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1package threads;
2
32419a4c 3use 5.008;
fcea4b7c 4
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5use strict;
6use warnings;
73e09c8f 7
f2e0bb91 8our $VERSION = '1.29';
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9my $XS_VERSION = $VERSION;
10$VERSION = eval $VERSION;
73e09c8f 11
73e09c8f 12
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13BEGIN {
14 # Verify this Perl supports threads
15 use Config;
16 if (! $Config{useithreads}) {
17 die("This Perl not built to support threads\n");
73e09c8f 18 }
47ba8780 19
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20 # Declare that we have been loaded
21 $threads::threads = 1;
22
23 # Complain if 'threads' is loaded after 'threads::shared'
24 if ($threads::shared::threads_shared) {
25 warn <<'_MSG_';
26Warning, threads::shared has already been loaded. To
27enable shared variables, 'use threads' must be called
28before threads::shared or any module that uses it.
29_MSG_
30 }
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31}
32
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34# Load the XS code
35require XSLoader;
fcea4b7c 36XSLoader::load('threads', $XS_VERSION);
47ba8780 37
47ba8780 38
0f1612a7 39### Export ###
47ba8780 40
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41sub import
42{
43 my $class = shift; # Not used
44
45 # Exported subroutines
46 my @EXPORT = qw(async);
47
48 # Handle args
49 while (my $sym = shift) {
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50 if ($sym =~ /^stack/) {
51 threads->set_stack_size(shift);
52
53 } elsif ($sym =~ /all/) {
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54 push(@EXPORT, qw(yield));
55
56 } else {
57 push(@EXPORT, $sym);
58 }
59 }
60
61 # Export subroutine names
62 my $caller = caller();
63 foreach my $sym (@EXPORT) {
64 no strict 'refs';
65 *{$caller.'::'.$sym} = \&{$sym};
66 }
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67
68 # Set stack size via environment variable
69 if (exists($ENV{'PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE'})) {
70 threads->set_stack_size($ENV{'PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE'});
71 }
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72}
73
74
75### Methods, etc. ###
47ba8780 76
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77# 'new' is an alias for 'create'
78*new = \&create;
68795e93 79
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80# 'async' is a function alias for the 'threads->create()' method
81sub async (&;@)
82{
83 unshift(@_, 'threads');
84 # Use "goto" trick to avoid pad problems from 5.8.1 (fixed in 5.8.2)
85 goto &create;
86}
87
88# Thread object equality checking
89use overload (
90 '==' => \&equal,
91 '!=' => sub { ! equal(@_) },
92 'fallback' => 1
93);
94
47ba8780 951;
0f1612a7 96
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97__END__
98
99=head1 NAME
100
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101threads - Perl interpreter-based threads
102
103=head1 VERSION
104
f2e0bb91 105This document describes threads version 1.29
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106
107=head1 SYNOPSIS
108
514612b7 109 use threads ('yield', 'stack_size' => 64*4096);
47ba8780 110
38875929 111 sub start_thread {
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112 my @args = @_;
113 print "Thread started: @args\n";
38875929 114 }
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115 my $thread = threads->create('start_thread', 'argument');
116 $thread->join();
117
118 threads->create(sub { print("I am a thread\n"); })->join();
47ba8780 119
38875929 120 my $thread3 = async { foreach (@files) { ... } };
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121 $thread3->join();
122
123 # Invoke thread in list context so it can return a list
124 my ($thr) = threads->create(sub { return (qw/a b c/); });
125 my @results = $thr->join();
47ba8780 126
38875929 127 $thread->detach();
47ba8780 128
38875929 129 $thread = threads->self();
0f1612a7 130 $thread = threads->object($tid);
11c51ed3 131
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132 $tid = threads->tid();
133 $tid = threads->self->tid();
134 $tid = $thread->tid();
47ba8780 135
38875929 136 threads->yield();
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137 yield();
138
139 my @threads = threads->list();
fcea4b7c 140 my $thread_count = threads->list();
f9dff5f5 141
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142 if ($thr1 == $thr2) {
143 ...
