { pp_nextstate(@_) }
6e90668e
SM
789
790sub pp_unstack { return "" } # see also leaveloop
791
792sub baseop {
793 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 794 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
795 return $name;
796}
797
798sub pp_stub { baseop(@_, "()") }
799sub pp_wantarray { baseop(@_, "wantarray") }
800sub pp_fork { baseop(@_, "fork") }
3ed82cfc
GS
801sub pp_wait { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "wait") }
802sub pp_getppid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "getppid") }
803sub pp_time { maybe_targmy(@_, \&baseop, "time") }
6e90668e
SM
804sub pp_tms { baseop(@_, "times") }
805sub pp_ghostent { baseop(@_, "gethostent") }
806sub pp_gnetent { baseop(@_, "getnetent") }
807sub pp_gprotoent { baseop(@_, "getprotoent") }
808sub pp_gservent { baseop(@_, "getservent") }
809sub pp_ehostent { baseop(@_, "endhostent") }
810sub pp_enetent { baseop(@_, "endnetent") }
811sub pp_eprotoent { baseop(@_, "endprotoent") }
812sub pp_eservent { baseop(@_, "endservent") }
813sub pp_gpwent { baseop(@_, "getpwent") }
814sub pp_spwent { baseop(@_, "setpwent") }
815sub pp_epwent { baseop(@_, "endpwent") }
816sub pp_ggrent { baseop(@_, "getgrent") }
817sub pp_sgrent { baseop(@_, "setgrent") }
818sub pp_egrent { baseop(@_, "endgrent") }
819sub pp_getlogin { baseop(@_, "getlogin") }
820
821sub POSTFIX () { 1 }
822
9d2c6865
SM
823# I couldn't think of a good short name, but this is the category of
824# symbolic unary operators with interesting precedence
825
826sub pfixop {
827 my $self = shift;
828 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
829 my $kid = $op->first;
830 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, $prec);
831 return $self->maybe_parens(($flags & POSTFIX) ? "$kid$name" : "$name$kid",
832 $cx, $prec);
833}
834
835sub pp_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
836sub pp_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
837sub pp_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
838sub pp_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
9d2c6865
SM
839sub pp_i_preinc { pfixop(@_, "++", 23) }
840sub pp_i_predec { pfixop(@_, "--", 23) }
3ed82cfc
GS
841sub pp_i_postinc { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "++", 23, POSTFIX) }
842sub pp_i_postdec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&pfixop, "--", 23, POSTFIX) }
843sub pp_complement { maybe_targmy(@_. \&pfixop, "~", 21) }
9d2c6865 844
3ed82cfc
GS
845sub pp_negate { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_negate) }
846sub real_negate {
9d2c6865
SM
847 my $self = shift;
848 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 849 if ($op->first->name =~ /^(i_)?negate$/) {
9d2c6865
SM
850 # avoid --$x
851 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21.5);
852 } else {
853 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "-", 21);
854 }
855}
856sub pp_i_negate { pp_negate(@_) }
857
858sub pp_not {
859 my $self = shift;
860 my($op, $cx) = @_;
861 if ($cx <= 4) {
862 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "not ", 4);
863 } else {
864 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "!", 21);
865 }
866}
867
6e90668e
SM
868sub unop {
869 my $self = shift;
f4a44678 870 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 871 my $kid;
9d2c6865 872 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
6e90668e 873 $kid = $op->first;
9d2c6865 874 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
6e90668e 875 } else {
9d2c6865 876 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
6e90668e 877 }
6e90668e
SM
878}
879
3ed82cfc
GS
880sub pp_chop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
881sub pp_chomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
882sub pp_schop { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chop") }
883sub pp_schomp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chomp") }
6e90668e
SM
884sub pp_defined { unop(@_, "defined") }
885sub pp_undef { unop(@_, "undef") }
886sub pp_study { unop(@_, "study") }
6e90668e
SM
887sub pp_ref { unop(@_, "ref") }
888sub pp_pos { maybe_local(@_, unop(@_, "pos")) }
889
3ed82cfc
GS
890sub pp_sin { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sin") }
891sub pp_cos { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "cos") }
892sub pp_rand { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rand") }
6e90668e 893sub pp_srand { unop(@_, "srand") }
3ed82cfc
GS
894sub pp_exp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "exp") }
895sub pp_log { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "log") }
896sub pp_sqrt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sqrt") }
897sub pp_int { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "int") }
898sub pp_hex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "hex") }
899sub pp_oct { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "oct") }
900sub pp_abs { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "abs") }
901
902sub pp_length { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "length") }
903sub pp_ord { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "ord") }
904sub pp_chr { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chr") }
6e90668e
SM
905
906sub pp_each { unop(@_, "each") }
907sub pp_values { unop(@_, "values") }
908sub pp_keys { unop(@_, "keys") }
909sub pp_pop { unop(@_, "pop") }
910sub pp_shift { unop(@_, "shift") }
911
912sub pp_caller { unop(@_, "caller") }
913sub pp_reset { unop(@_, "reset") }
914sub pp_exit { unop(@_, "exit") }
915sub pp_prototype { unop(@_, "prototype") }
916
917sub pp_close { unop(@_, "close") }
918sub pp_fileno { unop(@_, "fileno") }
919sub pp_umask { unop(@_, "umask") }
920sub pp_binmode { unop(@_, "binmode") }
921sub pp_untie { unop(@_, "untie") }
922sub pp_tied { unop(@_, "tied") }
923sub pp_dbmclose { unop(@_, "dbmclose") }
924sub pp_getc { unop(@_, "getc") }
925sub pp_eof { unop(@_, "eof") }
926sub pp_tell { unop(@_, "tell") }
927sub pp_getsockname { unop(@_, "getsockname") }
928sub pp_getpeername { unop(@_, "getpeername") }
929
3ed82cfc
GS
930sub pp_chdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chdir") }
931sub pp_chroot { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "chroot") }
6e90668e 932sub pp_readlink { unop(@_, "readlink") }
3ed82cfc 933sub pp_rmdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "rmdir") }
6e90668e
SM
934sub pp_readdir { unop(@_, "readdir") }
935sub pp_telldir { unop(@_, "telldir") }
936sub pp_rewinddir { unop(@_, "rewinddir") }
937sub pp_closedir { unop(@_, "closedir") }
3ed82cfc 938sub pp_getpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "getpgrp") }
6e90668e
SM
939sub pp_localtime { unop(@_, "localtime") }
940sub pp_gmtime { unop(@_, "gmtime") }
941sub pp_alarm { unop(@_, "alarm") }
3ed82cfc 942sub pp_sleep { maybe_targmy(@_, \&unop, "sleep") }
6e90668e
SM
943
944sub pp_dofile { unop(@_, "do") }
945sub pp_entereval { unop(@_, "eval") }
946
947sub pp_ghbyname { unop(@_, "gethostbyname") }
948sub pp_gnbyname { unop(@_, "getnetbyname") }
949sub pp_gpbyname { unop(@_, "getprotobyname") }
950sub pp_shostent { unop(@_, "sethostent") }
951sub pp_snetent { unop(@_, "setnetent") }
952sub pp_sprotoent { unop(@_, "setprotoent") }
953sub pp_sservent { unop(@_, "setservent") }
954sub pp_gpwnam { unop(@_, "getpwnam") }
955sub pp_gpwuid { unop(@_, "getpwuid") }
956sub pp_ggrnam { unop(@_, "getgrnam") }
957sub pp_ggrgid { unop(@_, "getgrgid") }
958
959sub pp_lock { unop(@_, "lock") }
960
961sub pp_exists {
962 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
963 my($op, $cx) = @_;
964 return $self->maybe_parens_func("exists", $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
965 $cx, 16);
6e90668e
SM
966}
967
6e90668e
SM
968sub pp_delete {
969 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 970 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
971 my $arg;
972 if ($op->private & OPpSLICE) {
9d2c6865
SM
973 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
974 $self->pp_hslice($op->first, 16),
975 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 976 } else {
9d2c6865
SM
977 return $self->maybe_parens_func("delete",
978 $self->pp_helem($op->first, 16),
979 $cx, 16);
6e90668e 980 }
6e90668e
SM
981}
982
6e90668e
SM
983sub pp_require {
984 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 985 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 986 if (class($op) eq "UNOP" and $op->first->name eq "const"
4c1f658f 987 and $op->first->private & OPpCONST_BARE)
6e90668e 988 {
18228111 989 my $name = $self->const_sv($op->first)->PV;
6e90668e
SM
990 $name =~ s[/][::]g;
991 $name =~ s/\.pm//g;
992 return "require($name)";
993 } else {
9d2c6865 994 $self->unop($op, $cx, "require");
6e90668e
SM
995 }
996}
997
9d2c6865
SM
998sub pp_scalar {
999 my $self = shift;
1000 my($op, $cv) = @_;
1001 my $kid = $op->first;
1002 if (not null $kid->sibling) {
1003 # XXX Was a here-doc
1004 return $self->dquote($op);
1005 }
1006 $self->unop(@_, "scalar");
1007}
1008
1009
6e90668e
SM
1010sub padval {
1011 my $self = shift;
1012 my $targ = shift;
18228111 1013 #cluck "curcv was undef" unless $self->{curcv};
6e90668e
SM
1014 return (($self->{'curcv'}->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$targ];
1015}
1016
1017sub pp_refgen {
1018 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1019 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1020 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1021 if ($kid->name eq "null") {
6e90668e 1022 $kid = $kid->first;
3f872cb9
GS
1023 if ($kid->name eq "anonlist" || $kid->name eq "anonhash") {
1024 my($pre, $post) = @{{"anonlist" => ["[","]"],
1025 "anonhash" => ["{","}"]}->{$kid->name}};
6e90668e
SM
1026 my($expr, @exprs);
1027 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1028 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1029 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1030 push @exprs, $expr;
1031 }
1032 return $pre . join(", ", @exprs) . $post;
1033 } elsif (!null($kid->sibling) and
3f872cb9 1034 $kid->sibling->name eq "anoncode") {
6e90668e
SM
1035 return "sub " .
1036 $self->deparse_sub($self->padval($kid->sibling->targ));
3f872cb9
GS
1037 } elsif ($kid->name eq "pushmark") {
1038 my $sib_name = $kid->sibling->name;
1039 if ($sib_name =~ /^(pad|rv2)[ah]v$/
c8c62db7
AD
1040 and not $kid->sibling->flags & OPf_REF)
1041 {
1042 # The @a in \(@a) isn't in ref context, but only when the
1043 # parens are there.
1044 return "\\(" . $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 1) . ")";
3f872cb9 1045 } elsif ($sib_name eq 'entersub') {
c8c62db7
AD
1046 my $text = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 1);
1047 # Always show parens for \(&func()), but only with -p otherwise
1048 $text = "($text)" if $self->{'parens'}
1049 or $kid->sibling->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER;
1050 return "\\$text";
1051 }
1052 }
6e90668e 1053 }
9d2c6865 1054 $self->pfixop($op, $cx, "\\", 20);
6e90668e
SM
1055}
1056
1057sub pp_srefgen { pp_refgen(@_) }
1058
1059sub pp_readline {
1060 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1061 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1062 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1063 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "rv2gv"; # <$fh>
9d2c6865 1064 return "<" . $self->deparse($kid, 1) . ">";
6e90668e
SM
1065}
1066
bd0865ec
GS
1067# Unary operators that can occur as pseudo-listops inside double quotes
1068sub dq_unop {
1069 my $self = shift;
1070 my($op, $cx, $name, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0, 0);
1071 my $kid;
1072 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
1073 $kid = $op->first;
1074 # If there's more than one kid, the first is an ex-pushmark.
