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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
5aabfad6 4
8736538c 5=head1 NAME
5aabfad6 6
f8dbba82 7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
5aabfad6 8
8736538c 9=head1 SYNOPSIS
5aabfad6 10
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11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
12on Cygwin. This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
5aabfad6 14
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15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
16version of Perl is provided on the Cygwin CD. If you have no need to
17customize the configuration, consider using one of these packages:
5aabfad6 18
f8dbba82 19 http://cygutils.netpedia.net/
5aabfad6 20
f8dbba82 21=head1 PREREQUISITES
8736538c 22
f8dbba82 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
8736538c 24
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25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
26platforms. They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
27system calls and environment these programs expect. More information
28about this project can be found at:
8736538c 29
f8dbba82 30 http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/
1cab015a 31
f8dbba82 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
8736538c 33
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34At the time this document was written, the port required recent
35development snapshots that were expected to stabilize early in 2000 and
36be released to the net as B21 and commercially as v1.1.
8736538c 37
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38B<NOTE:> At this point, minimal effort has been made to provide
39compatibility with old (beta) Cygwin releases. The focus has been to
40provide a high quality release and not worry about working around old
41Cygwin bugs. If you wish to use Perl with Cygwin B20.1 or earlier,
42consider using either perl5.005_03 or perl5.005_62, which are available
43in source and binary form at C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/> or on the
44Cygwin CD. If there is significant demand, a patch kit can be developed
45to port back to earlier Cygwin versions.
8736538c 46
f8dbba82 47=head2 Compiler
1cab015a 48
f8dbba82 49A recent net or commercial release of I<gcc> is required.
1cab015a 50
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51At the time this document was written, I<gcc-2.95.2> was current and
52could be downloaded from:
1cab015a 53
f8dbba82 54 ftp://ftp.xraylith.wisc.edu/pub/khan/gnu-win32/cygwin/gcc-2.95.2/
1cab015a 55
f8dbba82 56=head2 Cygwin Configuration
1cab015a 57
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58While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
59that Perl builds cleanly. These changes are B<not> required for normal
60Perl usage.
1cab015a 61
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62B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
63They do not depend on your host system (Win9x, WinNT) or your Cygwin
64configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts). The only
65dependencies come from hardcoded pathnames like C</usr/local>. However,
66your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's runtime
67behavior (see L</"TEST">). Some regression tests may fail in different
68ways depending on your setup. For now, the test suite does not skip
69tests that do not make sense given a particular setup. If a test can
70pass in some Cygwin setup, it is left in and explainable test failures
71are documented.
1cab015a 72
f8dbba82 73=over 4
1cab015a 74
f8dbba82 75=item * C<PATH>
1cab015a 76
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77Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
78versions of programs. Any Windows directories should be removed or
79moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
1cab015a 80
f8dbba82 81=item * F</bin/cat.exe>
1cab015a 82
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83There should be an instance of I<cat> in F</bin> (or F</usr/bin>).
84Configure tests C<#!/bin/cat> and if it is not found, you will see
85the error:
1cab015a 86
f8dbba82 87 Configure: ./try: No such file or directory
1cab015a 88
f8dbba82 89=item * F</usr/bin>
1cab015a 90
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91If you do not have a F</usr/bin> directory, Configure will B<not> prompt
92you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 93
f8dbba82 94=item * I<nroff>
1cab015a 95
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96If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
97Configure will B<not> prompt you to install man pages.
98
99=item * Permissions
100
101On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
102and file permissions may not be set correctly. Since the build process
103creates files and directories, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
104-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
105
106Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
107that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
108I<Administrators> group. Depending on your umask, you may find that you
109can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
110the owner). When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
111issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
112a UNIX system.
1cab015a 113
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114=back
115
f8dbba82 116=head1 CONFIGURE
8736538c 117
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118The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
119F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
120(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
f89d6eaa 121
f8dbba82 122This will run Configure and keep a record:
8736538c 123
f8dbba82 124 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
8736538c 125
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126If you are willing to accept all the defaults add a B<-d> option.
127However, several useful customizations are available.
5aabfad6 128
f8dbba82 129=head2 Strip Binaries
5aabfad6 130
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131It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
132The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the
133binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
134prompts you,
8736538c 135
f8dbba82 136 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
5db16f6a 137 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
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138 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
139 [none] -s
8736538c 140
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141or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
142near the end of the file.
8736538c 143
f8dbba82 144=head2 Optional Libraries
8736538c 145
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146Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
147some optional libraries. Configure will find them if they are
148installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
149searches. Pre-built packages for most of these are available at
150C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/>.