144 }
678a9b6c 145
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146 $stack_size = threads->get_stack_size();
147 $old_size = threads->set_stack_size(32*4096);
148
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149 $thr->kill('SIGUSR1');
150
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151=head1 DESCRIPTION
152
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153Perl 5.6 introduced something called interpreter threads. Interpreter threads
154are different from I<5005threads> (the thread model of Perl 5.005) by creating
155a new Perl interpreter per thread, and not sharing any data or state between
156threads by default.
11c51ed3 157
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158Prior to Perl 5.8, this has only been available to people embedding Perl, and
159for emulating fork() on Windows.
11c51ed3 160
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161The I<threads> API is loosely based on the old Thread.pm API. It is very
162important to note that variables are not shared between threads, all variables
163are by default thread local. To use shared variables one must use
164L<threads::shared>.
11c51ed3 165
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166It is also important to note that you must enable threads by doing C<use
167threads> as early as possible in the script itself, and that it is not
168possible to enable threading inside an C<eval "">, C<do>, C<require>, or
169C<use>. In particular, if you are intending to share variables with
170L<threads::shared>, you must C<use threads> before you C<use threads::shared>.
171(C<threads> will emit a warning if you do it the other way around.)
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172
173=over
174
0f1612a7 175=item $thr = threads->create(FUNCTION, ARGS)
47ba8780 176
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177This will create a new thread that will begin execution with the specified
178entry point function, and give it the I<ARGS> list as parameters. It will
179return the corresponding threads object, or C<undef> if thread creation failed.
47ba8780 180
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181I<FUNCTION> may either be the name of a function, an anonymous subroutine, or
182a code ref.
47ba8780 183
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184 my $thr = threads->create('func_name', ...);
185 # or
186 my $thr = threads->create(sub { ... }, ...);
187 # or
188 my $thr = threads->create(\&func, ...);
93512b4d 189
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190The thread may be created in I<list> context, or I<scalar> context as follows:
191
192 # Create thread in list context
193 my ($thr) = threads->create(...);
194
195 # Create thread in scalar context
196 my $thr = threads->create(...);
197
198This has consequences for the C<-E<gt>join()> method describe below.
199
200Although a thread may be created in I<void> context, to do so you must
201I<chain> either the C<-E<gt>join()> or C<-E<gt>detach()> method to the
202C<-E<gt>create()> call:
93512b4d 203
0f1612a7 204 threads->create(...)->join();
47ba8780 205
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206The C<-E<gt>new()> method is an alias for C<-E<gt>create()>.
207
208=item $thr->join()
209
210This will wait for the corresponding thread to complete its execution. When
211the thread finishes, C<-E<gt>join()> will return the return value(s) of the
212entry point function.
213
214The context (void, scalar or list) of the thread creation is also the
215context for C<-E<gt>join()>. This means that if you intend to return an array
216from a thread, you must use C<my ($thr) = threads->create(...)>, and that
217if you intend to return a scalar, you must use C<my $thr = ...>:
218
219 # Create thread in list context
220 my ($thr1) = threads->create(sub {
221 my @results = qw(a b c);
222 return (@results);
223 };
224 # Retrieve list results from thread
225 my @res1 = $thr1->join();
226
227 # Create thread in scalar context
228 my $thr2 = threads->create(sub {
229 my $result = 42;
230 return ($result);
231 };
232 # Retrieve scalar result from thread
233 my $res2 = $thr2->join();
234
235If the program exits without all other threads having been either joined or
236detached, then a warning will be issued. (A program exits either because one
237of its threads explicitly calls L<exit()|perlfunc/"exit EXPR">, or in the case
238of the main thread, reaches the end of the main program file.)