1075 $kid = $kid->sibling if not null $kid->sibling;
1076 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $kid, $cx);
1077 } else {
1078 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL ? "()" : "");
1079 }
1080}
1081
1082sub pp_ucfirst { dq_unop(@_, "ucfirst") }
1083sub pp_lcfirst { dq_unop(@_, "lcfirst") }
1084sub pp_uc { dq_unop(@_, "uc") }
1085sub pp_lc { dq_unop(@_, "lc") }
3ed82cfc 1086sub pp_quotemeta { maybe_targmy(@_, \&dq_unop, "quotemeta") }
bd0865ec 1087
6e90668e
SM
1088sub loopex {
1089 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1090 my ($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1091 if (class($op) eq "PVOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1092 return "$name " . $op->pv;
1093 } elsif (class($op) eq "OP") {
1094 return $name;
6e90668e 1095 } elsif (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1096 # Note -- loop exits are actually exempt from the
1097 # looks-like-a-func rule, but a few extra parens won't hurt
1098 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 1099 }
6e90668e
SM
1100}
1101
1102sub pp_last { loopex(@_, "last") }
1103sub pp_next { loopex(@_, "next") }
1104sub pp_redo { loopex(@_, "redo") }
1105sub pp_goto { loopex(@_, "goto") }
1106sub pp_dump { loopex(@_, "dump") }
1107
1108sub ftst {
1109 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1110 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e 1111 if (class($op) eq "UNOP") {
9d2c6865
SM
1112 # Genuine `-X' filetests are exempt from the LLAFR, but not
1113 # l?stat(); for the sake of clarity, give'em all parens
1114 return $self->maybe_parens_unop($name, $op->first, $cx);
7934575e 1115 } elsif (class($op) eq "SVOP") {
9d2c6865 1116 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $self->pp_gv($op, 1), $cx, 16);
6e90668e 1117 } else { # I don't think baseop filetests ever survive ck_ftst, but...
9d2c6865 1118 return $name;
6e90668e 1119 }
6e90668e
SM
1120}
1121
1122sub pp_lstat { ftst(@_, "lstat") }
1123sub pp_stat { ftst(@_, "stat") }
1124sub pp_ftrread { ftst(@_, "-R") }
1125sub pp_ftrwrite { ftst(@_, "-W") }
1126sub pp_ftrexec { ftst(@_, "-X") }
1127sub pp_fteread { ftst(@_, "-r") }
1128sub pp_ftewrite { ftst(@_, "-r") }
1129sub pp_fteexec { ftst(@_, "-r") }
1130sub pp_ftis { ftst(@_, "-e") }
1131sub pp_fteowned { ftst(@_, "-O") }
1132sub pp_ftrowned { ftst(@_, "-o") }
1133sub pp_ftzero { ftst(@_, "-z") }
1134sub pp_ftsize { ftst(@_, "-s") }
1135sub pp_ftmtime { ftst(@_, "-M") }
1136sub pp_ftatime { ftst(@_, "-A") }
1137sub pp_ftctime { ftst(@_, "-C") }
1138sub pp_ftsock { ftst(@_, "-S") }
1139sub pp_ftchr { ftst(@_, "-c") }
1140sub pp_ftblk { ftst(@_, "-b") }
1141sub pp_ftfile { ftst(@_, "-f") }
1142sub pp_ftdir { ftst(@_, "-d") }
1143sub pp_ftpipe { ftst(@_, "-p") }
1144sub pp_ftlink { ftst(@_, "-l") }
1145sub pp_ftsuid { ftst(@_, "-u") }
1146sub pp_ftsgid { ftst(@_, "-g") }
1147sub pp_ftsvtx { ftst(@_, "-k") }
1148sub pp_fttty { ftst(@_, "-t") }
1149sub pp_fttext { ftst(@_, "-T") }
1150sub pp_ftbinary { ftst(@_, "-B") }
1151
a798dbf2 1152sub SWAP_CHILDREN () { 1 }
6e90668e
SM
1153sub ASSIGN () { 2 } # has OP= variant
1154
9d2c6865
SM
1155my(%left, %right);
1156
1157sub assoc_class {
1158 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
1159 my $name = $op->name;
1160 if ($name eq "concat" and $op->first->name eq "concat") {
9d2c6865 1161 # avoid spurious `=' -- see comment in pp_concat
3f872cb9 1162 return "concat";
9d2c6865 1163 }
3f872cb9
GS
1164 if ($name eq "null" and class($op) eq "UNOP"
1165 and $op->first->name =~ /^(and|x?or)$/
9d2c6865
SM
1166 and null $op->first->sibling)
1167 {
1168 # Like all conditional constructs, OP_ANDs and OP_ORs are topped
1169 # with a null that's used as the common end point of the two
1170 # flows of control. For precedence purposes, ignore it.
1171 # (COND_EXPRs have these too, but we don't bother with
1172 # their associativity).
1173 return assoc_class($op->first);
1174 }
1175 return $name . ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED ? "=" : "");
1176}
1177
1178# Left associative operators, like `+', for which
1179# $a + $b + $c is equivalent to ($a + $b) + $c
1180
1181BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1182 %left = ('multiply' => 19, 'i_multiply' => 19,
1183 'divide' => 19, 'i_divide' => 19,
1184 'modulo' => 19, 'i_modulo' => 19,
1185 'repeat' => 19,
1186 'add' => 18, 'i_add' => 18,
1187 'subtract' => 18, 'i_subtract' => 18,
1188 'concat' => 18,
1189 'left_shift' => 17, 'right_shift' => 17,
1190 'bit_and' => 13,
1191 'bit_or' => 12, 'bit_xor' => 12,
1192 'and' => 3,
1193 'or' => 2, 'xor' => 2,
9d2c6865
SM
1194 );
1195}
1196
1197sub deparse_binop_left {
1198 my $self = shift;
1199 my($op, $left, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1200 if ($left{assoc_class($op)} && $left{assoc_class($left)}
9d2c6865
SM
1201 and $left{assoc_class($op)} == $left{assoc_class($left)})
1202 {
1203 return $self->deparse($left, $prec - .00001);
1204 } else {
1205 return $self->deparse($left, $prec);
1206 }
1207}
1208
1209# Right associative operators, like `=', for which
1210# $a = $b = $c is equivalent to $a = ($b = $c)
1211
1212BEGIN {
3f872cb9
GS
1213 %right = ('pow' => 22,
1214 'sassign=' => 7, 'aassign=' => 7,
1215 'multiply=' => 7, 'i_multiply=' => 7,
1216 'divide=' => 7, 'i_divide=' => 7,
1217 'modulo=' => 7, 'i_modulo=' => 7,
1218 'repeat=' => 7,
1219 'add=' => 7, 'i_add=' => 7,
1220 'subtract=' => 7, 'i_subtract=' => 7,
1221 'concat=' => 7,
1222 'left_shift=' => 7, 'right_shift=' => 7,
1223 'bit_and=' => 7,
1224 'bit_or=' => 7, 'bit_xor=' => 7,
1225 'andassign' => 7,
1226 'orassign' => 7,
9d2c6865
SM
1227 );
1228}
1229
1230sub deparse_binop_right {
1231 my $self = shift;
1232 my($op, $right, $prec) = @_;
58231d39 1233 if ($right{assoc_class($op)} && $right{assoc_class($right)}
9d2c6865
SM
1234 and $right{assoc_class($op)} == $right{assoc_class($right)})
1235 {
1236 return $self->deparse($right, $prec - .00001);
1237 } else {
1238 return $self->deparse($right, $prec);
1239 }
1240}
1241
a798dbf2 1242sub binop {
6e90668e 1243 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1244 my ($op, $cx, $opname, $prec, $flags) = (@_, 0);
a798dbf2
MB
1245 my $left = $op->first;
1246 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
1247 my $eq = "";
1248 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED && $flags & ASSIGN) {
1249 $eq = "=";
1250 $prec = 7;
1251 }
a798dbf2
MB
1252 if ($flags & SWAP_CHILDREN) {
1253 ($left, $right) = ($right, $left);
1254 }
9d2c6865
SM
1255 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
1256 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1257 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
1258}
1259
3ed82cfc
GS
1260sub pp_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1261sub pp_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1262sub pp_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-",18, ASSIGN) }
1263sub pp_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1264sub pp_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1265sub pp_i_add { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "+", 18, ASSIGN) }
1266sub pp_i_multiply { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "*", 19, ASSIGN) }
1267sub pp_i_subtract { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "-", 18, ASSIGN) }
1268sub pp_i_divide { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "/", 19, ASSIGN) }
1269sub pp_i_modulo { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "%", 19, ASSIGN) }
1270sub pp_pow { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "**", 22, ASSIGN) }
1271
1272sub pp_left_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "<<", 17, ASSIGN) }
1273sub pp_right_shift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, ">>", 17, ASSIGN) }
1274sub pp_bit_and { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "&", 13, ASSIGN) }
1275sub pp_bit_or { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "|", 12, ASSIGN) }
1276sub pp_bit_xor { maybe_targmy(@_, \&binop, "^", 12, ASSIGN) }
9d2c6865
SM
1277
1278sub pp_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1279sub pp_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1280sub pp_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1281sub pp_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1282sub pp_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1283sub pp_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1284sub pp_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1285sub pp_i_eq { binop(@_, "==", 14) }
1286sub pp_i_ne { binop(@_, "!=", 14) }
1287sub pp_i_lt { binop(@_, "<", 15) }
1288sub pp_i_gt { binop(@_, ">", 15) }
1289sub pp_i_ge { binop(@_, ">=", 15) }
1290sub pp_i_le { binop(@_, "<=", 15) }
1291sub pp_i_ncmp { binop(@_, "<=>", 14) }
1292
1293sub pp_seq { binop(@_, "eq", 14) }
1294sub pp_sne { binop(@_, "ne", 14) }
1295sub pp_slt { binop(@_, "lt", 15) }
1296sub pp_sgt { binop(@_, "gt", 15) }
1297sub pp_sge { binop(@_, "ge", 15) }
1298sub pp_sle { binop(@_, "le", 15) }
1299sub pp_scmp { binop(@_, "cmp", 14) }
1300
1301sub pp_sassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN) }
1302sub pp_aassign { binop(@_, "=", 7, SWAP_CHILDREN) }
6e90668e
SM
1303
1304# `.' is special because concats-of-concats are optimized to save copying
1305# by making all but the first concat stacked. The effect is as if the
1306# programmer had written `($a . $b) .= $c', except legal.