8736538c 151
f8dbba82 152=over 4
8736538c 153
f8dbba82 154=item * C<-lcrypt>
8736538c 155
f8dbba82 156The crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
1cab015a 157
5db16f6a 158The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:
1cab015a 159
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160 http://dome.weeg.uiowa.edu/pub/domestic/sos/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
161
162NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
163see the glibc README for more details.
1cab015a 164
f8dbba82 165The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
1cab015a 166
f8dbba82 167 http://dome.weeg.uiowa.edu/pub/domestic/sos/libcrypt.tgz
1cab015a 168
f8dbba82 169More information can also be found at:
1cab015a 170
f8dbba82 171 http://miracle.geol.msu.ru/sos/
1cab015a 172
f8dbba82 173=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
1cab015a 174
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175GDBM is available for Cygwin. GDBM's ndbm/dbm compatibility feature
176also makes C<NDBM_File> and C<ODBM_File> possible (although they add
177little extra value).
1cab015a 178
f8dbba82 179=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
1cab015a 180
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181BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin. Some details can be found in
182F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
1cab015a 183
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184=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
185
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186A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.
187
188NOTE: This has B<not> been extensively tested. In particular,
189C<d_semctl_semun> is undefined because it fails a configure test and on
190Win9x the shm*() functions seem to hang.
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191
192=back
193
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194=head2 Configure-time Options
195
196The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options.
197Some of these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible. Also,
198some of these are experimental.
199
200=over 4
201
202=item * C<-Uusedl>
203
204If you want to force Perl to be compiled statically, you can either
205choose this when Configure prompts you or you can use the Configure
206command line option.
207
208=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
1cab015a 209
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210By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source. If you
211want to force Perl to build with the system malloc(), you can either
212choose this when Configure prompts you or you can use the Configure
213command line option.
1cab015a 214
6b49d266 215=item * C<-Dusemultiplicity>
1cab015a 216
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217Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
218more than one interpreter instance. This works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 219
f8dbba82 220=item * C<-Duseperlio>
1cab015a 221
f8dbba82 222The PerlIO abstraction works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 223
5db16f6a 224=item * C<-Duse64bits>
1cab015a 225
f8dbba82 226I<gcc> supports 64-bit integers. However, several additional long long
5db16f6a 227functions are necessary to use them within Perl (I<{strtol,strtoul}l>).
f8dbba82 228These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 229
f8dbba82 230=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
1cab015a 231
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232I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes). However, several additional
233long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
5db16f6a 234(I<{atan2,cos,exp,floor,fmod,frexp,log,modf,pow,sin,sqrt}l,strtold>).
f8dbba82 235These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 236
f8dbba82 237=item * C<-Dusethreads>
1cab015a 238
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239POSIX threads are B<not> yet implemented in Cygwin.
240
241=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
242
243Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit ints
5db16f6a 244for internal size and position calculations.
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245
246=back
247
f8dbba82 248=head2 Suspicious Warnings
1cab015a 249
f8dbba82 250You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
8736538c 251
f8dbba82 252=over 4
8736538c 253
f8dbba82 254=item * Whoa There
8736538c 255
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256Cygwin does not yet implement chroot(), setegid() or seteuid()
257functionality, but has stub functions that return C<ENOSYS>. You will
258see a message when Configure detects that its guess conflicts with the
259hint file.
8736538c 260
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261 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
262 The recommended value for $d_chroot on this machine was "undef"!
263 Keep the recommended value? [y]
8736538c 264
f8dbba82 265You should keep the recommended value.
8736538c 266
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267=item * Win9x and d_eofnblk
268
269Win9x does not correctly report C<EOF> with a non-blocking read on a
270closed pipe. You will see the following messages:
271
272 But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
273 WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
274
275 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
276 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
277 Keep the recommended value? [y]
278
279At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended
280value.
281
f8dbba82 282=item * Checking how std your stdio is...
5aabfad6 283
f8dbba82 284Configure reports:
5aabfad6 285
f8dbba82 286 Your stdio doesn't appear very std.
5aabfad6 287
f8dbba82 288This is correct.
5aabfad6 289
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290=back
291
f8dbba82 292=head1 MAKE
5aabfad6 293
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294Simply run make and wait:
295
296 make 2>&1 | tee log.make
297
298=head2 Warnings
299
300Warnings like these are normal:
301
302 warning: overriding commands for target <file>
303 warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
304
305 Warning: no export definition file provided
306 dllwrap will create one, but may not be what you want
307
308=head2 ld2
309
310During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
311directory (where you said to put public executables). It does not
312wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
313this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
314fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
315The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>. If this
316is not the case or if you do not have an I<install> program, `C<make>'
317will fail at some point. If this happens, just manually copy I<ld2>
318from the source directory to someplace in your C<PATH>.
319
320=head1 TEST
321
322There are two steps to running the test suite:
323
324 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
325
326 cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
327
328The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
329running as `C<./perl harness>'.