93512b4d 239
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240Calling C<-E<gt>join()> or C<-E<gt>detach()> on an already joined thread will
241cause an error to be thrown.
47ba8780 242
fcea4b7c 243=item $thr->detach()
47ba8780 244
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245Makes the thread unjoinable, and causes any eventual return value to be
246discarded.
247
248Calling C<-E<gt>join()> or C<-E<gt>detach()> on an already detached thread
249will cause an error to be thrown.
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250
251=item threads->detach()
252
253Class method that allows a thread to detach itself.
254
fcea4b7c 255=item threads->self()
47ba8780 256
fcea4b7c 257Class method that allows a thread to obtain its own I<threads> object.
47ba8780 258
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259=item $thr->tid()
260
261Returns the ID of the thread. Thread IDs are unique integers with the main
262thread in a program being 0, and incrementing by 1 for every thread created.
47ba8780 263
0f1612a7 264=item threads->tid()
38875929 265
0f1612a7 266Class method that allows a thread to obtain its own ID.
47ba8780 267
0f1612a7 268=item threads->object($tid)
8c9849ff 269
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270This will return the I<threads> object for the I<active> thread associated
271with the specified thread ID. Returns C<undef> if there is no thread
272associated with the TID, if the thread is joined or detached, if no TID is
273specified or if the specified TID is undef.
8c9849ff 274
fcea4b7c 275=item threads->yield()
f9dff5f5 276
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277This is a suggestion to the OS to let this thread yield CPU time to other
278threads. What actually happens is highly dependent upon the underlying
279thread implementation.
f9dff5f5 280
fcea4b7c 281You may do C<use threads qw(yield)>, and then just use C<yield()> in your
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282code.
283
f4cc38af 284=item threads->list()
678a9b6c 285
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286In a list context, returns a list of all non-joined, non-detached I<threads>
287objects. In a scalar context, returns a count of the same.
678a9b6c 288
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289=item $thr1->equal($thr2)
290
291Tests if two threads objects are the same thread or not. This is overloaded
fcea4b7c 292to the more natural forms:
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293
294 if ($thr1 == $thr2) {
295 print("Threads are the same\n");
296 }
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297 # or
298 if ($thr1 != $thr2) {
299 print("Threads differ\n");
300 }
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301
302(Thread comparison is based on thread IDs.)
303
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304=item async BLOCK;
305
306C<async> creates a thread to execute the block immediately following
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307it. This block is treated as an anonymous subroutine, and so must have a
308semi-colon after the closing brace. Like C<threads->create()>, C<async>
309returns a I<threads> object.
386c44e5 310
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311=item $thr->_handle()
312
313This I<private> method returns the memory location of the internal thread
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314structure associated with a threads object. For Win32, this is a pointer to
315the C<HANDLE> value returned by C<CreateThread> (i.e., C<HANDLE *>); for other
316platforms, it is a pointer to the C<pthread_t> structure used in the
404aaa48 317C<pthread_create> call (i.e., C<pthread_t *>).
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318
319This method is of no use for general Perl threads programming. Its intent is
320to provide other (XS-based) thread modules with the capability to access, and
321possibly manipulate, the underlying thread structure associated with a Perl
322thread.
323
324=item threads->_handle()
325
326Class method that allows a thread to obtain its own I<handle>.
327
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328=back
329
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330=head1 THREAD STACK SIZE
331
332The default per-thread stack size for different platforms varies
333significantly, and is almost always far more than is needed for most
334applications. On Win32, Perl's makefile explicitly sets the default stack to
33516 MB; on most other platforms, the system default is used, which again may be
336much larger than is needed.
337
338By tuning the stack size to more accurately reflect your application's needs,
339you may significantly reduce your application's memory usage, and increase the
340number of simultaneously running threads.
341
342N.B., on Windows, Address space allocation granularity is 64 KB, therefore,
343setting the stack smaller than that on Win32 Perl will not save any more
344memory.