3ed82cfc
GS
1307sub pp_concat { maybe_targmy(@_, \&real_concat) }
1308sub real_concat {
6e90668e 1309 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1310 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1311 my $left = $op->first;
1312 my $right = $op->last;
1313 my $eq = "";
9d2c6865 1314 my $prec = 18;
3f872cb9 1315 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED and $op->first->name ne "concat") {
6e90668e 1316 $eq = "=";
9d2c6865 1317 $prec = 7;
6e90668e 1318 }
9d2c6865
SM
1319 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
1320 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1321 return $self->maybe_parens("$left .$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
1322}
1323
1324# `x' is weird when the left arg is a list
1325sub pp_repeat {
1326 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1327 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1328 my $left = $op->first;
1329 my $right = $op->last;
9d2c6865
SM
1330 my $eq = "";
1331 my $prec = 19;
1332 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
1333 $eq = "=";
1334 $prec = 7;
1335 }
6e90668e
SM
1336 if (null($right)) { # list repeat; count is inside left-side ex-list
1337 my $kid = $left->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1338 my @exprs;
1339 for (; !null($kid->sibling); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1340 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1341 }
1342 $right = $kid;
1343 $left = "(" . join(", ", @exprs). ")";
1344 } else {
9d2c6865 1345 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $prec);
6e90668e 1346 }
9d2c6865
SM
1347 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $prec);
1348 return $self->maybe_parens("$left x$eq $right", $cx, $prec);
6e90668e
SM
1349}
1350
1351sub range {
1352 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1353 my ($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1354 my $left = $op->first;
1355 my $right = $left->sibling;
9d2c6865
SM
1356 $left = $self->deparse($left, 9);
1357 $right = $self->deparse($right, 9);
1358 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $type $right", $cx, 9);
6e90668e
SM
1359}
1360
1361sub pp_flop {
1362 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1363 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1364 my $flip = $op->first;
1365 my $type = ($flip->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) ? "..." : "..";
9d2c6865 1366 return $self->range($flip->first, $cx, $type);
6e90668e
SM
1367}
1368
1369# one-line while/until is handled in pp_leave
1370
1371sub logop {
1372 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1373 my ($op, $cx, $lowop, $lowprec, $highop, $highprec, $blockname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1374 my $left = $op->first;
1375 my $right = $op->first->sibling;
9d2c6865
SM
1376 if ($cx == 0 and is_scope($right) and $blockname) { # if ($a) {$b}
1377 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
1378 $right = $self->deparse($right, 0);
1379 return "$blockname ($left) {\n\t$right\n\b}\cK";
1380 } elsif ($cx == 0 and $blockname and not $self->{'parens'}) { # $b if $a
1381 $right = $self->deparse($right, 1);
1382 $left = $self->deparse($left, 1);
1383 return "$right $blockname $left";
1384 } elsif ($cx > $lowprec and $highop) { # $a && $b
1385 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $highprec);
1386 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $highprec);
1387 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $highop $right", $cx, $highprec);
1388 } else { # $a and $b
1389 $left = $self->deparse_binop_left($op, $left, $lowprec);
1390 $right = $self->deparse_binop_right($op, $right, $lowprec);
1391 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $lowop $right", $cx, $lowprec);
1392 }
1393}
1394
1395sub pp_and { logop(@_, "and", 3, "&&", 11, "if") }
f4a44678 1396sub pp_or { logop(@_, "or", 2, "||", 10, "unless") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1397
1398# xor is syntactically a logop, but it's really a binop (contrary to
1399# old versions of opcode.pl). Syntax is what matters here.
9d2c6865 1400sub pp_xor { logop(@_, "xor", 2, "", 0, "") }
6e90668e
SM
1401
1402sub logassignop {
1403 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1404 my ($op, $cx, $opname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1405 my $left = $op->first;
1406 my $right = $op->first->sibling->first; # skip sassign
9d2c6865
SM
1407 $left = $self->deparse($left, 7);
1408 $right = $self->deparse($right, 7);
1409 return $self->maybe_parens("$left $opname $right", $cx, 7);
a798dbf2
MB
1410}
1411
6e90668e
SM
1412sub pp_andassign { logassignop(@_, "&&=") }
1413sub pp_orassign { logassignop(@_, "||=") }
1414
1415sub listop {
1416 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
1417 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
1418 my(@exprs);
1419 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
1420 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
1421 return $name if null $kid;
1422 my $first = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
1423 $first = "+$first" if not $parens and substr($first, 0, 1) eq "(";
1424 push @exprs, $first;
1425 $kid = $kid->sibling;
1426 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
1427 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
1428 }
1429 if ($parens) {
1430 return "$name(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
1431 } else {
1432 return "$name " . join(", ", @exprs);
6e90668e 1433 }
6e90668e 1434}
a798dbf2 1435
6e90668e 1436sub pp_bless { listop(@_, "bless") }
3ed82cfc 1437sub pp_atan2 { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "atan2") }
6e90668e
SM
1438sub pp_substr { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "substr")) }
1439sub pp_vec { maybe_local(@_, listop(@_, "vec")) }
3ed82cfc
GS
1440sub pp_index { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "index") }
1441sub pp_rindex { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rindex") }
1442sub pp_sprintf { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "sprintf") }
6e90668e 1443sub pp_formline { listop(@_, "formline") } # see also deparse_format
3ed82cfc 1444sub pp_crypt { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "crypt") }
6e90668e
SM
1445sub pp_unpack { listop(@_, "unpack") }
1446sub pp_pack { listop(@_, "pack") }
3ed82cfc 1447sub pp_join { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "join") }
6e90668e 1448sub pp_splice { listop(@_, "splice") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1449sub pp_push { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "push") }
1450sub pp_unshift { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unshift") }
6e90668e
SM
1451sub pp_reverse { listop(@_, "reverse") }
1452sub pp_warn { listop(@_, "warn") }
1453sub pp_die { listop(@_, "die") }
9d2c6865
SM
1454# Actually, return is exempt from the LLAFR (see examples in this very
1455# module!), but for consistency's sake, ignore that fact
6e90668e
SM
1456sub pp_return { listop(@_, "return") }
1457sub pp_open { listop(@_, "open") }
1458sub pp_pipe_op { listop(@_, "pipe") }
1459sub pp_tie { listop(@_, "tie") }
1460sub pp_dbmopen { listop(@_, "dbmopen") }
1461sub pp_sselect { listop(@_, "select") }
1462sub pp_select { listop(@_, "select") }
1463sub pp_read { listop(@_, "read") }
1464sub pp_sysopen { listop(@_, "sysopen") }
1465sub pp_sysseek { listop(@_, "sysseek") }
1466sub pp_sysread { listop(@_, "sysread") }
1467sub pp_syswrite { listop(@_, "syswrite") }
1468sub pp_send { listop(@_, "send") }
1469sub pp_recv { listop(@_, "recv") }
1470sub pp_seek { listop(@_, "seek") }
6e90668e
SM
1471sub pp_fcntl { listop(@_, "fcntl") }
1472sub pp_ioctl { listop(@_, "ioctl") }
3ed82cfc 1473sub pp_flock { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "flock") }
6e90668e
SM
1474sub pp_socket { listop(@_, "socket") }
1475sub pp_sockpair { listop(@_, "sockpair") }
1476sub pp_bind { listop(@_, "bind") }
1477sub pp_connect { listop(@_, "connect") }
1478sub pp_listen { listop(@_, "listen") }
1479sub pp_accept { listop(@_, "accept") }
1480sub pp_shutdown { listop(@_, "shutdown") }
1481sub pp_gsockopt { listop(@_, "getsockopt") }
1482sub pp_ssockopt { listop(@_, "setsockopt") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1483sub pp_chown { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chown") }
1484sub pp_unlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "unlink") }
1485sub pp_chmod { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "chmod") }
1486sub pp_utime { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "utime") }
1487sub pp_rename { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "rename") }
1488sub pp_link { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "link") }
1489sub pp_symlink { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "symlink") }
1490sub pp_mkdir { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "mkdir") }
6e90668e
SM
1491sub pp_open_dir { listop(@_, "opendir") }
1492sub pp_seekdir { listop(@_, "seekdir") }
3ed82cfc
GS
1493sub pp_waitpid { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "waitpid") }
1494sub pp_system { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "system") }
1495sub pp_exec { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "exec") }
1496sub pp_kill { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "kill") }
1497sub pp_setpgrp { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpgrp") }
1498sub pp_getpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "getpriority") }
1499sub pp_setpriority { maybe_targmy(@_, \&listop, "setpriority") }
6e90668e
SM
1500sub pp_shmget { listop(@_, "shmget") }
1501sub pp_shmctl { listop(@_, "shmctl") }
1502sub pp_shmread { listop(@_, "shmread") }
1503sub pp_shmwrite { listop(@_, "shmwrite") }
1504sub pp_msgget { listop(@_, "msgget") }
1505sub pp_msgctl { listop(@_, "msgctl") }
1506sub pp_msgsnd { listop(@_, "msgsnd") }
1507sub pp_msgrcv { listop(@_, "msgrcv") }
1508sub pp_semget { listop(@_, "semget") }
1509sub pp_semctl { listop(@_, "semctl") }
1510sub pp_semop { listop(@_, "semop") }
1511sub pp_ghbyaddr { listop(@_, "gethostbyaddr") }
1512sub pp_gnbyaddr { listop(@_, "getnetbyaddr") }
1513sub pp_gpbynumber { listop(@_, "getprotobynumber") }
1514sub pp_gsbyname { listop(@_, "getservbyname") }
1515sub pp_gsbyport { listop(@_, "getservbyport") }
1516sub pp_syscall { listop(@_, "syscall") }
1517
1518sub pp_glob {
1519 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1520 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1521 my $text = $self->dq($op->first->sibling); # skip pushmark
1522 if ($text =~ /^\$?(\w|::|\`)+$/ # could look like a readline
1523 or $text =~ /[<>]/) {
1524 return 'glob(' . single_delim('qq', '"', $text) . ')';
1525 } else {
1526 return '<' . $text . '>';
1527 }
1528}
1529
f5aa8f4e
SM
1530# Truncate is special because OPf_SPECIAL makes a bareword first arg
1531# be a filehandle. This could probably be better fixed in the core
1532# by moving the GV lookup into ck_truc.
1533
1534sub pp_truncate {
1535 my $self = shift;
1536 my($op, $cx) = @_;
1537 my(@exprs);
1538 my $parens = ($cx >= 5) || $self->{'parens'};
1539 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
acba1d67 1540 my $fh;
f5aa8f4e
SM
1541 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1542 # $kid is an OP_CONST
18228111 1543 $fh = $self->const_sv($kid)->PV;
f5aa8f4e
SM
1544 } else {
1545 $fh = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
1546 $fh = "+$fh" if not $parens and substr($fh, 0, 1) eq "(";
1547 }
1548 my $len = $self->deparse($kid->sibling, 6);
1549 if ($parens) {
1550 return "truncate($fh, $len)";
1551 } else {
1552 return "truncate $fh, $len";
1553 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
1554}
1555
6e90668e
SM
1556sub indirop {
1557 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1558 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1559 my($expr, @exprs);
1560 my $kid = $op->first->sibling;
1561 my $indir = "";
1562 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
1563 $indir = $kid;
1564 $indir = $indir->first; # skip rv2gv
1565 if (is_scope($indir)) {
9d2c6865 1566 $indir = "{" . $self->deparse($indir, 0) . "}";
6e90668e 1567 } else {
9d2c6865 1568 $indir = $self->deparse($indir, 24);
6e90668e
SM
1569 }
1570 $indir = $indir . " ";
1571 $kid = $kid->sibling;
1572 }
1573 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1574 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1575 push @exprs, $expr;
1576 }
3ed82cfc 1577 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $indir . join(", ", @exprs),
9d2c6865 1578 $cx, 5);
6e90668e
SM
1579}
1580
1581sub pp_prtf { indirop(@_, "printf") }
1582sub pp_print { indirop(@_, "print") }
1583sub pp_sort { indirop(@_, "sort") }
1584
1585sub mapop {
1586 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1587 my($op, $cx, $name) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1588 my($expr, @exprs);
1589 my $kid = $op->first; # this is the (map|grep)start
1590 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip a pushmark
1591 my $code = $kid->first; # skip a null
1592 if (is_scope $code) {
f4a44678 1593 $code = "{" . $self->deparse($code, 0) . "} ";
6e90668e 1594 } else {
9d2c6865 1595 $code = $self->deparse($code, 24) . ", ";
6e90668e
SM
1596 }
1597 $kid = $kid->sibling;
1598 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 1599 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1600 push @exprs, $expr if $expr;
1601 }
9d2c6865 1602 return $self->maybe_parens_func($name, $code . join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 5);
6e90668e
SM
1603}
1604
1605sub pp_mapwhile { mapop(@_, "map") }
1606sub pp_grepwhile { mapop(@_, "grep") }
1607
1608sub pp_list {
1609 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1610 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1611 my($expr, @exprs);
1612 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
1613 my $lop;
1614 my $local = "either"; # could be local(...) or my(...)
1615 for ($lop = $kid; !null($lop); $lop = $lop->sibling) {
1616 # This assumes that no other private flags equal 128, and that
1617 # OPs that store things other than flags in their op_private,
1618 # like OP_AELEMFAST, won't be immediate children of a list.