5aabfad6 330
f8dbba82 331Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
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332configuration. It is possible that Cygwin will pass all the tests,
333but it is more likely that some tests will fail for one of these reasons.
1cab015a 334
f8dbba82 335=head2 File Permissions
1cab015a 336
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337UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
338{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}. By default Cygwin only
339tracks the Win32 readonly attribute represented as the UNIX file user
340write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they have
341a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are always
342readable and executable). On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN> setting,
343the remaining mode bits are stored as extended attributes. On WinNT
344with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard WinNT
345security descriptors and access control lists. Without one of these
346options, these tests will fail:
1cab015a 347
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348 Failed Test List of failed
349 ------------------------------------
350 io/fs.t 5, 7, 9-10
351 lib/anydbm.t 2
352 lib/db-btree.t 20
353 lib/db-hash.t 16
354 lib/db-recno.t 18
355 lib/gdbm.t 2
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356 lib/ndbm.t 2
357 lib/odbm.t 2
358 lib/sdbm.t 2
359 op/stat.t 9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
1cab015a 360
f8dbba82 361=head2 Hard Links
1cab015a 362
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363FAT partitions do not support hard links (whereas NTFS does), in which
364case Cygwin implements link() by copying the file. These tests will fail:
1cab015a 365
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366 Failed Test List of failed
367 ------------------------------------
368 io/fs.t 4
369 op/stat.t 3
1cab015a 370
f8dbba82 371=head2 Filetime Granularity
1cab015a 372
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373On FAT partitions the filetime granularity is 2 seconds. The following
374test will fail:
1cab015a 375
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376 Failed Test List of failed
377 ------------------------------------
378 io/fs.t 18
1cab015a 379
f8dbba82 380=head2 Tainting Checks
1cab015a 381
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382When Perl is running in taint mode, C<$ENV{PATH}> is considered tainted
383and not used, so DLLs not in the default system directories will not
384be found. While the tests are running you will see warnings popup from
385the system with messages like:
1cab015a 386
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387 Win9x
388 Error Starting Program
389 A required .DLL file, CYGWIN1.DLL, was not found
1cab015a 390
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391 WinNT
392 perl.exe or sh.exe - Unable to Locate DLL
393 The dynamic link library cygwin1.dll could not be found in the
394 specified path ...
1cab015a 395
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396Just click OK and ignore them. When running `C<make test>', 2 popups
397occur. During `C<./perl harness>', 4 popups occur. Also, these tests
398will fail:
1cab015a 399
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400 Failed Test List of failed
401 ------------------------------------
402 op/taint.t 1, 3, 31, 37
1cab015a 403
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404Alternatively, you can copy F<cygwin1.dll> into one of the Windows system
405directories (although, this is B<not> recommended).
1cab015a 406
f8dbba82 407=head2 /etc/group
5aabfad6 408
5db16f6a 409Cygwin does not require F</etc/group>, in which case the F<op/grent.t>
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410test will be skipped. The check performed by F<op/grent.t> expects to
411see entries that use the members field, otherwise this test will fail:
f89d6eaa 412
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413 Failed Test List of failed
414 ------------------------------------
415 op/grent.t 1
1cab015a 416
f8dbba82 417=head2 Unexplained Failures
1cab015a 418
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419Any additional tests that fail are likely due to bugs in Cygwin or the
420optional libraries. It is expected that by the time of the next net
421release most of these will be solved so they are not described here.
1cab015a 422
f8dbba82 423=head2 Script Portability
1cab015a 424
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425Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on
426top of Win32 systems. However, in addition to the items noted above,
427there are some differences that you should know about. This is only a
428very brief guide to portability, more information can be found in the
429Cygwin documentation.
1cab015a 430
f8dbba82 431=over 4
1cab015a 432
f8dbba82 433=item * Pathnames
1cab015a 434
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435Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\>)
436slashes. They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
437Naming Codes (F<//UNC>). DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
438F<com*>, F<lpt?>) are invalid as base filenames. However, they can be
439used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>). Names may not contain these
440characters:
1cab015a 441
f8dbba82 442 : * ? " < > |
1cab015a 443
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444File names are case insensitive, but case preserving. With the I<mixed>
445C<CYGWIN> setting, file names are mixed-case (although, directory names
446remain case insensitive).
1cab015a 447
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448The I<mixed> setting is only available with the "coolview" version of
449F<cygwin1.dll> provided by Sergey Okhapkin at:
450
451 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/
452
453=item * Text/Binary
454
455When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode. In text mode
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456a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations. With Cygwin, the default
457mode for an open() is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies
458the file. Perl provides a binmode() function to set binary mode on files
459that otherwise would be treated as text. sysopen() with the C<O_TEXT>
460flag sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:
461
462 sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
f8dbba82 463
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464lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files opened in binary mode.