345
346=over
347
348=item threads->get_stack_size();
349
350Returns the current default per-thread stack size. The default is zero, which
351means the system default stack size is currently in use.
352
353=item $size = $thr->get_stack_size();
354
355Returns the stack size for a particular thread. A return value of zero
356indicates the system default stack size was used for the thread.
357
358=item $old_size = threads->set_stack_size($new_size);
359
360Sets a new default per-thread stack size, and returns the previous setting.
361
362Some platforms have a minimum thread stack size. Trying to set the stack size
363below this value will result in a warning, and the minimum stack size will be
364used.
365
366Some Linux platforms have a maximum stack size. Setting too large of a stack
367size will cause thread creation to fail.
368
369If needed, C<$new_size> will be rounded up to the next multiple of the memory
370page size (usually 4096 or 8192).
371
372Threads created after the stack size is set will then either call
373C<pthread_attr_setstacksize()> I<(for pthreads platforms)>, or supply the
374stack size to C<CreateThread()> I<(for Win32 Perl)>.
375
376(Obviously, this call does not affect any currently extant threads.)
377
378=item use threads ('stack_size' => VALUE);
379
380This sets the default per-thread stack size at the start of the application.
381
382=item $ENV{'PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE'}
383
384The default per-thread stack size may be set at the start of the application
385through the use of the environment variable C<PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE>:
386
387 PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE=1048576
388 export PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE
389 perl -e'use threads; print(threads->get_stack_size(), "\n")'
390
391This value overrides any C<stack_size> parameter given to C<use threads>. Its
392primary purpose is to permit setting the per-thread stack size for legacy
393threaded applications.
394
395=item threads->create({'stack_size' => VALUE}, FUNCTION, ARGS)
396
397This change to the thread creation method permits specifying the stack size
398for an individual thread.
399
400=item $thr2 = $thr1->create(FUNCTION, ARGS)
401
402This creates a new thread (C<$thr2>) that inherits the stack size from an
403existing thread (C<$thr1>). This is shorthand for the following:
404
405 my $stack_size = $thr1->get_stack_size();
406 my $thr2 = threads->create({'stack_size' => $stack_size}, FUNCTION, ARGS);
407
408=back
409
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410=head1 THREAD SIGNALLING
411
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412When safe signals is in effect (the default behavior - see L<Unsafe signals>
413for more details), then signals may be sent and acted upon by individual
414threads.
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415
416=over 4
417
418=item $thr->kill('SIG...');
419
420Sends the specified signal to the thread. Signal names and (positive) signal
421numbers are the same as those supported by
422L<kill()|perlfunc/"kill SIGNAL, LIST">. For example, 'SIGTERM', 'TERM' and
423(depending on the OS) 15 are all valid arguments to C<-E<gt>kill()>.
424
425Returns the thread object to allow for method chaining:
426
427 $thr->kill('SIG...')->join();
428
429=back
430
431Signal handlers need to be set up in the threads for the signals they are
432expected to act upon. Here's an example for I<cancelling> a thread:
433
434 use threads;
435
436 # Suppress warning message when thread is 'killed'
437 no warnings 'threads';
438
439 sub thr_func
440 {
441 # Thread 'cancellation' signal handler
442 $SIG{'KILL'} = sub { die("Thread killed\n"); };
443
444 ...
445 }
446
447 # Create a thread
448 my $thr = threads->create('thr_func');
449
450 ...
451
452 # Signal the thread to terminate, and then detach
453 # it so that it will get cleaned up automatically
454 $thr->kill('KILL')->detach();
455
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456Here's another simplistic example that illustrates the use of thread
457signalling in conjunction with a semaphore to provide rudimentary I<suspend>
458and I<resume> capabilities:
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459
460 use threads;
461 use Thread::Semaphore;
462
463 sub thr_func
464 {
465 my $sema = shift;
466
467 # Thread 'suspend/resume' signal handler
468 $SIG{'STOP'} = sub {
469 $sema->down(); # Thread suspended
470 $sema->up(); # Thread resumes
471 };
472
473 ...