3f872cb9 1619 unless ($lop->private & OPpLVAL_INTRO or $lop->name eq "undef")
6e90668e
SM
1620 {
1621 $local = ""; # or not
1622 last;
1623 }
3f872cb9 1624 if ($lop->name =~ /^pad[ash]v$/) { # my()
6e90668e
SM
1625 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "local";
1626 $local = "my";
3f872cb9 1627 } elsif ($lop->name ne "undef") { # local()
6e90668e
SM
1628 ($local = "", last) if $local eq "my";
1629 $local = "local";
1630 }
1631 }
1632 $local = "" if $local eq "either"; # no point if it's all undefs
f5aa8f4e 1633 return $self->deparse($kid, $cx) if null $kid->sibling and not $local;
6e90668e
SM
1634 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
1635 if ($local) {
3f872cb9 1636 if (class($kid) eq "UNOP" and $kid->first->name eq "gvsv") {
6e90668e
SM
1637 $lop = $kid->first;
1638 } else {
1639 $lop = $kid;
1640 }
1641 $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop}++;
9d2c6865 1642 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1643 delete $self->{'avoid_local'}{$$lop};
1644 } else {
9d2c6865 1645 $expr = $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
1646 }
1647 push @exprs, $expr;
1648 }
9d2c6865
SM
1649 if ($local) {
1650 return "$local(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
1651 } else {
1652 return $self->maybe_parens( join(", ", @exprs), $cx, 6);
1653 }
6e90668e
SM
1654}
1655
1656sub pp_cond_expr {
1657 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1658 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1659 my $cond = $op->first;
1660 my $true = $cond->sibling;
1661 my $false = $true->sibling;
9d2c6865 1662 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
9d2c6865 1663 unless ($cx == 0 and is_scope($true) and is_scope($false)) {
f5aa8f4e 1664 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 8);
9d2c6865
SM
1665 $true = $self->deparse($true, 8);
1666 $false = $self->deparse($false, 8);
1667 return $self->maybe_parens("$cond ? $true : $false", $cx, 8);
1668 }
f5aa8f4e 1669 $cond = $self->deparse($cond, 1);
9d2c6865 1670 $true = $self->deparse($true, 0);
3f872cb9 1671 if ($false->name eq "lineseq") { # braces w/o scope => elsif
6e90668e
SM
1672 my $head = "if ($cond) {\n\t$true\n\b}";
1673 my @elsifs;
3f872cb9 1674 while (!null($false) and $false->name eq "lineseq") {
6e90668e
SM
1675 my $newop = $false->first->sibling->first;
1676 my $newcond = $newop->first;
1677 my $newtrue = $newcond->sibling;
1678 $false = $newtrue->sibling; # last in chain is OP_AND => no else
9d2c6865
SM
1679 $newcond = $self->deparse($newcond, 1);
1680 $newtrue = $self->deparse($newtrue, 0);
6e90668e
SM
1681 push @elsifs, "elsif ($newcond) {\n\t$newtrue\n\b}";
1682 }
1683 if (!null($false)) {
9d2c6865
SM
1684 $false = $cuddle . "else {\n\t" .
1685 $self->deparse($false, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
6e90668e 1686 } else {
9d2c6865 1687 $false = "\cK";
6e90668e 1688 }
9d2c6865 1689 return $head . join($cuddle, "", @elsifs) . $false;
6e90668e 1690 }
9d2c6865
SM
1691 $false = $self->deparse($false, 0);
1692 return "if ($cond) {\n\t$true\n\b}${cuddle}else {\n\t$false\n\b}\cK";
6e90668e
SM
1693}
1694
1695sub pp_leaveloop {
1696 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1697 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
1698 my $enter = $op->first;
1699 my $kid = $enter->sibling;
1700 local($self->{'curstash'}) = $self->{'curstash'};
1701 my $head = "";
9d2c6865 1702 my $bare = 0;
3f872cb9 1703 if ($kid->name eq "lineseq") { # bare or infinite loop
6e90668e
SM
1704 if (is_state $kid->last) { # infinite
1705 $head = "for (;;) "; # shorter than while (1)
9d2c6865
SM
1706 } else {
1707 $bare = 1;
6e90668e 1708 }
3f872cb9 1709 } elsif ($enter->name eq "enteriter") { # foreach
6e90668e
SM
1710 my $ary = $enter->first->sibling; # first was pushmark
1711 my $var = $ary->sibling;
f5aa8f4e
SM
1712 if ($enter->flags & OPf_STACKED
1713 and not null $ary->first->sibling->sibling)
1714 {
d7f5b6da
SM
1715 $ary = $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling, 9) . " .. " .
1716 $self->deparse($ary->first->sibling->sibling, 9);
d8d95777
GA
1717 } else {
1718 $ary = $self->deparse($ary, 1);
1719 }
6e90668e 1720 if (null $var) {
f6f9bdb7 1721 if ($enter->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) { # thread special var
9d2c6865 1722 $var = $self->pp_threadsv($enter, 1);
f6f9bdb7 1723 } else { # regular my() variable
9d2c6865 1724 $var = $self->pp_padsv($enter, 1);
f6f9bdb7
SM
1725 if ($self->padname_sv($enter->targ)->IVX ==
1726 $kid->first->first->sibling->last->cop_seq)
1727 {
1728 # If the scope of this variable closes at the last
1729 # statement of the loop, it must have been
1730 # declared here.
1731 $var = "my " . $var;
1732 }
6e90668e 1733 }
3f872cb9 1734 } elsif ($var->name eq "rv2gv") {
9d2c6865 1735 $var = $self->pp_rv2sv($var, 1);
3f872cb9 1736 } elsif ($var->name eq "gv") {
9d2c6865 1737 $var = "\$" . $self->deparse($var, 1);
6e90668e 1738 }
9d2c6865 1739 $head = "foreach $var ($ary) ";
6e90668e 1740 $kid = $kid->first->first->sibling; # skip OP_AND and OP_ITER
3f872cb9 1741 } elsif ($kid->name eq "null") { # while/until
6e90668e 1742 $kid = $kid->first;
3f872cb9
GS
1743 my $name = {"and" => "while", "or" => "until"}
1744 ->{$kid->name};
9d2c6865 1745 $head = "$name (" . $self->deparse($kid->first, 1) . ") ";
6e90668e 1746 $kid = $kid->first->sibling;
3f872cb9 1747 } elsif ($kid->name eq "stub") { # bare and empty
9d2c6865 1748 return "{;}"; # {} could be a hashref
6e90668e
SM
1749 }
1750 # The third-to-last kid is the continue block if the pointer used
9d2c6865
SM
1751 # by `next BLOCK' points to its first OP, which happens to be the
1752 # the op_next of the head of the _previous_ statement.
1753 # Unless it's a bare loop, in which case it's last, since there's
1754 # no unstack or extra nextstate.
f5aa8f4e
SM
1755 # Except if the previous head isn't null but the first kid is
1756 # (because it's a nulled out nextstate in a scope), in which
1757 # case the head's next is advanced past the null but the nextop's
1758 # isn't, so we need to try nextop->next.
bd0865ec
GS
1759 my $precont;
1760 my $cont = $kid->first;
9d2c6865 1761 if ($bare) {
9d2c6865
SM
1762 while (!null($cont->sibling)) {
1763 $precont = $cont;
1764 $cont = $cont->sibling;
1765 }
1766 } else {
9d2c6865
SM
1767 while (!null($cont->sibling->sibling->sibling)) {
1768 $precont = $cont;
1769 $cont = $cont->sibling;
6e90668e
SM
1770 }
1771 }
f5aa8f4e
SM
1772 if ($precont and $ {$precont->next} == $ {$enter->nextop}
1773 || $ {$precont->next} == $ {$enter->nextop->next} )
1774 {
1775 my $state = $kid->first;
1776 my $cuddle = $self->{'cuddle'};
1777 my($expr, @exprs);
1778 for (; $$state != $$cont; $state = $state->sibling) {
1779 $expr = "";
1780 if (is_state $state) {
1781 $expr = $self->deparse($state, 0);
1782 $state = $state->sibling;
1783 last if null $kid;
1784 }
1785 $expr .= $self->deparse($state, 0);
1786 push @exprs, $expr if $expr;
1787 }
1788 $kid = join(";\n", @exprs);
1789 $cont = $cuddle . "continue {\n\t" .