465
466The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.
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467
468=item * F<.exe>
469
470The Cygwin stat() makes the F<.exe> extension transparent by looking for
471a F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo> (unless a F<foo> also exists).
472Cygwin does not require a F<.exe> extension, but I<gcc> adds it
473automatically when building a program. However, when accessing an
474executable as a normal file (e.g., I<install> or I<cp> in a makefile)
475the F<.exe> is not transparent.
476
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477NOTE: There is a version of I<install> that understands the F<.exe>
478semantics, it can be found at:
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479
480 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Humblet_Pierre_A/
481
482=item * chown()
483
484On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, chown() can change a file's
485user and group IDs. In all other configurations chown() is a no-op,
486although this is appropriate on Win9x since there is no security model.
487
488=item * Miscellaneous
489
490File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
491returns C<ENOSYS>.
492
f8dbba82 493Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
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494
495=back
496
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497=head1 INSTALL
498
499This will install Perl, including man pages.
500
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501 make install | tee log.make-install
502
503NOTE: If C<STDERR> is redirected `C<make install>' will B<not> prompt
504you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 505
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506You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'. If you
507are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
1cab015a 508
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509Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
510found in the F<INSTALL> document.
1cab015a 511
f8dbba82 512=head1 MANIFEST
1cab015a 513
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514These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
515These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
516code. Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
517be kept as clean as possible.
1cab015a 518
f8dbba82 519=over 4
1cab015a 520
f8dbba82 521=item Documentation
1cab015a 522
6b49d266 523 INSTALL README.cygwin
f8dbba82 524 Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004
6b49d266 525 AUTHORS MAINTAIN MANIFEST README.win32
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526 pod/perl.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod
527 pod/perlport.pod pod/perltoc.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod
1cab015a 528
f8dbba82 529=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
1cab015a 530
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531 cygwin/Makefile.SHs
532 cygwin/ld2.in
533 cygwin/perlld.in
534 ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
535 ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
536 ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
537 hints/cygwin.sh
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538 Configure - help finding hints from uname,
539 shared libperl required for dynamic loading
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540 Makefile.SH - linklibperl
541 Porting/patchls - cygwin in port list
f8dbba82 542 installman - man pages with :: translated to .
5db16f6a 543 installperl - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
6b49d266 544 makedepend.SH - uwinfix
1cab015a 545
f8dbba82 546=item Tests
1cab015a 547
f8dbba82 548 t/io/tell.t - binmode
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549 t/lib/glob-basic.t - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
550 t/op/magic.t - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
551 t/op/stat.t - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
552 (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
553 previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
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554
555=item Compiled Perl Source
556
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557 EXTERN.h - __declspec(dllimport)
558 XSUB.h - __declspec(dllexport)
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559 cygwin/cygwin.c - os_extras (getcwd)
560 perl.c - os_extras
f8dbba82 561 perl.h - binmode
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562 doio.c - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
563 pp_sys.c - do not define h_errno
f8dbba82 564 mg.c - environ WORKAROUND
f8dbba82 565 unixish.h - environ WORKAROUND
6b49d266 566 util.c - environ WORKAROUND
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567
568=item Compiled Module Source
569
570 ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs - tzname defined externally
571 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
572 - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
573 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
574 - binary open
575
576=item Perl Modules/Scripts
577
6b49d266 578 lib/Cwd.pm - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
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579 lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
580 - require MM_Cygwin.pm
581 lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
582 - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
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583 lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
584 lib/perl5db.pl - use stdin not /dev/tty
585 utils/perlcc.PL - DynaLoader.a in compile, -DUSEIMPORTLIB
586 utils/perldoc.PL - version comment
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587
588=back
f89d6eaa 589
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590=head1 BUGS
591
592Upon each start, I<make> warns that a rule for F<perlmain.o> is overridden
593(but there seems to be no better solution than adding an explicit define).
594
595`C<make clean>' does not remove library F<.def> and F<.exe.stackdump>
596files.
597
598The I<ld2> script contains references to the source directory. You should
599change these to C</usr/local/bin> (or whatever) after install.
600
601=head1 AUTHORS
602
603Charles Wilson E<lt>cwilson@ece.gatech.eduE<gt>,
604Eric Fifer E<lt>efifer@sanwaint.comE<gt>,
605alexander smishlajev E<lt>als@turnhere.comE<gt>,
606Steven Morlock E<lt>newspost@morlock.netE<gt>,
607Sebastien Barre E<lt>Sebastien.Barre@utc.frE<gt>,
608Teun Burgers E<lt>burgers@ecn.nlE<gt>.
609
610=head1 HISTORY
611
6b49d266 612Last updated: 25 February 2000