474 }
475
476 # Create a semaphore and send it to a thread
477 my $sema = Thread::Semaphore->new();
478 my $thr = threads->create('thr_func', $sema);
479
480 # Suspend the thread
481 $sema->down();
482 $thr->kill('STOP');
483
484 ...
485
486 # Allow the thread to continue
487 $sema->up();
488
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489CAVEAT: The thread signalling capability provided by this module does not
490actually send signals via the OS. It I<emulates> signals at the Perl-level
491such that signal handlers are called in the appropriate thread. For example,
492sending C<$thr-E<gt>kill('STOP')> does not actually suspend a thread (or the
493whole process), but does cause a C<$SIG{'STOP'}> handler to be called in that
494thread (as illustrated above).
495
496As such, signals that would normally not be appropriate to use in the
497C<kill()> command (e.g., C<kill('KILL', $$)>) are okay to use with the
498C<-E<gt>kill()> method (again, as illustrated above).
499
500Correspondingly, sending a signal to a thread does not disrupt the operation
501the thread is currently working on: The signal will be acted upon after the
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502current operation has completed. For instance, if the thread is I<stuck> on
503an I/O call, sending it a signal will not cause the I/O call to be interrupted
504such that the signal is acted up immediately.
505
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506=head1 WARNINGS
507
508=over 4
509
fcea4b7c 510=item A thread exited while # other threads were still running
e4f9f4fe 511
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512A thread (not necessarily the main thread) exited while there were still other
513threads running. Usually, it's a good idea to first collect the return values
514of the created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
515thread.
e4f9f4fe 516
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517=item Thread creation failed: pthread_create returned #
518
519See the appropriate I<man> page for C<pthread_create> to determine the actual
520cause for the failure.
521
522=item Thread # terminated abnormally: ...
523
524A thread terminated in some manner other than just returning from its entry
525point function. For example, the thread may have exited via C<die>.
526
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527=item Using minimum thread stack size of #
528
529Some platforms have a minimum thread stack size. Trying to set the stack size
530below this value will result in the above warning, and the stack size will be
531set to the minimum.
532
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533=item Thread creation failed: pthread_attr_setstacksize(I<SIZE>) returned 22
534
535The specified I<SIZE> exceeds the system's maximum stack size. Use a smaller
536value for the stack size.
537
e4f9f4fe 538=back
47ba8780 539
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540If needed, thread warnings can be suppressed by using:
541
542 no warnings 'threads';
543
544in the appropriate scope.
545
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546=head1 ERRORS
547
548=over 4
549
fcea4b7c 550=item This Perl not built to support threads
678a9b6c 551
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552The particular copy of Perl that you're trying to use was not built using the
553C<useithreads> configuration option.
678a9b6c 554
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555Having threads support requires all of Perl and all of the XS modules in the
556Perl installation to be rebuilt; it is not just a question of adding the
557L<threads> module (i.e., threaded and non-threaded Perls are binary
558incompatible.)
559
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560=item Cannot change stack size of an existing thread
561
562The stack size of currently extant threads cannot be changed, therefore, the
563following results in the above error:
564
565 $thr->set_stack_size($size);
566
c0003851 567=item Cannot signal other threads without safe signals
514612b7 568
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569Safe signals must be in effect to use the C<-E<gt>kill()> signalling method.
570See L<Unsafe signals> for more details.
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571
572=item Unrecognized signal name: ...
573
574The particular copy of Perl that you're trying to use does not support the
575specified signal being used in a C<-E<gt>kill()> call.
514612b7 576
0f1612a7 577=back
47ba8780 578
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579=head1 BUGS
580
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581=over
582
fcea4b7c 583=item Parent-child threads
678a9b6c 584
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585On some platforms, it might not be possible to destroy I<parent> threads while
586there are still existing I<child> threads.