1790 $self->deparse($cont, 0) . "\n\b}\cK";
6e90668e 1791 } else {
9d2c6865
SM
1792 $cont = "\cK";
1793 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 0);
6e90668e
SM
1794 }
1795 return $head . "{\n\t" . $kid . "\n\b}" . $cont;
1796}
1797
1798sub pp_leavetry {
1799 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1800 return "eval {\n\t" . $self->pp_leave(@_) . "\n\b}";
bd0865ec 1801}
6e90668e 1802
bd0865ec
GS
1803BEGIN { eval "sub OP_CONST () {" . opnumber("const") . "}" }
1804BEGIN { eval "sub OP_STRINGIFY () {" . opnumber("stringify") . "}" }
f5aa8f4e 1805
a798dbf2 1806sub pp_null {
6e90668e 1807 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1808 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1809 if (class($op) eq "OP") {
f4a44678
SM
1810 # old value is lost
1811 return $self->{'ex_const'} if $op->targ == OP_CONST;
3f872cb9 1812 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "pushmark") {
9d2c6865 1813 return $self->pp_list($op, $cx);
3f872cb9 1814 } elsif ($op->first->name eq "enter") {
9d2c6865 1815 return $self->pp_leave($op, $cx);
bd0865ec 1816 } elsif ($op->targ == OP_STRINGIFY) {
6e90668e
SM
1817 return $self->dquote($op);
1818 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 1819 $op->first->sibling->name eq "readline" and
6e90668e 1820 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
1821 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 7) . " = "
1822 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 7),
1823 $cx, 7);
6e90668e 1824 } elsif (!null($op->first->sibling) and
3f872cb9 1825 $op->first->sibling->name eq "trans" and
6e90668e 1826 $op->first->sibling->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
1827 return $self->maybe_parens($self->deparse($op->first, 20) . " =~ "
1828 . $self->deparse($op->first->sibling, 20),
1829 $cx, 20);
6e90668e 1830 } else {
9d2c6865 1831 return $self->deparse($op->first, $cx);
6e90668e 1832 }
a798dbf2
MB
1833}
1834
bd0865ec
GS
1835# the aassign in-common check messes up SvCUR (always setting it
1836# to a value >= 100), but it's probably safe to assume there
1837# won't be any NULs in the names of my() variables. (with
1838# stash variables, I wouldn't be so sure)
1839sub padname_fix {
1840 my $str = shift;
1841 $str = substr($str, 0, index($str, "\0")) if index($str, "\0") != -1;
1842 return $str;
1843}
1844
6e90668e
SM
1845sub padname {
1846 my $self = shift;
1847 my $targ = shift;
1848 my $str = $self->padname_sv($targ)->PV;
1849 return padname_fix($str);
1850}
1851
1852sub padany {
1853 my $self = shift;
1854 my $op = shift;
1855 return substr($self->padname($op->targ), 1); # skip $/@/%
1856}
1857
1858sub pp_padsv {
1859 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
1860 my($op, $cx) = @_;
1861 return $self->maybe_my($op, $cx, $self->padname($op->targ));
6e90668e
SM
1862}
1863
1864sub pp_padav { pp_padsv(@_) }
1865sub pp_padhv { pp_padsv(@_) }
1866
9d2c6865
SM
1867my @threadsv_names;
1868
1869BEGIN {
1870 @threadsv_names = ("_", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9",
1871 "&", "`", "'", "+", "/", ".", ",", "\\", '"', ";",
1872 "^", "-", "%", "=", "|", "~", ":", "^A", "^E",
1873 "!", "@");
1874}
f6f9bdb7
SM
1875
1876sub pp_threadsv {
1877 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865
SM
1878 my($op, $cx) = @_;
1879 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, "\$" . $threadsv_names[$op->targ]);
f6f9bdb7
SM
1880}
1881
18228111
GS
1882sub maybe_padgv {
1883 my $self = shift;
1884 my $op = shift;
1885 my $gv;
1886 if ($Config{useithreads}) {
1887 $gv = $self->padval($op->padix);
1888 }
1889 else {
1890 $gv = $op->gv;
1891 }
1892 return $gv;
1893}
1894
6e90668e
SM
1895sub pp_gvsv {
1896 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1897 my($op, $cx) = @_;
18228111
GS
1898 my $gv = $self->maybe_padgv($op);
1899 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, "\$" . $self->gv_name($gv));
6e90668e
SM
1900}
1901
1902sub pp_gv {
1903 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1904 my($op, $cx) = @_;
18228111
GS
1905 my $gv = $self->maybe_padgv($op);
1906 return $self->gv_name($gv);
6e90668e
SM
1907}
1908
1909sub pp_aelemfast {
1910 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1911 my($op, $cx) = @_;
18228111 1912 my $gv = $self->maybe_padgv($op);
6e90668e
SM
1913 return "\$" . $self->gv_name($gv) . "[" . $op->private . "]";
1914}
1915
1916sub rv2x {
1917 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1918 my($op, $cx, $type) = @_;
6e90668e 1919 my $kid = $op->first;
f5aa8f4e
SM
1920 my $str = $self->deparse($kid, 0);
1921 return $type . (is_scalar($kid) ? $str : "{$str}");
6e90668e
SM
1922}
1923
1924sub pp_rv2sv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "\$")) }
1925sub pp_rv2hv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "%")) }
1926sub pp_rv2gv { maybe_local(@_, rv2x(@_, "*")) }
1927
1928# skip rv2av
1929sub pp_av2arylen {
1930 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1931 my($op, $cx) = @_;
3f872cb9 1932 if ($op->first->name eq "padav") {
9d2c6865 1933 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, '$#' . $self->padany($op->first));
6e90668e 1934 } else {
f5aa8f4e
SM
1935 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx,
1936 $self->rv2x($op->first, $cx, '$#'));
6e90668e
SM
1937 }
1938}
1939
1940# skip down to the old, ex-rv2cv
9d2c6865 1941sub pp_rv2cv { $_[0]->rv2x($_[1]->first->first->sibling, $_[2], "&") }
6e90668e
SM
1942
1943sub pp_rv2av {
1944 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1945 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 1946 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9 1947 if ($kid->name eq "const") { # constant list
18228111 1948 my $av = $self->const_sv($kid);
6e90668e
SM
1949 return "(" . join(", ", map(const($_), $av->ARRAY)) . ")";
1950 } else {
9d2c6865 1951 return $self->maybe_local($op, $cx, $self->rv2x($op, $cx, "\@"));
6e90668e
SM
1952 }
1953 }
1954
3ed82cfc
GS
1955sub is_subscriptable {
1956 my $op = shift;
1957 if ($op->name =~ /^[ahg]elem/) {
1958 return 1;
1959 } elsif ($op->name eq "entersub") {
1960 my $kid = $op->first;
1961 return 0 unless null $kid->sibling;
1962 $kid = $kid->first;
1963 $kid = $kid->sibling until null $kid->sibling;
1964 return 0 if is_scope($kid);
1965 $kid = $kid->first;
1966 return 0 if $kid->name eq "gv";
1967 return 0 if is_scalar($kid);
1968 return is_subscriptable($kid);
1969 } else {
1970 return 0;
1971 }
1972}
6e90668e
SM
1973
1974sub elem {
1975 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 1976 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e 1977 my($array, $idx) = ($op->first, $op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 1978 unless ($array->name eq $padname) { # Maybe this has been fixed
6e90668e
SM
1979 $array = $array->first; # skip rv2av (or ex-rv2av in _53+)
1980 }
3f872cb9 1981 if ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
1982 $array = $self->padany($array);
1983 } elsif (is_scope($array)) { # ${expr}[0]
9d2c6865 1984 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
6e90668e 1985 } elsif (is_scalar $array) { # $x[0], $$x[0], ...
9d2c6865 1986 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
1987 } else {
1988 # $x[20][3]{hi} or expr->[20]
3ed82cfc 1989 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($array) ? "" : "->";
9d2c6865
SM
1990 return $self->deparse($array, 24) . $arrow .
1991 $left . $self->deparse($idx, 1) . $right;
6e90668e 1992 }
9d2c6865 1993 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
6e90668e
SM
1994 return "\$" . $array . $left . $idx . $right;
1995}
1996
3f872cb9
GS
1997sub pp_aelem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "[", "]", "padav")) }
1998sub pp_helem { maybe_local(@_, elem(@_, "{", "}", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
1999
2000sub pp_gelem {
2001 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2002 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2003 my($glob, $part) = ($op->first, $op->last);
2004 $glob = $glob->first; # skip rv2gv
3f872cb9 2005 $glob = $glob->first if $glob->name eq "rv2gv"; # this one's a bug
9d2c6865
SM
2006 my $scope = is_scope($glob);
2007 $glob = $self->deparse($glob, 0);
2008 $part = $self->deparse($part, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2009 return "*" . ($scope ? "{$glob}" : $glob) . "{$part}";
2010}
2011
2012sub slice {
2013 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2014 my ($op, $cx, $left, $right, $regname, $padname) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2015 my $last;
2016 my(@elems, $kid, $array, $list);
2017 if (class($op) eq "LISTOP") {
2018 $last = $op->last;
2019 } else { # ex-hslice inside delete()
2020 for ($kid = $op->first; !null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {}
2021 $last = $kid;
2022 }
2023 $array = $last;
2024 $array = $array->first
3f872cb9 2025 if $array->name eq $regname or $array->name eq "null";
6e90668e 2026 if (is_scope($array)) {
9d2c6865 2027 $array = "{" . $self->deparse($array, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 2028 } elsif ($array->name eq $padname) {
6e90668e
SM
2029 $array = $self->padany($array);
2030 } else {
9d2c6865 2031 $array = $self->deparse($array, 24);
6e90668e
SM
2032 }
2033 $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
3f872cb9 2034 if ($kid->name eq "list") {
6e90668e
SM
2035 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip list, pushmark
2036 for (; !null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2037 push @elems, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2038 }
2039 $list = join(", ", @elems);
2040 } else {
9d2c6865 2041 $list = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2042 }
2043 return "\@" . $array . $left . $list . $right;
2044}
2045
3ed82cfc
GS
2046sub pp_aslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "[", "]", "rv2av", "padav")) }
2047sub pp_hslice { maybe_local(@_, slice(@_, "{", "}", "rv2hv", "padhv")) }
6e90668e
SM
2048
2049sub pp_lslice {
2050 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2051 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2052 my $idx = $op->first;
2053 my $list = $op->last;
2054 my(@elems, $kid);
9d2c6865
SM
2055 $list = $self->deparse($list, 1);
2056 $idx = $self->deparse($idx, 1);
2057 return "($list)" . "[$idx]";
6e90668e
SM
2058}
2059
6e90668e
SM
2060sub want_scalar {
2061 my $op = shift;
2062 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_SCALAR;
2063}
2064
bd0865ec
GS
2065sub want_list {
2066 my $op = shift;
2067 return ($op->flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_LIST;
2068}
2069
2070sub method {
6e90668e 2071 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2072 my($op, $cx) = @_;
bd0865ec
GS
2073 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2074 my($meth, $obj, @exprs);
3f872cb9 2075 if ($kid->name eq "list" and want_list $kid) {
bd0865ec
GS
2076 # When an indirect object isn't a bareword but the args are in
2077 # parens, the parens aren't part of the method syntax (the LLAFR
2078 # doesn't apply), but they make a list with OPf_PARENS set that
2079 # doesn't get flattened by the append_elem that adds the method,
2080 # making a (object, arg1, arg2, ...) list where the object
2081 # usually is. This can be distinguished from
2082 # `($obj, $arg1, $arg2)->meth()' (which is legal if $arg2 is an
2083 # object) because in the later the list is in scalar context
2084 # as the left side of -> always is, while in the former
2085 # the list is in list context as method arguments always are.
2086 # (Good thing there aren't method prototypes!)
3ed82cfc 2087 $meth = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec
GS
2088 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip pushmark
2089 $obj = $kid;
6e90668e 2090 $kid = $kid->sibling;
bd0865ec 2091 for (; not null $kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2092 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2093 }
bd0865ec
GS
2094 } else {
2095 $obj = $kid;
2096 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2097 for (; not null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2098 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e 2099 }
3ed82cfc 2100 $meth = $kid;
bd0865ec
GS
2101 }
2102 $obj = $self->deparse($obj, 24);
3ed82cfc 2103 if ($meth->name eq "method_named") {
18228111 2104 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV;
bd0865ec 2105 } else {
3ed82cfc
GS
2106 $meth = $meth->first;
2107 if ($meth->name eq "const") {
2108 # As of 5.005_58, this case is probably obsoleted by the
2109 # method_named case above
18228111 2110 $meth = $self->const_sv($meth)->PV; # needs to be bare
3ed82cfc
GS
2111 } else {
2112 $meth = $self->deparse($meth, 1);
2113 }
bd0865ec
GS
2114 }
2115 my $args = join(", ", @exprs);
2116 $kid = $obj . "->" . $meth;
2117 if ($args) {
2118 return $kid . "(" . $args . ")"; # parens mandatory
2119 } else {
2120 return $kid;
2121 }
2122}
2123
2124# returns "&" if the prototype doesn't match the args,
2125# or ("", $args_after_prototype_demunging) if it does.