678a9b6c 587
404aaa48 588=item Creating threads inside special blocks
88f8c1df 589
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590Creating threads inside C<BEGIN>, C<CHECK> or C<INIT> blocks should not be
591relied upon. Depending on the Perl version and the application code, results
592may range from success, to (apparently harmless) warnings of leaked scalar,
593all the way up to crashing of the Perl interpreter.
88f8c1df 594
1152d448 595=item Unsafe signals
47ba8780 596
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597Since Perl 5.8.0, signals have been made safer in Perl by postponing their
598handling until the interpreter is in a I<safe> state. See
404aaa48 599L<perl58delta/"Safe Signals"> and L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">
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600for more details.
601
602Safe signals is the default behavior, and the old, immediate, unsafe
603signalling behavior is only in effect in the following situations:
604
605=over 4
606
607=item * Perl was been built with C<PERL_OLD_SIGNALS> (see C<perl -V>).
608
609=item * The environment variable C<PERL_SIGNALS> is set to C<unsafe> (see L<perlrun/"PERL_SIGNALS">).
610
611=item * The module L<Perl::Unsafe::Signals> is used.
612
613=back
614
615If unsafe signals is in effect, then signal handling is not thread-safe, and
616the C<-E<gt>kill()> signalling method cannot be used.
88f8c1df 617
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618=item Returning closures from threads
619
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620Returning closures from threads should not be relied upon. Depending of the
621Perl version and the application code, results may range from success, to
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622(apparently harmless) warnings of leaked scalar, all the way up to crashing of
623the Perl interpreter.
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624
625=item Perl Bugs and the CPAN Version of L<threads>
626
627Support for threads extents beyond the code in this module (i.e.,
628F<threads.pm> and F<threads.xs>), and into the Perl iterpreter itself. Older
629versions of Perl contain bugs that may manifest themselves despite using the
630latest version of L<threads> from CPAN. There is no workaround for this other
631than upgrading to the lastest version of Perl.
632
633(Before you consider posting a bug report, please consult, and possibly post a
634message to the discussion forum to see if what you've encountered is a known
635problem.)
636
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637=back
638
0f1612a7 639=head1 REQUIREMENTS
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0f1612a7 641Perl 5.8.0 or later
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0f1612a7 643=head1 SEE ALSO
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645L<threads> Discussion Forum on CPAN:
646L<http://www.cpanforum.com/dist/threads>
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0f1612a7 648Annotated POD for L<threads>:
f2e0bb91 649L<http://annocpan.org/~JDHEDDEN/threads-1.29/shared.pm>
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0f1612a7 651L<threads::shared>, L<perlthrtut>
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653L<http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2002/06/11/threads.html> and
654L<http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2002/09/04/threads.html>
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656Perl threads mailing list:
657L<http://lists.cpan.org/showlist.cgi?name=iThreads>
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659Stack size discussion:
660L<http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=532956>
661
0f1612a7 662=head1 AUTHOR
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664Artur Bergman E<lt>sky AT crucially DOT netE<gt>
665
666threads is released under the same license as Perl.
667
668CPAN version produced by Jerry D. Hedden <jdhedden AT cpan DOT org>
669
670=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
671
672Richard Soderberg E<lt>perl AT crystalflame DOT netE<gt> -
673Helping me out tons, trying to find reasons for races and other weird bugs!
674
675Simon Cozens E<lt>simon AT brecon DOT co DOT ukE<gt> -
676Being there to answer zillions of annoying questions
677
678Rocco Caputo E<lt>troc AT netrus DOT netE<gt>
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680Vipul Ved Prakash E<lt>mail AT vipul DOT netE<gt> -
681Helping with debugging
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683Dean Arnold E<lt>darnold AT presicient DOT comE<gt> -
684Stack size API
685
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