2126sub check_proto {
2127 my $self = shift;
2128 my($proto, @args) = @_;
2129 my($arg, $real);
2130 my $doneok = 0;
2131 my @reals;
2132 # An unbackslashed @ or % gobbles up the rest of the args
2133 $proto =~ s/([^\\]|^)([@%])(.*)$/$1$2/;
2134 while ($proto) {
2135 $proto =~ s/^ *([\\]?[\$\@&%*]|;)//;
2136 my $chr = $1;
2137 if ($chr eq "") {
2138 return "&" if @args;
2139 } elsif ($chr eq ";") {
2140 $doneok = 1;
2141 } elsif ($chr eq "@" or $chr eq "%") {
2142 push @reals, map($self->deparse($_, 6), @args);
2143 @args = ();
6e90668e 2144 } else {
bd0865ec
GS
2145 $arg = shift @args;
2146 last unless $arg;
2147 if ($chr eq "\$") {
2148 if (want_scalar $arg) {
2149 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
2150 } else {
2151 return "&";
2152 }
2153 } elsif ($chr eq "&") {
3f872cb9 2154 if ($arg->name =~ /^(s?refgen|undef)$/) {
bd0865ec
GS
2155 push @reals, $self->deparse($arg, 6);
2156 } else {
2157 return "&";
2158 }
2159 } elsif ($chr eq "*") {
3f872cb9
GS
2160 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/
2161 and $arg->first->first->name eq "rv2gv")
bd0865ec
GS
2162 {
2163 $real = $arg->first->first; # skip refgen, null
3f872cb9 2164 if ($real->first->name eq "gv") {
bd0865ec
GS
2165 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
2166 } else {
2167 push @reals, $self->deparse($real->first, 6);
2168 }
2169 } else {
2170 return "&";
2171 }
2172 } elsif (substr($chr, 0, 1) eq "\\") {
2173 $chr = substr($chr, 1);
3f872cb9 2174 if ($arg->name =~ /^s?refgen$/ and
bd0865ec
GS
2175 !null($real = $arg->first) and
2176 ($chr eq "\$" && is_scalar($real->first)
2177 or ($chr eq "\@"
3f872cb9
GS
2178 && $real->first->sibling->name
2179 =~ /^(rv2|pad)av$/)
bd0865ec 2180 or ($chr eq "%"
3f872cb9
GS
2181 && $real->first->sibling->name
2182 =~ /^(rv2|pad)hv$/)
bd0865ec 2183 #or ($chr eq "&" # This doesn't work
3f872cb9 2184 # && $real->first->name eq "rv2cv")
bd0865ec 2185 or ($chr eq "*"
3f872cb9 2186 && $real->first->name eq "rv2gv")))
bd0865ec
GS
2187 {
2188 push @reals, $self->deparse($real, 6);
2189 } else {
2190 return "&";
2191 }
2192 }
2193 }
9d2c6865 2194 }
bd0865ec
GS
2195 return "&" if $proto and !$doneok; # too few args and no `;'
2196 return "&" if @args; # too many args
2197 return ("", join ", ", @reals);
2198}
2199
2200sub pp_entersub {
2201 my $self = shift;
2202 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2203 return $self->method($op, $cx) unless null $op->first->sibling;
2204 my $prefix = "";
2205 my $amper = "";
2206 my($kid, @exprs);
9d2c6865
SM
2207 if ($op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
2208 $prefix = "do ";
2209 } elsif ($op->private & OPpENTERSUB_AMPER) {
2210 $amper = "&";
2211 }
2212 $kid = $op->first;
2213 $kid = $kid->first->sibling; # skip ex-list, pushmark
2214 for (; not null $kid->sibling; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
2215 push @exprs, $kid;
2216 }
bd0865ec
GS
2217 my $simple = 0;
2218 my $proto = undef;
9d2c6865
SM
2219 if (is_scope($kid)) {
2220 $amper = "&";
2221 $kid = "{" . $self->deparse($kid, 0) . "}";
3f872cb9 2222 } elsif ($kid->first->name eq "gv") {
18228111 2223 my $gv = $self->maybe_padgv($kid->first);
9d2c6865
SM
2224 if (class($gv->CV) ne "SPECIAL") {
2225 $proto = $gv->CV->PV if $gv->CV->FLAGS & SVf_POK;
2226 }
bd0865ec 2227 $simple = 1; # only calls of named functions can be prototyped
9d2c6865
SM
2228 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
2229 } elsif (is_scalar $kid->first) {
2230 $amper = "&";
2231 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24);
2232 } else {
2233 $prefix = "";
3ed82cfc
GS
2234 my $arrow = is_subscriptable($kid->first) ? "" : "->";
2235 $kid = $self->deparse($kid, 24) . $arrow;
9d2c6865 2236 }
bd0865ec 2237 my $args;
9d2c6865 2238 if (defined $proto and not $amper) {
bd0865ec
GS
2239 ($amper, $args) = $self->check_proto($proto, @exprs);
2240 if ($amper eq "&") {
9d2c6865
SM
2241 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
2242 }
2243 } else {
2244 $args = join(", ", map($self->deparse($_, 6), @exprs));
6e90668e 2245 }
9d2c6865
SM
2246 if ($prefix or $amper) {
2247 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
2248 return $prefix . $amper . $kid . "(" . $args . ")";
2249 } else {
2250 return $prefix . $amper. $kid;
2251 }
6e90668e 2252 } else {
9d2c6865
SM
2253 if (defined $proto and $proto eq "") {
2254 return $kid;
2255 } elsif ($proto eq "\$") {
2256 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 16);
2257 } elsif ($proto or $simple) {
2258 return $self->maybe_parens_func($kid, $args, $cx, 5);
2259 } else {
2260 return "$kid(" . $args . ")";
2261 }
6e90668e
SM
2262 }
2263}
2264
2265sub pp_enterwrite { unop(@_, "write") }
2266
2267# escape things that cause interpolation in double quotes,
2268# but not character escapes
2269sub uninterp {
2270 my($str) = @_;
9d2c6865
SM
2271 $str =~ s/(^|[^\\])([\$\@]|\\[uUlLQE])/$1\\$2/g;
2272 return $str;
2273}
2274
2275# the same, but treat $|, $), and $ at the end of the string differently
2276sub re_uninterp {
2277 my($str) = @_;
2278 $str =~ s/(^|[^\\])(\@|\\[uUlLQE])/$1\\$2/g;
2279 $str =~ s/(^|[^\\])(\$[^)|])/$1\\$2/g;
6e90668e
SM
2280 return $str;
2281}
2282
2283# character escapes, but not delimiters that might need to be escaped
2284sub escape_str { # ASCII
2285 my($str) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2286 $str =~ s/\a/\\a/g;
2287# $str =~ s/\cH/\\b/g; # \b means someting different in a regex
2288 $str =~ s/\t/\\t/g;
2289 $str =~ s/\n/\\n/g;
2290 $str =~ s/\e/\\e/g;
2291 $str =~ s/\f/\\f/g;
2292 $str =~ s/\r/\\r/g;
2293 $str =~ s/([\cA-\cZ])/'\\c' . chr(ord('@') + ord($1))/ge;
2294 $str =~ s/([\0\033-\037\177-\377])/'\\' . sprintf("%03o", ord($1))/ge;
2295 return $str;
2296}
2297
9d2c6865
SM
2298# Don't do this for regexen
2299sub unback {
2300 my($str) = @_;
2301 $str =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
2302 return $str;
2303}
2304
6e90668e
SM
2305sub balanced_delim {
2306 my($str) = @_;
2307 my @str = split //, $str;
2308 my($ar, $open, $close, $fail, $c, $cnt);
2309 for $ar (['[',']'], ['(',')'], ['<','>'], ['{','}']) {
2310 ($open, $close) = @$ar;
2311 $fail = 0; $cnt = 0;
2312 for $c (@str) {
2313 if ($c eq $open) {
2314 $cnt++;
2315 } elsif ($c eq $close) {
2316 $cnt--;
2317 if ($cnt < 0) {
bd0865ec 2318 # qq()() isn't ")("
6e90668e
SM
2319 $fail = 1;
2320 last;
2321 }
2322 }
2323 }
2324 $fail = 1 if $cnt != 0;
2325 return ($open, "$open$str$close") if not $fail;
2326 }
2327 return ("", $str);
2328}
2329
2330sub single_delim {
2331 my($q, $default, $str) = @_;
90be192f 2332 return "$default$str$default" if $default and index($str, $default) == -1;
6e90668e
SM
2333 my($succeed, $delim);
2334 ($succeed, $str) = balanced_delim($str);
2335 return "$q$str" if $succeed;
2336 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') {
2337 return "$q$delim" . $str . $delim if index($str, $delim) == -1;
2338 }
90be192f
SM
2339 if ($default) {
2340 $str =~ s/$default/\\$default/g;
2341 return "$default$str$default";
2342 } else {
2343 $str =~ s[/][\\/]g;
2344 return "$q/$str/";
2345 }
6e90668e
SM
2346}
2347
6e90668e
SM
2348sub const {
2349 my $sv = shift;
2350 if (class($sv) eq "SPECIAL") {
bd0865ec 2351 return ('undef', '1', '0')[$$sv-1]; # sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no
6e90668e 2352 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_IOK) {
a798dbf2 2353 return $sv->IV;
6e90668e 2354 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_NOK) {
a798dbf2 2355 return $sv->NV;
6e90668e
SM
2356 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_ROK) {
2357 return "\\(" . const($sv->RV) . ")"; # constant folded
a798dbf2 2358 } else {
6e90668e 2359 my $str = $sv->PV;
bd0865ec 2360 if ($str =~ /[^ -~]/) { # ASCII for non-printing
9d2c6865 2361 return single_delim("qq", '"', uninterp escape_str unback $str);
6e90668e 2362 } else {
bd0865ec 2363 return single_delim("q", "'", unback $str);
6e90668e 2364 }
a798dbf2
MB
2365 }
2366}
2367
18228111
GS
2368sub const_sv {
2369 my $self = shift;
2370 my $op = shift;
2371 my $sv = $op->sv;
2372 # the constant could be in the pad (under useithreads)
2373 $sv = $self->padval($op->targ) unless $$sv;
2374 return $sv;
2375}
2376
6e90668e
SM
2377sub pp_const {
2378 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2379 my($op, $cx) = @_;
4c1f658f 2380# if ($op->private & OPpCONST_BARE) { # trouble with `=>' autoquoting
18228111 2381# return $self->const_sv($op)->PV;
6e90668e 2382# }
18228111
GS
2383 my $sv = $self->const_sv($op);
2384 return const($sv);
6e90668e
SM
2385}
2386
2387sub dq {
2388 my $self = shift;
2389 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
2390 my $type = $op->name;
2391 if ($type eq "const") {
18228111 2392 return uninterp(escape_str(unback($self->const_sv($op)->PV)));
3f872cb9 2393 } elsif ($type eq "concat") {
6e90668e 2394 return $self->dq($op->first) . $self->dq($op->last);
3f872cb9 2395 } elsif ($type eq "uc") {
6e90668e 2396 return '\U' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 2397 } elsif ($type eq "lc") {
6e90668e 2398 return '\L' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 2399 } elsif ($type eq "ucfirst") {
6e90668e 2400 return '\u' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 2401 } elsif ($type eq "lcfirst") {
6e90668e 2402 return '\l' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 2403 } elsif ($type eq "quotemeta") {
6e90668e 2404 return '\Q' . $self->dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 2405 } elsif ($type eq "join") {
9d2c6865 2406 return $self->deparse($op->last, 26); # was join($", @ary)
a798dbf2 2407 } else {
9d2c6865 2408 return $self->deparse($op, 26);
6e90668e
SM
2409 }
2410}
2411
2412sub pp_backtick {
2413 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2414 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2415 # skip pushmark
2416 return single_delim("qx", '`', $self->dq($op->first->sibling));
2417}
2418
2419sub dquote {
2420 my $self = shift;
bd0865ec 2421 my($op, $cx) = shift;
3ed82cfc
GS
2422 my $kid = $op->first->sibling; # skip ex-stringify, pushmark
2423 return $self->deparse($kid, $cx) if $self->{'unquote'};
2424 $self->maybe_targmy($kid, $cx,
2425 sub {single_delim("qq", '"', $self->dq($_[1]))});
6e90668e
SM
2426}
2427
bd0865ec 2428# OP_STRINGIFY is a listop, but it only ever has one arg
3ed82cfc 2429sub pp_stringify { maybe_targmy(@_, \&dquote) }
6e90668e
SM
2430
2431# tr/// and s/// (and tr[][], tr[]//, tr###, etc)
2432# note that tr(from)/to/ is OK, but not tr/from/(to)
2433sub double_delim {
2434 my($from, $to) = @_;
2435 my($succeed, $delim);
2436 if ($from !~ m[/] and $to !~ m[/]) {
2437 return "/$from/$to/";
2438 } elsif (($succeed, $from) = balanced_delim($from) and $succeed) {
2439 if (($succeed, $to) = balanced_delim($to) and $succeed) {
2440 return "$from$to";
2441 } else {
2442 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') { # note no `'' -- s''' is special
2443 return "$from$delim$to$delim" if index($to, $delim) == -1;
2444 }
2445 $to =~ s[/][\\/]g;
2446 return "$from/$to/";
2447 }
2448 } else {
2449 for $delim ('/', '"', '#') { # note no '
2450 return "$delim$from$delim$to$delim"
2451 if index($to . $from, $delim) == -1;
2452 }
2453 $from =~ s[/][\\/]g;
2454 $to =~ s[/][\\/]g;
2455 return "/$from/$to/";
2456 }
2457}
2458
2459sub pchr { # ASCII
2460 my($n) = @_;
2461 if ($n == ord '\\') {
2462 return '\\\\';
2463 } elsif ($n >= ord(' ') and $n <= ord('~')) {
2464 return chr($n);
2465 } elsif ($n == ord "\a") {
2466 return '\\a';
2467 } elsif ($n == ord "\b") {
2468 return '\\b';
2469 } elsif ($n == ord "\t") {
2470 return '\\t';
2471 } elsif ($n == ord "\n") {
2472 return '\\n';
2473 } elsif ($n == ord "\e") {
2474 return '\\e';
2475 } elsif ($n == ord "\f") {
2476 return '\\f';
2477 } elsif ($n == ord "\r") {
2478 return '\\r';
2479 } elsif ($n >= ord("\cA") and $n <= ord("\cZ")) {
2480 return '\\c' . chr(ord("@") + $n);
2481 } else {
2482# return '\x' . sprintf("%02x", $n);
2483 return '\\' . sprintf("%03o", $n);
2484 }
2485}
2486
2487sub collapse {
2488 my(@chars) = @_;
2489 my($c, $str, $tr);
2490 for ($c = 0; $c < @chars; $c++) {
2491 $tr = $chars[$c];
2492 $str .= pchr($tr);
2493 if ($c <= $#chars - 2 and $chars[$c + 1] == $tr + 1 and
2494 $chars[$c + 2] == $tr + 2)
2495 {
f4a44678
SM
2496 for (; $c <= $#chars-1 and $chars[$c + 1] == $chars[$c] + 1; $c++)
2497 {}
6e90668e
SM
2498 $str .= "-";
2499 $str .= pchr($chars[$c]);
2500 }
2501 }
2502 return $str;
2503}
2504
f4a44678
SM
2505# XXX This has trouble with hyphens in the replacement (tr/bac/-AC/),
2506# and backslashes.
2507
2508sub tr_decode_byte {
2509 my($table, $flags) = @_;
2510 my(@table) = unpack("s256", $table);
6e90668e
SM
2511 my($c, $tr, @from, @to, @delfrom, $delhyphen);
2512 if ($table[ord "-"] != -1 and
2513 $table[ord("-") - 1] == -1 || $table[ord("-") + 1] == -1)
2514 {
2515 $tr = $table[ord "-"];
2516 $table[ord "-"] = -1;
2517 if ($tr >= 0) {
2518 @from = ord("-");
2519 @to = $tr;
2520 } else { # -2 ==> delete
2521 $delhyphen = 1;
2522 }
2523 }
2524 for ($c = 0; $c < 256; $c++) {
2525 $tr = $table[$c];
2526 if ($tr >= 0) {
2527 push @from, $c; push @to, $tr;
2528 } elsif ($tr == -2) {
2529 push @delfrom, $c;
2530 }
2531 }
6e90668e 2532 @from = (@from, @delfrom);
f4a44678 2533 if ($flags & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT) {
6e90668e
SM
2534 my @newfrom = ();
2535 my %from;
2536 @from{@from} = (1) x @from;
2537 for ($c = 0; $c < 256; $c++) {
2538 push @newfrom, $c unless $from{$c};
2539 }
2540 @from = @newfrom;
2541 }
f4a44678 2542 unless ($flags & OPpTRANS_DELETE) {
6e90668e
SM
2543 pop @to while $#to and $to[$#to] == $to[$#to -1];
2544 }
6e90668e
SM
2545 my($from, $to);
2546 $from = collapse(@from);
2547 $to = collapse(@to);
2548 $from .= "-" if $delhyphen;
f4a44678
SM
2549 return ($from, $to);
2550}
2551
2552sub tr_chr {
2553 my $x = shift;
2554 if ($x == ord "-") {
2555 return "\\-";
2556 } else {
2557 return chr $x;
2558 }
2559}
2560
2561# XXX This doesn't yet handle all cases correctly either
2562
2563sub tr_decode_utf8 {
2564 my($swash_hv, $flags) = @_;
2565 my %swash = $swash_hv->ARRAY;
2566 my $final = undef;
2567 $final = $swash{'FINAL'}->IV if exists $swash{'FINAL'};
2568 my $none = $swash{"NONE"}->IV;
2569 my $extra = $none + 1;
2570 my(@from, @delfrom, @to);
2571 my $line;
2572 foreach $line (split /\n/, $swash{'LIST'}->PV) {
2573 my($min, $max, $result) = split(/\t/, $line);
2574 $min = hex $min;
2575 if (length $max) {
2576 $max = hex $max;
2577 } else {
2578 $max = $min;
2579 }
2580 $result = hex $result;
2581 if ($result == $extra) {
2582 push @delfrom, [$min, $max];
2583 } else {
2584 push @from, [$min, $max];
2585 push @to, [$result, $result + $max - $min];
2586 }
2587 }
2588 for my $i (0 .. $#from) {
2589 if ($from[$i][0] == ord '-') {
2590 unshift @from, splice(@from, $i, 1);
2591 unshift @to, splice(@to, $i, 1);
2592 last;
2593 } elsif ($from[$i][1] == ord '-') {
2594 $from[$i][1]--;
2595 $to[$i][1]--;
2596 unshift @from, ord '-';
2597 unshift @to, ord '-';
2598 last;
2599 }
2600 }
2601 for my $i (0 .. $#delfrom) {
2602 if ($delfrom[$i][0] == ord '-') {
2603 push @delfrom, splice(@delfrom, $i, 1);
2604 last;
2605 } elsif ($delfrom[$i][1] == ord '-') {
2606 $delfrom[$i][1]--;
2607 push @delfrom, ord '-';
2608 last;
2609 }
2610 }
2611 if (defined $final and $to[$#to][1] != $final) {
2612 push @to, [$final, $final];
2613 }
2614 push @from, @delfrom;
2615 if ($flags & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT) {
2616 my @newfrom;
2617 my $next = 0;
2618 for my $i (0 .. $#from) {
2619 push @newfrom, [$next, $from[$i][0] - 1];
2620 $next = $from[$i][1] + 1;
2621 }
2622 @from = ();
2623 for my $range (@newfrom) {
2624 if ($range->[0] <= $range->[1]) {
2625 push @from, $range;
2626 }
2627 }
2628 }
2629 my($from, $to, $diff);
2630 for my $chunk (@from) {
2631 $diff = $chunk->[1] - $chunk->[0];
2632 if ($diff > 1) {
2633 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . "-" . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
2634 } elsif ($diff == 1) {
2635 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
2636 } else {
2637 $from .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]);
2638 }
2639 }
2640 for my $chunk (@to) {
2641 $diff = $chunk->[1] - $chunk->[0];
2642 if ($diff > 1) {
2643 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . "-" . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
2644 } elsif ($diff == 1) {
2645 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]) . tr_chr($chunk->[1]);
2646 } else {
2647 $to .= tr_chr($chunk->[0]);
2648 }
2649 }
2650 #$final = sprintf("%04x", $final) if defined $final;
2651 #$none = sprintf("%04x", $none) if defined $none;
2652 #$extra = sprintf("%04x", $extra) if defined $extra;
2653 #print STDERR "final: $final\n none: $none\nextra: $extra\n";
2654 #print STDERR $swash{'LIST'}->PV;
2655 return (escape_str($from), escape_str($to));
2656}
2657
2658sub pp_trans {
2659 my $self = shift;
2660 my($op, $cx) = @_;
2661 my($from, $to);
2662 if (class($op) eq "PVOP") {
2663 ($from, $to) = tr_decode_byte($op->pv, $op->private);
2664 } else { # class($op) eq "SVOP"
2665 ($from, $to) = tr_decode_utf8($op->sv->RV, $op->private);
2666 }
2667 my $flags = "";
2668 $flags .= "c" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT;
2669 $flags .= "d" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_DELETE;
2670 $to = "" if $from eq $to and $flags eq "";
2671 $flags .= "s" if $op->private & OPpTRANS_SQUASH;
6e90668e
SM
2672 return "tr" . double_delim($from, $to) . $flags;
2673}
2674
2675# Like dq(), but different
2676sub re_dq {
2677 my $self = shift;
2678 my $op = shift;
3f872cb9
GS
2679 my $type = $op->name;
2680 if ($type eq "const") {
18228111 2681 return uninterp($self->const_sv($op)->PV);
3f872cb9 2682 } elsif ($type eq "concat") {
6e90668e 2683 return $self->re_dq($op->first) . $self->re_dq($op->last);
3f872cb9 2684 } elsif ($type eq "uc") {
6e90668e 2685 return '\U' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 2686 } elsif ($type eq "lc") {
6e90668e 2687 return '\L' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 2688 } elsif ($type eq "ucfirst") {
6e90668e 2689 return '\u' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 2690 } elsif ($type eq "lcfirst") {
6e90668e 2691 return '\l' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling);
3f872cb9 2692 } elsif ($type eq "quotemeta") {
6e90668e 2693 return '\Q' . $self->re_dq($op->first->sibling) . '\E';
3f872cb9 2694 } elsif ($type eq "join") {
9d2c6865 2695 return $self->deparse($op->last, 26); # was join($", @ary)
6e90668e 2696 } else {
9d2c6865 2697 return $self->deparse($op, 26);
6e90668e
SM
2698 }
2699}
2700
2701sub pp_regcomp {
2702 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2703 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2704 my $kid = $op->first;
3f872cb9
GS
2705 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "regcmaybe";
2706 $kid = $kid->first if $kid->name eq "regcreset";
6e90668e
SM
2707 return $self->re_dq($kid);
2708}
2709
6e90668e
SM
2710# osmic acid -- see osmium tetroxide
2711
2712my %matchwords;
2713map($matchwords{join "", sort split //, $_} = $_, 'cig', 'cog', 'cos', 'cogs',
2714 'cox', 'go', 'is', 'ism', 'iso', 'mig', 'mix', 'osmic', 'ox', 'sic',
2715 'sig', 'six', 'smog', 'so', 'soc', 'sog', 'xi');
2716
90be192f 2717sub matchop {
6e90668e 2718 my $self = shift;
90be192f 2719 my($op, $cx, $name, $delim) = @_;
6e90668e 2720 my $kid = $op->first;
9d2c6865 2721 my ($binop, $var, $re) = ("", "", "");
6e90668e 2722 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2723 $binop = 1;
2724 $var = $self->deparse($kid, 20);
6e90668e
SM
2725 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2726 }
2727 if (null $kid) {
9d2c6865 2728 $re = re_uninterp(escape_str($op->precomp));
6e90668e 2729 } else {
9d2c6865 2730 $re = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
6e90668e
SM
2731 }
2732 my $flags = "";
2733 $flags .= "c" if $op->pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE;
2734 $flags .= "g" if $op->pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL;
2735 $flags .= "i" if $op->pmflags & PMf_FOLD;
2736 $flags .= "m" if $op->pmflags & PMf_MULTILINE;
2737 $flags .= "o" if $op->pmflags & PMf_KEEP;
2738 $flags .= "s" if $op->pmflags & PMf_SINGLELINE;
2739 $flags .= "x" if $op->pmflags & PMf_EXTENDED;
2740 $flags = $matchwords{$flags} if $matchwords{$flags};
2741 if ($op->pmflags & PMf_ONCE) { # only one kind of delimiter works here
2742 $re =~ s/\?/\\?/g;
9d2c6865
SM
2743 $re = "?$re?";
2744 } else {
90be192f 2745 $re = single_delim($name, $delim, $re);
9d2c6865
SM
2746 }
2747 $re = $re . $flags;
2748 if ($binop) {
2749 return $self->maybe_parens("$var =~ $re", $cx, 20);
2750 } else {
2751 return $re;
6e90668e 2752 }
6e90668e
SM
2753}
2754
90be192f
SM
2755sub pp_match { matchop(@_, "m", "/") }
2756sub pp_pushre { matchop(@_, "m", "/") }
2757sub pp_qr { matchop(@_, "qr", "") }
6e90668e
SM
2758
2759sub pp_split {
2760 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2761 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e
SM
2762 my($kid, @exprs, $ary, $expr);
2763 $kid = $op->first;
2764 if ($ {$kid->pmreplroot}) {
2765 $ary = '@' . $self->gv_name($kid->pmreplroot);
2766 }
2767 for (; !null($kid); $kid = $kid->sibling) {
9d2c6865 2768 push @exprs, $self->deparse($kid, 6);
6e90668e
SM
2769 }
2770 $expr = "split(" . join(", ", @exprs) . ")";
2771 if ($ary) {
9d2c6865 2772 return $self->maybe_parens("$ary = $expr", $cx, 7);
6e90668e
SM
2773 } else {
2774 return $expr;
2775 }
2776}
2777
2778# oxime -- any of various compounds obtained chiefly by the action of
2779# hydroxylamine on aldehydes and ketones and characterized by the
2780# bivalent grouping C=NOH [Webster's Tenth]
2781
2782my %substwords;
2783map($substwords{join "", sort split //, $_} = $_, 'ego', 'egoism', 'em',
2784 'es', 'ex', 'exes', 'gee', 'go', 'goes', 'ie', 'ism', 'iso', 'me',
2785 'meese', 'meso', 'mig', 'mix', 'os', 'ox', 'oxime', 'see', 'seem',
2786 'seg', 'sex', 'sig', 'six', 'smog', 'sog', 'some', 'xi');
2787
2788sub pp_subst {
2789 my $self = shift;
9d2c6865 2790 my($op, $cx) = @_;
6e90668e 2791 my $kid = $op->first;
9d2c6865 2792 my($binop, $var, $re, $repl) = ("", "", "", "");
6e90668e 2793 if ($op->flags & OPf_STACKED) {
9d2c6865
SM
2794 $binop = 1;
2795 $var = $self->deparse($kid, 20);
6e90668e
SM
2796 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2797 }
2798 my $flags = "";
2799 if (null($op->pmreplroot)) {
2800 $repl = $self->dq($kid);
2801 $kid = $kid->sibling;
2802 } else {
2803 $repl = $op->pmreplroot->first; # skip substcont
3f872cb9 2804 while ($repl->name eq "entereval") {
6e90668e
SM
2805 $repl = $repl->first;
2806 $flags .= "e";
2807 }
bd0865ec
GS
2808 if ($op->pmflags & PMf_EVAL) {
2809 $repl = $self->deparse($repl, 0);
2810 } else {
2811 $repl = $self->dq($repl);
2812 }
6e90668e
SM
2813 }
2814 if (null $kid) {
9d2c6865 2815 $re = re_uninterp(escape_str($op->precomp));
6e90668e 2816 } else {
9d2c6865 2817 $re = $self->deparse($kid, 1);
a798dbf2 2818 }
6e90668e
SM
2819 $flags .= "e" if $op->pmflags & PMf_EVAL;
2820 $flags .= "g" if $op->pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL;
2821 $flags .= "i" if $op->pmflags & PMf_FOLD;
2822 $flags .= "m" if $op->pmflags & PMf_MULTILINE;
2823 $flags .= "o" if $op->pmflags & PMf_KEEP;
2824 $flags .= "s" if $op->pmflags & PMf_SINGLELINE;
2825 $flags .= "x" if $op->pmflags & PMf_EXTENDED;
2826 $flags = $substwords{$flags} if $substwords{$flags};
9d2c6865
SM
2827 if ($binop) {
2828 return $self->maybe_parens("$var =~ s"
2829 . double_delim($re, $repl) . $flags,
2830 $cx, 20);
2831 } else {
2832 return "s". double_delim($re, $repl) . $flags;
2833 }
a798dbf2
MB
2834}
2835
28361;
f6f9bdb7
SM
2837__END__
2838
2839=head1 NAME
2840
2841B::Deparse - Perl compiler backend to produce perl code
2842
2843=head1 SYNOPSIS
2844
f4a44678
SM
2845B<perl> B<-MO=Deparse>[B<,-u>I<PACKAGE>][B<,-p>][B<,-q>][B<,-l>][B<,-s>I<LETTERS>]
2846 I<prog.pl>
f6f9bdb7
SM
2847
2848=head1 DESCRIPTION
2849
2850B::Deparse is a backend module for the Perl compiler that generates
2851perl source code, based on the internal compiled structure that perl
2852itself creates after parsing a program. The output of B::Deparse won't
2853be exactly the same as the original source, since perl doesn't keep
2854track of comments or whitespace, and there isn't a one-to-one
2855correspondence between perl's syntactical constructions and their
9d2c6865
SM
2856compiled form, but it will often be close. When you use the B<-p>
2857option, the output also includes parentheses even when they are not
2858required by precedence, which can make it easy to see if perl is
2859parsing your expressions the way you intended.
f6f9bdb7
SM
2860
2861Please note that this module is mainly new and untested code and is
2862still under development, so it may change in the future.
2863
2864=head1 OPTIONS
2865
9d2c6865
SM
2866As with all compiler backend options, these must follow directly after
2867the '-MO=Deparse', separated by a comma but not any white space.
f6f9bdb7
SM
2868
2869=over 4
2870
bd0865ec
GS
2871=item B<-l>
2872
2873Add '#line' declarations to the output based on the line and file
2874locations of the original code.
2875
9d2c6865
SM
2876=item B<-p>
2877
2878Print extra parentheses. Without this option, B::Deparse includes
2879parentheses in its output only when they are needed, based on the
2880structure of your program. With B<-p>, it uses parentheses (almost)
2881whenever they would be legal. This can be useful if you are used to
2882LISP, or if you want to see how perl parses your input. If you say
2883
2884 if ($var & 0x7f == 65) {print "Gimme an A!"}
2885 print ($which ? $a : $b), "\n";
2886 $name = $ENV{USER} or "Bob";
2887
2888C<B::Deparse,-p> will print
2889
2890 if (($var & 0)) {
2891 print('Gimme an A!')
2892 };
2893 (print(($which ? $a : $b)), '???');
2894 (($name = $ENV{'USER'}) or '???')
2895
2896which probably isn't what you intended (the C<'???'> is a sign that
2897perl optimized away a constant value).
2898
bd0865ec
GS
2899=item B<-q>
2900
2901Expand double-quoted strings into the corresponding combinations of
2902concatenation, uc, ucfirst, lc, lcfirst, quotemeta, and join. For
2903instance, print
2904
2905 print "Hello, $world, @ladies, \u$gentlemen\E, \u\L$me!";
2906
2907as
2908
2909 print 'Hello, ' . $world . ', ' . join($", @ladies) . ', '
2910 . ucfirst($gentlemen) . ', ' . ucfirst(lc $me . '!');
2911
2912Note that the expanded form represents the way perl handles such
2913constructions internally -- this option actually turns off the reverse
2914translation that B::Deparse usually does. On the other hand, note that
2915C<$x = "$y"> is not the same as C<$x = $y>: the former makes the value
2916of $y into a string before doing the assignment.
2917
9d2c6865 2918=item B<-u>I<PACKAGE>
f6f9bdb7
SM
2919
2920Normally, B::Deparse deparses the main code of a program, all the subs
2921called by the main program (and all the subs called by them,
2922recursively), and any other subs in the main:: package. To include
2923subs in other packages that aren't called directly, such as AUTOLOAD,
f4a44678
SM
2924DESTROY, other subs called automatically by perl, and methods (which
2925aren't resolved to subs until runtime), use the B<-u> option. The
f6f9bdb7
SM
2926argument to B<-u> is the name of a package, and should follow directly
2927after the 'u'. Multiple B<-u> options may be given, separated by
2928commas. Note that unlike some other backends, B::Deparse doesn't
2929(yet) try to guess automatically when B<-u> is needed -- you must
2930invoke it yourself.
2931
9d2c6865
SM
2932=item B<-s>I<LETTERS>
2933
f4a44678
SM
2934Tweak the style of B::Deparse's output. The letters should follow
2935directly after the 's', with no space or punctuation. The following
2936options are available:
9d2c6865
SM
2937
2938=over 4
2939
2940=item B<C>
2941
2942Cuddle C<elsif>, C<else>, and C<continue> blocks. For example, print
2943
2944 if (...) {
2945 ...
2946 } else {
2947 ...
2948 }
2949
2950instead of
2951
2952 if (...) {
2953 ...
2954 }
2955 else {
2956 ...
2957 }
2958
2959The default is not to cuddle.
2960
f4a44678
SM
2961=item B<i>I<NUMBER>
2962
2963Indent lines by multiples of I<NUMBER> columns. The default is 4 columns.
2964
2965=item B<T>
2966
2967Use tabs for each 8 columns of indent. The default is to use only spaces.
2968For instance, if the style options are B<-si4T>, a line that's indented
29693 times will be preceded by one tab and four spaces; if the options were
2970B<-si8T>, the same line would be preceded by three tabs.
2971
2972=item B<v>I<STRING>B<.>
2973
2974Print I<STRING> for the value of a constant that can't be determined
2975because it was optimized away (mnemonic: this happens when a constant
2976is used in B<v>oid context). The end of the string is marked by a period.
2977The string should be a valid perl expression, generally a constant.
2978Note that unless it's a number, it probably needs to be quoted, and on
2979a command line quotes need to be protected from the shell. Some
2980conventional values include 0, 1, 42, '', 'foo', and
2981'Useless use of constant omitted' (which may need to be
2982B<-sv"'Useless use of constant omitted'.">
2983or something similar depending on your shell). The default is '???'.
2984If you're using B::Deparse on a module or other file that's require'd,
2985you shouldn't use a value that evaluates to false, since the customary
2986true constant at the end of a module will be in void context when the
2987file is compiled as a main program.
2988
9d2c6865
SM
2989=back
2990
f6f9bdb7
SM
2991=back
2992
f4a44678
SM
2993=head1 USING B::Deparse AS A MODULE
2994
2995=head2 Synopsis
2996
2997 use B::Deparse;
2998 $deparse = B::Deparse->new("-p", "-sC");
2999 $body = $deparse->coderef2text(\&func);
3000 eval "sub func $body"; # the inverse operation
3001
3002=head2 Description
3003
3004B::Deparse can also be used on a sub-by-sub basis from other perl
3005programs.
3006
3007=head2 new
3008
3009 $deparse = B::Deparse->new(OPTIONS)
3010
3011Create an object to store the state of a deparsing operation and any
3012options. The options are the same as those that can be given on the
3013command line (see L</OPTIONS>); options that are separated by commas
3014after B<-MO=Deparse> should be given as separate strings. Some
3015options, like B<-u>, don't make sense for a single subroutine, so
3016don't pass them.
3017
3018=head2 coderef2text
3019
3020 $body = $deparse->coderef2text(\&func)
3021 $body = $deparse->coderef2text(sub ($$) { ... })
3022
3023Return source code for the body of a subroutine (a block, optionally
3024preceded by a prototype in parens), given a reference to the
3025sub. Because a subroutine can have no names, or more than one name,
3026this method doesn't return a complete subroutine definition -- if you
3027want to eval the result, you should prepend "sub subname ", or "sub "
3028for an anonymous function constructor. Unless the sub was defined in
3029the main:: package, the code will include a package declaration.
3030
f6f9bdb7
SM
3031=head1 BUGS
3032
3033See the 'to do' list at the beginning of the module file.
3034
3035=head1 AUTHOR
3036
bd0865ec 3037Stephen McCamant <smccam@uclink4.berkeley.edu>, based on an earlier
f4a44678
SM
3038version by Malcolm Beattie <mbeattie@sable.ox.ac.uk>, with
3039contributions from Gisle Aas, James Duncan, Albert Dvornik, Hugo van
3040der Sanden, Gurusamy Sarathy, and Nick Ing-Simmons.
f6f9bdb7
SM
3041
3042=cut